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Sample records for breast implant surfaces

  1. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  2. Development, fabrication and evaluation of a novel biomimetic human breast tissue derived breast implant surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, S; Hill, E W; Bayat, A

    2017-02-01

    Breast implant use has tripled in the last decade with over 320,000 breast implant based reconstructions and augmentations performed in the US per annum. Unfortunately a considerable number of women will experience capsular contracture, the irrepressible and disfiguring, tightening and hardening of the fibrous capsule that envelops the implant. Functionalising implant surfaces with biocompatible tissue-specific textures may improve in vivo performance. A novel biomimetic breast implant is presented here with anti-inflammatory in vitro abilities. Topographical assessment of native breast tissue facilitated the development of a statistical model of adipose tissue. 3D grayscale photolithography and ion etching were combined to successfully replicate a surface modelled upon the statistics of breast tissue. Pro-inflammatory genes ILβ1, TNFα, and IL6 were downregulated (p<0.001) and anti-inflammatory gene IL-10 were upregulated on the novel surface. Pro-inflammatory cytokines Gro-Alpha, TNFα and neutrophil chemoattractant IL8 were produced in lower quantities and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in higher quantities in culture with the novel surface (p<0.01). Immunocytochemistry and SEM demonstrated favourable fibroblast and macrophage responses to these novel surfaces. This study describes the first biomimetic breast tissue derived breast implant surface. Our findings attest to its potential translational ability to reduce the inflammatory phase of the implant driven foreign body reaction.

  3. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  4. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  5. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection or injury. Demonstrated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain and or/loss of function. Lymphedema or ... Overfilling or underfilling of saline-filled breast implants Physical stresses such as trauma or intense physical pressure ...

  6. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten;

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  7. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... to the breast or the new nipple. Having cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of ...

  8. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified.......7% for severe capsular contracture, 32.3% for displacement/asymmetry of the implant and 38.6% for reoperation. When comparing one- and two-stage procedures, we observed significantly higher risk estimates for infection, seroma and extrusion of the implant following two-stage procedures, whereas the risk...

  9. Biocompatible implant surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Bikash; Pawar, Sudhir; Pattanaik, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Surface plays a crucial role in biological interactions. Surface treatments have been applied to metallic biomaterials in order to improve their wear properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. A systematic review was performed on studies investigating the effects of implant surface treatments on biocompatibility. We searched the literature using PubMed, electronic databases from 1990 to 2009. Key words such as implant surface topography, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface characteristics, and surface coatings were used. The search was restricted to English language articles published from 1990 to December 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major dental implant journals was performed. When considering studies, clinical studies were preferred followed by histological human studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies. A total of 115 articles were selected after elimination: clinical studies, 24; human histomorphometric studies, 11; animal histomorphometric studies, 46; in vitro studies, 34. The following observations were made in this review: · The focus has shifted from surface roughness to surface chemistry and a combination of chemical manipulations on the porous structure. More investigations are done regarding surface coatings. · Bone response to almost all the surface treatments was favorable. · Future trend is focused on the development of osteogenic implant surfaces. Limitation of this study is that we tried to give a broader overview related to implant surface treatments. It does not give any conclusion regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment investigated till date. Unfortunately, the eventually selected studies were too heterogeneous for inference of data.

  10. ['Which breast implant do I have?'; the importance of the Dutch Breast Implant Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Juliëtte; Mureau, Marc A M; Harmsen, Manuel; Rakhorst, Hinne

    2015-01-01

    About 1 in 300 women in the Netherlands has a breast implant but many patients do not know what type of implant was inserted. The quality of breast implants is currently monitored by the implant manufacturers. Sufficient incidents have occurred to show that an independent registry is required to measure the quality of breast implants and to facilitate a national recall, if necessary. Good national and international collaboration with the government, the manufacturers and other specialist associations is crucial for setting up an implant registry. Since April 2015, data about patients and their implants have been collected, independently and prospectively, in the Dutch Breast Implant Registry to increase patient safety in cases of breast implant surgery in the Netherlands.

  11. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raakhi Mistry, MBChB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  12. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient.

  13. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-01-01

    The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known...

  14. Granulicatella adiacens breast implant-associated infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Jose L; Garcia-Quetglas, Emilio; Hernaez, Silvia; Serrera, Alicia; Alonso, Marta; Pina, Luis; Leiva, Jose; Azanza, Jose Ramon

    2008-05-01

    The 1st reported case of breast implant-associated infection due to Granulicatella adiacens, formerly known as nutritionally variant streptococci, Streptococcus adiacens, and Abiotrophia adiacens is presented. Microbiology and previously reported cases of infections by this organism are reviewed.

  15. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha T Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.

  16. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  17. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten;

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had...... participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. RESULTS: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured...

  18. Silicone breast implants and immune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shons, A R; Schubert, W

    1992-05-01

    Silicone was originally regarded as inert in the human body. Silicone medical devices have been associated with various complications that may involve an immune reaction to silicone or a silicone organic complex. There have been more than 80 cases reported in the medical literature of a varied systemic autoimmune illness in patients who have had various foreign materials placed in the breast. Controversy exists as to which complications have a cause and effect relationship, and which represent coincidental findings. It is difficult to distinguish between nonspecific local reactions and reactions that have an immunological basis. Approximately 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 women in the United States have had silicone breast implants inserted for reconstruction or augmentation mammaplasty; 28 of those patients have been reported to have developed a systemic autoimmune disease. Data on the 28 reported cases do not in any way prove a causal relationship between breast implants and immune disease. Given the natural incidence of autoimmune diseases, we would expect a coincidental occurrence in the United States of more than 1,000 cases of autoimmune disease in women who had undergone breast implant surgery. Additional information must be obtained to resolve the question. The true incidence of autoimmune disease in patients with implants needs to be determined. A prospective registry of implant patients should be established and comprehensive retrospective information obtained on the implant patient population. Further experimental work is necessary on the bioreactivity of silicone. Patients with implants and autoimmune disease, once identified, must be carefully evaluated by physicians who are experienced in the treatment of autoimmune disease.

  19. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2006-01-01

    -up of our earlier cohort study of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants by 7 years, yielding 30 years of follow-up for women with longest implant duration. The study population consisted of women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery (n = 1,653) or public...

  20. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of trilucent TM breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Elspeth M.; Jones, Annette; King, Rebecca; Chapman, P.; Stanek, Jan; Irvine, Allan T.; Bingham, John B

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of intact and ruptured Trilucent TM implants with imaging and surgical correlation. The appearances of the implant transponder artefact are also described MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the MRI findings in 34 patients with bilateral subpectoral Trilucent TM breast implants (Lipomatrix, Inc./Collagen Aesthetics International Inc., Neuchatel, Switzerland) was performed. Patients under implant surveillance and those with suspected implant rupture formed the study group. Imaging findings were correlated with surgical appearances. RESULTS: Surgical correlation was available in 53% of patients. Fifty per cent (18/36) of implants were intact at surgery, 50% (18/36) of implants were ruptured. Of the 18 ruptured implants, 17 were intracapsular ruptures and one an extracapsular rupture. The sensitivity of MRI for detection of intracapsular rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants was 82% specificity 76%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 81% and accuracy 79% in this study group. No case of implant rupture was obscured by the transponder artefact. Four implants were found to have 'pseudocapsules' at surgery (5{center_dot}9%), the implants were intact with fluid present between the implant and capsule. Only one pseudocapsule was demonstrated on MRI. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most accurate technique for diagnosis of implant rupture in Trilucent TM breast implants. Transponder artefact does not appear to interfere with the assessment of implant rupture. Elson, E. M. et al. (2002)

  2. Local complications after cosmetic breast implant surgery in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, Ilona; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Pakkanen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    cosmetic silicone breast implants between 1968 and 2002. Patient records were abstracted, and additional information was gathered using a structured questionnaire that was mailed to 470 of the women in the cohort. Overall, 36% of the women had 1 or more diagnoses of postoperative complications...... implantation. Most of the women were satisfied with the implantation, but only 40% considered the preoperative information on possible risks related to implantation as sufficient. With respect to the occurrence of local complications following cosmetic breast implantation, the findings of this study...

  3. Psychological characteristics of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2009-01-01

    An excess of suicide among women with cosmetic breast implants compared with controls has consistently been reported in epidemiologic studies. We have evaluated psychological characteristics among 423 Danish women with cosmetic breast implants, compared with 414 controls. Odds ratios (OR) with 95......% confidence intervals (CI) for self-reported psychological symptoms were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Substantial excesses of all studied symptoms before implant surgery were reported among women with breast implants compared with women with other cosmetic surgery, whereas ORs for virtually......, the corresponding ORs for these 3 psychological symptoms after surgery were 0.9 (95% CI = 0.6-1.4), 1.0 (95% CI = 0.7-1.5), and 1.0 (95% CI = 0.6-1.5), respectively. In conclusion, women with cosmetic breast implants reported preoperative psychological symptoms indicative of depressive disorders substantially more...

  4. Mortality and suicide among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Poul Harboe; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indicate that women with cosmetic breast implants have a significantly increased risk of suicide. Our objectives were to examine mortality among Danish women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery and to evaluate the baseline prevalence of psychopathological...... disorders as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital among women seeking cosmetic surgery. METHODS: Cohort study of 2761 women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery or public hospitals, 7071 women who underwent breast reduction surgery at public...... hospitals, and 1736 women who attended private clinics for cosmetic surgery other than breast implantation, between 1973 and 1995. Causes of death through 1999 were identified through the Danish Mortality Files. Information on admission to psychiatric hospitals prior to cosmetic surgery was obtained from...

  5. Study of the radiation effect in breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno T, L. R.; Ramirez R, A., E-mail: lumor2000@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    This breast cancer is one of the most important death causes in women. Among the more frequently medical treatment for advanced breast cancer is the mastectomy. This situation leads to silicone implants as an esthetic option. There have been cases in patients with implants where cancer was frequently detected, in which a conventional radiotherapy is required. In this work is presented a study of the probable adverse effects caused by the application of high power X-rays (6-10 MV) to the silicone implants and to the surrounding tissues. In the research carried out at the clinic, none Bolus effect was detected in patients with implants. Our results prescribe that in the case of patients with implants and frequent breast cancer, the removal of implants is not necessary due radiotherapy works directly in the damaged tissues. (Author)

  6. Capsular Weakness around Breast Implant: A Non-Recognized Complication

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Capsular contraction is a frequent complication following breast augmentation. On the other hand, capsular weakness, a not widely recognized complication, may occur around the implant. A weak capsule allows the migration of the prosthesis to the lateral region of the thoracic region or inferiorly, towards the abdomen, due to gravitational forces. The cause of capsular weakness remains unresolved. Implant malposition, with lateral or downward displacement, breast asymmetry, improper contour, w...

  7. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  8. [Breast repaired by silicone implant. Case report of necrobiosis lipoidica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, B; Bosque, T; Burin des Roziers, B; Daoud, G; Cartier, S

    2012-02-01

    The authors report a very rare case of necrobiosis lipoidica, histopathologically confirmed, which happened in the breast a few months following the insertion of a silicone implant (post-mastectomy reconstruction). This case raises two problems: the physiopathology (role of the silicone implant) and the treatment of this accident, resistant to current therapy.

  9. Cell attachment on ion implanted titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sreejith

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Of outmost importance for the successful use of an implant is a good adhesion of the surrounding tissue to the biomaterial. In addition to the surface composition of the implant, the surface topography also influences the properties of the adherent cells. In the present investigation, ion implanted and untreated surfaces were compared for cell adhesion and spreading.Design/methodology/approach: The surface topography of the surfaces were analyzed using AFM and the cell studies with SEM.Findings: The results of our present investigation is indicative of the fact that ion implanted titanium surface offer better cell binding affinity compared to untreated/polished surface.Practical implications: Success of non-biodegradable implants will first and foremost depend on biocompatibility, followed by the capacity of the surface topography of the implants to evince desired cell matrix, surface cell matrix interactions. In the present study, the cell growth on ion implanted Ti material is analyzed and discussed.Originality/value: In this paper, we have utilized ion implantation technique, which will produce nano-texturing of the surface without producing any detrimental effects to both the dimensions and properties of the implants.

  10. Avoiding Breast Animation Deformity with Pectoralis-Sparing Subcutaneous Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobraei, Edward M; Cauley, Ryan; Gadd, Michele; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C

    2016-05-01

    There is renewed interest in sparing the pectoralis major muscle in implant breast reconstruction, placing the implant in the subcutaneous position. This advance is made reliable by improvements in mastectomy skin flap quality, evolution of technique, and increased awareness of breast animation deformity. This retrospective review presents 13 patients (23 breasts) reconstructed immediately with placing the definitive implant in the subcutaneous space without disruption of the underlying chest muscles. None of the 13 patients had breast animation deformity postoperatively. One patient experienced an early hematoma, and 3 patients had small seromas that resolved uneventfully. One morbidly obese patient undergoing chemotherapy using a nearby chest port experienced infection requiring implant removal. This study describes an early experience, demonstrates feasibility, and discusses patient selection considerations that are important because we continue to evolve breast reconstruction approaches.

  11. Use of a saline breast implant to cover the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, L; Fowler, W C

    1997-04-01

    Pelvic exenteration is one of the most radical procedures in the repertoire of gynecologic oncology procedures. Postoperative complications include sepsis, hemorrhage, formation of adhesions resulting in bowel obstruction, and fistulas resulting from large denuded pelvic surfaces. To date there is no clear consensus as to the best way to cover the pelvis after the destructive phase of an exenteration. Herein, we present a different approach to pelvic coverage by placement of a 300 cc saline breast implant. Use of a saline-filled breast implant to fill the pelvis represents a possible approach to addressing the denuded pelvic space created during extensive gynecologic surgery.

  12. Microbial Load Analysis in Silicone Gel Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLAUCIA CRISTINA MELLO SANTOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicone breast implants consist of biomaterials widely used in breast reconstitution surgeries or in mammary augmentation for esthetic reasons. A preliminary stage of the implant production process is vulcanization, which consists of heating the implant to 165±5°C for approximately 9 hours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioburden of silicone breast implants prior to the vulcanization process and the decline in bioburden due to this process, and to confirm the sterility of the gel contained in the membrane. Breast implant production stages were evaluated by microbial counting in different steps, according to the USP 32 methodology. To evaluation of decrease in microbial load, spores strips were introduced inside the implant, and after vulcanization cycles the strips were removed from the implant. The strips were transferred to tubes containing TSB, followed by incubation for 7 days at 30-35°C. The results obtained showed that the level of microbial contamination of gel implants is relatively low, and that vulcanization allowed for the inactivation of up to 108 spores. This study led us to the conclusion that vulcanization leaded to sterility of the gel inside the product. Thus, the final sterilizing process contributed to an increase in the Sterility Assurance Level 1. Keywords: Silicone. Breast implant. Sterilization. Dry heat. Vulcanization. Bioburden. RESUMO Análise da Carga Microbiana de Implantes Mamários de Silicone Os implantes mamários de silicone constituem-se em biomateriais que têm sido amplamente utilizados em cirurgias para reconstituição da mama ou para o aumento do tamanho da mama por motivos estéticos. Uma etapa preliminar do processo produtivo do implante é a vulcanização, que consiste no aquecimento do implante a 165±5°C por aproximadamente 9 horas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a carga microbiana dos implantes mamários de silicone antes do processo de vulcanização, o decaimento

  13. Visualization of Medpor implants using surface rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; GUI Lai; LIU Xiao-jing

    2011-01-01

    Background The Medpor surgical implant is one of the easiest implants in clinical practice, especially in craniomaxillofacial surgery. It is often used as a bone substitute material for the repair of skull defects and facial deformities. The Medpor implant has several advantages but its use is limited because it is radiolucent in both direct radiography and conventional computed tomography, causing serious problems with visualization.Methods In this study, a new technique for visualizing Medpor implants was evaluated in 10 patients who had undergone facial reconstruction using the material. Continuous volume scans were made using a 16-channel tomographic scanner and 3D reconstruction software was used to create surface renderings. The threshold values for surface renderings of the implant ranged from -70 HU to -20 HU, with bone as the default.Results The shape of the implants and the spatial relationship between bone and implant could both be displayed.Conclusion Surface rendering can allow successful visualization of Medpor implants in the body.

  14. Correction of tuberous breast deformity: A retrospective study comparing lipofilling versus breast implant augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Nicolas; Stivala, Alessio; Guillier, David; Moris, Vivien; Revol, Marc; François, Caroline; Cristofari, Sarra

    2017-03-01

    Breast implants and, more recently, autologous fat grafting are the two most common treatments used to correct tuberous breast deformity (TBD). The post-surgical quality of life between the two techniques is not well demonstrated. This study aimed to compare satisfaction and health-related quality of life in patients affected by TBD between these two techniques. All TBD patients operated between January 2008 and May 2015 were retrospectively identified, and only those treated with implants or lipofilling were included. Satisfaction was evaluated at least 6 months after surgery with the postoperative Breast-Q(®) augmentation module. From January 2008 to May 2015, 62 patients were recruited in our study, and 37 patients were evaluated using a Breast-Q questionnaire after at least 6 months of follow-up. Breast implant-augmented patients were significantly more satisfied concerning the "satisfaction with breasts" module (p = 0.002) and the "satisfaction with outcome" module (p = 0.00008). A question-by-question analysis revealed several interesting and significant differences, showing higher scores in most of the questions in the breast implant group. Patients in the lipofilling group, interestingly, had a mean of 1.6 interventions compared to the mean 1.36 interventions in the implant group (p = 0.23). This reflects the need to perform more surgical sessions in the lipofilling group to achieve a satisfactory result. Our study demonstrated that tuberous breast correction with implants can achieve better satisfaction along with good outcomes than lipofilling usually does.

  15. Implantable magnetic nanocomposites for the localized treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Soboyejo, Wole

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the potential of implantable magnetic nanocomposites for the localized treatment of breast cancer via hyperthermia. Magnetite (Fe3O4)-reinforced polydimethylsiloxane composites were fabricated and characterized to determine their structural, magnetic, and thermal properties. The thermal properties and degree of optimization were shown to be strongly dependent on material properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The in-vivo temperature profiles and thermal doses were investigated by the use of a 3D finite element method (FEM) model to simulate the heating of breast tissue. Heat generation was calculated using the linear response theory model. The 3D FEM model was used to investigate the effects of MNP volume fraction, nanocomposite geometry, and treatment parameters on thermal profiles. The implications of the results were then discussed for the development of implantable devices for the localized treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Long-term health status of Danish women with silicone breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Vibeke B; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Brandt, Bodil

    2004-01-01

    autoantibodies. Self-reported use of psychotropic drugs was higher among women with breast implants than among either control group. The authors conclude that long-term cosmetic breast implantation may cause capsular contracture and breast pain but does not appear to be associated with other symptoms, diseases......, or autoimmune reactivity. The authors' finding of excess use of drugs for treatment of depression and anxiety among women with breast implants may warrant further investigation....

  17. Reconstructive breast implantation after mastectomy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Fryzek, Jon P; Hölmich, Lisbet R;

    2005-01-01

    developed at least 1 adverse event. Forty-nine percent of the adverse events occurred within 3 months after implantation and 67% within 6 months. Surgical intervention was required after initial implantation among 21% of women, most frequently because of capsular contracture, asymmetry, or displacement...

  18. Obesity-related Risk Factors in Implant-based Breast Reconstruction Using AlloDerm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathryn A.; Erickson, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    With a population in which 70% of the patients were overweight or obese, we reviewed retrospectively 135 breasts of 70 consecutive patients who underwent implant-based immediate breast reconstruction using freeze-dried AlloDerm as the acellular dermal matrix. Several obesity-related parameters were evaluated to determine their possible correlation to early postoperative complications. We found that breast width and surface area of AlloDerm usage correlated with the development of infection and mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Increased breast width and size of AlloDerm matrix implanted were correlated with higher rates of both minor and significant skin necrosis and of cellulitis. Body mass index was correlated with the development of cellulitis and minor and major skin necrosis but not with seroma or reconstruction failure. Preexisting breast cup size correlated with the development of seroma but not the other complications. We observed no statistically significant association between reconstruction failure and any of the parameters reviewed, but this is likely due to the small number of failures in our data set (n = 10). PMID:28280672

  19. Cosmetic Breast Implants Linked to Suicide Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 陶秀耘

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:本文信息极为丰富。首先,我们得知当今美国的三大整容外科是:eyelid surgery,breast reduction and nose reshaping。其次,文章告诉读者,去年(2002年)美国施行隆胸手术的妇女达25万之众;再次,就是本文的标题所言,要求进行隆胸手术的女性中的自杀者比例高于不要求隆胸者。而且,更值得注意的是:If women have a psychological problem and they are given breast implantsthey will still have that problem.(假如一个女性存在心理问题,而且进行了隆胸手术,她们的心理问题依旧存在。)

  20. Long-term safety and effectiveness of style 410 highly cohesive silicone breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedén, Per; Bronz, Giorgio; Elberg, Jens Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    of 163 subjects (approximately 70% had augmentation [n = 112], 15% had reconstruction [n = 25], and 15% had revision [n = 26]) underwent a physical examination followed by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for rupture detection. These subjects had been implanted for 5 to 11 years with at least one...... Style 410 shaped gel breast implant before examination. The secondary end points included lactation, reproductive and breast disease history before and after implantation, and quality-of-life measurements and complications after implantation. RESULTS: The implant rupture rate was 1.7% a median of 8...... years after implantation. Capsular contracture was the most common complication noted at the physical examination, occurring for 5.3% of implants, and there were no cases of grade 4 capsular contracture. The postimplantation rates for lactation and reproductive problems and breast disease were lower...

  1. Status of surface treatment in endosseous implant: A literary overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ankur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attachment of cells to titanium surfaces is an important phenomenon in the area of clinical implant dentistry. A major consideration in designing implants has been to produce surfaces that promote desirable responses in the cells and tissues. To achieve these requirements, the titanium implant surface can be modified in various ways. This review mainly focuses on the surface topography of dental implants currently in use, emphasizing the association of reported variables with biological outcome.

  2. Enhancing osseointegration using surface-modified titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Oh, N.; Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Oh, S.; Appleford, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Bumgardner, J.; Haggard, W.; Ong, J.

    2006-07-01

    Osseointegrated dental implants are used to replace missing teeth. The success of implants is due to osseointegration or the direct contact of the implant surface and bone without a fibrous connective tissue interface. This review discusses the enhancement of osseointegration by means of anodized microporous titanium surfaces, functionally macroporous graded titanium coatings, nanoscale titanium surfaces, and different bioactive factors.

  3. Osteomyelitis of sternum and rib after breast prosthesis implantation: A rare or underestimated infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Alliez, Antoine; Honnorat, Estelle; Menard, Amelie; Casanova, Dominique; Stein, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sternum and rib osteomyelitis complicated from breast implant infection is rare. We report a case of early sternum and rib osteomyelitis occurred during breast implant infection managed in an inter-regional referral center for bone/joint infections in the south of France. PMID:26793446

  4. Osteomyelitis of sternum and rib after breast prosthesis implantation: A rare or underestimated infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piseth Seng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sternum and rib osteomyelitis complicated from breast implant infection is rare. We report a case of early sternum and rib osteomyelitis occurred during breast implant infection managed in an inter-regional referral center for bone/joint infections in the south of France.

  5. Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P

    2004-01-01

    No epidemiological evidence of an association between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease has been found. Based on case reports, it has been hypothesized that silicone breast implants may be associated with a unique rheumatic symptom cluster termed "atypical connective tissue d...

  6. Antibacterial Surface Treatment for Orthopaedic Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Gallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that the projected increased usage of implantable devices in medicine will result in a natural rise in the number of infections related to these cases. Some patients are unable to autonomously prevent formation of biofilm on implant surfaces. Suppression of the local peri-implant immune response is an important contributory factor. Substantial avascular scar tissue encountered during revision joint replacement surgery places these cases at an especially high risk of periprosthetic joint infection. A critical pathogenic event in the process of biofilm formation is bacterial adhesion. Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections should be concurrently focused on at least two targets: inhibition of biofilm formation and minimizing local immune response suppression. Current knowledge of antimicrobial surface treatments suitable for prevention of prosthetic joint infection is reviewed. Several surface treatment modalities have been proposed. Minimizing bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation inhibition, and bactericidal approaches are discussed. The ultimate anti-infective surface should be “smart” and responsive to even the lowest bacterial load. While research in this field is promising, there appears to be a great discrepancy between proposed and clinically implemented strategies, and there is urgent need for translational science focusing on this topic.

  7. Antibacterial surface treatment for orthopaedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Jiri; Holinka, Martin; Moucha, Calin S

    2014-08-11

    It is expected that the projected increased usage of implantable devices in medicine will result in a natural rise in the number of infections related to these cases. Some patients are unable to autonomously prevent formation of biofilm on implant surfaces. Suppression of the local peri-implant immune response is an important contributory factor. Substantial avascular scar tissue encountered during revision joint replacement surgery places these cases at an especially high risk of periprosthetic joint infection. A critical pathogenic event in the process of biofilm formation is bacterial adhesion. Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections should be concurrently focused on at least two targets: inhibition of biofilm formation and minimizing local immune response suppression. Current knowledge of antimicrobial surface treatments suitable for prevention of prosthetic joint infection is reviewed. Several surface treatment modalities have been proposed. Minimizing bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation inhibition, and bactericidal approaches are discussed. The ultimate anti-infective surface should be "smart" and responsive to even the lowest bacterial load. While research in this field is promising, there appears to be a great discrepancy between proposed and clinically implemented strategies, and there is urgent need for translational science focusing on this topic.

  8. Melatonin plus porcine bone on discrete calcium deposit implant surface stimulates osteointegration in dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Barone, Antonio; Cutando, Antonio; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Chiva, Fernando; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone to accelerate the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower premolars and molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received three parallel wall implants with discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each side of the mandible in three groups: group I implants alone, group II implants with melatonin and group III implants with melatonin and porcine bone. Prior to implanting, 5 mg lyophylized powdered melatonin was applied to one bone hole at each side of the mandible. None was applied at the control sites. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P implants. Topical application of melatonin on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone to implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with melatonin treated (75.1 +/- 1.4%) and nonmelatonin treated surface implants (64 +/- 1.4%).

  9. Surface characterization of titanium based dental implants; Caracterizacao de implantes odontologicos a base de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Guilherme Augusto Alcaraz

    2006-07-01

    Dental implantology uses metallic devices made of commercially pure titanium in order to replace lost teeth. Titanium presents favorable characteristics as bio material and modern implants are capable of integrate, witch is the union between bone and implant without fibrous tissue development. Three of the major Brazilian implant manufacturers were chosen to join the study. A foreign manufacturer participated as standard. The manufacturers had three specimens of each implant with two different surface finishing, as machined and porous, submitted to analysis. Surface chemical composition and implant morphology were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe. Implant surface is mainly composed of titanium, oxygen and carbon. Few contaminants commonly present on implant surface were found on samples. Superficial oxide layer is basically composed of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), another oxides as Ti O and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also found in small amount. Carbon on implant surface was attributed to manufacturing process. Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Silicon appeared in smaller concentration on surface. There was no surface discrepancy among foreign and Brazilian made implants. SEM images were made on different magnification, 35 X to 3500 X, and showed similarity among as machined implants. Porous surface finishing implants presented distinct morphology. This result was attributed to differences on manufacturing process. Implant bioactivity was accessed through immersion on simulated body solution (SBF) in order to verify formation of an hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on surface. Samples were divided on three groups according to immersion time: G1 (7 days), G2 (14 days), G3 (21 days), and deep in SBF solution at 37 deg C. After being removed from solution, XPS analyses were made and then implants have been submitted to microprobe analysis. XPS showed some components of SBF solution on sample surface but microprobe

  10. Surface analysis of titanium dental implants with different topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.H. Prado da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical dental implants made of commercially pure titanium were analysed in four different surface finishes: as-machined, Al2O3 blasted with Al2O3 particles, plasma-sprayed with titanium beads and electrolytically coated with hydroxyapatite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX revealed the topography of the surfaces and provided qualitative results of the chemical composition of the different implants. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS was used to perform chemical analysis on the surface of the implants while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSM produced topographic maps of the analysed surfaces. Optical Profilometry was used to quantitatively characterise the level of roughness of the surfaces. The implant that was plasma-sprayed and the hydroxyapatite coated implant showed the roughest surface, followed by the implant blasted with alumina and the as-machined implant. Some remnant contamination from the processes of blasting, coating and cleaning was detected by XPS.

  11. Comparison of Patient-reported Outcomes after Implant Versus Autologous Tissue Breast Reconstruction Using the BREAST-Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirro, Ortensia; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Sukop, Andrej; Hromadkova, Veronika; Nguyenova, Alena; Vitova, Lenka; Bassetto, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background: The demand for reconstructive breast procedures of various types has accelerated in recent years. Coupled with increased patient expectations, it has fostered the development of oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques in breast surgery. In the setting of postmastectomy reconstruction, patient satisfaction and quality of life are the most significant outcome variables when evaluating surgical success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life after implant breast reconstruction compared with autologous breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 65 women who had completed postmastectomy implant-based or autologous reconstruction in the participating center were asked to complete the BREAST-Q (Reconstruction Module). Results: Data analysis demonstrated that women with autologous breast reconstruction were significantly more satisfied with their breasts (P = 0.0003) and with the overall outcome (P = 0.0001) compared with women with implant breast reconstruction. All other BREAST-Q parameters that were considered and observed were not significantly different between the 2 patient groups. Conclusions: Through statistical analysis, our results showed that patients who underwent autologous tissue reconstruction had better satisfaction with the reconstructed breast and the outcome, while both techniques appear to equally improve psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being, and chest satisfaction. PMID:28203513

  12. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability.

  13. Comparative study on the osseointegration of implants in dog mandibles according to the implant surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the impact of implant surface treatment on the stability and osseointegration of implants in dog mandibles. Materials and Methods Six adult dogs received a total of 48 implants that were prepared using four different surface treatments; resorbable blast media (RBM), hydroxyapatite (HA), hydrothermal-treated HA, and sand blasting and acid etching (SLA). Implants were installed, and dogs were separated into 2- and 4-week groups. Implant stability was evaluated via Periotest M, Osstell Mentor, and removal torque analyzers. A histomorphometric analysis was also performed. Results The stability evaluation showed that all groups generally had satisfactory values. The histomorphometric evaluation via a light microscope revealed that the HA surface implant group had the highest ratio of new bone formation on the entire fixture. The hydrothermal-treated HA surface implant group showed a high ratio of bone-to-implant contact in the upper half of the implant area. Conclusion The hydrothermal-treated HA implant improved the bone-to-implant contact ratio on the upper fixture, which increased the implant stability. PMID:28053904

  14. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: q.zhao@dundee.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Peng, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-31

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N{sup +}, O{sup +} and SiF{sub 3} {sup +}, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF{sub 3} {sup +}-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N{sup +}-implanted steel, O{sup +}-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  15. Comparison of Patient-reported Outcomes after Implant Versus Autologous Tissue Breast Reconstruction Using the BREAST-Q

    OpenAIRE

    Pirro, Ortensia; Mestak, Ondrej; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Sukop, Andrej; Hromadkova, Veronika; Nguyenova, Alena; Vitova, Lenka; Bassetto, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background: The demand for reconstructive breast procedures of various types has accelerated in recent years. Coupled with increased patient expectations, it has fostered the development of oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques in breast surgery. In the setting of postmastectomy reconstruction, patient satisfaction and quality of life are the most significant outcome variables when evaluating surgical success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life after implant breast ...

  16. Oestrogen receptor-alpha and -beta expression in breast implant capsules: experimental findings and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Segreto, Francesco; Carotti, Simone; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Tosi, Daniele; Morini, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    Myofibroblasts provide a force to decrease the surface area of breast implant capsules as the collagen matrix matures. 17-β-Oestradiol promotes myofibroblast differentiation and contraction. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of oestrogen receptors α and β in capsular tissue. The study enrolled 70 women (80 capsules) who underwent expander or implant removal, following breast reconstruction. Specimens were stained with haematoxylin/eosin, Masson trichrome and immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence stainings for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-β). The relationship between anti-oestrogenic therapy and capsular severity was evaluated. A retrospective analysis of 233 cases of breast reconstruction was conducted. Myofibroblasts expressed ER-α, ER-β or both. In the whole sample, α-SMA score positively correlated with ER-α (p = 0.022) and ER-β expression (p < 0.004). ER-β expression negatively correlated with capsular thickness (p < 0.019). In capsules surrounding expanders α-SMA and ER-α, expressions negatively correlated with time from implantation (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016, respectively). The incidence of grade III-IV contracture was higher in patients who did not have anti-oestrogenic therapy (p < 0.036); retrospective analysis of 233 cases confirmed this finding (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrates the expression of oestrogen receptors in myofibroblasts of capsular tissue. A lower contracture severity was found in patients who underwent anti-oestrogenic therapy.

  17. Analysis of surface cleanliness of three commercial dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B N; Gold, B R

    1992-01-01

    Six routinely packaged commercially pure titanium dental implants (three commercial brands) were analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine the outermost surface layer. The aim of the analysis was to compare the surface purity (99.95%) of the implants with the substrate metal, common to all three brands. The use of a low primary ion current density provided a nominal protection limit of 0.01% or 100 p.p.m. All the implants examined had extremely pure surfaces. However, only one brand of implant had an ultraclean oxide surface in relation to the substrate.

  18. Algorithm and techniques for using Sientra's silicone gel shaped implants in primary and revision breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    With the 2006 Food and Drug Administration approval of round silicone gel breast implants in the United States, there still remained a lack of versatility in implant options. The approval of Sientra's shaped cohesive implants in 2012 brought with it the innovations needed to address varying patient needs. Because access to shaped devices is still fairly recent in the United States, some surgeons remain uncomfortable with implementing shaped cohesive gel implants into their practice. The author outlines surgical techniques and algorithms from experience with the Sientra shaped device, covering the preoperative stage, measurements (base diameter, sternal notch to nipple, tissue pinch, and nipple to inframammary fold), ideal first candidates, operative techniques, and complication avoidance, as well as important factors for shaped-implant selection, including chest base diameter, implant height, implant volume, and implant projection for the patient's desired outcome. With experience, surgeons will find new utility with shaped implants for a variety of patients in their practices.

  19. Adverse health outcomes in offspring of mothers with cosmetic breast implants : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjoller, Kim; Friis, Soren; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Olsen, Jorgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether maternal cosmetic breast implants are associated with adverse health outcomes among offspring, the authors examined published findings of epidemiologic studies that addressed this hypothesis. Methods: Four epidemiologic studies, ail from Scandinavia, were identified. Wo

  20. Surface Modifications and Their Effects on Titanium Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jemat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers several basic methodologies of surface treatment and their effects on titanium (Ti implants. The importance of each treatment and its effects will be discussed in detail in order to compare their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. Published literature for the last 18 years was selected with the use of keywords like titanium dental implant, surface roughness, coating, and osseointegration. Significant surface roughness played an important role in providing effective surface for bone implant contact, cell proliferation, and removal torque, despite having good mechanical properties. Overall, published studies indicated that an acid etched surface-modified and a coating application on commercial pure titanium implant was most preferable in producing the good surface roughness. Thus, a combination of a good surface roughness and mechanical properties of titanium could lead to successful dental implants.

  1. Surface Modifications and Their Effects on Titanium Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemat, A; Ghazali, M J; Razali, M; Otsuka, Y

    2015-01-01

    This review covers several basic methodologies of surface treatment and their effects on titanium (Ti) implants. The importance of each treatment and its effects will be discussed in detail in order to compare their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. Published literature for the last 18 years was selected with the use of keywords like titanium dental implant, surface roughness, coating, and osseointegration. Significant surface roughness played an important role in providing effective surface for bone implant contact, cell proliferation, and removal torque, despite having good mechanical properties. Overall, published studies indicated that an acid etched surface-modified and a coating application on commercial pure titanium implant was most preferable in producing the good surface roughness. Thus, a combination of a good surface roughness and mechanical properties of titanium could lead to successful dental implants.

  2. Surface characterization of commercial oral implants on the nanometer level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Lory Melin; Andersson, Martin; Wennerberg, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Lately, there has been a growing interest in how the presence of nanometer structures on a bone integrated implant surface influences the healing process. Recent in vitro studies have revealed an increased osteoblast response to different nanophase surfaces. Some commercial implant brands claim their implants have nanometer structures. However, at present, there are no studies where the nano topography of today's commercially available oral implants has been investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize commercial oral implants on the nanometer level and to investigate whether or not the nanometer surface roughness was correlated to the more well-known micrometer roughness on the implants. Twelve different commercial screw-shaped oral implants with various surface modifications were examined using scanning electron microscopy and a white light interferometer. The interferometer is suitable for detection of nanoscale roughness in the vertical dimension; however, limitation exists on the horizontal due to the wavelength of the light. A 1 x 1 microm Gaussian filter was found to be useful for identifying nm roughness with respect to height deviation. The results demonstrated that an implant that was smooth on the micrometer level was not necessarily smooth on the nanometer level. Different structures in the nanometer scale was found on some of the implants, indicating that to fully understand the relationship between the properties of an implant surface and its osseointegration behavior, a characterization at the nanometer scale might be relevant.

  3. Reducing infection risk in implant-based breast-reconstruction surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi ASH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrian SH Ooi,1,2 David H Song1 1Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for ­postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of these are related to infection of the implant, which can lead to prolonged antibiotic treatment, undesired additional surgical procedures, and unsatisfactory results. This review combines a summary of the recent literature regarding implant-related breast-reconstruction infections and combines this with a practical approach to the patient and surgery aimed at reducing this risk. Prevention of infection begins with appropriate reconstructive choice based on an assessment and optimization of risk factors. These include patient and disease characteristics, such as smoking, obesity, large breast size, and immediate reconstructive procedures, as well as adjuvant therapy, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. For implant-based breast reconstruction, preoperative planning and organization is key to reducing infection. A logical and consistent intraoperative and postoperative surgical protocol, including appropriate antibiotic choice, mastectomy-pocket creation, implant handling, and considered acellular dermal matrix use contribute toward the reduction of breast-implant infections. Keywords: implant infection, risk reduction, acellular dermal matrix

  4. Bone tissue response to plasma-nitrided titanium implant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Prado FERRAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A current goal of dental implant research is the development of titanium (Ti surfaces to improve osseointegration. Plasma nitriding treatments generate surfaces that favor osteoblast differentiation, a key event to the process of osteogenesis. Based on this, it is possible to hypothesize that plasma-nitrided Ti implants may positively impact osseointegration. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo bone response to Ti surfaces modified by plasma-nitriding treatments. Material and Methods Surface treatments consisted of 20% N2 and 80% H2, 450°C and 1.5 mbar during 1 h for planar and 3 h for hollow cathode. Untreated surface was used as control. Ten implants of each surface were placed into rabbit tibiae and 6 weeks post-implantation they were harvested for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results Bone formation was observed in contact with all implants without statistically significant differences among the evaluated surfaces in terms of bone-to-implant contact, bone area between threads, and bone area within the mirror area. Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma nitriding treatments generate Ti implants that induce similar bone response to the untreated ones. Thus, as these treatments improve the physico-chemical properties of Ti without affecting its biocompatibility, they could be combined with modifications that favor bone formation in order to develop new implant surfaces.

  5. Breast implant rupture and connective tissue disease: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiologic studies to date have not found any credible association between silicone breast implants and either well-defined connective tissue diseases or undefined or atypical connective tissue diseases. It has been hypothesized that implant rupture could prompt an immunologic...... reaction giving rise to autoimmune or related diseases. In this article, the authors review the available literature on implant ruptures and connective tissue disease....

  6. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  7. Laser surface modification of Ti implants to improve osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marticorena, M [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corti, G [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Olmedo, D [Catedra de Anatomia Patologica, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Marcelo T. de Alvear 2142, 2 piso Sector ' A' , 1122 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guglielmotti, M B [Catedra de Anatomia Patologica, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Marcelo T. de Alvear 2142, 2 piso Sector ' A' , 1122 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duhalde, S [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-04-15

    Commercially Pure Titanium foils, were irradiated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser under ambient air, in order to produce and characterize a well controlled surface texture (roughness and waviness) that enhances osseointegration. To study the 'peri-implant' reparative process response, the laser treated Ti foils were implanted in the tibia of 10 male Wistar rats. At 14 days post-implantation, the histological analysis showed a tendency to more bone formation compared to the untreated control implants. The formation of a layer of TiN on the surface and the obtained roughness, have been demonstrated to improve bone response.

  8. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  9. Laser microtexturing of implant surfaces for enhanced tissue integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, J.L. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Orthodontics; Alexander, H. [Orthogen Corp., Springfield, NJ (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The success or failure of bone and soft tissue-fixed medical devices, such as dental and orthopaedic implants, depends on a complex combination of biological and mechanical factors. These factors are intimately associated with the interface between the implant surface and the surrounding tissue, and are largely determined by the composition, surface chemistry, and surface microgeometry of the implant. The relative contributions of these factors are difficult to assess. This study addresses the contribution of surface microtexture, on a controlled level, to tissue integration. (orig.)

  10. Surface modification of sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The range of microstructures and properties of sapphire (single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that are produced by ion implantation are discussed with respect to the implantation parameters of ion species, fluence, irradiation temperature and the orientation of the ion beam relative to crystallographic axes. The microstructure of implanted sapphire may be crystalline with varying concentrations of defects or it may be amorphous perhaps with short-range order. At moderate to high fluences, implanted metallic ions often coalesce into pure metallic colloids and gas ions form bubbles. Many of the implanted microstructural features have been identified from studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties reflect the microstructures.

  11. Calcification of intraocular implant lens surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenju; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hook, Daniel; Yan, Wenyan; Grobe, George; Nancollas, George H

    2004-02-17

    Calcification of octacalcium phosphate [Ca8H2(PO4)6 x 5H2O, OCP] on differently packaged "Ultem" and "Surefold" intraocular implant lens surfaces has been studied in vitro in solutions supersaturated with respect to OCP at pH = 7.10 and 37 degrees C. No mineral deposition was observed on the lenses packaged in Ultem vials even after treatment with behenic acid, one of the fatty acids identified on explanted lenses. Following treatment with behenic acid, nucleation of OCP occurred on the lenses from Surefold vials, which incorporate silicone gaskets; induction periods preceding calcification were about 6 h. No mineralization was found on the lenses in vials with other gasket materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene, fluorocarbon elastomer, and polypropylene. The results of this study indicate that both silicone and fatty acids such as behenic acid play important roles in inducing the in vivo calcification of OCP on IOL lenses; all of the lens treatment steps were necessary for nucleation induction.

  12. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung Mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique against those made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implants were evaluated. Sixteen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, either machined zirconia implants or PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of the PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (pmold etching technique, can produce substantially rougher surfaces on zirconia implants.

  13. Surface Modification of Titanium Dental Implants by Excimer Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Radnai, M; Bereznai, M.; Pelseczi, I.; Z. Toth; Turzo, K.; Bor, Z.; Fazekas, A

    2002-01-01

    The perfect osseointegration process of the dental implants depends among other factors on the surfact characteristics of the titanium. In this study enlarged mechanical roughness was produced by a laser-based technique, in order to decrease the healing period of the implant. There are different ways of forming laser induced surface structures. In the case of mask projection techniques the surface can be modified in larger areas and surface patterns. An ArF nanosecond excimer laser was use...

  14. Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Larsson Wexell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography.

  15. Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; Stadlinger, Bernd; Schwarz, Frank; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Jung, Ole; Precht, Clarissa; Kloss, Frank; Gröbe, Alexander; Heiland, Max

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to review different surface modifications of dental implants and their effect on osseointegration. Common marketed as well as experimental surface modifications are discussed. Discussion. The major challenge for contemporary dental implantologists is to provide oral rehabilitation to patients with healthy bone conditions asking for rapid loading protocols or to patients with quantitatively or qualitatively compromised bone. These charging conditions require advances in implant surface design. The elucidation of bone healing physiology has driven investigators to engineer implant surfaces that closely mimic natural bone characteristics. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of surface modifications that beneficially alter the topography, hydrophilicity, and outer coating of dental implants in order to enhance osseointegration in healthy as well as in compromised bone. In the first part, this paper discusses dental implants that have been successfully used for a number of years focusing on sandblasting, acid-etching, and hydrophilic surface textures. Hereafter, new techniques like Discrete Crystalline Deposition, laser ablation, and surface coatings with proteins, drugs, or growth factors are presented. Conclusion. Major advancements have been made in developing novel surfaces of dental implants. These innovations set the stage for rehabilitating patients with high success and predictable survival rates even in challenging conditions. PMID:27478833

  16. Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Smeets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this paper is to review different surface modifications of dental implants and their effect on osseointegration. Common marketed as well as experimental surface modifications are discussed. Discussion. The major challenge for contemporary dental implantologists is to provide oral rehabilitation to patients with healthy bone conditions asking for rapid loading protocols or to patients with quantitatively or qualitatively compromised bone. These charging conditions require advances in implant surface design. The elucidation of bone healing physiology has driven investigators to engineer implant surfaces that closely mimic natural bone characteristics. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of surface modifications that beneficially alter the topography, hydrophilicity, and outer coating of dental implants in order to enhance osseointegration in healthy as well as in compromised bone. In the first part, this paper discusses dental implants that have been successfully used for a number of years focusing on sandblasting, acid-etching, and hydrophilic surface textures. Hereafter, new techniques like Discrete Crystalline Deposition, laser ablation, and surface coatings with proteins, drugs, or growth factors are presented. Conclusion. Major advancements have been made in developing novel surfaces of dental implants. These innovations set the stage for rehabilitating patients with high success and predictable survival rates even in challenging conditions.

  17. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valderrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.

  18. The diagnosis of silicone breast-implant rupture: clinical findings compared with findings at magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P; Kjøller, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of clinical examination in the evaluation of breast-implant integrity, using the diagnosis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the "gold standard." Fifty-five women with 109 implants underwent a breast examination either just before or shortly after...

  19. Surface Engineering of Nanostructured Titanium Implants with Bioactive Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Jang, J-H; Park, J-W

    2016-05-01

    Surface nanofeatures and bioactive ion chemical modification are centrally important in current titanium (Ti) oral implants for enhancing osseointegration. However, it is unclear whether the addition of bioactive ions definitively enhances the osteogenic capacity of a nanostructured Ti implant. We systematically investigated the osteogenesis process of human multipotent adipose stem cells triggered by bioactive ions in the nanostructured Ti implant surface. Here, we report that bioactive ion surface modification (calcium [Ca] or strontium [Sr]) and resultant ion release significantly increase osteogenic activity of the nanofeatured Ti surface. We for the first time demonstrate that ion modification actively induces focal adhesion development and expression of critical adhesion–related genes (vinculin, talin, and RHOA) of human multipotent adipose stem cells, resulting in enhanced osteogenic differentiation on the nanofeatured Ti surface. It is also suggested that fibronectin adsorption may have only a weak effect on early cellular events of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at least in the case of the nanostructured Ti implant surface incorporating Sr. Moreover, results indicate that Sr overrides the effect of Ca and other important surface factors (i.e., surface area and wettability) in the osteogenesis function of various MSCs (derived from human adipose, bone marrow, and murine bone marrow). In addition, surface engineering of nanostructured Ti implants using Sr ions is expected to exert additional beneficial effects on implant bone healing through the proper balancing of the allocation of MSCs between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This work provides insight into the future surface design of Ti dental implants using surface bioactive ion chemistry and nanotopography.

  20. Microscopic Study of Surface Microtopographic Characteristics of Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezin, M.; Croharé, L.; Ibañez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the micro topographic characteristics of dental implants submitted to different surface treatments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Implants were divided into 7 groups of 3 specimens each, according to the surface treatment used: group 1: Osseotite, BIOMET 3i; group 2: SLA surface, Institut Straumann AG; group 3: Oxalife surface, Tree-Oss implant; group 4: B&W implant surface; group 5: Q-implant surface; group 6: ML implant surface; group 7: RBM surface, Rosterdent implant. The surfaces were examined under SEM (Carl Zeiss FE-SEM-SIGMA). Image Proplus software was used to determine the number and mean diameter of pores per area unit (mm). The data obtained were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. A confocal laser microscope (LEXT-OLS4100 Olympus) was used to conduct the comparative study of surface roughness (Ra). Data were analyzed using Tukey's HSD test. Results: The largest average pore diameter calculated in microns was found in group 5 (3.45 µm+/-1.91) while the smallest in group 7 (1.47µm+/-1.29). Significant differences were observed among each one of the groups studied (p<0.05). The largest number of pores/mm2 was found in group 2 (229343) and the smallest number in group 4 (10937). Group 2 showed significant differences regarding the other groups (p<0.05). The greatest roughness (Ra) was observed in group 2 (0.975µm+/-0.115) and the smallest in group 4 (0.304µm+/-0.063). Group 2 was significantly different from the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The micro topography observed in the different groups presented dissimilar and specific features, depending on the chemical treatment used for the surfaces.. PMID:27335615

  1. The influence of surface treatment on the implant roughness pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Borges Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An important parameter for the clinical success of dental implants is the formation of direct contact between the implant and surrounding bone, whose quality is directly influenced by the implant surface roughness. A screw-shaped design and a surface with an average roughness of Sa of 1-2 µm showed a better result. The combination of blasting and etching has been a commonly used surface treatment technique. The versatility of this type of treatment allows for a wide variation in the procedures in order to obtain the desired roughness. OBJECTIVES: To compare the roughness values and morphological characteristics of 04 brands of implants, using the same type of surface treatment. In addition, to compare the results among brands, in order to assess whether the type of treatment determines the values and the characteristics of implant surface roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three implants were purchased directly from each selected company in the market, i.e., 03 Brazilian companies (Biomet 3i of Brazil, Neodent and Titaniumfix and 01 Korean company (Oneplant. The quantitative or numerical characterization of the roughness was performed using an interferometer. The qualitative analysis of the surface topography obtained with the treatment was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy images. RESULTS: The evaluated implants showed a significant variation in roughness values: Sa for Oneplant was 1.01 µm; Titaniumfix reached 0.90 µm; implants from Neodent 0.67 µm, and Biomet 3i of Brazil 0.53 µm. Moreover, the SEM images showed very different patterns for the surfaces examined. CONCCLUSIONS: The surface treatment alone is not able to determine the roughness values and characteristics.

  2. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Risk of pacemaker implantation subsequent to radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark, 1982-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehammar, Jens Christian; Videbaek, L.; Brock Johansen, J.

    2015-01-01

    -stage breast cancer in Denmark from 1982 to 2005. By record linkage to the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Registry information was retrieved on pacemaker implants subsequent to radiotherapy. Rate ratios (RR) of pacemaker implantation for left versus right sided breast cancer were calculated. Results: Among 18......,308 women treated with radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, 179 women had a pacemaker implanted subsequent to radiotherapy, 90 in 9,315 left sided and 89 in 8,993 right sided breast cancers. The unadjusted RR was 1.02 (0.76-1.36 95% CI, p=0.91) and the RR adjusted for year, age and time since...

  4. 77 FR 5813 - Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface Characterization, and Nickel Leaching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface... public workshop entitled ``Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface Characterization, and... implants are made of metals and may be susceptible to corrosion, it is unclear whether the...

  5. A feasibility study of magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, Ilona; Boice, John D; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2005-01-01

    to determine the feasibility of conducting a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based study of rupture incidence. The pilot investigation included a clinical examination by a plastic surgeon, MRI scan, and self-administered questionnaire. The participation rate was 100%. Implants in our study represented a cross...... the other diagnosed all implants as intact. The procedures of the feasibility study proved successful, and the results demonstrate the importance of a rigid image evaluation protocol with employment of well-defined rupture criteria, as well as the benefits of several image readers.......Cosmetic breast implants have become increasingly popular throughout the world. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the frequency and severity of local complications such as rupture and capsular contracture. A pilot study of 25 Finnish women with 50 cosmetic breast implants was organized...

  6. Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of 2 resorbable-blasting media implant surfaces at early implantation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Charles; Bonfante, Estevam A; Jeong, Ryan; Granato, Rodrigo; Giro, Gabriela; Suzuki, Marcelo; Heitz, Claiton; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated 3 implant surfaces in a dog model: (1) resorbable-blasting media + acid-etched (RBMa), alumina-blasting + acid-etching (AB/AE), and AB/AE + RBMa (hybrid). All of the surfaces were minimally rough, and Ca and P were present for the RBMa and hybrid surfaces. Following 2 weeks in vivo, no significant differences were observed for torque, bone-to-implant contact, and bone-area fraction occupied measurements. Newly formed woven bone was observed in proximity with all surfaces.

  7. Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Extended Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Propeller Flaps and Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Nielsen, Henrik Toft;

    2015-01-01

    We present our experience of bilateral total breast reconstruction using a double-sided extended thoracodorsal artery perforator propeller flap in a case series of 10 patients. Reconstruction was successfully achieved in all cases with few complications. The median time for surgery was 275 minutes...... (200-330), and the average implant size used was 350 cm(3) (195-650). We demonstrate how the extended thoracodorsal artery perforator propeller flap allows for a swift and reliable direct to implant bilateral total breast reconstruction in a simple setting and is a valuable adjunct to our armamentarium...

  8. Versatility of Capsular Flaps in the Salvage of Exposed Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Brunetti, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Breast implant exposure due to poor tissue coverage or previous irradiation represents a surgical challenge both in the reconstructive and aesthetic plastic surgery practice. In case of implant extrusion or incipient exposure, the commonly suggested strategies, such as targeted antibiotic therapy, drainage and lavage of the cavity, fistulectomy, and primary closure, may be ineffective leading the surgeon to an unwanted implant removal or to adopt more invasive flap coverage procedures. Breast implant capsule, in its physiological clinical behavior, can be considered as a new reliable source of tissue, which can be used in a wide range of clinical situations. In our hands, capsular flaps proved to be a versatile solution not only to treat breast contour deformities or inframammary fold malpositions but also to salvage exposed breast implants. In this scenario, the use of more invasive surgical techniques can be avoided or simply saved and delayed for future recurrences.(Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2015;3:e340; doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000307; Published online 30 March 2015.

  9. DIEP flap with implant: a further option in optimising breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figus, Andrea; Canu, Vanessa; Iwuagwu, Fortune C; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2009-09-01

    Recent advances in breast reconstruction allow for high expectations regarding long-term symmetry and aesthetic appearance. The DIEP flap is currently considered as an ideal autologous reconstruction. However, there are situations in which the amount of tissue from a DIEP flap is not enough to achieve adequate symmetry. Indications and outcomes for a combined use of DIEP flap and implants are discussed in order to describe and examine a further scenario in optimising breast reconstruction. Between January 2004 and January 2006, all patients who underwent combined DIEP/implant breast reconstruction have been collected and followed prospectively. When clinical assessment demonstrated inadequate amount of tissue in the abdominal region to achieve a suitable unilateral or bilateral reconstruction with DIEP flaps, the patients were counselled about the opportunity of primary augmentation of the DIEP flaps. In cases where DIEP breast reconstruction has been done previously and there is a considerable asymmetry, delayed flap augmentation was considered. Patient's age, indication for surgery, preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy (RT), operative procedure, implant size, location and timing of insertion, complications, outcomes, and follow-up have been gathered. In all cases, textured round silicone gel implants have been used. After 12 months, four-point scales were used to analyse patients' satisfaction and aesthetic outcome. During the study period, 156 patients underwent breast reconstruction with 174 DIEP flaps. Fourteen patients (8.9%) had breast reconstruction with 19 DIEP flaps and 18 implants. The mean follow-up was 20.6 months (range 12-32 months). Fourteen implants were placed primarily at the time of DIEP reconstruction. The average implant weight was 167.2g with range between 100 and 230 g. Implant/flap weight ratio is about 1:5 corresponding to 20%. In six flaps, the patients had RT before the reconstruction, whilst in three cases of delayed DIEP flap

  10. Intrathoracic migration of a breast implant after minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; McClure, Michael; Aru, Roberto G; Songcharoen, Somprasong

    2015-03-01

    The aging population, in combination with the popularity of breast augmentation with implants, presents surgeons with a growing number of cases involving women undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) who have breast implants. We present an unusual complication involving the delayed migration of a subpectoral implant into the chest cavity through an iatrogenic defect after a minimally invasive mitral valve repair. This chest wall defect was ultimately repaired with a latissimus dorsi flap. Although MICS has been described in women with breast implants, the documented experience remains limited. Most authors classically recommend explantation of the prosthesis to provide access to the chest wall; however, some have later suggested preserving the implant capsule in situ while performing the cardiac procedure with gentle retraction. From our literature review and experience, we recommend that the posterior capsule should remain intact. If this is not possible, then the chest wall closure should be reinforced with either mesh, soft tissue, or both. Soft tissue options include the conversion from a subpectoral to a subglandular position to use the pectoralis major, or a latissimus dorsi muscle flap. With the increasing number of these cases along with the complexities of minimally invasive procedures, close communication and planning should be undertaken between both cardiothoracic and plastic surgeons when taking care of these patients. Above all, when faced with postoperative complications after MICS, the plastic surgeon must maintain a high index of clinical suspicion and consider the possibility of intrathoracic migration of an implant so that proper workup and planning may be initiated.

  11. The diagnosis of silicone breast-implant rupture: clinical findings compared with findings at magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P; Kjøller, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of clinical examination in the evaluation of breast-implant integrity, using the diagnosis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the "gold standard." Fifty-five women with 109 implants underwent a breast examination either just before or shortly after...... an MRI examination. Twenty-four of 109 implants were clinically diagnosed with possible rupture or rupture. Eighteen of the 24 implants were ruptured according to the MRI examination (75%). Eighty-five implants were clinically classified as intact, and 43 of these were actually ruptured at MRI (51...

  12. Surface induced reactivity for titanium by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, M T; Reuther, H; Matz, W; Mueller, R; Steiner, G; Oswald, S; Zyganov, I

    2000-06-01

    Calcium and phosphorus storage in a thin layer of titanium surface was achieved by ion implantation. We study the reactivity of this surface in response to a hydrothermal treatment. The incipient implanted species are observed to convert to Ca(2+) and PO(4)(3-), the precursors for generating calcium phosphate polymorphs. Hydroxyapatite is formed from these precursors by an interface-liquid mediated mineralization preceded by the hydrolysis of oxygen compounds of Ca and P from the solid phase. The morphology and organization of apatite mineral is controlled by the fluid dynamics reflecting the surface remodeling to adapt to the available local environment. Exposed to calcium and phosphate ion containing solution, the hydrothermally treated surface templates hydroxyapatite deposition. Ca and P implanted Ti surface was shown to be chemically and morphologically actively involved in the interfacial reactions.

  13. Superficie del implante como indicador de riesgo en enfermedades periimplantares Implant surface as a risk indicator for peri-implant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades periimplantares (EPI son lesiones inflamatorias que se producen en los tejidos alrededor de los implantes. Diferentes hallazgos clínicos han descrito la importancia de los microorganismos en el desarrollo de estas enfermedades. Los indicadores de riesgo para las EPI incluyen periodontitis, diabetes, factores genéticos, hábito de fumar, consumo de alcohol, higiene oral, ausencia de encía queratinizada y superficie del implante. Se ha demostrado que las características de la superficie del implante pueden influir en la tasa y grado de contacto hueso-implante, especialmente aquellos con superficies rugosas que favorecen una mayor integración ósea cuando se comparan con implantes de superficie lisa. Sin embargo, algunos investigadores han demostrado que pilares de implantes con superficies rugosas tienden a acumular más placa que los de superficie lisa. Bajo este contexto, diferentes superficies de implantes pueden influir sobre la microflora periimplantar y posiblemente sobre el proceso inflamatorio alrededor de los implantes. No obstante, el efecto de la superficie del implante y su diseño, sobre la inflamación de los tejidos alrededor del implante es controvertido.The inflammatory lesions that develop in the tissues around implants are collectively recognized as peri-implant diseases. The view that microorganisms play a major role in the development of peri-implant diseases is supported by several clinical findings. Indicator factors for peri-implant diseases including periodontitis, diabetes, genetic traits, poor oral hygiene, smoking, alcohol consumption, absence of keratinized mucosa and implant surface. Several studies have demonstrated that implant surface characteristics can influence the rate and degree of bone to implant contact, especially implants with surface roughness that resulted in greater bone integration compared with smooth surface implants. On the other hand, some authors have demonstrated that

  14. Mechanical assessment of grit blasting surface treatments of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemtov-Yona, K; Rittel, D; Dorogoy, A

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of surface preparation treatments of dental implants on their potential (mechanical) fatigue failure, with emphasis on grit-blasting. The investigation includes limited fatigue testing of implants, showing the relationship between fatigue life and surface damage condition. Those observations are corroborated by a detailed failure analysis of retrieved fracture dental implants. In both cases, the negative effect of embedded alumina particles related to the grit-blasting process is identified. The study also comprises a numerical simulation part of the grit blasting process that reveals, for a given implant material and particle size, the existence of a velocity threshold, below which the rough surface is obtained without damage, and beyond which the creation of significant surface damage will severely reduce the fatigue life, thus increasing fracture probability. The main outcome of this work is that the overall performance of dental implants comprises, in addition to the biological considerations, mechanical reliability aspects. Fatigue fracture is a central issue, and this study shows that uncontrolled surface roughening grit-blasting treatments can induce significant surface damage which accelerate fatigue fracture under certain conditions, even if those treatments are beneficial to the osseointegration process.

  15. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa [Naperville, IL; Kulikov, Stanislav [Sarov, RU; Osorio, Ivan [Leawood, KS; Raptis, Apostolos C [Downers Grove, IL

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  16. Shaped versus Round Implants for Breast Reconstruction: Indications and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Y. Nahabedian, MD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Both shaped and round silicone gel devices can result in natural aesthetic outcomes. Shaped devices are preferred for contouring the upper pole and for optimizing breast projection. Round devices are preferred when the upper pole is not deficient and the patient desires softer breasts. Longer follow-up studies will be necessary.

  17. Molecular Approaches to Functionalization of Dental Implant Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina O. Zekiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines several approaches to improve properties of dental implants by modifying their bioactive surfaces (functionalization using the techniques of molecular transplantation. The first group of functional ligands is designed to enhance osseointegration of implants, it includes growth factors, promoting the formation and bone remodeling: bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF and their combinations with each other, and several other ones. The second group of bioactive molecules does not directly stimulate bone formation, but it promotes osteoblast seeding on the implant surface due to the adhesive properties, thus accelerating osseointegration. Finally, the third group of substances used to increase the antibacterial properties of coatings, thereby reducing the formation of bacterial film on the implant surface and the risk of inflammatory rejection of the implant. Key issues of using biofunctional coatings, despite their obvious promise today still are relatively high cost, difficulties of controlling properties and its storage between the fabrication and installation of implants in the bone of the recipient.

  18. Adherent endotoxin on dental implant surfaces: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Cascardo, Giovanna; Bellanda, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Osteoimmunology is the crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems, suggesting a role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulation of osteoclast activity. Endotoxin or bacterial challenges to inflammatory cells are directly relevant to dental implant pathologies involving bone resorption, such as osseointegration failure and peri-implantitis. While the endotoxin amount on implant devices is regulated by standards, it is unknown whether commercially available dental implants elicit different levels of adherent-endotoxin stimulated cytokines. The objective of this work is to develop a model system and evaluate endotoxin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes relevant to osteoclast activation on commercially available dental implants. Murine J774-A1 macrophages were cultured on Ti disks with different level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination to define the time-course of the inflammatory response to endotoxin, as evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The developed protocol was then used to measure adherent endotoxin on commercially available packaged and sterile dental implants in the "as-implanted" condition. Results show that tested dental implants induce variable expression of endotoxin-stimulated genes, sometimes above the level expected to promote bone resorption in vivo. Results are unaffected by the specific surface treatment; rather, they likely reflect care in cleaning and packaging protocols. In conclusion, expression of genes that enhance osteoclast activity through endotoxin stimulation of inflammatory cells is widely different on commercially available dental implants. A reappraisal of the clinical impact of adherent endotoxins on dental (and bone) implant devices is required in light of increasing knowledge on crosstalk between cells from the immune and skeletal systems.

  19. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  20. Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letter, Haley; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michele N; Turner, Patricia

    2016-03-26

    Introduction Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a very rare T-cell lymphoma that has only recently been found to be associated with breast implants. It has been described in the literature mainly in the form of case reports. This article focuses on the imaging characteristics of this rare disease. We hope to increase awareness of breast imagers and referring physicians to improve early detection rates. Case Report We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with several weeks of pain and firmness in her right breast. MRI and ultrasound demonstrated a peri-implant fluid collection. Ultrasound-guided aspiration revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with implant removal alone and has now been in remission for 3 years.  Conclusion Anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast is a very rare entity that has mainly been described in the literature as case reports. As in the case of our patient, imaging findings can be very non-specific, and it is important for surgeons, breast imagers, and oncologists to be aware of this rare disease to ensure prompt diagnosis.

  1. The clinical course of immediate breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Friis, Søren; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2011-01-01

    The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed.......The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed....

  2. Amorphous surface layers in Ti-implanted Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Implanting Ti into high-purity Fe results in an amorphous surface layer which is composed of not only Fe and Ti, but also C. Implantations were carried out at room temperature over the energy range 90 to 190 keV and fluence range 1 to 2 x 10/sup 16/ at/cm/sup 2/. The Ti-implanted Fe system has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ion backscattering and channeling analysis, and (d,p) nuclear reaction analysis. The amorphous layer was observed to form at the surface and grow inward with increasing Ti fluence. For an implant of 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ at 180 keV the layer thickness was 150 A, while the measured range of the implanted Ti was approx. 550 A. This difference is due to the incorporation of C into the amorphous alloy by C being deposited on the surface during implantation and subsequently diffusing into the solid. Our results indicate that C is an essential constituent of the amorphous phase for Ti concentrations less than or equal to 10 at. %. For the 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ implant, the concentration of C in the amorphous phase was approx. 25 at. %, while that of Ti was only approx. 3 at. %. A higher fluence implant of 2 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ produced an amorphous layer with a lower C concentration of approx. 10 at. % and a Ti concentration of approx. 20 at. %.

  3. Protocol for the prevention and management of complications related to ADM implant-based breast reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citron, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM implant-based reconstructions have transformed direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI. But like all surgery, it is not deplete of complications such as seroma, infections and wound healing problems. These are cited with varying frequencies in the literature. With increased experience and through a series of measures instituted to minimize complications, we have been able to improve outcomes for our patients. We report our technical refinements for prevention of ADM reconstruction associated complications including patient selection, implant selection, drains, dressing and our post operative antibiotic regime. We also outline our protocol for the management of ADM associated complications including seroma, simple and complex infection and red breast syndrome, such that the sequelae of complications are minimized and patients achieve a better long-term outcome.

  4. Radiotherapy for breast cancer is not associated with increased risk of cied implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. B.; Rehammar, J. C.; Jorgensen, O. D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Radiotherapy is an important treatment in early stage breast cancer but it is claimed that radiotherapy causes damage to the cardiac conduction system and increases the risk implantation of CIED (pacemaker or ICD). However, this paradigm is based on smaller series of case reports. Due....... The unadjusted RR was 1.02 (0.76-1.36 95% CI, p=0.91) and the RR adjusted for year, age and time since diagnosis was 1.06 (0.79-1.42 95% CI, p=0.71). There was thus no difference in risk of CIED implantation after radioterapy in left- versus right sided breast cancer. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for breast cancer...

  5. Self-organized surface ripple pattern formation by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsäss, Hans; Zhang, Kun; Bobes, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Ion induced ripple pattern formation on solid surfaces has been extensively studied in the past and the theories describing curvature dependent ion erosion as well as redistribution of recoil atoms have been very successful in explaining many features of the pattern formation. Since most experimental studies use noble gas ion irradiation, the incorporation of the ions into the films is usually neglected. In this work we show that the incorporation or implantation of non-volatile ions also leads to a curvature dependent term in the equation of motion of a surface height profile. The implantation of ions can be interpreted as a negative sputter yield; and therefore, the effect of ion implantation is opposite to the one of ion erosion. For angles up to about 50°, implantation of ions stabilizes the surface, whereas above 50°, ion implantation contributes to the destabilization of the surface. We present simulations of the curvature coefficients using the crater function formalism and we compare the simulation results to the experimental data on the ion induced pattern formation using non-volatile ions. We present several model cases, where the incorporation of ions is a crucial requirement for the pattern formation.

  6. Antimicrobial surfaces for craniofacial implants: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Lisa; Gaviria, Laura; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2013-04-01

    In an attempt to regain function and aesthetics in the craniofacial region, different biomaterials, including titanium, hydroxyapatite, biodegradable polymers and composites, have been widely used as a result of the loss of craniofacial bone. Although these materials presented favorable success rates, osseointegration and antibacterial properties are often hard to achieve. Although bone-implant interactions are highly dependent on the implant's surface characteristics, infections following traumatic craniofacial injuries are common. As such, poor osseointegration and infections are two of the many causes of implant failure. Further, as increasingly complex dental repairs are attempted, the likelihood of infection in these implants has also been on the rise. For these reasons, the treatment of craniofacial bone defects and dental repairs for long-term success remains a challenge. Various approaches to reduce the rate of infection and improve osseointegration have been investigated. Furthermore, recent and planned tissue engineering developments are aimed at improving the implants' physical and biological properties by improving their surfaces in order to develop craniofacial bone substitutes that will restore, maintain and improve tissue function. In this review, the commonly used biomaterials for craniofacial bone restoration and dental repair, as well as surface modification techniques, antibacterial surfaces and coatings are discussed.

  7. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM FILMS WITH SODIUM ION IMPLANTATION: SURFACE PROPERTIES AND PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Y. Cai

    2007-01-01

    Sodium implanted titanium films with different ion doses were characterized to correlate their ion implantation parameters. Native titanium films and ion implanted titanium films were characterized with combined techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and light microscopy (LM). The surface presented increased sodium concentration on treated titanium films with ion dose increasing, except for the group with the highest ion dose of 4× 1017 ions/cm2. XPS depth profiling displayed that sodium entered titanium film around 25-50 nm depth depending on its implantation ion dose. AFM characterization showed that sodium ion implantation treatment changed the surface morphology from a relatively smooth titanium film to rough surfaces corresponding to different implantation doses.After sodium implantation, implanted titanium films presented big particles with island structure morphology. The surface morphology and particle growth displayed the corresponding trend.Fibrinogen adsorption on these titanium films was performed to correlate with the surface properties of treated titanium films. The results show that protein adsorption on ion-implanted samples with dose of 2 × 1017 and 4 × 1017 are statistically higher (p < 0. 01) than samples treated with dose of 5×1016 and 1 ×1017, as well as the control samples.

  8. Cellular Responses Evoked by Different Surface Characteristics of Intraosseous Titanium Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of biomaterials, including their surface microstructural topography and their surface chemistry or surface energy/wettability, affect cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The nanotopography of moderately rough implant surfaces enhances the production of biological mediators in the peri-implant microenvironment with consequent recruitment of differentiating osteogenic cells to the implant surface and stimulates osteogenic maturation. Implant surfaces with moderately rough topography and with high surface energy promote osteogenesis, increase the ratio of bone-to-implant contact, and increase the bonding strength of the bone to the implant at the interface. Certain features of implant surface chemistry are also important in enhancing peri-implant bone wound healing. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the more important features of titanium implant surfaces which have an impact on osseointegration.

  9. Correlation of centroid-based breast size, surface-based breast volume, and asymmetry-score-based breast symmetry in three-dimensional breast shape analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henseler, Helga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations among the size, volume, and symmetry of the female breast after reconstruction based on previously published data. Methods: The centroid, namely the geometric center of a three-dimensional (3D breast-landmark-based configuration, was used to calculate the size of the breast. The surface data of the 3D breast images were used to measure the volume. Breast symmetry was assessed by the Procrustes analysis method, which is based on the 3D coordinates of the breast landmarks to produce an asymmetry score. The relationship among the three measurements was investigated. For this purpose, the data of 44 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction with an extended latissimus dorsi flap were analyzed. The breast was captured by a validated 3D imaging system using multiple cameras. Four landmarks on each breast and two landmarks marking the midline were used.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the centroid-based breast size of the unreconstructed breast and the measured asymmetry (p=0.024; correlation coefficient, 0.34. There was also a significant relationship between the surface-based breast volume of the unaffected side and the overall asymmetry score (p<0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.556. An increase in size and especially in volume of the unreconstructed breast correlated positively with an increase in breast asymmetry in a linear relationship.Conclusions: In breast shape analysis, the use of more detailed surface-based data should be preferred to centroid-based size data. As the breast size increases, the latissimus dorsi flap for unilateral breast reconstruction increasingly falls short in terms of matching the healthy breast in a linear relationship. Other reconstructive options should be considered for larger breasts. Generally plastic surgeons should view the two breasts as a single unit when assessing breast aesthetics and not view each

  10. Surface driven biomechanical breast image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Björn; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H.; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Buelow, Thomas; Williams, Norman R.; Keshtgar, M.; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical modelling enables large deformation simulations of breast tissues under different loading conditions to be performed. Such simulations can be utilised to transform prone Magnetic Resonance (MR) images into a different patient position, such as upright or supine. We present a novel integration of biomechanical modelling with a surface registration algorithm which optimises the unknown material parameters of a biomechanical model and performs a subsequent regularised surface alignment. This allows deformations induced by effects other than gravity, such as those due to contact of the breast and MR coil, to be reversed. Correction displacements are applied to the biomechanical model enabling transformation of the original pre-surgical images to the corresponding target position. The algorithm is evaluated for the prone-to-supine case using prone MR images and the skin outline of supine Computed Tomography (CT) scans for three patients. A mean target registration error (TRE) of 10:9 mm for internal structures is achieved. For the prone-to-upright scenario, an optical 3D surface scan of one patient is used as a registration target and the nipple distances after alignment between the transformed MRI and the surface are 10:1 mm and 6:3 mm respectively.

  11. Nanostructured implant surface effect on osteoblast gene expression and bone-to-implant contact in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo_mendonca@dentistry.unc.edu [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Modulo B, Av. W5 Norte 70.790-160-Asa Norte Brasilia/DF (Brazil); Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 404 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27511 (United States); Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Curso de Odontologia, Taguatinga/DF (Brazil); Baccelli Silveira Mendonca, Daniela [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Modulo B, Av. W5 Norte 70.790-160-Asa Norte Brasilia/DF (Brazil) and Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 404 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27511 (United States); Pagotto Simoes, Luis Gustavo; Araujo, Andre Luis; Leite, Edson Roberto [Departmento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos-UFSCAR, Rod. Washington Luiz, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Golin, Alexsander Luiz [Departmento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Curitiba, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Aragao, Francisco J.L. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, SGAN Quadra 916, Modulo B, Av. W5 Norte 70.790-160-Asa Norte Brasilia/DF (Brazil); Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Introducao e Expressao de Genes, PqEB W5 Norte, 70770-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cooper, Lyndon F., E-mail: lyndon_cooper@dentistry.unc.edu [Bone Biology and Implant Therapy Laboratory, Department of Prosthodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 404 Brauer Hall, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27511 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of nanostructured implant surfaces at the level of osteoblast differentiation and its effects in bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and removal-torque values (RTV). CpTi grade IV implants (1.6 x 4.0 mm) were machined or machined and subsequently coated with an oxide solution. The surfaces were divided into: machined (M), titania-anatase (An), titania-rutile (Ru), and zirconia (Zr). Surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and by X-ray microanalysis. Implants were inserted in rat tibia and harvested from 0 to 21 days for measurement of Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone Sialoprotein, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, and RUNX-2 mRNA levels by real time PCR; from 0 to 56 days for RTV; and from 0 to 56 days for BIC. The roughness parameter (Sa) was compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test. Comparison of Torque removal values and histomorphometric measurements on implants in vivo was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test and the significance level for all statistical analyses was set at p {<=} 0.05. mRNA levels on all nanostructured surfaces were increased compared to M. At 56 days, the mean RTV in Ncm was 11.6 {+-} 2.5, 11.3 {+-} 2.4, 11.1 {+-} 3.5, 9.7 {+-} 1.4 for An, Ru, Zr, and M, respectively. Higher BIC (%) was measured for all the nanostructured surfaces versus M at 21 and 56 days (p < 0.05). Nanostructured topographic features composed of TiO{sub 2} or ZrO{sub 2} applied to machined cpTi implant promoted greater mesenchymal stem cell commitment to the osteoblast phenotype and associated increased BIC and physical association with bone. Highlights: {yields} Nanostructured surfaces using a sol-gel technique coated cpTi with TiO{sub 2} or ZrO{sub 2}. {yields} Evaluated molecular and mechanical effect of nanofeatures in vivo in rat tibiae. {yields} Nanofeatures improved the differentiation of rat MSCs into osteoblasts. {yields} Nanofeatures improved increased bone-to-implant contact and

  12. A prospective study comparing endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy plus immediate reconstruction with implants and breast conserving surgery for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lin-jun; JIANG Jun; YANG Xin-hua; ZHANG Yi; LI Xing-gang; CHEN Xian-chun; ZHONG Ling

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has been the standard surgical procedure for the treatment of early breast cancer. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy (ESM) plus immediate reconstruction with implants is an emerging procedure. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these two surgical procedures in our clinical setting.Methods From March 2004 to October 2007, 43 patients with breast cancer underwent ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants, while 54 patients underwent BCS. The clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical safety, and therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in the age, clinical stage, histopathologic type of tumor, operative blood loss, postoperative drainage time, and postoperative complications between the two groups (P>0.05).The postoperative complications were partial necrosis of the nipple and superficial skin flap in the ESM patients, and hydrops in the axilla and residual cavity in the BCS patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of satisfactory postoperative cosmetic outcomes between the ESM (88.4%, 38/43) and BCS (92.6%, 50/54) patients (P>0.05). During follow-up of 6 months to 4 years, all patients treated with ESM were disease-free, but 3 patients who underwent BCS had metastasis or recurrence-one of these patients died of multiple organ metastasis.Conclusions After considering the wide Indications for use, high surgical safety, and favorable cosmetic outcomes, we conclude that ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants-the new surgery of choice for breast cancer-warrants serious consideration as the prospective next standard surgical procedure.

  13. Characterization of novel silane coatings on titanium implant surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinlinna, Jukka P; Tsoi, James Kit‐Hon; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study describes and characterizes a developed novel method to produce coatings on Ti. Hydrophobic coatings on substrates are needed in prosthetic dentistry to promote durable adhesion between luting resin cements and coated Ti surfaces. In implant dentistry the hydrophobic c

  14. Coatings and surface modifications imparting antimicrobial activity to orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargupta, Roli; Bok, Sangho; Darr, Charles M; Crist, Brett D; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Sengupta, Shramik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on an orthopedic implant surface is one of the worst possible outcomes of orthopedic intervention in terms of both patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Making the problem even more vexing is the fact that infections are often caused by events beyond the control of the operating surgeon and may manifest weeks to months after the initial surgery. Herein, we review the costs and consequences of implant infection as well as the methods of prevention and management. In particular, we focus on coatings and other forms of implant surface modification in a manner that imparts some antimicrobial benefit to the implant device. Such coatings can be classified generally based on their mode of action: surface adhesion prevention, bactericidal, antimicrobial-eluting, osseointegration promotion, and combinations of the above. Despite several advances in the efficacy of these antimicrobial methods, a remaining major challenge is ensuring retention of the antimicrobial activity over a period of months to years postoperation, an issue that has so far been inadequately addressed. Finally, we provide an overview of additional figures of merit that will determine whether a given antimicrobial surface modification warrants adoption for clinical use.

  15. Idiopathic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Hoda; Eiberg, Jonas; Bigaard, Janne

    2016-01-01

    implant surgery. After clinical assessment, the patient underwent surgery with resection of the aneurysm and ligation of the arterial branch. No early postoperative complications were reported. Pseudoaneurysms in small vessels such as the IMA or its branches are not well described in the literature...

  16. Long-term cosmetic outcome after breast implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Breiting, Vibeke B; Fryzek, Jon P

    2007-01-01

    All women who underwent breast augmentation at 1 public and 1 private clinic in Denmark from 1973 to 1988, and available for follow-up, were invited to participate in a clinical study including a self-administered questionnaire, medical record abstraction, and a clinical examination. One hundred ...

  17. Glaucoma drainage implant surgery and ocular surface transplant graft preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Ahmad A; Sivaraman, Kavitha R; Djalilian, Ali R

    2015-05-01

    Glaucoma may develop or worsen after ocular surface transplantation and often requires surgical management for adequate intraocular pressure control. Traditional glaucoma filtering procedures in patients with prior ocular surface transplant may be problematic for several reasons, which include mechanical disruption of the pre-existing graft, epithelial and stem cell toxicity induced by antifibrotic agents, and increased risk of future corneal transplantation failure. We describe the implantation of a glaucoma drainage implant via a limbal-based conjunctival incision with tube placement in the ciliary sulcus in three eyes of two patients with prior ocular surface transplantation. At a follow-up interval of 3-7 months, all three eyes have excellent postoperative control of intraocular pressure, stable vision, and healthy ocular surface grafts.

  18. The role of surface modification on zirconia implants to enhance osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The surface structure of the implant plays a crucial role in the success of implantation. Therefore, the surfaces of dental implants have been under continuous development over the past few decades. In zirconia implants, generating surface roughness by sandblasting may induce surface damage and phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase. To avoid these negative effects, sandblasting prior to sintering is one strategy to generate a rough zirconia surface. The aim of this stu...

  19. Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Smeets; Bernd Stadlinger; Frank Schwarz; Benedicta Beck-Broichsitter; Ole Jung; Clarissa Precht; Frank Kloss; Alexander Gröbe; Max Heiland; Tobias Ebker

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to review different surface modifications of dental implants and their effect on osseointegration. Common marketed as well as experimental surface modifications are discussed. Discussion. The major challenge for contemporary dental implantologists is to provide oral rehabilitation to patients with healthy bone conditions asking for rapid loading protocols or to patients with quantitatively or qualitatively compromised bone. These charging conditions require...

  20. Dependence of implantation sequence on surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J.H. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsieh, H.Y.; Wu, C.W. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, C.M. [Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon at room temperature. The H and He ion energies were 40 and 50 keV, respectively, so that their depth profiles were similar. The total implantation fluence for the H and He ions was 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} under various fluence fractions in the H ions. The implantation sequences under investigation were He + H and H + He. Dynamic optical microscopy (DOM) was employed in order to dynamically analyze surface blistering characteristics. This study used DOM data to construct so-called time–temperature–transformation (T–T–T) curves to easily predict blistering and crater transformation at specific annealing times and temperatures. The results revealed that the curves of blister initialization, crater initialization, and crater completion in the He + H implant occurred at a lower annealing temperature but with a longer annealing time compared to those in the H + He implant. Furthermore, the threshold annealing temperatures for blister and crater formation in the He + H implant were lower than they were in the H + He implant. The size distributions of the blisters and craters in the He + H implant extended wider than those in the H + He implant. In addition, the He + H implant exhibited larger blisters and craters compared to the ones in the H + He implant. Since the former has a higher percentage of exfoliation area than the latter, it is regarded as the more optimal implantation sequence.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chessa

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  2. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Reducing infection risk in implant-based breast-reconstruction surgery: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi ASH; Song DH

    2016-01-01

    Adrian SH Ooi,1,2 David H Song1 1Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for ­postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of...

  4. The association of Matrix Gla protein isomers with calcification in capsules surrounding silicone breast implants

    OpenAIRE

    Larry W. Hunter; Lieske, John C.; Tran, Nho V.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2011-01-01

    Implanted silicone medical prostheses induce a dynamic sequence of histologic events in adjacent tissue resulting in the formation of a fibrotic peri-prosthetic capsule. In some cases, capsular calcification occurs, requiring surgical intervention. In this study we investigated capsules from silicone gel-filled breast prostheses to test the hypothesis that this calcification might be regulated by the small vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of arterial c...

  5. Pectin nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces - an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A major determinant of successful osseointegration of endosseous implants is the surface of the implant, which influences the cellular response of the surrounding tissues. A new strategy to improve osseointegration and bone healing is biochemical stimulation by surface nanocoatings ...

  6. Capsular contracture by silicone breast implants: possible causes, biocompatibility, and prophylactic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiert AE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andreas E Steiert, Maria Boyce, Heiko Sorg Department of Plastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Abstract: The most common implanted material in the human body consists of silicone. Breast augmentation and breast reconstruction using silicone-based implants are procedures frequently performed by reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons. A main complication of this procedure continues to be the development of capsular contracture (CC, displaying the result of a fibrotic foreign body reaction after the implantation of silicone. For many years, experimental and clinical trials have attempted to analyze the problem of its etiology, treatment, and prophylaxis. Different theories of CC formation are known; however, the reason why different individuals develop CC in days or a month, or only after years, is unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that CC formation, might primarily be induced by immunological mechanisms along with other reasons. This article attempts to review CC formation, with special attention paid to immunological and inflammatory reasons, as well as actual prophylactic strategies. In this context, the word “biocompatibility” has been frequently used to describe the overall biological innocuousness of silicone in the respective studies, although without clear-cut definitions of this important feature. We have therefore developed a new five-point scale with distinct key points of biocompatibility. Hence, this article might provide the basis for ongoing discussion in this field to reduce single-publication definitions as well as increase the understanding of biocompatibility. Keywords: biofilm, foreign body reaction, breast augmentation, biocompatibility, fibrosis

  7. Surface microanalytical studies of nitrogen ion-implanted steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Charles G.; Meeker, G. P.; Baumann, Scott M.; Norberg, James C.; Legg, Keith O.

    1985-03-01

    Five types of industrial steels, 1018, 52100, M-2, 440C, and 304 were ion implanted with nitrogen and subjected to surface microanalysis by three independent surface techniques: AES, RBS, and SIMS. The results provided understanding for earlier observations of the properties of various types of steel after nitrogen implantation. The steels that retained the most nitrogen and that have been reported to benefit the most in improved tribological properties from ion implantation were ferritic carbon and austenitic stainless steels, such as soft 1018 and 304, respectively. Heat-treated martensitic carbon steels such as 52100 and M-2 tool steel were found to retain the least nitrogen, and they have been reported to benefit less from nitrogen implantation; however, the interaction of transition metal carbides in M-2 with nitrogen has not been clarified. The data showed that 440C steel retained as much nitrogen as 1018 and 304, but treatment benefits may be limited to improvements in properties related to toughness and impact resistance.

  8. Fractal patterns applied to implant surface: definitions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2011-10-01

    Fractal patterns are frequently found in nature, but they are difficult to reproduce in artificial objects such as implantable materials. In this article, a definition of the concept of fractals for osseointegrated surfaces is suggested, based on the search for quasi-self-similarity on at least 3 scales of investigation: microscale, nanoscale, and atomic/crystal scale. Following this definition, the fractal dimension of some surfaces may be defined (illustrated here with the Intra-Lock Ossean surface). However the biological effects of this architecture are still unknown and should be examined carefully in the future.

  9. Breast augmentation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the underside of your breast, in the natural skin fold. The surgeon places the implant through this ... lift Breast pain Breast reconstruction - implants Breast reconstruction - natural tissue Breast ... wound care - open Review Date 2/10/2015 Updated by: ...

  10. Locally advanced breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleighton Estes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can become more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  11. Acute Immunologic Reaction to Silicone Breast Implant after Mastectomy and Immediate Reconstruction: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoome Najafi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of silicone based medical devices in to clinical practice, several reports appeared in the medical literature regarding their adverse effects. However, there are few reports of immunologic reactions to these implants.Case presentation: A case of systemic reaction to a breast implant inserted for immediate breast reconstruction in a breast cancer patient is presented. The patient developed fever and skin rash two months after the surgery. Investigations disclosed no infectious origin for the fever and a dramatic response to steroid therapy was observed.Conclusion: Immunologic reaction should be considered in case of systemic signs and symptoms after silicone breast implant placement as a rare complication. 

  12. N + surface doping on nanoscale polymer fabrics via ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Wong, Kenneth Kar; Zinke-Allmang, Martin; Wan, Wankei

    2006-08-01

    Non-woven poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fabrics composed of small diameter (∼110 nm) fibers have been spun by an electrospinning technique and then have been modified by ion implantation. 1.7 MeV N+ ion implantation with a dose of 1.2 × 1016 ions/cm2 was applied on the fabrics through a metal foil at room temperature. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no surface morphology degradation has been observed on the fabric after the ion beam treatment. The diameter of the fibers has shrunk by 30% to about 74 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) show that nitrogen surface doping was achieved and the formation of two new functional chemical groups (N-Cdbnd O and C-N) in the PVA is observed.

  13. Research on Surface Modification of 96 Al2O3 by Ni Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhi; ZHU Xin; WANG Zhen-zhong

    2006-01-01

    A matrix of 96 Al2O3 ceramics was implanted with Ni ion of different dosages and energies using a MEVVA implanter. Then metallic structures of copper were made on the implanted ceramics, by using selective electroless copper plating. In addition, the characteristics and microstructure of the implanted layer were studied by using the SEM, RBS and XPS. The results show that: 1) the implanted Ni exits as Ni0 , Ni2+, and Ni3+ in the surface of Al2O3 and metal Ni particles precipitate on ceramics during implantation; 2) the concentration of Ni submits to the Gauss distribution along the direction of implantation on the surface of Al2O3 and high Ni concentration on the surface can be obtained if the Ni is implanted with low energy and a high dosage and 3) Ni ion implantation can activate the surface of Al2O3 and induce electroless copper plating on the ceramics.

  14. Surface Functionalization of Orthopedic Titanium Implants with Bone Sialoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Baranowski

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implant failure due to aseptic loosening and mechanical instability remains a major problem in total joint replacement. Improving osseointegration at the bone-implant interface may reduce micromotion and loosening. Bone sialoprotein (BSP has been shown to enhance bone formation when coated onto titanium femoral implants and in rat calvarial defect models. However, the most appropriate method of BSP coating, the necessary level of BSP coating, and the effect of BSP coating on cell behavior remain largely unknown. In this study, BSP was covalently coupled to titanium surfaces via an aminosilane linker (APTES, and its properties were compared to BSP applied to titanium via physisorption and untreated titanium. Cell functions were examined using primary human osteoblasts (hOBs and L929 mouse fibroblasts. Gene expression of specific bone turnover markers at the RNA level was detected at different intervals. Cell adhesion to titanium surfaces treated with BSP via physisorption was not significantly different from that of untreated titanium at any time point, whereas BSP application via covalent coupling caused reduced cell adhesion during the first few hours in culture. Cell migration was increased on titanium disks that were treated with higher concentrations of BSP solution, independent of the coating method. During the early phases of hOB proliferation, a suppressive effect of BSP was observed independent of its concentration, particularly when BSP was applied to the titanium surface via physisorption. Although alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced in the BSP-coated titanium groups after 4 days in culture, increased calcium deposition was observed after 21 days. In particular, the gene expression level of RUNX2 was upregulated by BSP. The increase in calcium deposition and the stimulation of cell differentiation induced by BSP highlight its potential as a surface modifier that could enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic implants

  15. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  16. Adhesion of osteoblasts to a nanorough titanium implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongadze E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterina Gongadze1, Doron Kabaso2, Sebastian Bauer3, Tomaž Slivnik2, Patrik Schmuki3, Ursula van Rienen1, Aleš Iglič21Institute of General Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 2Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Materials Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Erlangen, GermanyAbstract: This work considers the adhesion of cells to a nanorough titanium implant surface with sharp edges. The basic assumption was that the attraction between the negatively charged titanium surface and a negatively charged osteoblast is mediated by charged proteins with a distinctive quadrupolar internal charge distribution. Similarly, cation-mediated attraction between fibronectin molecules and the titanium surface is expected to be more efficient for a high surface charge density, resulting in facilitated integrin mediated osteoblast adhesion. We suggest that osteoblasts are most strongly bound along the sharp convex edges or spikes of nanorough titanium surfaces where the magnitude of the negative surface charge density is the highest. It is therefore plausible that nanorough regions of titanium surfaces with sharp edges and spikes promote the adhesion of osteoblasts.Keywords: osteoblasts, nanostructures, adhesion, titanium implants, osteointegration

  17. Histologic analysis of resorbable blasting media surface implants retrieved from humans: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Kyung-In; Kim, Young-Kyun; Moon, Sang-Woon; Kim, Su-Gwan; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Pil-Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of osseointegration of resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface implants retrieved from humans. Three implants in the mandibular molar region that were surface-treated with RBM were retrieved from two patients. The implants were used to manufacture specimens in order to measure the bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. The BIC ratios of the three implants were found to be an average of 69.0%±9.1%. In conclusion, that RBM surface implants are inte...

  18. Priming the Surface of Orthopedic Implants for Osteoblast Attachment in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of better orthopedic implants is incessant. While current implants can function reliably in the human body for a long period of time, there are still a significant number of cases for which the implants can fail prematurely due to poor osseointegration of the implant with native bone. Increasingly, it is recognized that it is extremely important to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts on the implant so that a proper foundation of extracellular matrix (ECM) can be laid down for the growth of new bone tissue. In order to facilitate the osseointegration of the implant, both the physical nanotopography and chemical functionalization of the implant surface have to be optimized. In this short review, however, we explore how simple chemistry procedures can be used to functionalize the surfaces of three major classes of orthopedic implants, i.e. ceramics, metals, and polymers, so that the attachment of osteoblasts on implants can be facilitated in order to promote implant osseointegration.

  19. Laser bioengineering of glass-titanium implants surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusquiños, F.; Arias-González, F.; Penide, J.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pascual, M. J.; Durán, A.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Osseointegration is the mean challenge when surgical treatments fight against load-bearing bone diseases. Absolute bone replacement by a synthetic implant has to be completed not only from the mechanics point of view, but also from a biological approach. Suitable strength, resilience and stress distribution of titanium alloy implants are spoiled by the lack of optimal biological characteristics. The inert quality of extra low interstitial titanium alloy, which make it the most attractive metallic alloy for biomedical applications, oppose to an ideal surface with bone cell affinity, and capable to stimulate bone attachment bone growth. Diverse laser treatments have been proven as effective tools to modify surface properties, such as wettability in contact to physiological fluids, or osteoblast guided and slightly enhanced attachment. The laser surface cladding can go beyond by providing titanium alloy surfaces with osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties. In this research work, the laser radiation is used to produce bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. Specific silicate bioactive glass compositions has been investigated to achieve suitable surface tension and viscosity temperature behavior during processing, and to provide with the required release of bone growth gene up regulation agents in the course of resorption mediated by physiological fluids. The produced coatings and interfaces, the surface osteoconduction properties, and the chemical species release in simulated physiological fluid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  20. Near-surface recrystallization of the amorphous implanted layer of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhudzai, R.J., E-mail: joeykuhu@yahoo.com [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Berg, N.G. van der; Malherbe, J.B.; Hlatshwayo, T.T.; Theron, C.C. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Buys, A.V.; Botha, A.J. [Laboratory for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Wendler, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut Für Festköperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    The recrystallization and subsequent crystal growth during annealing of amorphous surface layers on 6H-SiC produced by ion implantation is investigated. Amorphous surface layers were produced by ion implantation of 360 keV ions of iodine, silver, xenon, cesium and strontium into single crystalline 6H-silicon carbide samples. The ion fluence for all the implantations were in the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. Vacuum annealing of the damaged silicon carbide samples was then performed. The microstructure of SiC surfaces before and after annealing was investigated using a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis was complimented by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). SEM images acquired by an in-lens detector using an accelerating voltage of 2 kV show nano-crystallites developed for all implanted samples after annealing. Larger and more faceted crystallites along with elongated thin crystallites were observed for iodine and xenon implanted 6H-SiC. Crystallites formed on surfaces implanted with strontium and cesium were smaller and less faceted. Strontium, silver and cesium implanted samples also exhibited more cavities on the surface. AFM was used to evaluate the effect of annealing on the surface roughness. For all the amorphous surfaces which were essentially featureless, the root mean square (rms) roughness was approximately 1 nm. The roughness increased to approximately 17 nm for the iodine implanted sample after annealing with the surface roughness below this value for all the other samples. AFM also showed that the largest crystals grew to heights of about 17, 20, 45, 50 and 65 nm for Sr, Cs, Ag, Xe and I implanted samples after annealing at 1200 °C for 5 h respectively. SEM images and AFM analysis suggest that iodine is more effective in promoting crystal growth during the annealing of bombardment-induced amorphous SiC layers than the rest of the ions we implanted. In samples of silicon carbide co-implanted with iodine and

  1. Influencia de las cargas triboeléctricas y de la contaminación sintomática de los implantes Triboelectric charges and breast implant symptomatic contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Peña Cabús

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo ocasional de energía estática importante en un implante mamario, generó una revisión sistemática de la información disponible al respecto que restableció una secuencia de eventos y conceptos de importancia, a nuestro juicio, en la práctica clínica Los implantes mamarios son elastómeros resultantes de la polimerización industrial que pueden generar cargas electrostáticas en su superficie. El efecto triboeléctrico puede mantener suficiente energía estática como para atraer partículas de material capaces de producir una contaminación periprotésica sintomática. El desconocer esta propiedad física puede llevar a una práctica clínica de riesgo al colocar implantes mamarios. Adicionalmente se revisa la microbiología involucrada en la formación capsular periprotésica sintomática y la infección por bacterias productoras de "biofilm".An incidental finding of static energy upon the surface of a breast implant, generated a systematic search that led to a link between triboelectric charges and symptomatic periprosthetic infection. Breast implants are industrial elastomers that may result with electrostatic charges on its surface. Its propper resistivity allows silicone to maintain enough static that atracts and adheres particulate matter to become surface contamination with periprosthetic tissue reaction. Recognition of this particular physical property and its clinical implications allows for safer conditions of practice. We review microbiology involved in periprosthetic capsular formation and infection by "biofilm" producer bacteria.

  2. Does a large dehiscent implant surface at placement affect the 5-year treatment outcome? : An assessment of implants placed to support a maxillary overdenture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, G. C.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Slot, W.; Vissink, A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcome of implants with a dehiscent surface at implant placement. A total of 26 consecutive patients (mean age 61.6 years; SD 8.0 years) with at least one implant with a dehiscent implant surface of >= two thirds of the implan

  3. Surface bioactivity of plasma implanted silicon and amorphous carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul K CHU

    2004-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PⅢ&D) has been shown to be an effective technique to enhance the surface bioactivity of materials. In this paper, recent progress made in our laboratory on plasma surface modification single-crystal silicon and amorphous carbon is reviewed. Silicon is the most important material in the integrated circuit industry but its surface biocompatibility has not been investigated in details. We have recently performed hydrogen PⅢ into silicon and observed the biomimetic growth of apatite on its surface in simulated body fluid. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used in the industry due to its excellent mechanical properties and chemical inertness. The use of this material in biomedical engineering has also attracted much attention. It has been observed in our laboratory that doping DLC with nitrogen by means of PⅢ can improve the surface blood compatibility. The properties as well as in vitro biological test results will be discussed in this article.

  4. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation.

  5. Decontamination of titanium implant surface and re-osseointegration to treat peri-implantitis: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Subramani; D. Wismeijer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the literature on decontamination of titanium implant surfaces following peri-implantitis and the effect of various cleaning methods on re-osseointegration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search of the literature at PubMed was conducted on the studies published between 1966

  6. The Influence of implant geometry and surface composition on bone response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Farraj Aldosari, A.; Anil, S.; Alasqah, M.; Wazzan, K.A. Al; Jetaily, S.A. Al; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The implant design and surface modification are independent conditions that can alter the implant bone response. The objective of this study is to compare the bone response to roughened tapered and cylindrical screw-type implants with and without hydroxyapatite (HA) surface coating in th

  7. The association of matrix Gla protein isomers with calcification in capsules surrounding silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Larry W; Lieske, John C; Tran, Nho V; Miller, Virginia M

    2011-11-01

    Implanted silicone medical prostheses induce a dynamic sequence of histologic events in adjacent tissue resulting in the formation of a fibrotic peri-prosthetic capsule. In some cases, capsular calcification occurs, requiring surgical intervention. In this study we investigated capsules from silicone gel-filled breast prostheses to test the hypothesis that this calcification might be regulated by the small vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of arterial calcification, or by Fetuin-A, a hepatocyte-derived glycoprotein also implicated as a regulator of pathologic calcification. Immunolocalization studies of explanted capsular tissue, using conformation-specific antibodies, identified the mineralization-protective γ-carboxylated MGP isomer (cMGP) within cells of uncalcified capsules, whereas the non-functional undercarboxylated isomer (uMGP) was typically absent. Both were upregulated in calcific capsules and co-localized with mineral plaque and adjacent fibers. Synovial-like metaplasia was present in one uncalcified capsule in which MGP species were differentially localized within the pseudosynovium. Fetuin-A was localized to cells within uncalcified capsules and to mineral deposits within calcific capsules. The osteoinductive cytokine bone morphogenic protein-2 localized to collagen fibers in uncalcified capsules. These findings demonstrate that MGP, in its vitamin K-activated conformer, may represent a pharmacological target to sustain the health of the peri-prosthetic tissue which encapsulates silicone breast implants as well as other implanted silicone medical devices.

  8. Polyspecies biofilm formation on implant surfaces with different surface characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. SCHMIDLIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the microbial adherence and colonization of a polyspecies biofilm on 7 differently processed titanium surfaces. Material and Methods Six-species biofilms were formed anaerobically on 5-mm-diameter sterilized, saliva-preconditioned titanium discs. Material surfaces used were either machined, stained, acid-etched or sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA. Samples of the latter two materials were also provided in a chemically modified form, with increased wettability characteristics. Surface roughness and contact angles of all materials were determined. The discs were then incubated anaerobically for up to 16.5 h. Initial microbial adherence was evaluated after 20 min incubation and further colonization after 2, 4, 8, and 16.5 h using non-selective and selective culture techniques. Results at different time points were compared using ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc analysis. Results The mean differences in microorganisms colonizing after the first 20 min were in a very narrow range (4.5 to 4.8 log CFU. At up to 16.5 h, the modified SLA surface exhibited the highest values for colonization (6.9±0.2 log CFU, p<0.05 but increasing growth was observed on all test surfaces over time. Discrepancies among bacterial strains on the differently crafted titanium surfaces were very similar to those described for total log CFU. F. nucleatum was below the detection limit on all surfaces after 4 h. Conclusion Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface roughness had a moderate influence on biofilm formation, while wettability did not seem to influence biofilm formation under the experimental conditions described. The modified SLA surface showed the highest trend for bacterial colonization.

  9. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  10. Evaluation of Stability of Surface-Treated Mini-Implants in Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Hee Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of surface treatment of mini-implants in diabetes-induced rabbits by comparing osseointegration around mini-implants. Methods. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups (alloxan-induced diabetic group and control group. A total of 48 mini-implants were placed after four weeks of diabetic induction. 24 mini-implants were surface-treated with SLA (sandblasted with large grit, and acid etched and the remaining 24 mini-implants had smooth surfaces. Four weeks after placement, 32 mini-implants were removed from 4 control and 4 diabetic rabbits. Insertion and removal torques were measured. The remaining 16 mini-implants from the two groups were histomorphometrically analyzed. Results. Maximum insertion torque showed no difference between diabetic and control groups, but total insertion energy was higher in control group. In surface-treated mini-implants, maximum removal torque was higher in both diabetic and control groups. Bone-implant contact (BIC was increased in the control group when compared to the diabetic group. Surface-treated group had higher BIC than smooth surface group in both control and diabetic groups. However, there was no significantly statistical difference. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and surface treatment method of mini-implant affected primary stability of mini-implants. In addition, the use of orthodontic mini-implants in a diabetic patient is likely to show results similar to the healthy patient.

  11. Colocación transpectoral superior de implantes mamarios: Relevancia técnica y anatómica Superior transpectoral insertion of breast implants: Anatomical and technical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Peña Cabús

    2008-12-01

    dissection. A small but representative serie of cases, due to a unique single outcome, which was the main objective of the study, forced to an early stage investigational report. The clinical experience refers to a caudal subfascial plane and a subpectoral cephalic plane to create an implantation cavity in a 15 cases serie when every single case operated on did not showed any surface breast deformation upon pectoral muscle forced contraction. At this point earlier than anticipated, the study was thought to be sufficient and completed. Main interest is being attracted to the consequences of the particular tissue components involved in the formation of the wall capsule surrounding the breast implant. We do believe that the soft handling of breast implants and other implantable biomaterials, refers to maintenance of the implant material integrity and a non responsive tissue behavior, on the long term basis.

  12. A nationwide study of connective tissue disease and other rheumatic conditions among Danish women with long-term cosmetic breast implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryzek, Jon P; Holmich, Lisbet; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that breast implants are not associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). However, many CTDs are rare, and continued follow-up of women with breast implants is warranted. METHODS: We extended by 5 years the follow-up of our earlier...

  13. Surface Engineering for Bone Implants: A Trend from Passive to Active Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and biological properties of bone implants need to be optimal to form a quick and firm connection with the surrounding environment in load bearing applications. Bone is a connective tissue composed of an organic collagenous matrix, a fine dispersion of reinforcing inorganic (calcium phosphate nanocrystals, and bone-forming and -degrading cells. These different components have a synergistic and hierarchical structure that renders bone tissue properties unique in terms of hardness, flexibility and regenerative capacity. Metallic and polymeric materials offer mechanical strength and/or resilience that are required to simulate bone tissue in load-bearing applications in terms of maximum load, bending and fatigue strength. Nevertheless, the interaction between devices and the surrounding tissue at the implant interface is essential for success or failure of implants. In that respect, coatings can be applied to facilitate the process of bone healing and obtain a continuous transition from living tissue to the synthetic implant. Compounds that are inspired by inorganic (e.g., hydroxyapatite crystals or organic (e.g., collagen, extracellular matrix components, enzymes components of bone tissue, are the most obvious candidates for application as implant coating to improve the performance of bone implants. This review provides an overview of recent trends and strategies in surface engineering that are currently investigated to improve the biological performance of bone implants in terms of functionality and biological efficacy.

  14. Systemic Sclerosis and Silicone Breast Implant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Psarras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized condition, which is correlated with exposure to various chemical compounds or drugs. However, development of scleroderma-like disease after exposure to silicone has always been a controversial issue and, over time, it has triggered spirited debate whether there is a certain association or not. Herein, we report the case of a 35-year-old female who developed Raynaud’s phenomenon and, finally, systemic sclerosis shortly after silicone breast implantation surgery.

  15. Effect of Zirconia Dental Implant Surfaces on Bone Integration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background. The information available about osseointegration and the bone to implant interaction of zirconia implants with various surface modifications is still far from sufficient. Objective. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate and compare zirconia dental implants with different surface topographies, with a focus on bone to implant contact and removal torque. Methods. The systematic review of the extracted publications was performed to compare the bone to implant contact (BIC) with removal torque (RT) values of titanium dental implants and machined and surfaced modified zirconia implants. Results. A total of fifteen articles on BIC and RT values were included in the quantitative analysis. No significant difference in the BIC values was observed between titanium and machined zirconia implants (p = 0.373; 95% CI: −0.166 to 0.443). However, a significantly better BIC values were observed for acid etched zirconia implants compared with those of titanium implants (p = 0.032; 95% CI: 0.068 to 1.461). Unmodified zirconia implants showed favorable BIC values compared to modified-surface zirconia implants (p = 0.021; 95% CI: −0.973 to −0.080). Conclusion. Acid etched zirconia implants may serve as a possible substitute for successful osseointegration. PMID:28299337

  16. Silicone-induced granuloma of breast implant capsule (SIGBIC): similarities and differences with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and their differential diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Eduardo de Faria Castro; Rêgo, Milena Morais; Ramalho, Luciana Costa; Ayres, Veronica Jorge; Seleti, Rodrigo Oliveira; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Roveda, Decio

    2017-01-01

    Primary breast lymphoma is a rare disease and accounts for 0.5% of cases of breast cancer. Most primary breast lymphomas develop from B cells, and the involvement of T cells is rare. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a recently discovered T-cell lymphoma associated with breast implants. Only a few cases have been reported to date. It is believed that the incidence of ALCL is increasing because of the increasing number of breast implants. The clinical presentation is variable and can manifest as a palpable mass in the breast or armpit, breast pain, or capsular contracture. Because of the rarity of the disease and the lack of knowledge to date, clinical diagnosis is often delayed, with consequent delays in treatment. The cause and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated, and there are no evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, or follow-up of this disease. We present a review of cases of patients with silicone breast implants, including ALCL, a rare type of breast cancer that is still under study, and silicone-induced granuloma of breast implant capsule and its differential diagnosis, and discuss if a silicone-induced granuloma of breast implant capsule could be the precursor of the disease.

  17. Implantes mamarios en el plano subfascial en reemplazo del bolsillo subglandular: un cambio lógico Breast implants in the subfascial plane in replacement of the subglandular pocket: a logical change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Ventura

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1999 hemos cambiado el plano subglandular del bolsillo de los implantes mamarios por el plano subfascial (subaponeurótico. Este plano se halla por debajo de la fascia aponeurótica del músculo pectoral mayor, serrato, oblicuo lateral y recto anterior. Este artículo considera 150 casos implantados en este plano (subfascial. Se utilizaron prótesis de superficie texturada. El abordaje fue por una incisión periareolar inferior. En todos los pacientes se consiguió una excelente cobertura del implante, al igual que una forma y movilidad natural. En ningún caso se observó el desagradable ondulado de cuadrantes superiores, conocido como rippling. Cuatro de ellos presentaron procesos capsulares contráctiles grado II de Baker (2,6%. En el postoperatorio inmediato se registró menor edema y una recuperación más rápida de lo habitual, de acuerdo a nuestra experiencia con los otros procedimientos (submuscular y subglandular. Cuando la elección del bolsillo es subglandular, el plano subfascial parecería ser el lugar lógico de la colocación de los implantes mamarios.Since 1999, the subglandular plane of the pocket has been substituted in our practise for the subfascial (subaponeurotic plane in breast implants. This plane lies underneath the aponeurotic fascia of the pectoralis major , the serratus, the lateral oblique and the rectus anterior muscles. This article describes 150 patients with implants in the subaponeurotic plane and textured surface. Patients were approached through an inferior periareolar incision. Excellent coverage of the implant, as well as natural shape and mobility were achieved in all patients. No ondulation (rippling in the upper half of the breast has been observed. Four patients (2,6% had Baker grade II capsular contracture. In the immediate post-op, less edema and faster-than-usual recovery could be seen versus our experience with other (submuscular and subglandular procedures. When a subglandular pocket is the

  18. Galactorrhea after aesthetic breast augmentation with silicone implants: report of two cases and management of postoperative galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayestaray, Benoit; Dudrap, Emmanuel; Chaibi, Amir

    2011-06-01

    Galactorrhea is a rare event after breast augmentation. The physiopathologic bases of galactorrhea depend on the central secretion of prolactin. These physiopathologic bases must be clearly understood for the prevention and treatment of postoperative galactorrhea. This report describes two cases of a postoperative galactorrhea after aesthetic breast augmentation with silicone implants. The clinical appearance closely resembles a postoperative sepsis without hyperthermia. Bacteriologic samples are negative. Endocrinologic examination finds a characteristic hyperprolactinemia. The evolution is favorable under dopaminergic agonists.

  19. Cytological Diagnosis of Bilateral Breast Implant-Associated Lymphoma of the ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large-Cell Type. Clinical Implications of Peri-Implant Breast Seroma Cytological Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Rosario; Lumbreras, Eva M; Delgado, Manuel; Aramburu, José A; Tardío, Juan C

    2016-07-01

    The cytological examination of peri-prosthetic breast effusions allowed the diagnosis of bilateral breast-implant ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) in the case reported. Ten years after reconstructive surgery with bilateral breast implants, a large unilateral seroma developed and was cytologically analyzed. The presence of CD30 and CD4-positive large-sized atypical lymphoid cells exhibiting horseshoe-shaped nuclei and a brisk mitotic activity rendered the diagnosis of BI-ALCL. Similar cells were seen in the peri-prosthetic fluid intraoperatively collected from the contralateral breast. Although initial histological analysis of the capsulectomy specimens showed unilateral tumor, the cytological findings prompted a more thorough tissue sampling, resulting in the diagnosis of bilateral disease. BI-ALCL usually follows an indolent clinical course; however, there are reported cases with an aggressive behavior. While the presence of bilateral disease is a putative risk factor for a bad prognosis, the small number of cases reported precludes a definitive assessment of this risk. Since most BI-ALCL present with late seromas, cytologic analysis of these effusions in women with breast implants should be mandatory. Cytology is a safe tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with breast implant-related late seromas, sometimes proven more sensitive than histological analysis. Complete bilateral capsulectomy and a detailed histological analysis should follow a cytological diagnosis of BI-ALCL in a breast effusion in order to avoid false negative diagnoses. Our case constitutes the first published report of a bilateral BI-ALCL diagnosed by cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:623-627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Review on the Wettability of Dental Implant Surfaces II: Biological and Clinical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gittens, Rolando A.; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Dental and orthopaedic implants have been under continuous advancement to improve their interactions with bone and ensure a successful outcome for patients. Surface characteristics such as surface topography and surface chemistry can serve as design tools to enhance the biological response around the implant, with in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies confirming their effects. However, the comprehensive design of implants to promote early and long-term osseointegration requires a better unde...

  1. Influence of Implant Surface Topography on Primary Stability in a Standardized Osteoporosis Rabbit Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Oue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating primary stability is important to predict the prognosis of dental implant treatment. Primary stability is decreased in a low bone density site such as osteoporosis. However, it is difficult to apply in small animal and the effect of the different implant surface topography for the primary stability at low bone density site has not yet fully been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of implant surface topography on primary stability in a standardized osteoporosis animal model. Six rabbits underwent ovariectomy and administrated glucocorticoid to induce an osteoporosis model. Sham-operations were performed in additional six rabbits. Implants with machined or oxidized-surfaces were inserted into the femur epiphyses and insertion torque (IT and implant stability quotient (ISQ were measured. In sham model, the IT and ISQ did not differ significantly between the both implant. However, the IT value of oxidized-surface implant was significantly higher than that of the machined implant in the osteoporosis model. Meanwhile, ISQ did not significantly differ between the machined and oxidized-surfaced implants. In conclusion, the IT of implants is higher with rough than with smooth surfaces but that there are no differences in ISQ value between different surfaces in a standardized osteoporosis bone reduced rabbit model.

  2. The Effect of Superstructures Connected to Implants with Different Surface Properties on the Surrounding Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Koretake

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate how the connection of superstructures to implants with different surface properties affects the surrounding bone. The right and left mandibular premolars and molars of 5 dogs were extracted. After 12 weeks, a machined implant was placed mesially and an anodized implant was placed distally on one side of the edentulous jaw, with the positions reversed on the opposite side. Twelve weeks after implantation, splinted superstructures were set to the implants. At 24 weeks after implantation, the implant stability quotient (ISQ was measured, radiographs were obtained. Removal torque values were measured and histologic observation was performed. The ISQ values at 24 weeks after implantation were not significantly different between the groups. The removal torque values were significantly different between the distal anodized and distal machined implants (p < 0.05. From 12 to 24 weeks, marginal bone losses were not significantly different between the groups. Fluorescent observation of tissue samples revealed bone-remodeling activity around all of the implants. The results of this study suggest that when implants with different surface properties are connected, machined implants at the most distal sites might be a potential risk factor for implant-bone binding.

  3. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda-Cepa, M; Syrek, K; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Sulka, G D; Kotarba, A

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function-bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces.

  4. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  5. Multisite Infection with Mycobacterium abscessus after Replacement of Breast Implants and Gluteal Lipofilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, Eva; Cheretakis, Alexandre; Modarressi, Ali; Harbarth, Stephan; Pittet-Cuénod, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medical tourism for aesthetic surgery is popular. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) occasionally cause surgical-site infections. As NTM grow in biofilms, implantations of foreign bodies are at risk. Due to late manifestation, infections occur when patients are back home, where they must be managed properly. Case Report. A 39-year-old healthy female was referred for acute infection of the right gluteal area. Five months before, she had breast implants replacement, abdominal liposuction, and gluteal lipofilling in Mexico. Three months postoperatively, implants were removed for NTM-infection in Switzerland. Adequate antibiotic treatment was stopped after seven days for drug-related hepatitis. At entrance, gluteal puncture for bacterial analysis was performed. MRI showed large subcutaneous collection. Debridement under general anaesthesia was followed by open wound management. Total antibiotic treatment was 20 weeks. Methods. Bacterial analysis of periprosthetic and gluteal liquids included Gram-stain plus acid-fast stain, and aerobic, anaerobic and mycobacterial cultures.  Results. In periprosthetic fluid, Mycobacterium abscessus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were identified. The same M. abscessus strain was found gluteally. The gluteal wound healed within six weeks. At ten months' follow-up, gluteal asymmetry persists for deep scarring. Conclusion. This case presents major complications of multisite aesthetic surgery. Surgical-site infections in context of medical tourism need appropriate bacteriological investigations, considering potential NTM-infections.

  6. Multisite Infection with Mycobacterium abscessus after Replacement of Breast Implants and Gluteal Lipofilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rüegg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical tourism for aesthetic surgery is popular. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM occasionally cause surgical-site infections. As NTM grow in biofilms, implantations of foreign bodies are at risk. Due to late manifestation, infections occur when patients are back home, where they must be managed properly. Case Report. A 39-year-old healthy female was referred for acute infection of the right gluteal area. Five months before, she had breast implants replacement, abdominal liposuction, and gluteal lipofilling in Mexico. Three months postoperatively, implants were removed for NTM-infection in Switzerland. Adequate antibiotic treatment was stopped after seven days for drug-related hepatitis. At entrance, gluteal puncture for bacterial analysis was performed. MRI showed large subcutaneous collection. Debridement under general anaesthesia was followed by open wound management. Total antibiotic treatment was 20 weeks. Methods. Bacterial analysis of periprosthetic and gluteal liquids included Gram-stain plus acid-fast stain, and aerobic, anaerobic and mycobacterial cultures.  Results. In periprosthetic fluid, Mycobacterium abscessus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were identified. The same M. abscessus strain was found gluteally. The gluteal wound healed within six weeks. At ten months’ follow-up, gluteal asymmetry persists for deep scarring. Conclusion. This case presents major complications of multisite aesthetic surgery. Surgical-site infections in context of medical tourism need appropriate bacteriological investigations, considering potential NTM-infections.

  7. Risk of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark, 1982-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehammar, Jens Christian; Johansen, Jens Brock; Jensen, Maj-Britt;

    2016-01-01

    (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women treated for early-stage BC in Denmark from 1982 to 2005 were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. By record linkage to the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Registry information was retrieved on CIED implants subsequent to RT. Standardized incidence...

  8. Wear analysis and finishing of bioceramic implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkena, Berend; Reichstein, Martin; van der Meer, Marijke; Ostermeier, Sven; Hurschler, Christof

    2008-01-01

    A primary cause for revision operations of joint replacements is the implant loosening, due to immune reactions resulting from the agglomeration of polyethylene wear debris. Motivated by the successful application of bioceramic materials in hip joint prostheses, a trend towards the development of hard implant materials has occurred. Nonetheless in the area of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), modern efforts have still utilized polyethylene as the tibial-inlay joint component. The use of bioceramic hard-hard-pairings for total knee arthroplasty has been prevented by the complex kinematics and geometries required. Ceramics cannot cope with non-uniform loads, which suggests the need for new designs appropriate to the material. Furthermore, biomechanical requirements should be considered. A rolling-gliding wear simulator, which reproduces the movements and stresses of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry, has therefore been developed. High-precision machining processes for free formed bioceramic surfaces, with suitable grinding and polishing tools which adjust to constantly changing contact conditions, are essential. The goal is to put automated finishing in one clamping with five simultaneous controlled axes into practice. The developed manufacturing technologies will allow the advantageous bioceramic materials to be applied and accepted for more complex joint replacements such as knee prostheses.

  9. Complications of Radiotherapy after Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implant: Risk Factors and Management - Our Institute’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba G. El-Sheredy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In recent years, defined reconstruction principles along with numerous surgical techniques with volume replacement have been published. Autologous breast reconstruction is more natural but leaves donor site morbidity. It provides the opportunity to restore the breast mound without the need for scars. This study aims to evaluate the complications of radiotherapy after immediate breast reconstruction with implants in breast cancer patients who submitted to skin sparing mastectomy and nipple sparing mastectomy by taking into consideration the risk factors and management at our institution. Methods: The current study prospectively included patients with invasive breast cancer admitted between January and June 2012 who were scheduled for skin sparing mastectomy or nipple sparing mastectomy and axillary dissection followed by immediate breast reconstruction with implant. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by conventional fractionated radiation. Complications were classified as either minor or major. The minor complications included capsular contracture (Baker 1-2, seroma, minor skin infection and skin dehiscence without exposure of the implant. Major complications included capsular contracture (Baker 3-4, severe infection and major wound dehiscence with implant exposure. Capsular contracture was scored according to the modified Baker classification. Results: The study included 38 patients. Of these, 28 had skin sparing mastectomy while 10 underwent nipple sparing mastectomy. The overall complication rate was 71%. We observed minor complications in 18 patients while 9 patients had major complications. Complications occurred with a median time of 13 months following radiotherapy completion. All minor complications were managed conservatively whereas all major complications required repeat surgery. No loco-regional recurrences occurred during the follow up

  10. Formation of Nanoscale Intermetallic Phases in Ni Surface Layer at High Intensity Implantation of Al Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A.Bozhko; S.V.Fortuna; I.A.Kurzina; I.B.Stepanov; E.V.Kozlov; Yu.P. Sharkeev

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental study of nanoscale intermetallic formation in surface layer of a metal target at ion implantation are presented. To increase the thickness of the ion implanted surface layer the high intensive ion implantation is used. Compared with the ordinary ion implantation, the high intensive ion implantation allows a much thicker modified surface layer. Pure polycrystalline nickel was chosen as a target. Nickel samples were irradiated with Al ions on the vacuum-arc ion beam and plasma flow source "Raduga-5". It was shown that at the high intensity ion implantation the fine dispersed particles of Ni3Al, NiAl intermetallic compounds and solid solution Al in Ni are formed in the nickel surface layer of 200 nm and thicker. The formation of phases takes place in complete correspondence with the Ni-Al phase diagram.

  11. Comparison of the Explantation Rate of Poly Implant Prothèse, Allergan, and Pérouse Silicone Breast Implants within the First Four Years after Reconstructive Surgery before the Poly Implant Prothèse Alert by the French Regulatory Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Leduey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In March 2010, ANSM (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Medicament, the French Medical Regulatory Authority, withdrew Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP breast implants from the market due to the use of non-medical-grade silicone gel. The aim of this study was to compare the removal rate (and reasons thereof of breast implants produced by different manufacturers before the ANSM alert. Materials and Methods. From October 2006 to January 2010, 652 women received 944 implants after breast cancer surgery at the Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Center, Paris (France. The complications and removal rates of the different implant brands used (PIP, Allergan, and Pérouse were evaluated and compared. Results. PIP implants represented 50.6% of the used implants, Allergan 33.4%, and Pérouse 16%. The main reasons for implant removal were patient dissatisfaction due to aesthetic problems (43.2%, infection (22.2%, and capsular contracture (13.6%. Two years after implantation, 82% of Pérouse implants, 79% of PIP, and 79% of Allergan were still in situ. There was no difference in removal rate among implant brands. Conclusion. Before the ANSM alert concerning the higher rupture rate of PIP breast implants, our implant removal rate did not predict PIP implant failure related to the use of nonapproved silicone gel.

  12. MRI screening for silicone breast implant rupture: accuracy, inter- and intraobserver variability using explantation results as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijers, M.C.; Ritt, M.J.P.F. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, F.B. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jan van Goyen Clinic, Department of Plastic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, J.F.H. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Manoliu, R.A. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The recall of Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) silicone breast implants in 2010 resulted in large numbers of asymptomatic women with implants who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy and interobserver variability of MRI screening in the detection of rupture and extracapsular silicone leakage. A prospective study included 107 women with 214 PIP implants who underwent explantation preceded by MRI. In 2013, two radiologists blinded for previous MRI findings or outcome at surgery, independently re-evaluated all MRI examinations. A structured protocol described the MRI findings. The ex vivo findings served as reference standard. In 208 of the 214 explanted prostheses, radiologists agreed independently about the condition of the implants. In five of the six cases they disagreed (2.6 %), but subsequently reached consensus. A sensitivity of 93 %, specificity of 93 %, positive predictive value of 77 % and negative predictive value of 98 % was found. The interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa value of 0.92). MRI has a high accuracy in diagnosing rupture in silicone breast implants. Considering the high kappa value of interobserver agreement, MRI appears to be a consistent diagnostic test. A simple, uniform classification, may improve communication between radiologist and plastic surgeon. (orig.)

  13. Immediate breast reconstruction with a saline implant and AlloDerm, following removal of a Phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roller Michael D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyllodes tumors are uncommon tumors of the breast that exhibit aggressive growth. While surgical management of the tumor has been reported, a single surgical approach with immediate breast reconstruction using AlloDerm has not been reported. Case presentation A 22-year-old woman presented with a 4 cm mass in the left breast upon initial examination. Although the initial needle biopsy report indicated a fibroadenoma, the final pathologic report revealed a 6.5 cm × 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm benign phyllodes tumor ex vivo. Treatment was a simple nipple-sparing mastectomy coupled with immediate breast reconstruction. After the mastectomy, a subpectoral pocket was created for a saline implant and AlloDerm was stitched to the pectoralis and serratus muscle in the lower-pole of the breast. Conclusions Saline implant with AlloDerm can be used for immediate breast reconstruction post-mastectomy for treatment of a phyllodes tumor.

  14. A contact mechanics model for ankle implants with inclusion of surface roughness effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, M.; Farhang, K.; Maani, N.

    2014-02-01

    Total ankle replacement is recognized as one of the best procedures to treat painful arthritic ankles. Even though this method can relieve patients from pain and reproduce the physiological functions of the ankle, an improper design can cause an excessive amount of metal debris due to wear, causing toxicity in implant recipient. This paper develops a contact model to treat the interaction of tibia and talus implants in an ankle joint. The contact model describes the interaction of implant rough surfaces including both elastic and plastic deformations. In the model, the tibia and the talus surfaces are viewed as macroscopically conforming cylinders or conforming multi-cylinders containing micrometre-scale roughness. The derived equations relate contact force on the implant and the minimum mean surface separation of the rough surfaces. The force is expressed as a statistical integral function of asperity heights over the possible region of interaction of the roughness of the tibia and the talus implant surfaces. A closed-form approximate equation relating contact force and minimum separation is used to obtain energy loss per cycle in a load-unload sequence applied to the implant. In this way implant surface statistics are related to energy loss in the implant that is responsible for internal void formation and subsequent wear and its harmful toxicity to the implant recipient.

  15. Energy Absorption in a Load-Unload Cycle of Knee Implant Using Fractal Model of Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Mohammad; Farhang, Kambiz

    2016-05-01

    Roughness measurement of knee implant surfaces is investigated. The study of roughness measurement show that the topography of knee implant surface is multi-scale and surface spectra follows a power law behavior. A magnification of rough surface topography implies that there is no difference between original and magnified profile of implant surface. For implant surface, statistical parameters such as variance of height, curvature, and slope are found to be scale-dependent. Fractal representation of implant surface shows that the size-distribution of the multi-scale contacts spots follows a power law and is characterized by the fractal dimension of implant surface. Fractal surface description of the rough surfaces of knee implant is used to obtain force-displacement relationship of the contact force. Using an approximate function through the fusion of two piecewise functions, energy absorption of a knee implant in a single cycle of load-unload is obtained.

  16. Surface analytical studies of maxillofacial implants: influence of the preoperational treatment and the human body on the surface properties of retrieved implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gábor; Sebők, Béla; Szabó, Péter J; Joób, Arpád F; Szabó, György

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, surface analytical investigation of unimplanted as well as retrieved pyrolytic carbon-covered carbon/carbon composite implants and Ti osteosynthesis plates is reported. The Ti plates were covered by a 200-nm-thick, anodically and thermally formed TiO2 layer. Our results suggest that although the oxide layer on the Ti miniplates remained stable during the time spent in the human body, there is still material transport between the implant and the human body. In case of the carbon/carbon composite implants, damage of the carbon fibers constituting the material was found on one side of the sterile implant and attributed to the manufacturing process. The NaCl crystals originally present on the surface of the sterile material disappeared during the time spent in the human body. As a result of the interaction with the human body, a new surface layer (mainly constituted of carbon) appeared on the implant. The results indicate that both the time spent in the human organism and the preparation of the implants before operation can have detectable effects on the investigated surface properties. Surface analytical investigations could therefore provide information not only about the biocompatibility of these materials but also about the effect of their treatment before operation.

  17. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  18. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  19. The Influence of Implant Abutment Surface Roughness and the Type of Cement on Retention of Implant Supported Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Sushender; Reddy, C. Rajaneesh; Pithani, Padmaja; R, Santosh Kumar; Kulkarni, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide relative data on the retentive characters of the commonly used cements on different implant abutment surfaces. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 implant abutments were divided into 2 groups. Ten implants were unaltered and ten were air borne particle abraded with 50μ aluminium oxide. Three luting agents (Tempbond, IRM and ImProv) were used to secure the crowns to abutments. All the crowns were removed from the abutment with an Instron machine at 0.5mm per minute and tensile bond strengths were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Anova, Paired t-test and Post-Hoc tests. Results: IRM showed the highest mean tensile strength among the three cements when used with treated and untreated implant abutment surfaces. Change in the abutment surface roughness had no effect on the mean tensile bond strength of TempBond and IRM cements, whereas ImProv cement showed reduced tensile strength with sandblasted surface. Conclusion: When increased retention is required IRM cement with either sandblasted or milled surface could be used and when retrievability is required cements of choice could be either TempBond or ImProv. PMID:25954694

  20. Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ouyang

    Full Text Available To compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS between patients who underwent tissue or implant reconstruction after mastectomy.We used the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER registries and compared the BCSS between patients who underwent tissue and implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Cox-regression models were fitted, adjusting for known clinicopathological features. The interaction between the reconstruction types (tissue/implant and nodal status (N-stage was investigated.A total of 6,426 patients with a median age of 50 years were included. With a median follow up of 100 months, the 10-year cumulative BCSS and non-BCSS were 85.1% and 95.4%, respectively. Patients who underwent tissue reconstruction had tumors with a higher T-stage, N-stage, and tumor grade and tended to be ER/PR-negative compared to those who received implant reconstruction. In univariate analysis, implant-reconstruction was associated with a 2.4% increase (P = 0.003 in the BCSS compared with tissue-reconstruction. After adjusting for significant risk factors of the BCSS (suggested by univariate analysis and stratifying based on the N-stage, there was only an association between the reconstruction type and the BCSS for the N2-3 patients (10-year BCSS of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction: 68.7% and 59.0%, P = 0.004. The 10-year BCSS rates of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction were 91.7% and 91.8% in N0 patients (P>0.05 and 84.5% and 84.4% in N1 patients (P>0.05, respectively.The implant (vs. tissue reconstruction after mastectomy was associated with an improved BCSS in N2-3 breast cancer patients but not in N0-1 patients. A well-designed, prospective study is needed to further confirm these findings.

  1. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite-coated implants and fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implant surfaces: a microstructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Il; Lee, Eun-Kwon; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Herr, Yeek; Chung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microscopic changes and surface roughness on hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implants following exposure to different powers and durations of Er:YAG laser irradiation in order to determine the proper pulse energy level and irradiation time. Ten HA-coated implants and ten fluoride-modified TiO2 implants were used. The implants were divided into a control (one implant) and test group (nine implants) for each implant type. Implants in the test groups were sub-divided into three groups (three implants per group) based on the applied laser pulse energy and irradiation time. The measurement of surface roughness was performed on all implants in the test groups using a white light interferometer before and after laser irradiation. R a values were recorded and compared in order to evaluate changes in surface roughness. For HA-coated implants, the R a values increased in all test groups after laser irradiation. However, mean R a values in the fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implant test group were decreased after irradiation. There was no statistical difference. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed surface alterations in both the HA-coated and fluoridated TiO2-blasted implants irradiated for 1.5 min at 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz. When the pulse energy and irradiation time increased, greater surface alterations, including surface flattening and microfractures, were observed. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that no changes could be observed in both HA-coated implants and fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implants after irradiation at an intensity of 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz for 1 min performed to achieve surface detoxification.

  2. Effects of calcium-modified titanium implant surfaces on platelet activation, clot formation, and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Orive, Gorka; Tejero, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The clinical success of load bearing dental and orthopedic implants relies on adequate osseointegration. Because of its favorable properties, titanium is generally considered as the material of choice. Following implant placement, titanium surfaces establish an ionic equilibrium with the surrounding tissues in which calcium plays major roles. Calcium is a cofactor of the coagulation cascade that mediates plasma protein adsorption and intervenes in a number of other intra and extracellular processes relevant for bone regeneration. In this study, titanium surfaces were modified with calcium ions (Ca(2+) surfaces) and their responses to in vitro and in vivo models were analyzed. Unlike unmodified surfaces, Ca(2+) surfaces were superhydrophilic and induced surface clot formation, platelet adsorption and activation when exposed to blood plasma. Interestingly, in vivo osseointegration using a peri-implant gap model in rabbit demonstrated that Ca(2+) surfaces significantly improved peri-implant bone volume and density at 2 weeks and bone implant contact at 8 weeks as compared to the unmodified controls. The combination of Ca(2+) surfaces with plasma rich in growth factors produced significantly more bone contact already at 2 weeks of implantation. These findings suggest the importance of the provisional matrix formation on tissue integration and highlight the clinical potential of Ca(2+) titanium surfaces as efficient stimulators of implant osseointegration.

  3. Expander/implant breast reconstruction before radiotherapy. Outcomes in a single-institute cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, C.; Palumbo, I. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Radiation Oncology Section; Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falcinelli, L.; Petitto, R.P.; Perrucci, E. [Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Div.; Bini, V. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Farneti, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Radiation Oncology Section; Gori, S. [Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy). Medical Oncology Div.

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) of reconstructed breasts was associated with major complications and poor cosmetic outcome. The present study assessed complication rates, the link between risk factors and prosthesis removal, as well as cosmetic outcomes. Patients and methods: From 1997 to 2009, 101 consecutive patients received RT after breast reconstruction because of risk factors for relapse (92) or because relapse had occurred (9). At RT, 90 patients had temporary tissue expanders and 11 had permanent implants. Twelve patients underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy; all patients received adjuvant chemo- and/or hormone therapy. Results: At a median follow-up of 50 months, late toxicities occurred in 28 patients: pain in 7, lymphedema in 6, G1 cutaneous toxicity in 5, and subcutaneous toxicity in 19 (2G1, 9G2, 7G3, 1G4), with more than one side effect in 12. In 8 patients the prosthesis ruptured (3), was displaced (3), was displaced and ruptured (1), or lost shape (1). Capsular contracture was classified in 89 patients as IA in 14, IB in 47, II in 10, III in 11, and IV in 7. Twelve prostheses (11.9%) were removed. The only significant factor for prosthesis removal was age (p = 0.007). Judgments of cosmetic results were available from 81 physicians and 84 patients. Outcome was excellent/good in 58/81 physician judgments and in 57/84 patient evaluations. Overall inter-rater agreement on outcome was good ({kappa}-value 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.79). Conclusion: RT to reconstructed breasts was associated with low rates of late toxicity and prosthesis removal. Cosmetic outcomes were, on the whole, good to excellent. (orig.)

  4. Histomorphometric and histologic evaluation of titanium-zirconium (aTiZr) implants with anodized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; McQuillan, A James; Shibata, Yo; Sharma, Lavanya A; Waddell, John Neil; Duncan, Warwick John

    2016-05-01

    The choice of implant surface has a significant influence on osseointegration. Modification of TiZr surface by anodization is reported to have the potential to modulate the osteoblast cell behaviour favouring more rapid bone formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of anodizing the surface of TiZr discs with respect to osseointegration after four weeks implantation in sheep femurs. Titanium (Ti) and TiZr discs were anodized in an electrolyte containing DL-α-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate at 300 V. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and goniometry. Forty implant discs with thickness of 1.5 and 10 mm diameter (10 of each-titanium, titanium-zirconium, anodized titanium and anodized titanium-zirconium) were placed in the femoral condyles of 10 sheep. Histomorphometric and histologic analysis were performed 4 weeks after implantation. The anodized implants displayed hydrophilic, porous, nano-to-micrometer scale roughened surfaces. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed calcium and phosphorous incorporation into the surface of both titanium and titanium-zirconium after anodization. Histologically there was new bone apposition on all implanted discs, slightly more pronounced on anodised discs. The percentage bone-to-implant contact measurements of anodized implants were higher than machined/unmodified implants but there was no significant difference between the two groups with anodized surfaces (P > 0.05, n = 10). The present histomorphometric and histological findings confirm that surface modification of titanium-zirconium by anodization is similar to anodised titanium enhances early osseointegration compared to machined implant surfaces.

  5. Electropolished Titanium Implants with a Mirror-Like Surface Support Osseointegration and Bone Remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Larsson Wexell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work characterises the ultrastructural composition of the interfacial tissue adjacent to electropolished, commercially pure titanium implants with and without subsequent anodisation, and it investigates whether a smooth electropolished surface can support bone formation in a manner similar to surfaces with a considerably thicker surface oxide layer. Screw-shaped implants were electropolished to remove all topographical remnants of the machining process, resulting in a thin spontaneously formed surface oxide layer and a smooth surface. Half of the implants were subsequently anodically oxidised to develop a thickened surface oxide layer and increased surface roughness. Despite substantial differences in the surface physicochemical properties, the microarchitecture and the composition of the newly formed bone were similar for both implant surfaces after 12 weeks of healing in rabbit tibia. A close spatial relationship was observed between osteocyte canaliculi and both implant surfaces. On the ultrastructural level, the merely electropolished surface showed the various stages of bone formation, for example, matrix deposition and mineralisation, entrapment of osteoblasts within the mineralised matrix, and their morphological transformation into osteocytes. The results demonstrate that titanium implants with a mirror-like surface and a thin, spontaneously formed oxide layer are able to support bone formation and remodelling.

  6. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571

  7. Influence of Thickness and Contact Surface Geometry of Condylar Stem of TMJ Implant on Its Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Zohreh; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Azari, Abbas

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect thickness and contact surface geometry of condylar stem of TMJ implant on its stability in total reconstruction system and evaluate the micro strain resulted in bone at fixation screw holes in jaw bone embedded with eight different designs of temporomandibular joint implants. A three dimensional model of a lower mandible of an adult were developed from a Computed Tomography scan images. Eight different TMJ implant designs and fixation screws were modeled. Three dimensional finite element models of eight implanted mandibles were analyzed. The forces assigned to the masticatory muscles for incisal clenching were applied consisting of nine important muscular loads. In chosen loading condition, The results indicated that the anatomical curvature contact surface design of TMJ implant can moderately improve the stability and the strain resulted in fixation screw holes in thinner TMJ implant was diminished in comparison with other thicknesses.

  8. The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implanter for surface modification of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Bao Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Gan Kong Yin; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Huang Nian Ning; Sun Hong

    2002-01-01

    The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) equipment has been successfully used for research and development of surface modification of biomedical materials, metals and their alloys in the Southwest Jiaotong University. The implanter equipped with intense current, pulsed cathodic arc metal plasma sources which have both strong coating function and gas and metal ion implantation function. Its pulse high voltage power supply can provide big output current. It can acquire very good implantation dose uniformity. The equipment can both perform ion implantation and combine ion implantation with sputtering deposition and coating to form many kinds of synthetic surface modification techniques. The main design principles, features of important components and achievement of research works in recent time have been described

  9. Chemical and topographic analysis of treated surfaces of five different commercial dental titanium implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed investigation of the surface characteristics of five commercial titanium implants with different surface finishing (double acid etching, anodization and incorporation of Ca/P, acid etching and deposition of Ca/P, hydroxyapatite-blasting, acid etching and Ca/P-blasting produced by five different manufacturers. A set of experimental techniques were employed to study the surface chemical composition and morphology: XPS, XRD, SEM, EDS, and AFM. According to the implat manufacturers, the addition of Ca and P at the implant surface is a main feature of these implants (except the double acid etched implant, which was included for comparative purpose. However, the results showed a great discrepancy on the final amount of these elements on the implant surface, which suggests a different effectiveness of the employed surface finishing methods to fix those elements on the implant surface. Our results show that only the method used by the manufacturer of hydroxyapatite-blasting surface finished implants was efficient to produce a hydroxyapatite coating. This group also showed the highest roughness parameters.

  10. Surface topographical and structural analysis of Ag{sup +}-implanted polymethylmethacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Shafaq, E-mail: sarif2005@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rafique, M. Shahid [Department of Physics, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Saleemi, Farhat [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory, University of Michigan, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Sagheer, Riffat [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia [Center for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Zia, Rehana [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Siraj, Khurram; Iqbal, Saman [Department of Physics, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    Specimens of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were implanted with 400-keV Ag{sup +} ions at different ion fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 14} to 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} using a 400-kV NEC ion implanter. The surface topographical features of the implanted PMMA were investigated by a confocal microscope. Modifications in the structural properties of the implanted specimens were analyzed in comparison with pristine PMMA by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. UV–Visible spectroscopy was applied to determine the effects of ion implantation on optical transmittance of the implanted PMMA. The confocal microscopic images revealed the formation of hillock-like microstructures along the ion track on the implanted PMMA surface. The increase in ion fluence led to more nucleation of hillocks. The XRD pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of pristine and implanted PMMA, while the Raman studies justified the transformation of Ag{sup +}-implanted PMMA into amorphous carbon at the ion fluence of ⩾5 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, the decrease in optical transmittance of PMMA is associated with the formation of hillocks and ion-induced structural modifications after implantation.

  11. Tantalum implanted entangled porous titanium promotes surface osseointegration and bone ingrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiao, Yuqin; Cheng, Mengqi; Jiang, Guofeng; He, Guo; Chen, Yunsu; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-05-01

    Porous Ti is considered to be an ideal graft material in orthopaedic and dental surgeries due to its similar spatial structures and mechanical properties to cancellous bone. In this work, to overcome the bioinertia of Ti, Ta-implanted entangled porous titanium (EPT) was constructed by plasma immersion ion implantation & deposition (PIII&D) method. Ca-implanted and unimplanted EPTs were investigated as control groups. Although no difference was found in surface topography and mechanical performances, both Ca- and Ta-implanted groups had better effects in promoting MG-63 cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization than those of unimplanted group. The expression of osteogenic-related markers examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting was upregulated in Ca- and Ta-implanted groups. Moreover, Ta-implanted EPT group could reach a higher level of these effects than that of Ca-implanted group. Enhanced osseointegration of both Ca- and Ta-implanted EPT implants was demonstrated through in vivo experiments, including micro-CT evaluation, push-out test, sequential fluorescent labeling and histological observation. However, the Ta-implanted group possessed more stable and continuous osteogenic activity. Our results suggest that Ta-implanted EPT can be developed as one of the highly efficient graft material for bone reconstruction situations.

  12. Giant desmoid tumour of the thorax following latissimus dorsi and implant breast reconstruction: case report and review of the literature

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, AM

    2017-03-01

    The case of a giant thoracic desmoid tumour in a 44-year-old woman, who presented two years following a breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and implant, is reported. Clinical findings included a rapidly growing, painless mass. Computed tomography (CT) suggested skin and intercostal soft tissue invasion. The tumour was resected en bloc with the LD muscle, implant capsule and underlying rib segments. The resultant thoracic and abdominal wall defects were reconstructed with Dualmesh® and polypropylene meshes respectively. There was no evidence of recurrence at thirty-six months follow-up.

  13. Assessment of modified gold surfaced titanium implants on skeletal fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Noncemented implants are the primary choice for younger patients undergoing total hip replacements. However, the major concern in this group of patients regarding revision is the concern from wear particles, periimplant inflammation, and subsequently aseptic implant loosening. Macrophages have been...... shown to liberate gold ions through the process termed dissolucytosis. Furthermore, gold ions are known to act in an anti-inflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-κB-DNA binding. The present study investigated whether partial coating of titanium implants could augment early osseointegration...... and increase mechanical fixation. Cylindrical porous coated Ti-6Al4V implants partially coated with metallic gold were inserted in the proximal region of the humerus in ten canines and control implants without gold were inserted in contralateral humerus. Observation time was 4 weeks. Biomechanical push out...

  14. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye;

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  15. Multicenter study to assess potential hazards from exposure to lipid peroxidation products in soya bean oil from Trilucent breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G M; Caldwell, J; Armstrong, D; Bartsch, H; Bevan, R; Browne, R W; Chipman, J K; Iatropoulos, M J; Jeffrey, A M; Lunec, J; Nair, J; Page, D L; Reeves, B C; Richardson, A; Silverstein, B; Williams, D F

    2009-03-01

    In response to a Hazard Notice by the Medical Devices Agency of the UK in 2000 regarding the Trilucent breast implant (TBI), an expert panel was convened to implement a research program to determine whether genotoxic compounds were formed in the soybean oil filler (SOF) of TBIs and whether these could be released to produce local or systemic genotoxicity. The panel established a research program involving six laboratories. The program recruited 47 patients who had received TBIs (9 patients had received silicone implants previously). A reference group (REBI) of 34 patients who had exchanged either silicone (17 patients) implants (REBI-E) or patients (17) who were to receive primary implantation augmentation with silicone (REBI-PIA), and who were included as needed to increase either the pre- or post-explantation sample number. Of the 17 REBI-E patients, 5 had silicone implants and 12 had saline implants previously (prior to the last exchange). Investigation was undertaken before and after replacement surgery in the TBI patients and before and after replacement or augmentation surgery in the REBI patients. The pre- to post-operative sample interval was 8-12 weeks. Pre-operative samples were collected within 7 days prior to the operation. Information on a variety of demographic and behavioral features was collected. Biochemical and biological endpoints relating to genotoxic lipid peroxidation (LPO) products potentially formed in the SOF, and released locally or distributed systemically, were measured. The SOF of explanted TBIs was found to have substantial levels of LPO products, particularly malondialdehyde (MDA), and low levels of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) not found in unused implants. Mutagenicity of the SOF was related to the levels of MDA. Capsules that formed around TBIs were microscopically similar to those of reference implants, but MDA-DNA adducts were observed in capsular macrophages and fibroblasts of only TBI capsules. These cell types are not

  16. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity an...

  17. Biofilm formation on surface characterized micro-implants for skeletal anchorage in orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henderina; Busscher, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Micro-implants are increasingly popular in clinical orthodontics to effect skeletal anchorage. However, biofilm formation on their surfaces and subsequent infection of peri-implant tissues can result in either exfoliation or surgical removal of these devices. The present study aimed to assess biofil

  18. The effect of controlled microrobotized blasting on implant surface texturing and early osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz F; Marin, Charles; Teixeira, Hellen; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Khan, Rehan; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-02-01

    Surface topography modifications have become a key strategy for hastening the host-to-implant response to implantable materials. The present study evaluated the effect of three different carefully controlled surface texture patterns achieved through microrobotized blasting (controlled to high, medium and low roughness) relative to a larger scale blasting procedure (control) in early osseointegration in a canine model. Four commercially pure grade 2 titanium alloy implants (one of each surface) were bilaterally placed in the radii of six beagle dogs and allowed end points of 1 and 6 weeks in vivo. Following sacrifice, implants in bone were non-decalcified processed for bone morphologic and histometric (bone-to-implant contact; bone area fraction occupancy) evaluation. Surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry. Results showed initial osteogenic tissue interaction at one week and new bone in intimate contact with all implant surfaces at 6 weeks. At 1 and 6 weeks in vivo, higher bone-to-implant and bone area fraction occupancy were observed for the high texture pattern microrobotized blasted surface relative to others.

  19. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  20. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the scanning electron microscopic structure and surface roughness of various implant surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Il; Min, Hyung-Ki; Park, Bo-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Park, Joon-Bong; Herr, Yeek; Heo, Seong-Joo; Chung, Jong-Hyuk

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (R(a)) and microscopic change to irradiated dental implant surfaces in vitro and ultimately to determine the proper pulse energy power and application time for the clinical use of Er:YAG lasers. Anodic oxidized surface implants and sand-blasted, large-grit, and acid-etched (SLA) surface implants were used. Each experimental group of implant surfaces included ten implants. Nine implants were used for the laser irradiation test groups and one for the control group. Each test group was equally divided into three subgroups by irradiated pulse energy power. Using an Er:YAG laser, each subgroup of anodic oxidized surface implants was split into 60-, 100-, and 140-mJ/pulse groups, with each subgroup of SLA surface implants irradiated with a 100-, 140-, or 180-mJ/pulse. Three implants in every test subgroup were respectively irradiated for 1, 1.5, and 2 min. The R(a) values for each specimen were recorded and every specimen was observed by SEM. Irradiation by Er:YAG laser led to a decrease in implant surface roughness that was not statistically significant. In anodic oxidized surfaces, the oxidized layer peeled off of the surface, and cracks appeared on implant surfaces in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. However, with SLA surfaces, no significant change in surface texture could be found on any implant surface in the 100- and 140-mJ/pulse subgroups. The melting and fusion phenomena of implant surfaces were observed with all application times with 180 mJ/pulse irradiation. The SLA implant surfaces are stable with laser intensities of less than 140 mJ/pulse and an irradiation time of less than 2 min. The anodic oxidized surfaces were not stable with laser intensities of 100 mJ/pulse when an Er:YAG laser was used to detoxify implant surfaces.

  1. Surface hardness changes induced by O-, Ca- or P-ion implantation into titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeyama; Nakao; Morikawa; Yokogawa; Wielunski; Clissold; Bell

    2000-12-30

    Titanium or titanium alloys are very attractive biomedical materials. Biocompatible elements of oxygen, calcium and phosphorus were implanted into titanium and changes of surface hardness were measured using an ultra micro indenter (UMIS-2000). A multiple load-partial unload procedure that can reveal a hardness versus depth profile was adopted. Depth profiles of concentration of implanted ions were obtained by SIMS measurement. For O and P implantation, it is observed that the hardness increases with the increases in the dose. O implantation produced the largest increase in hardness, up to 2.2 times higher than the unimplanted titanium. On the other hand, Ca implantation produced only a small increase in the hardness that was independent of the ion dose. The surface oxide layer of a Ca implanted titanium sample was much thicker than the unimplanted samples or those implanted with O and P ions. The depth of maximum hardness increases with increasing energy of implanted ions. The depths of the maximum hardness occur at indentation depths of one-third to one-eighth of the mean ranges of implanted ions.

  2. The effect of metal ion implantation on the surface mechanical properties of Mylar (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Yao, X.; Brown, I.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation of polymers leads to the formation of new carbonaceous materials, the revolution during implantation of various species consists of (1) ion beam induced damage: chain scission, crosslinking, molecular emission of volatile elements and compounds, stoichiometric change in the surface layer of pristine polymers; and (2) chemical effect between ion and target materials: microalloying and precipitation. Literature regarding ion implanted polymers shows that the reorganisation of the carbon network after implantation can dramatically modify several properties of pristine polymers solubility, molecular weight, and electrical, optical and mechanical properties. However, ion implantation of polymers is actually a very complex interaction which depends on not only ion species, implantation condition, but also polymer type and specific structure. In this paper the effect of Ag or Ti ions implantation on surface mechanical properties of PET (polyethylenne terephthalate) polymer is reported. There was a clear deterioration in wear resistance after implantation of both Ag and Ti ions. It is suggested that the increment of wear after implantation may result from not only ion damage but also chemical effect between ion and target material. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in human blood as markers for ruptured silicone gel-filled breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Pia; Hippler, Joerg; Schmitz, Oliver J; Hoffmann, Oliver; Rusch, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The replacement of medical-grade silicone with industrial-grade silicone material in some silicone gel-filled breast implants (SBI) manufactured by Poly Implant Prothèse and Rofil Medical Nederland B.V., reported in 2010, which resulted in a higher rupture tendency of these SBI, demonstrates the need for non-invasive, sensitive monitoring and screening methods. Therefore a sensitive method based on large volume injection-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS) was developed to determine octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclo-hexasiloxane (D6) in blood samples from women with intact (n = 13) and ruptured SBI (n = 11). With dichloromethane extraction, sample cooling during preparation, and analysis extraction efficiencies up to 100 % and limits of detection of 0.03-0.05 ng D4-D6/g blood were achieved. Blood samples from women with SBI were investigated. In contrast to women with intact SBI, in blood from women with ruptured SBI higher D4 and D6 concentrations up to 0.57 ng D4/g blood and 0.16 ng D6/g blood were detected. With concentrations above 0.18 D4 ng/blood and 0.10 ng D6/g blood as significant criteria for ruptured SBI, this developed analytical preoperative diagnostic method shows a significant increase of the recognition rate. Finally a higher precision (error rate 17%) than the commonly used clinical diagnostic method, mamma sonography (error rate 46%), was achieved.

  4. Over Troubled Water: An Outbreak of Infection Due to a New Species of Mycobacterium following Implant-Based Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheflan, Michael; Wixtrom, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterial infection is a rare complication associated with breast surgery using implants. Over the course of 5 months, one center experienced 12 such cases, 10 of which were linked to a single surgeon. Most presented 3 to 6 weeks postoperatively with clear serous drainage from the incision, minimal local redness, no fever or other systemic signs of infection, and negative standard bacterial cultures. Patients were given empiric broad-spectrum oral antibiotic therapy. In eight cases, implants were removed and exchanged for new devices after irrigation of the pocket with antibiotics; these patients nonetheless experienced recurrent infection, which led to explantation (without immediate exchange for new implants). The last two patients proceeded straight to explantation. Because mycobacteria grow in water, the water supply and air-conditioning system were initially suspected as the source, and both were disinfected. However, this did not stop the outbreak. Eventually, the source was traced to a new species of mycobacteria isolated from a garden hot tub. These bacteria had then been unwittingly transferred to patients during surgery. A Triclosan-containing shampoo effectively ended the outbreak. This series is unique in several respects: the novelty of the pathogen, the heavy colonization of the surgeon, and the mechanism of transmission (the first occurrence of human-to-human mycobacterial transfer published in the plastic surgery literature). Surgeons who perform breast surgery with implants should be aware of the possibility of mycobacterial infection. Proactive culturing of the organism, use of antibiotics, and reoperation are essential to good outcomes.

  5. The Effect of Laminin-1-Doped Nanoroughened Implant Surfaces: Gene Expression and Morphological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Osvaldo Schwartz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to observe the morphological and molecular effect of laminin-1 doping to nanostructured implant surfaces in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods. Nanostructured implants were coated with laminin-1 (test; dilution, 100 μg/mL and inserted into the rabbit tibiae. Noncoated implants were used as controls. After 2 weeks of healing, the implants were removed and subjected to morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and gene expression analysis using the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results. SEM revealed bony tissue attachment for both control and test implants. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of osteoblast markers RUNX-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I was higher (1.62-fold, 1.53-fold, 1.97-fold, and 1.04-fold, resp. for the implants modified by laminin-1 relative to the control. All osteoclast markers investigated in the study presented higher expression on the test implants than controls as follows: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (1.67-fold, calcitonin receptor (1.35-fold, and ATPase (1.25-fold. The test implants demonstrated higher expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-10 (1.53-fold and tumour necrosis factor-α (1.61-fold relative to controls. Conclusion. The protein-doped surface showed higher gene expression of typical genes involved in the osseointegration cascade than the control surface.

  6. SELECTIVE NEURITE OUTGROWTH ON SILVER NEGATIVE ION (Ag-)-IMPLANTED POLYSTYRENE SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroko Sato; Hiroshi Tsuji; Hitoshi Sasaki; Shinichi Ikemura; Yasuhito Gotoh; Junzo Ishikawa; Sei-ichi Nishimoto

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion implantation technique was applied to modify polymer surfaces of culture dishes for neuronal cells, PC12h. The silver negative ion (Ag-)-implantation was carried out at an ion energy of 20 keV and a dose of 3 ×1015 ions/cm2 with non-treated polystyrene (NTPS), tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and collagen-coated TCPS-Iwaki (CCPS). Ag--implanted surfaces of Ag/NTPS, Ag/TCPS, and Ag/CCPS were studied with respect to contact angle and/or chemical composition. The numerical values of contact angles on Ag/NTPS and Ag/TCPS were similar within experimental error, indicating the resemblance in their hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. The PC12h cells, however, were attached only to the Ag--implanted region of NTPS, but not to the non-implanted NTPS region. Moreover, the neurite outgrowth was also observed to extend specifically along the Ag--implanted region of NTPS but not on the non-implanted NTPS region,although neurites extended towards all directions on collagen-coated TCPS as a control surface. There was no remarkable difference in neurite outgrowth among Ag--implanted regions of TCPS and CCPS. Thus Ag/NTPS region was affirmed to promote highly selective attachment, growth, and differentiation of PC 12h cells, although its mechanism is still unknown.

  7. Positive Biomechanical Effects of Titanium Oxide for Sandblasting Implant Surface as an Alternative to Aluminium Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and the in vivo host response of a surface sandblasted with particles of titanium oxide (TiO2) followed by acid etching as an alternative to aluminium oxide. Thirty titanium disks manufactured in the same conditions as the implants and 24 conventional cylindrical implants were used. Half of the implants had a machined surface (Gcon) while in the other half; the surface was treated with particles of TiO2 followed by acid etching (Gexp). Surface characterization was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), profilometry, and wettability. For the in vivo test, 12 implants of each group were implanted in the tibia of 6 rabbits, and were reverse torque tested after periods of 30 or 60 days after implantation. Following torque, SEM was utilized to assess residual bone-implant contact. The surface characterization by SEM showed a very homogeneous surface with uniform irregularities for Gexp and a small amount of residues of the blasting procedure, while Gcon presented a surface with minimal irregularities from the machining tools. Wettability test showed decreased contact angle for the Gcon relative to the Gexp. The Gexp removal torque at 30 and 60 days was 28.7%, and 33.2% higher relative to the Gcon, respectively. Blasting the surface with particles of TiO2 represents an adequate option for the surface treatment of dental implants, with minimal risk of contamination by the residual debris from the blasting procedure.

  8. Surface properties of nitrogen-ion-implanted TiNi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface properties of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.There is a high nitrogen content region at the outermost surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.The detected nitrogen exists mainly in the form of TiN.Small amounts of Ti3O5 and TiO2 also exist on the surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi sample.The modified layer of the N+-ion-implanted sample can work as an obstacle layer of the nickel's dissolution, which obstructs Ni dissolving from the TiNi surface effectively.

  9. Antimicrobial and osteogenic effect of Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Yanhua Zheng1, Jinbo Li2, Xuanyong Liu2, Jiao Sun11Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface was prepared by hydrothermal treatment with H2O2 followed by Ag plasma immersion ion implantation. Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans were chosen for antimicrobial tests. Genes related to microbial structure or adhesion, namely glucan-binding proteins B (GbpB, fimbria protein A (FimA, and agglutinin-like sequence4 (Als4, were examined. The osteoblast’s attachment, viability, and quantitative analysis of osteogenic gene expression (Alp, Ocn, RunX2 on titanium surfaces were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that Ag nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm were incorporated on the nanostructured surface of titanium after Ag plasma immersion ion implantation. Trials showed that 93.99% of S. mutans, 93.57% of P. g, and 89.78% of C. albicans were killed on the Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface. Gene expressions from the three microorganisms confirmed the antimicrobial activities of the Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface. Furthermore, the adhesive images and viability assays indicated that the Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface did not impair osteoblasts. The expressions of osteoblast phenotype genes in cells grown on the Ag-implanted titanium surface were significantly increased. The results of this study suggest that the Ag-implanted titanium with a nanostructured surface displays good antimicrobial properties, reducing gene expressions of

  10. On-Site Surface Functionalization for Titanium Dental Implant with Nanotopography: Review and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Gyu Kim; Seog-Jin Seo; Jung-Hwan Lee; Hae-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been the first choice of material for dental implant due to bonding ability to natural bone and great biocompatibility. Various types of surface roughness modification in nanoscale have been made as promising strategy for accelerating osseointegration of Ti dental implant. To have synergetic effect with nanotopography oriented favors in cell attachment, on-site surface functionalization with reproducibility of nanotopography is introduced as next strategy to further enhance ...

  11. Surface characterization and biocompatibility of titanium alloys implanted with nitrogen by Hardion+ technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, D M; Gloriant, T; Chane-Pane, V; Busardo, D; Mitran, V; Höche, D; Vasilescu, C; Drob, S I; Cimpean, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the new Hardion+ micro-implanter technology was used to modify surface properties of biomedical pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy by implantation of nitrogen ions. This process is based on the use of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to produce a multienergetic ion beam from multicharged ions. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) on the substrate surfaces. An increase in superficial hardness and a significant reduction of friction coefficient were observed for both materials when compared to non-implanted samples. Better corrosion resistance and a significant decrease in ion release rates were observed for N-implanted biomaterials due to the formation of the protective TiN layer on their surfaces. In vitro tests performed on human fetal osteoblasts indicated that the cytocompatibility of N-implanted CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy was enhanced in comparison to that of the corresponding non treated samples. Consequently, Hardion+ implantation technique can provide titanium alloys with better qualities in terms of corrosion resistance, cell proliferation, adhesion and viability.

  12. Dental implant surface treatments for osseointegration improvement: presentation and comparisonof methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra KAPOPOULOU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of dental implants and the increase in requirements directed scientists to search for the implant surface which will ensure the greater bone to implant contact (BIC. Nowadays, implants are acid- etched (HCl, H 2 S Ο 4 promoting the osteoconductive ac- tivity or are grit-blasted with alumina particles, titanium oxide or calcium phosphates or finally they undergo dual treatment (combination of the two previous methods, which seems to have the better results as a method until now. Anodization is another method of treating the tita- nium implant surface and increased osseointegration is reported for implants coated with hydroxyapatite or ti- tanium plasma. The use of fluoride or wettability of im- plant surface in saline solution are also methods which have been used for treating the implant surface with low rates of osseointegration. Finally, new techniques made their appearance such as the use of laser, the use of drugs and specifically those of bisphosphonates and the use of BMPs. The last methods are very promising and their re- sults are still under research.

  13. Engineered Chimeric Peptides as Antimicrobial Surface Coating Agents toward Infection-Free Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hilal; O'Neill, Mary B; Kacar, Turgay; Wilson, Brandon R; Oren, E Emre; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-03-02

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and consequent biofilm formation remains a major challenge in implantable medical devices. Implant-associated infections are not only a major cause of implant failures but also their conventional treatment with antibiotics brings further complications due to the escalation in multidrug resistance to a variety of bacterial species. Owing to their unique properties, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained significant attention as effective agents to combat colonization of microorganisms. These peptides have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities with specificity to a target cell while having a low tendency for developing bacterial resistance. Engineering biomaterial surfaces that feature AMP properties, therefore, offer a promising approach to prevent implant infections. Here, we engineered a chimeric peptide with bifunctionality that both forms a robust solid-surface coating while presenting antimicrobial property. The individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their solid-binding kinetics to titanium substrate as well as for their antimicrobial properties in solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the chimeric peptide on the implant material was evaluated in vitro against infection by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, which are commonly found in oral and orthopedic implant related surgeries. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in reducing bacterial colonization onto titanium surfaces below the detectable limit. Engineered chimeric peptides with freely displayed antimicrobial domains could be a potential solution for developing infection-free surfaces by engineering implant interfaces with highly reduced bacterial colonization property.

  14. Decision and management algorithms to address patient and food and drug administration concerns regarding breast augmentation and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William P; Bengston, Bradley P; Glicksman, Caroline A; Gryskiewicz, Joe M; Jewell, Mark L; McGrath, Mary H; Reisman, Neal R; Teitelbaum, Steven A; Tebbetts, John B; Tebbetts, Terrye

    2004-10-01

    During the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's advisory panel hearings to evaluate the premarket approval for conventional silicone gel implants on October 14 and 15, 2003, panel members and patient advocate representatives focused on four specific areas of concern: reoperation rates in primary breast augmentation; levels, depth, and methods of patient education and informed consent; modes, frequency, and management of silicone gel implant device failures, including management of "silent" ruptures; and methods of monitoring and managing symptoms or symptom complexes that may or may not be associated with connective tissue disease or other undefined symptom complexes. These concerns, with a reported 20 percent reoperation rate for primary augmentation within just 3 years, and a lack of concise, definitive management protocols addressing these areas of concern may have contributed to the Food and Drug Administration's rejection of the premarket approval, despite the panel's recommendation for approval. This article presents decision and management algorithms that have been used successfully for 7 years in a busy breast augmentation practice (Tebbetts and Tebbetts). The algorithms have been further expanded and refined by a group of surgeons with diverse experiences and expertise to address the following clinical situations that coincide with concerns expressed by patients and the Food and Drug Administration: implant size exchange, grade III to IV capsular contracture, infection, stretch deformities (implant bottoming or displacement), silent rupture of gel implants, and undefined symptom complexes (connective tissue disease or other). In one practice (Tebbetts and Tebbetts) that uses the TEPID system (tissue characteristics of the envelope, parenchyma, and implant and the dimensions and fill distribution dynamics of the implant), implant selection is based on quantified patient tissue characteristics, pocket selection is based on quantified soft-tissue coverage, and

  15. Modulating macrophage polarization with divalent cations in nanostructured titanium implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale topographical modification and surface chemistry alteration using bioactive ions are centrally important processes in the current design of the surface of titanium (Ti) bone implants with enhanced bone healing capacity. Macrophages play a central role in the early tissue healing stage and their activity in response to the implant surface is known to affect the subsequent healing outcome. Thus, the positive modulation of macrophage phenotype polarization (i.e. towards the regenerative M2 rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype) with a modified surface is essential for the osteogenesis funtion of Ti bone implants. However, relatively few advances have been made in terms of modulating the macrophage-centered early healing capacity in the surface design of Ti bone implants for the two important surface properties of nanotopography and and bioactive ion chemistry. We investigated whether surface bioactive ion modification exerts a definite beneficial effect on inducing regenerative M2 macrophage polarization when combined with the surface nanotopography of Ti. Our results indicate that nanoscale topographical modification and surface bioactive ion chemistry can positively modulate the macrophage phenotype in a Ti implant surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that chemical surface modification using divalent cations (Ca and Sr) dramatically induces the regenerative M2 macrophage phenotype of J774.A1 cells in nanostructured Ti surfaces. In this study, divalent cation chemistry regulated the cell shape of adherent macrophages and markedly up-regulated M2 macrophage phenotype expression when combined with the nanostructured Ti surface. These results provide insight into the surface engineering of future Ti bone implants that are harmonized between the macrophage-governed early wound healing process and subsequent mesenchymal stem cell-centered osteogenesis function.

  16. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  17. Immediate Breast Reconstruction Using the Latissimus Dorsi Flap Combined with Breast Implant Optimizes Breast Shape%背阔肌瓣联合假体即刻乳房重建术优化乳房外形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱琦; 朱玉兰; 朱春富

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究背阔肌瓣转移联合假体置入即刻乳房重建术在乳腺癌改良根治术患者乳房外形修复中的作用。方法分析20例背阔肌瓣转移联合假体置入即刻乳房重建术患者的临床资料,并与18例单纯假体置入即刻乳房重建术患者的临床资料进行对照研究。结果背阔肌瓣转移联合假体置入即刻乳房重建术修复乳房外形的效果显著优于单纯假体置入术(P=0.042),两组在并发症发生率等方面无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论对于乳腺癌改良根治术假体置入即刻乳房重建患者,选择背阔肌瓣转移覆盖假体,能使术后伤口愈合更佳,乳房外形更加美观,患者满意度更高。%Objective To study the effect of immediate breast reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi flap combined with breast implant on breast shape restoration in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy. Methods A total of 38 patients with early breast cancer were divided into two groups, Experimental Group (n=20) and Control Group (n=218). All the patients accepted modified radical mastectomy. In Experimental Group, patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction with the latissimus domi flap combined with implants following mastectomy. In Control Group, patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction with breast implant only. Clinical data were collected and analyzed,retrospectively. Results The effect of breast shape optimization in Experimental Group was markedly superior to Control Group (P=0.042).There was no statistical difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Conclusion Latissimus dorsi flap combined with implants is a reliable method which make the patients more aestheically pleasing and more satisfied for immediate breast reconstruction.

  18. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Godwin, FRCS

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants.

  19. Surface decomposition and annealing behavior of GaN implanted with Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Hua Ming; Chen Chang Chun; Wang Sen; Zhu De Zhang; Xu Hong Jie

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on surface decomposition of GaN implanted with low energy (80 keV) Eu ion to a low dose (1 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2), and its annealing behavior under high temperature (1050 degree C) in N sub 2 are performed. The as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN films are characterized by proton elastic scattering (PES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that Eu ion implantation induces radiation defects and decomposition of GaN. The GaN surface decomposition is more serious during high temperature annealing. The atomic ratio of N in as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN film is 47 at.%, 44 at.% and 40 at.%, respectively. As a result, a rough Ga-rich layer is formed at the surface, though the lattice defects are partly removed after high temperature annealing

  20. Influência da textura superficial dos implantes = Texture of the titanium implant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem Filho, Halim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as várias características dos implantes a topografia da superfície é reconhecida como fator capaz de alterar a resposta das células dos tecidos adjacentes modificando a migração, inserção, proliferação e síntese de colágeno no local, determinando assim o tipo de tecido que será obtido na interface osso-implante e sua integração. Graças aos diferentes tipos de tratamentos tornou-se possível obter várias formas de caracterização da superfície facilitando a compreensão dos padrões de formação óssea, comportamento das células e até mesmo prever o tipo cicatricial que será obtido a partir da conformação dos tecidos adjacentes às superfícies dos implantes. Superfície de titânio com a rugosidade e microestrutura complexa aumenta a osseointegração no contato osso e implante, eleva a força de torque de remoção in vivo e a diferenciação in vitro dos osteoblastos induzidos pela função de rugosidade e topografia na osseointegração. Em superfícies de implantes tratadas com plasma de titânio (TPS, jateadas com areia e tratadas com ácido (SLA os resultados demonstraram que tanto a rugosidade como o tratamento químico das superfícies pode influenciar bastante a força superficial de cisalhamento (resistência oferecida à remoção. Estas características da superfície do titânio, além de otimizar o procedimento, podem ainda, por exemplo, permitir a colocação dos implantes em função mais precocemente e ampliar a gama de aplicações possíveis para osso alveolar de densidade inferior ou favorecer sua aplicação em osso regenerado

  1. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Ergene, Lale Tükenmez; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  2. Silver-based antibacterial surfaces for bone implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necula, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most effective and safest method for treating severe degenerative, post-traumatic and other diseases of the joints. With an aging population that is increasingly active, the use of biomedical implants will continue to rise. It is estimated that more than 1,000,000

  3. Characterization of Ion Implanted and Laser Processed Wear Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    reactivity of the 8. E. Rabinowicz , "Friction and Wear of materials is very great, as was the case Materials", 75, John Wiley and Sons on the first...pass on the TiC/Ti disk fol- Inc., N. Y. (1966). lowing implantation . Severe stickslip, leading to high frictional losses, however, 9. Rabinowicz , E

  4. AFM-investigation of differently treated Ti-surfaces with respect to their usability for dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, Sebastian; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, CAU Kiel Kaiserstr. 2 24143 Kiel (Germany); Yang, Bin [Klinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Prothetik, Propaedeutik und Werkstoffkunde, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 16, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Groessner-Schreiber, Birte [Klinik fuer Zahnerhaltungskunde und Parodontologie, Arnold-Heller-Str. 16, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Microbial adherence to dental implant surfaces is one initiating step in the formation of plaque and is considered to be an important event in the pathogenesis of peri-implant disease. Besides good connective tissue adhesion in the transmucosal part of an implant, titanium implants exposed to the oral cavity require surface modification to inhibit the adherence of oral bacteria. Surface roughness and chemical composition of the implant surface were found to have a significant impact on plaque formation. The aim of the present study was to examine bacterial adherence of differently modified potential implant surfaces. Therefore the surface roughness was decreased and for example a thin ceramic or composite layer of antibacterial material was deposited on abutment surface by sputtering. We analyze the new surface with AFM to control the roughness. For further characterization contact angle measurements were carried out. Biocompatibility and antibacterial effects will be determined in cooperation with the dental clinic at the University Kiel.

  5. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Juan, E-mail: doctorxue@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China) and Stomatological Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China); Ding Gang [Department of Stomatology, Yidu Central Hospital, Weifang, Shandong (China); Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong [Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun Hongchen, E-mail: hcsun@jlu.edu.cn [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China); Zhou Yanmin, E-mail: zhouym62@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  6. Use of Er:YAG laser to decontaminate infected dental implant surface in preparation for reestablishment of bone-to-implant contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Yamamoto, Atsuhiko; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ono, Yoshihiro; Wang, Chin-Wei; Kim, David M

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis is of concern to all clinicians participating in implant dentistry. Peri-implant inflammation results in the loss of supporting bone for the implant that may or may not be accompanied by bleeding on probing and suppuration. Early diagnosis and intervention are mandated, but there is a paucity of evidence leading to the most effective therapy. There is agreement that one of the challenges in surgically treating peri-implant defects is the process of cleaning and decontaminating the implant surface, which may be contaminated by bacterial aggregates. This preclinical canine study investigates the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser to decontaminate the complex rough surface of the implant by stripping the contaminated oxide layer for induction of hard and soft tissue adaptation to a compromised or failing implant. The results provide evidence of new bone-to-implant contact established at a level representative of the size of the defects. The soft tissues contain little or no evidence of inflammation, which can be interpreted as an arrest of the disease progression process. The results can be translated to a treatment goal of stabilizing the prognosis of an implant that has been compromised.

  7. Ion implantation effect on surface properties of quartz. [Ar/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/ implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitova, Eh.V.; Genkina, N.A.; Zotova, T.M.; Nikolaeva, L.E.; Chigrinskij, Yu.I.; Treskin, S.A.

    Results of studying the effects of implantation of various ions on the surface structure and microhardness of amorphous quartz are presented. Implantation of Ar/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, C/sup +/, N/sup +/ ions is shown to result in the microhardness increase by a factor of 1.5-2. The subsequent annealing of the ion-implanted specimens increases the microhardness 1.5-2 times as much.

  8. Titanium implants with modified surfaces: Meta-analysis of in vivo osteointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Michael, E-mail: michael.gasik@aalto.fi [Aalto University Foundation, School of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 16200, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Braem, Annabel [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Chaudhari, Amol; Duyck, Joke [Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, BIOMAT Research Cluster, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7a, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vleugels, Jozef [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-04-01

    Titanium-based implants are widely used in modern clinical practice, but their “optimal” properties in terms of porosity and topology, roughness and hydrophilic parameters are being a subject of intensive discussions. Recent in vitro results have shown a possibility to optimize the surface of an implant with maximal repelling of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and improvement in human osteogenic and endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In this work, these different grades titanium implants were tested in vivo using the same analytical methodology. In addition to material parameters, key histomorphometrical parameters such a regeneration area, bone adaptation area and bone-to-implant contact were determined after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation in rabbit animal model. Porous implants have more clear differences than non-porous ones, with the best optimum values obtained on hydrothermally treated electrophoretically deposited titanium. These in vivo data correlate well with the optimal prediction made by in vitro tests. - Highlights: • Various titanium specimens were studied in vivo on osteointegration vs their properties. • Non-porous implants had a better performance when coated with bioactive glass. • Porous implants have shown the best results for hydrothermally treated specimens. • Good correlation was found with the previous in vitro tests. • New analysis of the in vivo data has shown benefits to assess biomaterials performance.

  9. Temperature evaluation of dental implant surface irradiated with high-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, F G; Viana, E R; Ribeiro, G M; González, J C; Abelenda, A; Peruzzo, D C

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis and the absence of a standard approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface have led to searches for effective therapies. Since the source of diode lasers is portable, has reduced cost, and does not cause damage to the titanium surface of the implant, high-power diode lasers have been used for this purpose. The effect of laser irradiation on the implants is the elevation of the temperature surface. If this elevation exceeds 47 °C, the bone tissue is irreversibly damaged, so for a safety therapy, the laser parameters should be controlled. In this study, a diode laser of GaAsAl was used to irradiate titanium dental implants, for powers 1.32 to 2.64 W (real) or 2.00 to 4.00 W (nominal), in continuous/pulsed mode DC/AC, with exposure time of 5/10 s, with/without air flow for cooling. The elevation of the temperature was monitored in real time in two positions: cervical and apical. The best results for decontamination using a 968-nm diode laser were obtained for a power of 1.65 and 1.98 W (real) for 10 s, in DC or AC mode, with an air flow of 2.5 l/min. In our perspective in this article, we determine a suggested approach for decontamination of the dental implant surface using a 968-nm diode laser.

  10. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.; Oztarhan, A.; Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal-gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the "inverse" concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  11. Study of surface exfoliation on 6H-SiC induced by H2+ implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Li, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of lattice damage generated by the H2+-implantation on exfoliation efficiency in 6H-SiC wafers is investigated. 6H-SiC wafers were implanted with 134 keV H2+ ions to ion fluences from 1.5×1016 to 5×1016 H2+ cm-2 and subsequently annealed at temperatures from 973 K to 1373 K. The samples were studied by a combination of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Only after 1373 K annealing for 15 min, blisters and exfoliation occur on the H2+-implanted sample surface. With increasing the implantation fluences from 1.5×1016 to 3.75×1016 H2+ cm-2, the exfoliation mean size decreases, while the exfoliation density increases. For the highest fluence of 5×1016 H2+ cm-2, seldom exfoliations occur on the sample surface. Microstructure analysis shows that exfoliation efficiency is largely controlled by the H2+-implantation-induced lattice damage. The depth of the microcrack is related to the implantation fluence. The effect of implantation fluence on dislocation loops, platelet nucleation and growth is investigated.

  12. Morphology and Differentiation of MG63 Osteoblast Cells on Saliva Contaminated Implant Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoblasts are the most important cells in the osseointegration process. Despite years of study on dental Implants, limited studies have discussed the effect of saliva on the adhesion process of osteoblasts to implant surfaces. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of saliva on morphology and differentiation of osteoblasts attached to implant surfaces.Materials and Methods: Twelve Axiom dental implants were divided into two groups. Implants of the case group were placed in containers, containing saliva, for 40 minutes. Then, all the implants were separately stored in a medium containing MG63 human osteoblasts for a week. Cell morphology and differentiation were assessed using a scanning electron microscope and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined. The t-test was used to compare the two groups.Results: Scanning electron microscopic observation of osteoblasts revealed round or square cells with fewer and shorter cellular processes in saliva contaminated samples, whereas elongated, fusiform and well-defined cell processes were seen in the control group. ALP level was significantly lower in case compared to control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Saliva contamination alters osteoblast morphology and differentiation and may subsequently interfere with successful osseointegration. Thus, saliva contamination of bone and implant must be prevented or minimized.

  13. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [DIO Corporation, 66, Centum seo-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bo-Young [Department of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery, Wonkwang University Daejeon Dental Hospital, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation

  14. Anchorage of titanium implants with different surface characteristics: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2000-01-01

    ) TiO2-blasted with particles of grain size 10 to 53 microns; (3) TiO2-blasted, grain size 63 to 90 microns; (4) TiO2-blasted, grain size 90 to 125 microns; (5) titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS). The surface topography was determined by the use of an optical instrument. Twelve rabbits, divided into two...... in group B were 9 and 12 weeks. The tibiae were removed, and each implant site was dissected, fixed, and embedded in light-curing resin. Ground sections were made, and the peri-implant bone was analyzed using fluorescence and light microscopy. RESULTS: The turned implants had the lowest Sa and Sy values......: The present study demonstrated that a clear relation exists between surface roughness, described in Sa values, and implant anchorage assessed by RMT measurements. The anchorage appeared to increase with the maturation of bone tissue during healing....

  15. Combination of chemical suppression techniques for dual suppression of fat and silicone at diffusion-weighted MR imaging in women with breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Hughes, J. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom); Blackledge, M.; Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J. [Institute of Cancer Research, CR UK-EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton (United Kingdom); Burns, S. [Nuada 3T MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Stemmer, A.; Kiefer, B. [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Silicone breast prostheses prove technically challenging when performing diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the breasts. We describe a combined fat and chemical suppression scheme to achieve dual suppression of fat and silicone, thereby improving the quality of diffusion-weighted images in women with breast implants. MR imaging was performed at 3.0 and 1.5 T in women with silicone breast implants using short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) fat-suppressed echo-planar (EPI) diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) on its own and combined with the slice-select gradient-reversal (SSGR) technique. Imaging was performed using dedicated breast imaging coils. Complete suppression of the fat and silicone signal was possible at 3.0 T using EPI DWI with STIR and SSGR, evaluated with dedicated breast coils. However, a residual silicone signal was still perceptible at 1.5 T using this combined approach. Nevertheless, a further reduction in silicone signal at 1.5 T could be achieved by employing thinner slice partitions and the addition of the chemical-selective fat-suppression (CHESS) technique. DWI using combined STIR and SSGR chemical suppression techniques is feasible to eliminate or reduce silicone signal from prosthetic breast implants. (orig.)

  16. On the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces inducing dropwise condensation of steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Michael H; Leipertz, Alfred; Fröba, Andreas P

    2010-04-20

    The present work provides new information on the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces responsible for the adjustment of stable dropwise condensation (DWC) of steam. The results are based on condensation experiments and surface analyses via contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For studying possible influences of the base material and the implanted ion species, commercially pure titanium grade 1, aluminum alloy Al 6951, and stainless steel AISI 321 were treated with N(+), C(+), O(+), or Ar(+) using ion beam implantation technology. The studies suggest that chemically inhomogeneous surfaces are instrumental in inducing DWC. As this inhomogeneity is apparently caused by particulate precipitates bonded to the metal surface, the resulting nanoscale surface roughness may also influence the condensation form. On such surfaces nucleation mechanisms seem to be capable of maintaining DWC even when CA and SFE measurements indicate increased wettability. The precipitates are probably formed due to the supersaturation of ion implanted metal surfaces with doping elements. For high-alloyed materials like AISI 321 or Hastelloy C-276, oxidation stimulated by the condensation process obviously tends to produce similar surfaces suitable for DWC.

  17. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ding, Gang; Li, Jinlu; Yang, Shenhui; Fang, Bisong; Sun, Hongchen; Zhou, Yanmin

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased ( p S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  18. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  19. Retardation of surface corrosion of biodegradable magnesium-based materials by aluminum ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guosong; Xu, Ruizhen; Feng, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Wu, Zhengwei; Sun, Guangyong; Zheng, Gang; Li, Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    Aluminum ion implantation is employed to modify pure Mg as well as AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys and their surface degradation behavior in simulated body fluids is studied. Polarization tests performed in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the surface corrosion resistance after Al ion implantation is improved appreciably. This enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a gradient surface structure with a gradual transition from an Al-rich oxide layer to Al-rich metal layer. Compared to the high Al-content magnesium alloy (AZ91), a larger reduction in the degradation rate is achieved from pure magnesium and AZ31. Our results reveal that the surface corrosion resistance of Mg alloys with no or low Al content can be improved by Al ion implantation.

  20. Nanomodified Peek Dental Implants: Bioactive Composites and Surface Modification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the relevant literature regarding the different ways how polyetheretherketone (PEEK can be modified to overcome its limited bioactivity, and thereby making it suitable as a dental implant material. Study Selection. An electronic literature search was conducted via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the keywords “PEEK dental implants,” “nano,” “osseointegration,” “surface treatment,” and “modification.” A total of 16 in vivo and in vitro studies were found suitable to be included in this review. Results. There are many viable methods to increase the bioactivity of PEEK. Most methods focus on increasing the surface roughness, increasing the hydrophilicity and coating osseoconductive materials. Conclusion. There are many ways in which PEEK can be modified at a nanometer level to overcome its limited bioactivity. Melt-blending with bioactive nanoparticles can be used to produce bioactive nanocomposites, while spin-coating, gas plasma etching, electron beam, and plasma-ion immersion implantation can be used to modify the surface of PEEK implants in order to make them more bioactive. However, more animal studies are needed before these implants can be deemed suitable to be used as dental implants.

  1. Enhanced osteointegration of medical titanium implant with surface modifications in micro/nanoscale structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic design and substrate-based surface modification of medical implants will help to improve the integration of tissue to its material interfaces. Surface energy, composition, roughness, and topography all influence the biological responses of the implants, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In the current study, different surface structures of Ti implants were constructed using facile surface techniques to create various micro-, nano-, and nano/micro composite scale topography. We have fabricated three types of hierarchical structures of TiO2 coating on Ti implants, including nanotube structure, nano sponge-like structure, and nano/micro nest-like structure. The osteointegration and biomechanical performance of the coated Ti screws were evaluated by histology and removal of torque force test in vivo. We found that the nano/micro nest-like and nanotube structured surface possessed better osteointegration ability. It indicated that the alkaline hydrothermally treated Ti substrate was the best for bone-implant integration in terms of all in vitro and in vivo testing parameters. The alkaline hydrothermally treated surface displayed a hydrophilic (contact angle value 5.92 ± 1.2, higher roughness (Ra value 911.3 ± 33.8 nm, higher specific surface area (8.26 ± 1.051 m2/g, and greater apatite inductivity. The electrochemical surface modification may become a powerful approach to enhance metal implant to bone integration in orthopaedic applications.

  2. Surface characteristics and bioactivity of a novel natural HA/Zircon nanocomposite coated on dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamian, E.; Khandan, A.; Motamedi, M.R.K.; Mirmohammadi, H.

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel na

  3. A 2-year report on maxillary and mandibular fixed partial dentures supported by Astra Tech dental implants. A comparison of 2 implants with different surface textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, U; Gotfredsen, K; Olsson, C

    1998-01-01

    In 50 partially edentulous patients, 133 (48 maxillary; 85 mandibular) Astra Tech dental implants of 2 different surface textures (machined; TiO-blasted) were alternately installed, supporting 52 fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Before abutment connection 2 machined implants (1 mandibular; 1...... maxillary) were found to be non-osseointegrated and were replaced. Another implant could not be restored due to a technical complication. Two FPDs were remade because of technical complications, both because of abutment fractures. Thus, after 2 years in function, the cumulative survival rates were 97.......7% and 95.7% for implants and prostheses, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between the 2 types of implants, 100% (TiO-blasted) vs 95.3% (machined), P = 0.24. After 2 years in function, when both jaw and type of implants were combined, the mean (SD) marginal...

  4. Revision breast and chest wall reconstruction in Poland and pectus excavatum following implant complication using free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiou, Dimitrios; Demiri, Efterpi; Batsis, Georgios; Pavlidis, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to present the case of a female patient with Poland's syndrome and pectus excavatum deformity who underwent breast and chest wall reconstruction with a pre-shaped free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap. A 57-year-old female patient with Poland's syndrome and pectus excavatum presented with a Baker III capsular contracture following a previously performed implant-based right breast reconstruction. After a chest and abdominal CT angiography, she was staged as 2A1 chest wall deformity according to Park's classification and underwent implant removal and capsulectomy, followed by a pre-shaped free abdominal flap transfer, providing both breast reconstruction and chest wall deformity correction in a single stage operation. Post-operative course was uneventful, and the aesthetic result remains highly satisfactory 24 months after surgery. Deep inferior epigastric free flap represents an interesting reconstructive solution when treating Poland's syndrome female patients with chest wall and breast deformities.

  5. Influence of hydrogen fluence on surface blistering of H and He co-implanted Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiayun; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao; Wei, Xing; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng, E-mail: zfdi@mail.sim.ac.cn

    2016-02-01

    Highlights: • The effect of hydrogen dose on blistering was investigated. • Changes in the blistering phenomena of all the samples were studied. • The evolutions of strain and implantation induced-defects were analyzed. • The platelet forming tendency is responsible for the difference in blistering. - Abstract: The effect of hydrogen fluence on surface blistering of H and He co-implanted Ge is investigated using atom force microscope, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. With a fixed He, we find that for 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} H implantation fluence, only a few small dome-shaped blisters appear, for 3 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} H implantation fluence, large blisters as well as craters are formed, while for 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} H implantation fluence, no blisters can be observed. The strain evolution and platelet forming tendency are found to be relevant for the different blistering phenomenon. The weak blistering phenomenon for 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} H implantation fluence may be attributed to less “free” H for the building up of internal pressure of platelets and the sustained growth of platelets. While the absence of blistering phenomenon for 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} H implantation fluence is likely due to the retarded relief of the decreased uniform compressive stress throughout the damage region.

  6. Nitrogen ion implantation on stainless steel: AFM study of surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, B. [Dpto. Ingenieria de Materiales, Degradacion y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bchico@cenim.csic.es; Martinez, L. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-30

    This work presents a study by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modification of the surface topography of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel after N-ion implantation, irradiated by 1 x 10{sup 15} N{sub 2}{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 80 keV. Prior to the implantation surface modification, the samples were electropolished for the optimum observation of the surface at a small scale to obtain an initial surface with the smaller roughness. The electrolytic bath was composed of a mixture of water/sulphuric acid/orthophosphoric acid in percentages 20, 20 and 60%, respectively. Once the surface was optimized, the samples were implanted and observed by AFM, a new technique whose importance relies on its resolution power, allowing the acquisition of topographic images of the surface with nanometric resolution. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that ion implantation increases the surface roughness and promotes the apparition of 3 {mu}m wide and 10 nm depth craters as well as the apparition of products with singular morphology.

  7. Evaluation of surface dose outside the treatment area for five breast cancer irradiation modalities using thermo-luminescent dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Prasad Khanal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure and compare the surface dose outside the treatment area at six different points of interest (POIs for five different breast cancer radiation treatment modalities by using thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs. This experiment will evaluate the magnitude of the dose due to scatter and leakage radiation at different areas outside the target on a patient that could potentially lead, in the long term, to radiation induced secondary malignancies.Methods: TLD-100 were calibrated according to the University of Wisconsin Radiation Calibration Laboratory protocol and then used for dose measurements at selected POIs namely sternum, lower abdomen, contralateral breast, thyroid, shoulder, and eye. Twenty five breast cancer patients and the following modalities were included in this study: Strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI, mammosite multi-lumen (ML, Accuboost, electron boost and photon boost. The surface doses in all patients were measured in a single fraction. The delivered target doses were normalized to 200 cGy. Finally, breast quadrant analysis was performed.Results: The maximum average dose for each POI was as follows: Sternum 6.51 cGy (SD 2.93, lower abdomen 4.50 cGy (SD 2.63, contralateral breast 8.52 cGy (SD 3.86, thyroid 5.50 cGy (SD 2.75, shoulder 5.58 cGy (SD 2.77, and eye 2.65 cGy (SD 0.68. The highest POI dose of 15.84 cGy was found in contralateral breast.Conclusion: The measured surface dose at each POI varies with the modality of treatment. The surface doses show a strong correlation to the tumor bed location in the breast quadrant. The SAVI, electron boost, and photon boost modalities had delivered smaller surface dose at POIs than the Accuboost and Mammosite ML modalities. While the measured doses fall within the low range, its significance in producing second malignancies would require a large cohort of patients and a longer follow up.

  8. Plasma immersion ion implantation for the efficient surface modification of medical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A., E-mail: dipis1991@mail.ru; Borisov, Dmitry P., E-mail: borengin@mail.ru; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M., E-mail: kuznetsov@rec.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The paper reports on a new method of plasma immersion ion implantation for the surface modification of medical materials using the example of nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys much used for manufacturing medical implants. The chemical composition and surface properties of NiTi alloys doped with silicon by conventional ion implantation and by the proposed plasma immersion method are compared. It is shown that the new plasma immersion method is more efficient than conventional ion beam treatment and provides Si implantation into NiTi surface layers through a depth of a hundred nanometers at low bias voltages (400 V) and temperatures (≤150°C) of the substrate. The research results suggest that the chemical composition and surface properties of materials required for medicine, e.g., NiTi alloys, can be successfully attained through modification by the proposed method of plasma immersion ion implantation and by other methods based on the proposed vacuum equipment without using any conventional ion beam treatment.

  9. The biomedical properties of polyethylene terephthalate surface modified by silver ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Li Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Shen Liru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Ling Ren [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Xu Zejin [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Zhao Ansha [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng Yongxiang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang Nan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)]. E-mail: nhuang@263.net

    2007-04-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is modified by Ag ion implantation with a fluence 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that silver has been successfully implanted into the surface of PET. The PET samples modified by silver ion implantation have significantly bactericidal property. The capacity of the staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) adhered on the Ag{sup +} implanted PET surface is 5.3 x 10{sup 6} CFU/ml, but the capacity of the SE adhered on the untreated PET film is 2.23 x 10{sup 7} CFU/ml. The thromboembolic property is evaluated by in vitro platelet adhesion test, and there is not statistically difference between the untreated PET and the Ag{sup +} implanted PET for the number of adhered and activated platelets. The PET implanted by silver ion has not acute toxicity to endothelial cell (EC) which was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test.

  10. [Surface analysis of intramuscular bioglass ceramic implants using pro ton-induced x-ray emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, A; Schwabe, F; Thieme, V; Hofmann, H; Berger, G

    1984-01-01

    The method of the proton induced x-ray emission ( PIXE ) was used for the investigation of ion exchange processes on the surface of intramuscularly implanted Bioglass-Ceramics. This method allows a simultaneous analysis free from destruction in concentrations ranges of ppm for several elements. The measurements were carried out with different proton energy, in that manner a relative quantity analysis was possible in different layers. A durable two-layered surface already originates in a short time after the implantation on the implant interface. This one consists of a layer rich in calcium and phosphorus as well as a second zone rich in silicon. The meaning of this two-layered surface for the bio-activity and the bio-stability of the material is discussed.

  11. Optical studies of cobalt implanted rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shalik Ram; Padmanabhan, B.; Chanda, Anupama; Mishra, Indrani; Malik, V. K.; Mishra, N. C.; Kanjilal, D.; Varma, Shikha

    2016-11-01

    Present study investigates the photoabsorption properties of single crystal rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces after they have been implanted with low fluences of cobalt ions. The surfaces, after implantation, demonstrate fabrication of nanostructures and anisotropic nano-ripple patterns. Creation of oxygen vacancies (Ti3+ states), development of cobalt nano-clusters as well as band gap modifications have also been observed. Results presented here demonstrate that fabrication of self organized nanostructures, upon implantation, along with the development of oxygen vacancies and ligand field transitions of cobalt ion promote the enhancement of photo-absorbance in both UV (∼2 times) and visible (∼5 times) regimes. These investigations on nanostructured TiO2 surfaces can be important for photo-catalysis.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the surface coatings on TiAlZr implant biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Daniela; Grecu, Mihaela; Ungureanu, Camelia; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2011-12-01

    This study is devoted to antimicrobial activity of new surface coatings on TiAlZr. Ti alloys such as TiAlZr are used as implant biomaterials, but, despite the good behavior of such alloys in simulated conditions, bacterial infections appear after the introduction of an implant into the body. The infections are typically caused by the adherence and colonization of bacteria on the surfaces of the implants. The study presents preparation and surface morphology characterization of coatings obtained via anodizing, as well as biomimetic coatings with hydroxyapatite and silver ions with and without antibiotic. The percentage inhibition of Escherichia coli bacteria growth was evaluated for each of the studied coating, and a Trojan-horse model of silver nanoparticles (nAg) antibacterial activity at interface was proposed. Such coatings could be more important taking into account that antibacterial treatments with antibiotics are becoming less effective due to their intensive use.

  13. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  14. [Modern methods for studying the surface of titanium implants (literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Csongor; Velich, Norbert; Vörös, János; Turi, Csaba; Szabó, György

    2004-02-01

    Studies of the coatings found on the surface of titanium implants employed in oral surgery are indispensable for understanding the interactions between the organism and the implant. This paper surveys the theory and practical applicability of the methods most frequently applied to study the surface structure and composition of the material. Detailed accounts are given of various structure investigation methods: scanning electron microscopy, stereo scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and interference microscopy; and of various composition investigation methods: secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy; and also of the corrosion procedures for the study of electrochemical behaviour.

  15. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Alikhasi; Hakimeh Siadat; Elaheh Beyabanaki; Mohammad Javad Kharazifard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials.Materials and Methods: A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE) and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray ...

  16. Diffusion of implanted nitrogen in the Cu(0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Lucila; Vidal, Ricardo; Ferron, Julio [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gomez, Liliana [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Instituto de Fisica Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2010-05-12

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to study the thermally activated diffusion process of low energy N{sup +} implanted on the Cu(0 0 1) surface, a proposed model system for self-assembled nanostructures. The nitrogen diffusion was characterized as a function of the substrate temperature and the N{sup +} implantation energy. An experiment that combines a temperature evolution followed by an AES depth profiling was done to clarify the type of diffusion. A comparison of the experimental results with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations suggests a preferential diffusion of the nitrogen to the surface followed by nitride decomposition.

  17. Direct delayed breast reconstruction with TAP flap, implant and acellular dermal matrix (TAPIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Udesen, Ann;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is considered one of the working horses within the field of breast reconstruction and it offers several advantages. However, donor-site morbidity may pose a problem. This article describes a new and modified technique for delayed breast reconstruction co...... there is a learning curve, this simple modified technique does not demand any perforator or other vessel dissection. Any trained plastic surgeon should be able to adopt the technique into the growing armamentarium of breast reconstruction possibilities....

  18. Effects of zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coatings on bone integration with implant surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-fang ZHAO; Wen-jing DONG; Qiao-hong JIANG; Fu-ming HE; Xiao-xiang WANG; Guo-li YANG

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a zinc-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Zn-HA) coating,applied by an electrochemical process,on implant osseointegraton in a rabbit model.Methods:A Zn-HA coating or an HA coating was deposited using an electrochemical process.Surface morphology was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy.The crystal structure and chemical composition of the coatings were examined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).A total of 78 implants were inserted into femurs and tibias of rabbits.After two,four,and eight weeks,femurs and tibias were retrieved and prepared for histomorphometric evaluation and removal torque (RTQ) tests.Results:Rod-like HA crystals appeared on both implant surfaces.The dimensions of the Zn-HA crystals seemed to be smaller than those of HA.XRD patterns showed that the peaks of both coatings matched well with standard HA patterns.FTIR spectra showed that both coatings consisted of HA crystals.The Zn-HA coating significantly improved the bone area within all threads after four and eight weeks (P<0.05),the bone to implant contact (BIC) at four weeks (P<0.05),and RTQ values after four and eight weeks (P<0.05).Conclusions:The study showed that an electrochemically deposited Zn-HA coating has potential for improving bone integration with an implant surface.

  19. Annealing Effects on the Surface Plasmon of MgO Implanted with Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, A.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. -S.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.; Wang, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Gold ion implantation was carried out with the energy of 1.1 MeV into (100) oriented MgO single crystal. Implanted doses are 1, 3, 6, 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm. The gold irradiation results in the formation of gold ion implanted layer with a thickness of 0.2 microns and defect formation. In order to form gold colloids from the as-implanted samples, we annealed the gold implanted MgO samples in three kinds of atmospheres: (1)Ar only, (2)H2 and Ar, and (3)O2 and Ar. The annealing over 1200 C enhanced the gold colloid formation which shows surface plasmon resonance band of gold. The surface plasmon bands of samples annealed in three kinds of atmospheres were found to be at 535 nm (Ar only), 524 nm(H2+Ar), and 560 nm (02+Ar), The band positions of surface plasmon can be reversibly changed by an additional annealing.

  20. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  1. Influence of hydrogen fluence on surface blistering of H and He co-implanted Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiayun; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao; Wei, Xing; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng

    2016-02-01

    The effect of hydrogen fluence on surface blistering of H and He co-implanted Ge is investigated using atom force microscope, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. With a fixed He, we find that for 1 × 1016 cm-2 H implantation fluence, only a few small dome-shaped blisters appear, for 3 × 1016 cm-2 H implantation fluence, large blisters as well as craters are formed, while for 5 × 1016 cm-2 H implantation fluence, no blisters can be observed. The strain evolution and platelet forming tendency are found to be relevant for the different blistering phenomenon. The weak blistering phenomenon for 1 × 1016 cm-2 H implantation fluence may be attributed to less "free" H for the building up of internal pressure of platelets and the sustained growth of platelets. While the absence of blistering phenomenon for 5 × 1016 cm-2 H implantation fluence is likely due to the retarded relief of the decreased uniform compressive stress throughout the damage region.

  2. One stage rescue procedure after capsular contracture of breast implants with autologous fat grafts collected by water assisted liposuction (“BEAULI Method”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueberreiter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing number of patients with silicone implants for breast augmentation or reconstruction we are confronted with more and more cases of capsular contracture. Not every case is resolved by resection of the capsule and exchange of implants. Many patients rather bear the consequences of severe fibrosis than to have their implants removed. The one stage procedure of implant removal and lipofilling proved to be highly efficient with good to excellent results and high patient satisfaction. Between January 2008 and October 2012 a total of 64 patients (124 breasts with capsular fibrosis Baker III to IV were treated with autologous fat grafts collected with the body-jet by water-assisted liposuction (“BEAULI Method”. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the breasts was performed in 5 patients preoperatively and 6 month postoperatively, a clinical examination and photo documentation of all patients was done on day 1 and after 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The procedure included implant removal and lipofilling of the subcutaneous and intramuscular space in a single procedure by means of the BEAULI Method. The average gross amount of grafted fat was 260 ml. The average drainage time was one day. The shape of the breast changed to a more natural and ptotic form. Negative side effects like oily cysts or infections were not observed. The time of the overall procedure including liposuction was 70±15 min. Reoccurring capsular contracture is one of the hazards in plastic surgery. Until now the treatment of choice after more than two failed implant changes combined with resection of the capsule is usually the final removal of implants with or without possible additional autologous tissue transfer (microvascular flaps. We could add a relatively simple and efficient procedure to resolve and improve those cases by autologous fat transfer using water-assisted liposuction and the BEAULI Method.

  3. Treatment of muscular contraction deformities with botulinum toxin type A after latissimus dorsi flap and sub-pectoral implant breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figus, Andrea; Mazzocchi, Marco; Dessy, Luca Andrea; Curinga, Giuseppe; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2009-07-01

    Unusual and probably underestimated complications following breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and sub-pectoral implant are the LD muscle twitching and the breast contour deformities from pectoralis major (PM) muscle contraction. Surgical muscle denervation is usually indicated for these complications. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) infiltration has been described in reducing breast contour deformity in sub-pectoral implant after breast augmentation or reconstruction. Between January 2002 and April 2006, 71 consecutive patients underwent delayed unilateral breast reconstructions with LD flap and sub-pectoral implant after mastectomy. All patients reporting discomforting signs and symptoms from muscle contraction in the reconstructed breast were included in this prospective study. Thirteen patients (18.3%) were selected and treated with BTX-A percutaneous local injections. Signs and symptoms were evaluated, after 4, 8 and 12 months, by the patients and by a panel of three physicians not involved in the study, using a five-point scale. During the study period all patients reported a decrease or disappearance of the signs and symptoms. After 12 months, 11 patients received three BTX-A infiltrations, demonstrating considerable improvements compared to the pre-treatment status. Wilcoxon matched pairs rank sum test showed a statistical difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment scores after 14 days (P<0.01) and 12 months (P<0.001). Our experience shows that muscular contraction deformities after breast reconstruction with a LD flap plus implant are not uncommon complications. The use of BTX-A infiltrations is an effective, not surgical, low cost and low risk procedure to treat these complications. It is an easy procedure to be performed on an outpatient basis with a temporary effect but safely repeatable and reproducible; it avoids hospitalisation or further surgical procedures and demonstrates tolerable latency with satisfactory outcomes.

  4. DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction Using 3-dimensional Surface Imaging and a Printed Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tomita, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging technologies allow for digital quantification of complex breast tissue. We performed 11 unilateral breast reconstructions with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flaps (5 immediate, 6 delayed using 3D surface imaging for easier surgery planning and 3D-printed molds for shaping the breast neoparenchyma. A single- or double-pedicle flap was preoperatively planned according to the estimated tissue volume required and estimated total flap volume. The DIEP flap was then intraoperatively shaped with a 3D-printed mold that was based on a horizontally inverted shape of the contralateral breast. Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as satisfactory, as confirmed by the postoperative 3D measurements of bilateral breasts. We believe that DIEP flap reconstruction assisted with 3D surface imaging and a 3D-printed mold is a simple and quick method for rebuilding a symmetric breast.

  5. Surface engineering of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with low energy Ar- or Ca-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lu; Zhu, Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Muntele, Claudiu I. [Center for Irradiation Materials, Alabama A and M University, P. O. Box 1447, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Zhang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); He, Wei, E-mail: whe5@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2210 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, low energy ion implantation was employed to engineer the surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG), aiming at improving the biocompatibility and imparting bioactivity to the surface. Ca- or Ar-ions were implanted at 10 or 50 keV at a fluence of 8 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to (Zr{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.05}Cu{sub 0.30}){sub 99}Y{sub 1} (at.%) BMG. The effects of ion implantation on material properties and subsequent cellular responses were investigated. Both Ar- and Ca-ion implantations were suggested to induce atom displacements on the surfaces according to the Monte-Carlo simulation. The change of atomic environment of Zr in the surface regions as implied by the alteration in X-ray absorption measurements at Zr K-edge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the ion implantation process has modified the surface chemical compositions and indicated the presence of Ca after Ca-ion implantation. The surface nanohardness has been enhanced by implantation of either ion species, with Ca-ion implantation showing more prominent effect. The BMG surfaces were altered to be more hydrophobic after ion implantation, which can be attributed to the reduced amount of hydroxyl groups on the implanted surfaces. Higher numbers of adherent cells were found on Ar- and Ca-ion implanted samples, while more pronounced cell adhesion was observed on Ca-ion implanted substrates. The low energy ion implantation resulted in concurrent modifications in atomic structure, nanohardness, surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, and cell behavior on the surface of the Zr-based BMG, which were proposed to be mutually correlated with each other. - Highlights: • Low energy ion implantation of a Zr-based BMG for bone implant applications • Concurrent modifications in surface structure and properties after irradiation • Promoted adhesion of bone-forming cells after Ar- or Ca-ion implantation.

  6. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-08-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration.

  7. In vitro evaluation of a multispecies oral biofilm on different implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violant, Deborah; Galofré, Marta; Nart, José; Teles, Ricardo Patricio

    2014-06-01

    Biofilm accumulation on implant surfaces is one of the most important factors for early and late implant failure. Because of the related clinical implications, the aim of this in vitro study was to compare the bacterial cell attachment of a four-species oral biofilm on titanium discs of purity grade 2 and 4, with machined surfaces and etched-thermochemically modified with Avantblast®. The in vitro biofilm model was composed of early (Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus gordonii), secondary (Veillonella parvula), and intermediate (Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum) colonizers of tooth surfaces. A total of 36 discs were divided into four groups: Tigr2-c (titanium grade 2, machined surface), Tigr2-t (titanium grade 2, modified surface with Avantblast®), Tigr4-c (titanium grade 4, machined surface), Tigr4-t (titanium grade 4, modified surface with Avantblast®). The experiment was repeated three times. Biofilm viability was tested with 1% 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution and bacterial cell quantification by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Descriptive analysis was performed to evaluate biofilm composition and differences between groups were checked with the Mann-Whitney test (p biofilms showed a similar pattern of bacterial composition on all analyzed implant surfaces. The most prevalent bacterium was V. parvula (∼50% of the total biomass), followed by S. gordonii (∼30%), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (∼10%) and A. naeslundii (<5%). Total bacterial biomass was significantly higher in both grade-4-titanium surfaces (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that not only implant surface treatment, but also titanium purity, influence early bacterial colonization.

  8. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  9. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenlong; Wang, Guangfu; Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi

    2016-03-01

    A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C1- implantation dose was increased to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2, and the effects of C1-, C2- and O1- implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 1015 ions/cm2. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Sisbnd CH3, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, Csbnd H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (sbnd COOH, sbnd OH, Sisbnd (O)x (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method to improve the cell biocompatibility of RTV SR.

  10. The role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry part I: Review of titanium alloys, surface characteristics and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in osseointegration process by contributing to inflammatory and regenerative phases of surrounding alveolar bone. The present review evaluated the effect of titanium alloys and their surface characteristics including: surface topography (macro, micro, and nano), surface wettability/energy, surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, surface charge, and surface treatments of dental implants on angiogenesis events, which occur during osseointegration period. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings regarding the role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry from January 2000-April 2014. Results Of the 2,691 articles identified in our initial search results, only 30 met the inclusion criteria set for this review. The hydrophilicity and topography of dental implants are the most important and effective surface characteristics in angiogenesis and osteogenesis processes. The surface treatments or modifications of dental implants are mainly directed through the enhancement of biological activity and functionalization in order to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and accelerate the osseointegration procedure. Conclusions Angiogenesis is of great importance in implant dentistry in a manner that most of the surface characteristics and treatments of dental implants are directed toward creating a more pro-angiogenic surface on dental implants. A number of studies discussed the effect of titanium alloys, dental implant surface characteristic and treatments on agiogenesis process. However, clinical trials and in-vivo studies delineating the mechanisms of dental implants, and their surface characteristics or treatments, action in angiogenesis processes are lagging. Key words:Angiogenesis, dental implant, osseointergration. PMID:27031073

  11. Influence of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implants surfaces: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Louropoulou; D.E. Slot; F. van der Weijden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of mechanical instruments on the biocompatibility of titanium dental implant surfaces. Materials and methods MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 2013, to identify controlled studies o

  12. Effects of implant surface coatings and composition on bone integration: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junker, R.; Dimakis, A.; Thoneick, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to evaluate the bone integration efficacy of recently developed and marketed oral implants as well as experimental surface alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for animal studies, human reports and studies presenting bone-to-i

  13. Nanoscale Surface Modifications of Medical Implants for Cartilage Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, MF; Szarko, M; Seifailan, A; Butler, PE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural cartilage regeneration is limited after trauma or degenerative processes. Due to the clinical challenge of reconstruction of articular cartilage, research into developing biomaterials to support cartilage regeneration have evolved. The structural architecture of composition of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is vital in guiding cell adhesion, migration and formation of cartilage. Current technologies have tried to mimic the cell’s nanoscale microenvironment to improve implants to improve cartilage tissue repair. Methods: This review evaluates nanoscale techniques used to modify the implant surface for cartilage regeneration. Results: The surface of biomaterial is a vital parameter to guide cell adhesion and consequently allow for the formation of ECM and allow for tissue repair. By providing nanosized cues on the surface in the form of a nanotopography or nanosized molecules, allows for better control of cell behaviour and regeneration of cartilage. Chemical, physical and lithography techniques have all been explored for modifying the nanoscale surface of implants to promote chondrocyte adhesion and ECM formation. Conclusion: Future studies are needed to further establish the optimal nanoscale modification of implants for cartilage tissue regeneration. PMID:28217208

  14. The effects of mechanical instruments on contaminated titanium dental implant surfaces: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Louropoulou; D.E. Slot; F. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the ability of mechanical instruments to clean contaminated implant titanium surfaces. Materials and methods MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to May 2013 to identify controlled studies on the cleaning ef

  15. Room-temperature attachment of PLGA microspheres to titanium surfaces for implant-based drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongqin; Liu, Qing; Wang, Dongwei; Xie, Tao; Guo, Tailin; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Drug release from implant surfaces is an effective approach to impart biological activities, (e.g., antimicrobial and osteogenic properties) to bone implants. Coatings of polylactide-based polymer are a candidate for this purpose, but a continuous (fully covering) coating may be non-optimal for implant-bone fixation. This study reports a simple room-temperature method for attaching poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres to titanium (Ti) surfaces. Microspheres were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the emulsifier. Microspheres were attached to Ti discs by pipetting as a suspension onto the surfaces followed by vacuum drying. After immersion in shaking water bath for 14 d, a substantial proportion of the microspheres remained attached to the discs. In contrast, if the vacuum-drying procedure was omitted, only a small fraction of the microspheres remained attached to the discs after immersion for only 5 min. Microspheres containing triclosan (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) were attached by porous-surfaced Ti discs. In vitro experiments showed that the microsphere-carrying discs were able to kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli, and support the adhesion and growth of primary rat osteoblasts. This simple method may offer a flexible technique for bone implant-based drug release.

  16. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chenlong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Wang, Guangfu, E-mail: 88088@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Beijing Radiation Center, 100875 Beijing (China); Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    Highlights: • The radiation effect has a greater influence than doping effect on the hydrophilicity of RTV SR. • The implanted ions result in a new surface atomic bonding state and morphology. • Generating hydrophilic functional groups is a reason for the improved cell biocompatibility. • The micro roughness makes the hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect. • Cell culture demonstrates that negative-ion implantation can improve biocompatibility. - Abstract: A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C{sub 1}{sup −} implantation dose was increased to 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, and the effects of C{sub 1}{sup −}, C{sub 2}{sup −} and O{sub 1}{sup −} implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Si−CH{sub 3}, Si−O−Si, C−H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (−COOH, −OH, Si−(O){sub x} (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method

  17. Surface treatment of a titanium implant using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Tang, Tianyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2015-09-01

    During the last two decades, atmospheric pressure plasmas(APP) are widely used in diverse fields of biomedical applications, reduction of pollutants, and surface treatment of materials. Applications of APP to titanium surface of dental implants is steadily increasing as it renders surfaces wettability and modifies the oxide layer of titanium that hinders the interaction with cells and proteins. In this study, we have treated the titanium surfaces of screw-shaped implant samples using a plasma jet which is composed of a ceramic coaxial tube of dielectrics, a stainless steel inner electrode, and a coper tube outer electrode. The plasma ignition occurred with Ar gas flow between two coaxial metal electrodes and a sinusoidal bias voltage of 3 kV with a frequency of 20 kHz. Titanium materials used in this study are screw-shaped implants of which diameter and length are 5 mm and 13 mm, respectively. Samples were mounted at a distance of 5 mm below the plasma source, and the plasma treatment time was set to 3 min. The wettability of titanium surface was measured by the moving speed of water on its surface, which is enhanced by plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also measured by atomic force microscopy. The optimal condition for wettability change is discussed.

  18. Surface analysis of an encapsulation membrane after its implantation in mini-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Ulrichs, Karin [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Moskalenko, Vasily [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Kang, Chantal [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Belcourt, Alain [Centre Europeen d' Etude du Diabete, Strasbourg (France); Bertrand, Patrick [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-03-01

    The biocompatibility of membranes aiming at being a part of a bioartificial pancreas has been tested. For that purpose, we have studied a polycarbonate membrane surface after its implantation in mini-pigs. The membranes were made hydrophilic by an argon plasma surface treatment followed by a dipping in a hydrophilic polymer solution. Two polymers were tested: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). To test their biocompatibility, an encapsulation device for pig Langerhans islets, with external membranes treated as described above, was implanted in different mini-pigs. The pigs received no further treatment. The devices were explanted after in vivo exposure and the membranes were analysed by XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). After this time, the substrate with the PVP or HPMC treatment was still detected on the different samples. The surface treatment signal, however, was attenuated. This is explained by the detection of other components partly covering the surface. XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses revealed the presence of biological molecules on the two faces of the membrane: the outside face in contact with the biological environment and the inside face in contact with the device. ToF-SIMS images show the inhomogeneity of the biological molecules on the membrane surface. In conclusion, biological molecules adhered to the encapsulation membrane surface after implantation but the surface treatments remained unaltered.

  19. Surface implantation treatments to prevent infection complications in short term devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenas, J; Thévenard, P; Philippe, F; Arnaud, M N

    2002-08-01

    Surface treatments of short term devices are actually evaluated to reduce the risk of infections, which in particular are one of the main causes of complications following catheter insertion. We have investigated the efficacy of ion beam techniques to reduce bacterial adhesion-or to induce bactericidal activity of different polymer materials: PVC, silicone rubber, poly(urethane) and poly(ethylene). Two routes have been evaluated, based on the production of non fouling surfaces, through the production of diamond-like surfaces upon irradiation with rare gases, or the implantation of silver, known for its bactericidal action. In this contribution we discuss more specifically the treatment of poly(ethylene), where a broad range of surface characterisation techniques could show that the biological activity resulted from the formation of metallic colloidal silver near the surface of the polymer, associated to the formation of a dense surface acting as a diffusion barrier. Reduction of the implantation energy to 10 keV, led to activity enhancement resulting from the easier accessibility of surface colloids evidenced by AFM microscopy. This study emphasises the specific processes induced by the formation of silver nano-particles at low energy implantation, which differs basically from Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD technique) leading to the formation of a continuous silver coating (Artif. Organs 18 (1994) 266; International Patent (PCT) WO 95/18637 (1995)).

  20. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  1. Surface evaluation of orthopedic hip implants marketed in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M. M.; Trommer, R. M.; Maru, M. M.; Roesler, C. R. M.; Barros, W. S.; Dutra, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the factors that contribute to the quality of total hip prostheses is the degree of accuracy in the manufacturing of the joint surfaces. The dimensional control of joint components is important because of its direct influence on the durability and, consequently, in the patients’ life quality. This work presents studies on the form and roughness of orthopedic hip prostheses marketed in Brazil. The results provide data for quality control of the surfaces of the femoral heads and acetabular components of hip prostheses and indicate the need of improvement in the procedures used to this control.

  2. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYCARBONATE BY B+ AND O+ IONS IMPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D.Yao; C.Sun; S.Q.Zhou; C.C.Sun; Y.H.Lu; L.Huang; A.Vantomme; Q.Zhao; G.Langouche

    2002-01-01

    By implanting B+ and O+ ions respectively into polycarbonate (PC) plates, the sur-face mechanical properties of PC have been improved. Measurement by Nano IndenterⅡ showed that the hardness of samples increased 7-25 times than that before implan-tation; and the modulus of elasticity raised 2-5 times. The wear-resistance was testedby ball crusher; the width and depth of the wear-streak decreased by 1/3-1/2 or evenmore. The structure, deformation and appearance were analyzed by using Micro-FTIR Spectra, ESCA method and the steps instrument. These analyses showed thatthe structure of PC had been modified: a series of new cross-linking yielded, it de-pends on the Linear Energy Transition (LET) of implanted ions in the high polymercompounds.

  3. Microarray analysis of genes associated with cell surface NIS protein levels in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Andrea L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Na+/I- symporter (NIS-mediated iodide uptake allows radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. NIS is also expressed in breast tumors, raising potential for radionuclide therapy of breast cancer. However, NIS expression in most breast cancers is low and may not be sufficient for radionuclide therapy. We aimed to identify biomarkers associated with NIS expression such that mechanisms underlying NIS modulation in human breast tumors may be elucidated. Methods Published oligonucleotide microarray data within the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed to identify gene expression tightly correlated with NIS mRNA level among human breast tumors. NIS immunostaining was performed in a tissue microarray composed of 28 human breast tumors which had corresponding oligonucleotide microarray data available for each tumor such that gene expression associated with cell surface NIS protein level could be identified. Results and Discussion NIS mRNA levels do not vary among breast tumors or when compared to normal breast tissues when detected by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platforms. Cell surface NIS protein levels are much more variable than their corresponding NIS mRNA levels. Despite a limited number of breast tumors examined, our analysis identified cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase as a biomarker that is highly associated with cell surface NIS protein levels in the ER-positive breast cancer subtype. Conclusions Further investigation on genes associated with cell surface NIS protein levels within each breast cancer molecular subtype may lead to novel targets for selectively increasing NIS expression/function in a subset of breast cancers patients.

  4. Implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast: Insight into a poorly understood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, William M; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Hatef, Daniel A; Lee, Edward I; Hollier, Larry H; Brown, Rodger H

    2013-01-01

    Implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the subject of much debate in the field of plastic surgery. Only a few published cases have been reported and the rarity of the disease may make proving causality exceedingly difficult. Despite this, it is of utmost importance that full attention be devoted to this subject to ensure the safety and well-being of patients. The authors report one new case of implant-associated ALCL that recently presented to their institution. Implant-associated ALCL is a poorly understood disease. It should likely be considered its own clinical entity and categorized into two subtypes: one presenting as a seroma and the other as a distinct mass or masses. When reported, only textured implants have been associated with ALCL. The United States Food and Drug Administration and American Society of Plastic Surgeons have initiated a registry and have collected critical data to gain further understanding of this disease.

  5. Revisiting Triple Antibiotic Irrigation of Breast Implant Pockets: A Placebo-controlled Single Practice Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Drinane, BSci

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Triple antibiotic breast irrigation is not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence or severity of capsular contracture compared with sterile saline when high-quality surgical technique is used.

  6. Quality of life and patient satisfaction after microsurgical abdominal flap versus staged expander/implant breast reconstruction: a critical study of unilateral immediate breast reconstruction using patient-reported outcomes instrument BREAST-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunjun; Zhuang, Yan; Momeni, Arash; Luan, Jie; Chung, Michael T; Wright, Eric; Lee, Gordon K

    2014-07-01

    Staged expander-implant breast reconstruction (EIBR) and microsurgical abdominal flap breast reconstruction (MAFBR) are the most common modes of breast reconstruction (BR) in the United States. Whether the mode of breast reconstruction has an impact on patient quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction remains a question. A retrospective study was conducted identifying a population of 119 patients who underwent unilateral immediate BR. Only patients who were eligible for either EIBR or MAFBR based on preoperative characteristics were included in the study. The following parameters were retrieved: demographics, mode of reconstruction, cancer, recovery, QoL, and patient satisfaction. The latter two parameters were determined using the BREAST-Q BR module questionnaire. Two-way analysis of variance with mode of reconstruction and occurrence of complication as independent variables was used to determine the effect on patient satisfaction and QoL. The association between mode of reconstruction and patient response with each item of the QoL and satisfaction survey domains was analyzed. The overall response rate was 62.2 %. Non-respondents and respondents did not significantly differ in demographics, surgery type, cancer staging, adjuvant therapy, and complication rate. Age and BMI were significantly higher in MAFBR, while level of education was higher in EIBR. MAFBR had higher scores in psychosocial and sexual wellbeing, satisfaction with outcome, breast, information, and plastic surgeon when compared with patients who underwent EIBR. For patients eligible for both MAFBR and EIBR, MAFBR is associated with higher levels of satisfaction and QoL. Comprehensive pre-operative information of pros and cons of both modes of BR is crucial for patients to make a well-informed decision, thus, resulting in higher levels of satisfaction.

  7. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for improving antibacterial activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaobing Zhao; Jiashen Yang; Jing You

    2016-02-01

    TiO$_2$ coating has been widely applied in orthopaedic and dental implants owing to its excellent mechanical and biological properties. However, one of the biggest complications of TiO$_2$ coating is implant-associated infections. The aim of this work is to improve the antibacterial activity of plasma-sprayed TiO$_2$ coatings by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) using zinc (Zn) ions. Results indicate that the as-sprayed TiO$_2$ coating is mainly composed of rutile phase. Zn-PIII modification does not change the phase compositions and the surface morphologies of TiO$_2$ coatings, while change their hydrophilicity. Zn-implanted TiO$_2$ coatings can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the ability to inhibit S. aureus is greater than that to E. coli. Zn ion release and reactive oxygen species may be attributed to improving the antibacterial activity of TiO$_2$ coating. Therefore, Zn-PIII TiO$_2$ coatings on titanium suggest promising candidates for orthopaedic and dental implants.

  8. Strategies For Immobilization Of Bioactive Organic Molecules On Titanium Implant Surfaces – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotov Ivan V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous approaches have been used to improve the tissue-implant interface of titanium (Ti and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V. They all aim at increasing cell migration and attachment to the metal, preventing unspecific protein adsorption and improving post-implantation healing process. Promising methods for titanium and titanium alloy surface modification are based on the immobilization of biologically active organic molecules. New and interesting biochemical approaches to such surface modification include layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolyte films, phage display-selected surface binding peptides and self-assembled DNA monolayer systems. The present review summarizes the scientific information about these methods, which are at in vitro or in vivo development stages, and hopes to promote their future application in dental implantology and in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  9. Modification in surface properties of poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 implanted by Au+ ions at different fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheer Riffat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion implantation has a potential to modify the surface properties and to produce thin conductive layers in insulating polymers. For this purpose, poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 was implanted by 400 keV Au+ ions with ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The chemical, morphological and optical properties of implanted CR-39 were analyzed using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of implanted samples was determined through four-point probe technique. Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of carbonaceous structures in the implanted layer of CR-39. From FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, changes in functional groups of CR-39 after ion implantation were observed. AFM studies revealed that morphology and surface roughness of implanted samples depend on the fluence of Au ions. The optical band gap of implanted samples decreased from 3.15 eV (for pristine to 1.05 eV (for sample implanted at 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The electrical conductivity was observed to increase with the ion fluence. It is suggested that due to an increase in ion fluence, the carbonaceous structures formed in the implanted region are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity.

  10. Surface modification of investment cast-316L implants: microstructure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Khalifa, Waleed; Nofal, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Artificial femur stem of 316L stainless steel was fabricated by investment casting using vacuum induction melting. Different surface treatments: mechanical polishing, thermal oxidation and immersion in alkaline solution were applied. Thicker hydroxyapatite (HAP) layer was formed in the furnace-oxidized samples as compared to the mechanically polished ones. The alkaline treatment enhanced the precipitation of HAP on the samples. It was also observed that the HAP precipitation responded differently to the different phases of the microstructure. The austenite phase was observed to have more homogeneous and smoother layer of HAP. In addition, the growth of HAP was sometimes favored on the austenite phase rather than on ferrite phase.

  11. Breast and ovarian cancers: a survey and possible roles for the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Lendorf, Maria E; Couchman, John R;

    2012-01-01

    of breast cancer may also develop ovarian cancer. Here, the authors review the different tumor markers of breast and ovarian carcinoma and discuss the expression, mutations, and possible roles of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans during tumorigenesis of these carcinomas. The focus is on two groups...

  12. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans control adhesion and invasion of breast carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hooi Ching; Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Couchman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of mammary carcinoma cells. Finally, both syndecan-2 and caveolin-2 were upregulated in tissue arrays from breast cancer patients compared to normal mammary tissue. Moreover their expression levels were correlated in triple negative breast cancers. Conclusion: Cell surface proteoglycans, notably...

  13. Temperature change during non-contact diode laser irradiation of implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geminiani, Alessandro; Caton, Jack G; Romanos, Georgios E

    2012-03-01

    A temperature increase of more than 10°C can compromise bone vitality. Laser radiation with different wavelengths has been used for the treatment of peri-implantitis, but little is known about the effect of laser irradiation on temperature rise on the implant surface. In this study, the temperature gradient (∆T) generated by laser irradiation of implant surface using two diode lasers (810 nm and a 980 nm) with 2 W of power has been recorded by two thermocouples (one in the cervical area and one in the apical area) and studied. The 810-nm diode laser showed the following results: after 60 s of irradiation with 2 W of continuous mode the temperature gradient in the cervical area of the implant (∆Tc) was 37.2°C, while in the apical area (∆Ta) was 27.2°C. The 980-nm diode laser showed the following results: after 60 s of irradiation with 2 W continuous mode ∆Tc was 41.1°C, and ∆Ta was 30.6°C. The 810-nm diode laser with 2 W continuous mode generated a temperature increase of 10°C after only 14 s. The 980-nm diode lasers groups produced a much more rapid temperature increase. In only 12 s, the continuous wave of 980 nm reached the 10°C temperature rise. From the present in vitro study it was concluded that the irradiation of implant surfaces with diode lasers may produce a temperature increase above the critical threshold (10°C ) after only 10 s.

  14. The effect of microstructured surfaces and laminin-derived peptide coatings on soft tissue interactions with titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sandra; Huck, Olivier; Frisch, Benoît; Vautier, Dominique; Elkaim, René; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Brunel, Gérard; Tenenbaum, Henri

    2009-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the dental implant protection from peri-implant inflammation by improving the soft tissue adhesion on the titanium surface. Porous titanium was used to create, at the level of the transmucosal part of the implants (the "neck"), a microstructured 3-dimensional surface that would tightly seal the interface between the implant and soft tissue. Cell-specific adhesion properties were induced via an adhesion peptide derived from laminin-5 coupled to native or cross-linked PLL/PGA multilayered polyelectrolyte films (MPFs), which are used for biomedical device coatings. Porous titanium exhibited good cell-adhesion properties, but the colonisation of the material was further improved by a coating with laminin-5 functionalised MPFs and especially with (PLL/PGA)(6,5)-PGA-peptide film. Focal contact formation was observed on cross-linked architectures, reflecting cell anchorage on these surfaces. In contrast, when seeded on laminin-5-functionalised native films, epithelial cells formed only very diffuse focal contacts, but adhered via hemidesmosome formation. In vivo experiments confirmed that the porous titanium was colonised by cells of soft tissue. Altogether, the results indicate that the microstructure of the implant neck combined with a specific bioactive coating could constitute efficient routes to improve the integration of soft tissue on titanium dental implants, which could significantly protect implants from peri-implant inflammation and enhance long-term implant stabilisation.

  15. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity.

  16. A strontium-incorporated nanoporous titanium implant surface for rapid osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Cao, Huiliang; Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Guanglong; Chang, Qing; Zhao, Jun; Qiao, Yuqin; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-02-01

    Rapid osseointegration of dental implants will shorten the period of treatment and enhance the comfort of patients. Due to the vital role of angiogenesis played during bone development and regeneration, it might be feasible to promote rapid osseointegration by modifying the implant surface to gain a combined angiogenesis/osteogenesis inducing capacity. In this study, a novel coating (MAO-Sr) with strontium-incorporated nanoporous structures on titanium implants was generated via a new micro-arc oxidation, in an attempt to induce angiogenesis and osteogenesis to enhance rapid osseointegration. In vitro, the nanoporous structure significantly enhanced the initial adhesion of canine BMSCs. More importantly, sustained release of strontium ions also displayed a stronger effect on the BMSCs in facilitating their osteogenic differentiation and promoting the angiogenic growth factor secretion to recruit endothelial cells and promote blood vessel formation. Advanced mechanism analyses indicated that MAPK/Erk and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in these effects of the MAO-Sr coating. Finally, in the canine dental implantation study, the MAO-Sr coating induced faster bone formation within the initial six weeks and the osseointegration effect was comparable to that of the commercially available ITI implants. These results suggest that the MAO-Sr coating has the potential for future use in dental implants.Rapid osseointegration of dental implants will shorten the period of treatment and enhance the comfort of patients. Due to the vital role of angiogenesis played during bone development and regeneration, it might be feasible to promote rapid osseointegration by modifying the implant surface to gain a combined angiogenesis/osteogenesis inducing capacity. In this study, a novel coating (MAO-Sr) with strontium-incorporated nanoporous structures on titanium implants was generated via a new micro-arc oxidation, in an attempt to induce angiogenesis and osteogenesis to

  17. Surface coatings for improvement of bone cell materials and antimicrobial activities of Ti implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kakoli; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Karandikar, Balu; Gibbins, Bruce L

    2008-11-01

    Ti surface was modified to simultaneously improve bone cell materials and antimicrobial activities. Titanium surface was first anodized in sodium fluoride and sulfuric acid electrolytic solution to form titania nanotube on the surface to improve the biocompatibility of the surface. Silver was electrodeposited on the titania nanotube surface at 5 V. Silver added titania nanotube surface was tested for compatibility with bone-cell materials interactions using human osteoblast bone cells. The antibacterial effect was studied using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results show that silver-treated titania nanotube surface may provide antibacterial properties to prevent implants against postoperative infections without interference to the attachment and proliferation of bone tissue on titanium, which is commonly used in dental and orthopedic surgical procedures.

  18. Effect of Mo Ion Implantation on Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper Surface Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface of pure copper was modified using the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT method, and molybdenum ions were implanted in the nanosurface using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA. The results of the SMAT were observed by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An obvious nanocrystalline layer and a deformation region exist on the surface. The size of the nanocrystalline layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicate remarkable suppression on grain size, the nanocrystalline layer grows to 163nm after annealing and reduces to only 72nm due to the Mo ion implantation. In addition, the hardness of the topmost surface of the material is 3.5 times that of the SMATed copper, which is about 7 times of the value of the matrix. The above improvements most likely result from the dispersion of the Mo ions and the reactions of the crystal defects due to the SMAT and ion implantation.

  19. Implications of Surface and Bulk Properties of Abutment Implants and Their Degradation in the Health of Periodontal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Dorigatti de Avila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current review was to investigate the implications of the surface and bulk properties of abutment implants and their degradation in relation to periodontal health. The success of dental implants is no longer a challenge for dentistry. The scientific literature presents several types of implants that are specific for each case. However, in cases of prosthetics components, such as abutments, further research is needed to improve the materials used to avoid bacterial adhesion and enhance contact with epithelial cells. The implanted surfaces of the abutments are composed of chemical elements that may degrade under different temperatures or be damaged by the forces applied onto them. This study showed that the resulting release of such chemical elements could cause inflammation in the periodontal tissue. At the same time, the surface characteristics can be altered, thus favoring biofilm development and further increasing the inflammation. Finally, if not treated, this inflammation can cause the loss of the implant.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-FREE ENERGY ON SUPRAGINGIVAL AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE MICROBIOLOGY - AN IN-VIVO STUDY ON IMPLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    QUIRYNEN, M; VANDERMEI, HC; BOLLEN, CML; VANDENBOSSCHE, LH; DOORNBUSCH, GI; VANSTEENBERGHE, D; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1994-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE FREE ENERGY on supra- and subgingival plaque microbiology was examined in 9 patients with functional fixed prostheses supported by endosseous titanium implants. Two abutments (trans-mucosal part of the 2 stage implant) were replaced by either a new titanium abutment or a flu

  1. Meshed acellular dermal matrix:technique and application in implant based breast reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dino Zammit; Jonathan Kanevsky; Fan-Yi Meng; Tassos Dionisopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Alloderm was the first acellular dermal matrix used and remains a popular choice among plastic surgeons. However, while the overall surgical outcome of breast reconstruction using alloderm has been a success, the economic burden on the health care system makes it a subject of frequent re-evaluations in cost-effectiveness. Prompted by the high price of $3,700 USD for a 6 cm × 16 cm area, our group proposes the meshing of AlloDerm to decrease the total amount needed for breast reconstruction, while achieving comparable surgical outcomes as using unmeshed alloderm.

  2. Atomistic simulations of tungsten surface evolution under low-energy neon implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Marie; Hammond, Karl D.; Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for the divertor of fusion reactors, where it will be subject to a high flux of particles coming from the fusion plasma as well as a significant heat load. Under helium plasma exposure in fusion-reactor-like conditions, a nanostructured morphology is known to form on the tungsten surface in certain temperature and incident energy ranges, although the formation mechanism is not fully established. A recent experimental study (Yajima et al 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 282-6) using neon or argon exposure did not produce similar nanostructure. This article presents molecular dynamics simulations of neon implantation in tungsten aimed at investigating the surface evolution and elucidating the role of noble gas mass in fuzz formation. In contrast to helium, neon impacts can sputter both tungsten and previously implanted neon atoms. The shorter range of neon ions, along with sputtering, limit the formation of large bubbles and likely prevents nanostructure formation.

  3. Study of the amorphization of surface silicon layers implanted by low-energy helium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomov, A. A.; Myakon'kikh, A. V.; Oreshko, A. P.; Shemukhin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural changes in surface layers of Si(001) substrates subjected to plasma-immersion implantation by (2-5)-keV helium ions to a dose of D = 6 × 1015-5 × 1017 cm-2 have been studied by highresolution X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and spectral ellipsometry. It is found that the joint application of these methods makes it possible to determine the density depth distribution ρ( z) in an implanted layer, its phase state, and elemental composition. Treatment of silicon substrates in helium plasma to doses of 6 × 1016 cm-2 leads to the formation of a 20- to 30-nm-thick amorphized surface layer with a density close to the silicon density. An increase in the helium dose causes the formation of an internal porous layer.

  4. N{sup +} surface doping on nanoscale polymer fabrics via ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho Wong, Kenneth Kar [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., N6A 3K7 (Canada)]. E-mail: khwong@uwo.ca; Zinke-Allmang, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wan Wankei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., N6A 3K7 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Non-woven poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fabrics composed of small diameter ({approx}110 nm) fibers have been spun by an electrospinning technique and then have been modified by ion implantation. 1.7 MeV N{sup +} ion implantation with a dose of 1.2 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} was applied on the fabrics through a metal foil at room temperature. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no surface morphology degradation has been observed on the fabric after the ion beam treatment. The diameter of the fibers has shrunk by 30% to about 74 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) show that nitrogen surface doping was achieved and the formation of two new functional chemical groups (N-C=O and C-N) in the PVA is observed.

  5. The microstructure and surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy implanted with nitrogen ions at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcak, Petr, E-mail: petr.vlcak@fs.cvut.cz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerny, Frantisek [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Drahokoupil, Jan [Department of Metals, Institute of Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Sepitka, Josef [Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Tolde, Zdenek [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • The Ti6Al4V samples were implanted with 90 keV nitrogen ions. • The samples were annealed at 500 °C during the ion implantation process. • An elevated temperature increases the mobility of the atoms and the quantity of TiN. • The hardness showed a significant increase compared to room temperature implantation. - Abstract: The effect of an elevated temperature during nitrogen ion implantation on the microstructure and on the surface hardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was examined. The implantation process was carried out at fluences of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17}, 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 6 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and at ion energy 90 keV. The implanted samples were annealed at 500 °C during the implantation process. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to obtain a phase characterization and a phase quantification in the implanted sample surface. The surface hardness was investigated by nanoindentation testing, and the nitrogen depth distribution was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Elevated temperature led to increased formation of a TiN compound. It was found that a mixture of TiN and an α-Ti(+N) solid solution had a predominant amount of TiN for samples with fluence of 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} or higher. Elevated temperature during ion implantation caused an increase in surface hardening more towards the depth of the substrate in comparison with room temperature implantation. The hardness showed a remarkably significant increase at a fluence of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} compared to samples implanted at the same fluences and at room temperature. There is a discussion of such mechanisms that explain the observed hardening more towards the depth of the substrate, and the increase in hardness.

  6. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Implant Brachytherapy After Wide Local Excision: 12-Year Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M.; Mauceri, Thomas; Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Freer, Phoebe [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lawenda, Brian [21st Century Oncology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Alm El-Din, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta (Egypt); Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity, cosmesis, and local control of accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision for Stage T1N0 breast cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 50 patients with Stage T1N0M0 BCa were treated in a Phase I-II protocol using low-dose-rate accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision and lymph node surgery. The total dose was escalated in three groups: 50 Gy (n = 20), 55 Gy (n = 17), and 60 Gy (n = 13). Patient- and physician-assessed breast cosmesis, patient satisfaction, toxicity, mammographic abnormalities, repeat biopsies, and disease status were prospectively evaluated at each visit. Kendall's tau ({tau}{sub {beta}}) and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate outcomes with dose, implant volume, patient age, and systemic therapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 11.2 years (range, 4-14). The patient satisfaction rate was 67%, 67% reported good-excellent cosmesis, and 54% had moderate-severe fibrosis. Higher dose was correlated with worse cosmetic outcome ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.6, p < .0001), lower patient satisfaction ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.5, p < .001), and worse fibrosis ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.4, p = .0024). Of the 50 patients, 35% had fat necrosis and 34% developed telangiectasias {>=}1 cm{sup 2}. Grade 3-4 late skin and subcutaneous toxicities were seen in 4 patients (9%) and 6 patients (13%), respectively, and both correlated with higher dose ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.3-0.5, p {<=} .01). One patient had Grade 4 skin ulceration and fat necrosis requiring surgery. Mammographic abnormalities were seen in 32% of the patients, and 30% underwent repeat biopsy, of which 73% were benign. Six patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence: five elsewhere in the breast, and one at the implant site. One patient died of metastatic BCa after recurrence. The 12-year actuarial local control, recurrence

  7. Stereo imaging and cytocompatibility of a model dental implant surface formed by direct laser fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Raspanti, Mario; Traini, Tonino; Piattelli, Adriano; Sammons, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) allows solids with complex geometry to be produced by sintering metal powder particles in a focused laser beam. In this study, 10 Ti6Al4V alloy model dental root implants were obtained by DLF, and surface characterization was carried out using stereo scanning electron microscopy to produce 3D reconstructions. The surfaces were extremely irregular, with approximately 100 microm deep, narrow intercommunicating crevices, shallow depressions and deep, rounded pits of widely variable shape and size, showing ample scope for interlocking with the host bone. Roughness parameters were as follows: R(t), 360.8 microm; R(z), 358.4 microm; R(a), 67.4 microm; and R(q), 78.0 microm. Disc specimens produced by DLF with an identically prepared surface were used for biocompatibility studies with rat calvarial osteoblasts: After 9 days, cells had attached and spread on the DLF surface, spanning across the crevices, and voids. Cell density was similar to that on a commercial rough microtextured surface but lower than on commercial smooth machined and smooth-textured grit-blasted, acid-etched surfaces. Human fibrin clot extension on the DLF surface was slightly improved by inorganic acid etching to increase the microroughness. With further refinements, DLF could be an economical means of manufacturing implants from titanium alloys.

  8. The combined action of UV irradiation and chemical treatment on the titanium surface of dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriano, Silvia [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24-10129 Torino (Italy); Ferraris, Sara, E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24-10129 Torino (Italy); Bollati, Daniele; Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara [Nobil Bio Ricerche, Portacomaro (Italy); Lorenzon, Giorgio [Centro Chirurgico, Via Mallonetto, 47, 10032, Brandizzo Torino (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A combined UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was applied to titanium surfaces. • A thin, homogeneous, not porous, crack-free and bioactive oxide layer was obtained. • The process significantly improves the biological response of titanium surfaces. • A clinical case demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed treatment. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative treatment for titanium dental implants, aimed at faster and more effective osteointegration. The treatment has been performed with the use of hydrogen peroxide, whose action was enhanced by concomitant exposure to a source of ultraviolet light. The developed surface oxide layer was characterized from the physical and chemical points of view. Moreover osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells were cultured on treated and control titanium surfaces and cell behavior investigated by scanning electron microscope observation and gene expression measurements. The described process produces, in only 6 min, a thin, homogeneous, not porous, free of cracks and bioactive (in vitro apatite precipitation) oxide layer. High cell density, peculiar morphology and overexpression of several genes involved with osteogenesis have been observed on modified surfaces. The proposed process significantly improves the biological response of titanium surfaces, and is an interesting solution for the improvement of bone integration of dental implants. A clinical application of the described surfaces, with a 5 years follow-up, is reported in the paper, as an example of the effectiveness of the proposed treatment.

  9. Relevant aspects in the surface properties in titanium dental implants for the cellular viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Ortega, E; Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; Monsalve-Guil, L; España-López, A; Jiménez-Guerra, A; Garzón, I; Alaminos, M; Gil, F J

    2016-07-01

    Roughness and topographical features are the most relevant of the surface properties for a dental implant for its osseointegration. For that reason, we studied the four surfaces more used in titanium dental implants: machined, sandblasted, acid etching and sandblasted plus acid etching. The roughness and wettability (contact angle and surface free energy) was studied by means 3D-interferometric microscope and sessile drop method. Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were obtained from small oral mucosa biopsies and were used for cell cultures. To analyze cell integrity, we first quantified the total amount of DNA and LDH released from dead cells to the culture medium. Then, LIVE/DEAD assay was used as a combined method assessing cell integrity and metabolism. All experiments were carried out on each cell type cultured on each Ti material for 24h, 48h and 72h. To evaluate the in vivo cell adhesion capability of each Ti surface, the four types of discs were grafted subcutaneously in 5 Wistar rats. Sandblasted surfaces were significantly rougher than acid etching and machined. Wettability and surface free energy decrease when the roughness increases in sand blasted samples. This fact favors the protein adsorption. The DNA released by cells cultured on the four Ti surfaces did not differ from that of positive control cells (p>0.05). The number of cells per area was significantly lower (pimplants is able to significantly increase bone contact and bone growth with very good osseointegration results in vivo.

  10. Platelet adhesion and plasma protein adsorption control of collagen surfaces by He{sup +} ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurotobi, K. E-mail: kurotobi@postman.riken.go.jp; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Suzuki, H.; Iwaki, M

    2003-05-01

    He{sup +} ion implanted collagen-coated tubes with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} were exhibited antithrombogenicity. To investigate the mechanisms of antithrombogenicity of these samples, plasma protein adsorption assay and platelet adhesion experiments were performed. The adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) was minimum on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Platelet adhesion (using platelet rich plasma) was inhibited on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and was accelerated on the untreated collagen and ion implanted collagen with fluences of 1 x 10{sup 13}, 1 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Platelet activation with washed platelets was observed on untreated collagen and He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and was inhibited with fluences of 1 x 10{sup 13}, 1 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Generally, platelets can react with a specific ligand inside the collagen (GFOGER sequence). The results of platelets adhesion experiments using washed platelets indicated that there were no ligands such as GFOGER on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen over a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. On the 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} implanted collagen, no platelet activation was observed due to the influence of plasma proteins. >From the above, it is concluded that the decrease of adsorbed Fg and vWf caused the antithrombogenicity of He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and that plasma protein adsorption took an important role repairing the graft surface.

  11. Infectious complications in implant based breast surgery and implications for plastic surgeons [Infektiöse Komplikationen bei alloplastischen Brustoperationen und Implikationen für Plastische Chirurgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horch, Raymund E.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Implantation of breast prosthesis is still one of the most frequently performed breast reconstructing or contouring procedures. Infectious complications and capsular contracture are inherent problems that may have different causes which are not clearly defined yet in terms of pathophysiology. Recent findings showed bacterial contamination as a major cause of implant failure. Since this has direct implications for the surgical management we report on biofilm development on alloplastic breast prostheses, characteristics and effects after implantation of medical devices in general. This article gives a review of the current literature and discusses possible issues to solve the problem of infection after implantation of breast prosthesis. In conclusion the reinsertion of single-use devices should not be recommended and should be strictly avoided when a device related infection has occured. According to current knowledge contaminated implants should be removed, the infection then be cured and if necessary, a new prosthesis may be implanted after a regeneration period. Alternatively a change in therapy towards autologous tissue reconstruction should be considered if previous attempts with alloplastic prostheses have failed and if radiation therapy has worsened the local tissue situation in the recipient area.[german] Implantationen von Brust-Prothesen sind für Brustrekonstruktionen oder Konturierungen noch immer die am häufigsten durchgeführten Verfahren. Typische inhärente Probleme sind dabei neben infektiösen Komplikationen die Kapselkontrakturen, deren unterschiedliche Ursachen bezüglich der Pathophysiologie noch nicht eindeutig geklärt sind.Neuere Erkenntnisse weisen auf bakterielle Kontamination als eine der Hauptursachen von Implantatversagen hin. Da dies direkte Auswirkungen auf die chirurgische Behandlung hat, berichten wir über das Problem der Biofilmentwicklung auf alloplastischen Brustimplantaten sowie über deren Effekte

  12. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini Karygianni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a, B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 coating (B2a, B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b. Bovine enamel slabs (BES served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM; DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22% were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80% were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  13. Nanoscale triboactivity of functionalized c-Si surfaces by Fe+ ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B.; Alves, E.; Colaço, R.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we present a study of the effect of Fe+ ion implantation on the tribological response at nanoscale contact lengths of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. (1 0 0) silicon wafers were implanted with Fe+ at a fluence of 2  ×  1017 cm-2, followed by annealing treatments at temperatures of 800 °C and 1000 °C. After microstructural characterization, nanoabrasive wear tests were performed with an atomic force microscope (AFM) using an AFM diamond tip with a stiff steel cantilever that enables the application of loads between 1 μN and 8 μN. After the nanowear tests, the same AFM was used to visualize and measure the worn craters. It was observed that the as-implanted samples present the poorest nanowear response, i.e. the highest wear rate, even higher than that of the unimplanted Si wafers used as a reference. Nevertheless, annealing treatments result in a measurable increase in the nanowear resistance. In this way we show that Fe+ ion implantation of c-Si, followed by the proper post-heat treatment, results in the formation of FeSi2 nanoprecipitates finely dispersed in a recrystallized matrix. This can be a valuable way of optimizing the nanotribological behavior of silicon.

  14. The effect of erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet laser irradiation on the surface microstructure and roughness of double acid-etched implants

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose One of the most frequent complications related to dental implants is peri-implantitis, and the characteristics of implant surfaces are closely related to the progression and resolution of inflammation. Therefore, a technical modality that can effectively detoxify the implant surface without modification to the surface is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on the microstructural changes ...

  15. Spontaneous progression of ligature induced peri-implantitis at implants with different surface roughness: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglundh, T; Gotfredsen, K; Zitzmann, N U;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is associated with the presence of submarginal plaque, soft-tissue inflammation and advanced breakdown of the supporting bone. The progression of peri-implantitis following varying periods of continuing plaque accumulation has been studied in animal models. OBJECTIVE:...

  16. MRI and MRS in patients with silicon implants of the breast; MRT und MRS nach Silikonaufbau der weiblichen Brust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleiderer, B.; Heindel, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2001-07-01

    This paper reviews the evaluation of the breast of women by MR-techniques after implantation with silicon gel protheses. The main topics are the diagnosis of implant defects such as extensive ''gel bleed'' and intra- and extracapsular ruptures. Moreover, the MR-detection of siliconomas (encapsulated silicone) and differentiation from malignomas as well as MR-features of chronic foreign body reactions are presented. ''Gel bleed'' is difficult to diagnose unambiguously by MRI alone. The ''linguini'' sign is the only reliable mans to diagnose intracapsular ruptures. The presence of silicone outside the implant capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The MR-spectroscopic detection of silicone in the liver suggests after short implantation times and a normal MR scan the diagnosis ''gel bleed'', and after longer implantation times of more than 10 years and missing ''linguini'' sign the diagnosis of ruptures due to a dissolved shell of the implant. MRI, in comparison to other imaging modalities, has the highest specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of implant defects. Due to its high costs, however, MR is not suitable as a screening tool and should only be used in cases of sonographic suspected rupture or after radical mastectomy. In these cases MRI is the method of choice. (orig.) [German] In dieser Uebersicht wird die Evaluation der weiblichen Brust nach Aufbau mit Silikonmammaprothesen mittels MR-Techniken vorgestellt. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Defektdiagnostik, d.h. dem Nachweis des so genannten ''Gelblutens'', der intra- und der extrakapsulaeren Ruptur. Daneben wird auf die MR-Detektion von Silikonomen (abgekapseltes Silikon) und deren Abgrenzung von einem Malignom eingegangen und das typische MR-Erscheinungsbild von chronischer Fremdkoerperreaktion vorgestellt. ''Gelbluten'' ist mittels MR-Bildgebung (MRT

  17. Histomorphometric analysis of pure titanium implants with porous surface versus rough surface Análise histomorfométrica de implantes de titânio puro com superfície porosa versus superfície rugosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Scalone Brentel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the bone repair around commercially pure titanium implants with rough and porous surface, fabricated using powder metallurgy technique, after their insertion in tibiae of rabbits. Seven male rabbits were used. Each animal received 3 porous-surface implants in the left tibia and 3 rough-surface implants in the right tibia. The rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks after surgery and fragments of the tibiae containing the implants were submitted to histological and histomorphometric analyses to evaluate new bone formation at the implant-bone interface. Means (% of bone neoformation obtained in the histomorphometric analysis were compared by Student's t-test for paired samples at 5% significance level.. The results of the histological analysis showed that osseointegration occurred for both types of implants with similar quality of bone tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed means of new bone formation at implant-bone interface of 79.69 ± 1.00% and 65.05 ± 1.23% for the porous- and rough-surface implants, respectively. Statistically significant difference was observed between the two types of implants with respect to the amount new bone formation (pO propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a reparação óssea ao redor de implantes de superfície porosa comparados com implantes de superfície rugosa, ambos confeccionados de titânio puro grau 2 por meio da técnica de metalurgia do pó. Os implantes foram inseridos em tíbias de coelhos. Foram utilizados neste estudo 7 coelhos machos, sendo que cada um recebeu 3 implantes de superfície porosa na tíbia esquerda e 3 implantes de superfície rugosa na tíbia direita. Os animais foram sacrificados 4 semanas após a cirurgia e os fragmentos das tíbias contendo os implantes foram submetidos à análise histológica e histomorfométrica, visando analisar a neoformação óssea na interface osso-implante. As médias (% obtidas na análise histomorfométrica foram

  18. Surface Topographical Changes of a Failing Acid-Etched Long-Term in Function Retrieved Dental Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; González-García, Raúl; Fernández-Calderón, María Coronada; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; González-Martín, María Luisa; Del Amo, Fernando Suarez-Lopez; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay; Monje, Florencio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the main topographical and chemical changes of a failing 18-year in function retrieved acid-etching implant in the micro- and nanoscales. A partially edentulous 45 year old rehabilitated with a dental implant at 18 years of age exhibited mobility. After careful examination, a 3.25 × 13-mm press-fit dental implant was retrieved. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out to study topographical changes of the retrieved implant compared with an unused implant with similar topographical characteristics. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to study the surface composition of the retrieved failing implant. Clear changes related to the dual dioxide layer are present as visible in ≥×500 magnification. In addition, it was found that, for the retrieved implant, the surface composition consisted mainly of Ti2p, O1s, C1s, and Al2p. Also, a meaningful decrease of N and C was noticed, whereas the peaks of Ti2p, Al2p, and O1s increased when analyzing deeper (up to ×2000s) in the sample. It was shown that the superficial surface of a retrieved press-fit dual acid-etched implant 18 years after placement is impaired. However, the causes and consequences for these changes cannot be determined.

  19. The combination of digital surface scanners and cone beam computed tomography technology for guided implant surgery using 3Shape implant studio software: a case history report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanis, Alejandro; Álvarez Del Canto, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of virtual engineering into dentistry and the digitization of information are providing new perspectives and innovative alternatives for dental treatment modalities. The use of digital surface scanners with surgical planning software allows for the combination of the radiographic, prosthetic, surgical, and laboratory fields under a common virtual scenario, permitting complete digital treatment planning. In this article, the authors present a clinical case in which a guided implant surgery was performed based on a complete digital surgical plan combining the information from a cone beam computed tomography scan and the virtual simulation obtained from the 3Shape TRIOS intraoral surface scanner. The information was imported to and combined in the 3Shape Implant Studio software for guided implant surgery planning. A surgical guide was obtained by a 3D printer, and the surgical procedure was done using the Biohorizons Guided Surgery Kit and its protocol.

  20. The treatment of peri-implant diseases: a new approach using hybenx® as a decontaminant for implant surface and oral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPEZ, M.A.; BASSI, M. ANDREASI; CONFALONE, L.; SILVESTRE, F.; ARCURI, C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® to decontaminate the implant surface, both in the case mucositis and severe peri-implantitis and to allow future bone regeneration. Materials and methods We describe three case reports of peri-implantitis successfully treated with HyBeNX®. In our study, we have used microbiological tests to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® in decreasing bacterial load. Results The microbiological results of the clinical cases described show that there was a reduction in the total bacterial count after treatment. Conclusions The ability of HyBeNX® to dry the surface and remove biofilm may explain the efficacy of the decontamination and subsequent clinical improvements in all three cases. PMID:28042438

  1. Surface modification of traditional and bioresorbable metallic implant materials for improved biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily K.

    Due to their strength, elasticity, and durability, a variety of metal alloys are commonly used in medical implants. Traditionally, corrosion-resistant metals have been preferred. These permanent materials can cause negative systemic and local tissue effects in the long-term. Permanent stenting can lead to late-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. Metallic pins and screws for fracture fixation can corrode and fail, cause loss of bone mass, and contribute to inflammation and pain at the implant site, requiring reintervention. Corrodible metallic implants have the potential to prevent many of these complications by providing transient support to the affected tissue, dissolving at a rate congruent with the healing of the tissue. Alloys of iron and manganese (FeMn) exhibit similar fatigue strength, toughness, and elasticity compared with 316L stainless steel, making them very attractive candidates for bioresorbable stents and temporary fracture fixation devices. Much attention in recent years has been given to creating alloys with ideal mechanical properties for various applications. Little work has been done on determining the blood compatibility of these materials or on examining how their surfaces can be improved to improve cell adhesion, however. We examined thethrombogenic response of blood exposed to various resorbable ferrous stent materials through contact with porcine blood. The resorbable materials induced comparable or lower levels of several coagulation factors compared with 316L stainless steel. Little platelet adhesion was observed on any of the tested materials. Endothelialization is an important process after the implantation of a vascular stent, as it prevents damage to the vessel wall that can accelerate neointimal hyperplasia. Micromotion can lead to the formation of fibrous tissue surrounding an orthopedic implant, loosening, and ultimately failure of the implant. Nanoscale features were created on the surfaces of noble metal coatings, silicon

  2. Membrane Formation on the Surface of implanted Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangyaoYang; GuijunWu

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To study the prevention and treatment of the membrane formation on the lens surface after extracapsular cataract extraction(ECCE)with posterior chamber intraocular lens(PCIOL)implantation.Methods:We reviewed the records of 312 cataractous patients that had undergone ECCEwith PCIOLimplantation between1989and1993,Postoperatively all pa-tients were examined under slit-lamp microscopy.The membrane formation on the surface of PCIOLin pupilar area was divided into four grades.Two mem-branes of surgical removal were observed under a transmission electrom mi-croscopy.One PCIOLof surgical removal was observed under a scanning electron microscopy.Results;Of312 patients,21 had the membrane formation on the surface of the PCIOL postoperatively.The incidence of the membrane formation was6.7%.Comparisone with cases of senile cataract showed the incidence to be significantly the highest among;1.patients who had traumatic cataract(P<0.05);2.pa-tients with complicated cataract(P<0.05).Interoperatively residual lens corten and rupture of posterior capsule,interval time betwwen the first and second eye operations less than 1month are the main factors of menbrane formation.The ultrastructure in membrane and cytology on the lens surface showed that the membrane on the surface of PCIOLs is usually composed of acellular protein film and cellular elements,including macrophages.fibroblast-like cells,epithelioid cells,giant cells,fibroblasts and collagen fibrils,etc.Conclusions:The cellular response on the surface of an implanted PCIOLis a chonic foreign-body inflammatory reaction and the membrane of the surfaceof implanted PCIOL is a reactive membrane of the foreign-body.Eye Science1995;11:131-135.

  3. Significance of nano- and microtopography for cell-surface interactions in orthopaedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Zilkens, C; Zanger, K; Krauspe, R

    2007-01-01

    Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics. It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence, migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial. The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review, we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers (UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically.

  4. The Quest for Nonthrombotic Surface Modifications to Achieve Hemocompatibility of Implantable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouta, Lise Nadine; Bonde, Pramod Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The use of blood-contacting implantable devices is limited by surface-induced thrombosis, which has led to the development of thromboresistant surfaces. Multidisciplinary efforts have promoted the development of surface modifications to minimize thrombosis by targeting surface-induced coagulation. To this date, no material has been identified that remains irrevocably hemocompatible with time but many options are now available with their own limitations. Essential to this review is the understanding of some of the challenges in this field and newer opportunities for hemocompatibility research. This report will also briefly review many of the achievements in the development of hemocompatible biomaterial coating, including surface modifications against protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, biomimetism, and endothelialization.

  5. Fabrication of Micro/Nano-textured Titanium Alloy Implant Surface and Its Inlfuence on Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui; WAN Yi; AI Xing; MEN Bo; WANG Teng; LIU Zhanqiang; ZHANG Dong

    2016-01-01

    We put forward a protocol combining laser treatment and acid etching to obtain multiscale micro/nano-texture surfaces of titanium alloy implant. Firstly, the operational parameters of the laser were optimized to obtain an optimum current. Secondly, the laser with the optimum operational parameters was used to fabricate micro pits. Thirdly, multiple acid etching was used to clean the clinkers of micro pits and generate submicron and nanoscale structures. Finally, the bioactivity of the samples was measured in a simulated body lfuid. The results showed that the micropits with a diameter of 150 μm and depth of 50 μm were built successfully with the optimized working current of 13 A. In addition, submicron and nanoscale structures, with 0.5-2 μm microgrooves and 10-20 nm nanopits, were superimposed on micro pits surface by multiple acid etching. There was thick and dense HA coating only observed on the multiscale micro/nano-textured surface compared with polished and micro-textured surface. This indicated that the multiscale micro/nano-texture surface showed better ability toward HA formation, which increased the bioactivity of implants.

  6. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  7. Surface damage of metallic implants due to mechanical loading and chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaejoong

    The present study investigates interfacial damage mechanism of modular implants due to synergetic action of mechanical contact loading and corrosion. Modular implants are manufactured such that surfaces have a characteristic degree of roughness determined by tool tip size and motion of tool path or feeding speed. The central hypothesis for this work is that during contact loading of metallic implants, mechanisms of damage and dissolution are determined by contact loads, plastic deformation, residual stresses and environmental conditions at the nanoscale surface asperities; while during subsequent rest periods, mechanism of metallic dissolution is determined by the environmental conditions and residual stress field induced due to long range elastic interactions of the plastically deformed asperities. First part of the thesis is focused on investigating the mechanisms underlying surface roughness evolution due to stress-assisted dissolution during the rest period. The latter part is focused on investigating material removal mechanisms during single asperity contact of implant surfaces. Experimental study was performed to elucidate the roughness evolution mechanism by combined effect of multi-asperity contact and environmental corrosion. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum specimen was subjected to either contact loading alone or alternating contact loading and exposure to reactive environment. Roughness of the specimen surface was monitored by optical profilometry and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation was used to characterize the evolving behavior of roughness modes. Finite element analysis (FEA) was employed to identify influences of surface morphological configurations and contact pressures on the residual stress development. Analytical model of multi-asperity contact has been developed for prediction of residual stress field for different roughness configurations during varying magnitude of contact loads based on elastic inclusion theory. Experimental results

  8. Temperature effect of irradiated target surface on distribution of nanoparticles formed by implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, A L; Popok, V N

    2001-01-01

    The composition layers, containing the metal nanoparticles, synthesized thorough implantation of the Ag sup + ions with the energy of 60 keV and the dose of 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 ion/cm sup 2 into the sodium-calcium silicate glass by the ion current of 3 mu A/cm sup 2 and the sublayer temperature of 35 deg C are studied. The obtained implantation results are analyzed in dependence on the temperature effects, developing for the glass samples of various thickness. The data on the silver distribution, the metal nanoparticles formation and growth by depth are obtained from the optical reflection spectra. It is demonstrated that minor changes in the surface temperature of the irradiated glass sublayer lead to noticeable diversities in the regularities of the nanoparticles formation in the sample volume

  9. Effects of hydrofluoric acid and anodised micro and micro/nano surface implants on early osseointegration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Yuan; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid and anodised micro and micro/nano surface implants on bony ingrowth in the earliest stage of implantation in rats. Sixty cylindrical screwed titanium alloy implants with machined, micro, and hierarchical hybrid micro/nano surfaces (n=20 in each group) were inserted into the distal femurs of 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats. In vivo microcomputed tomography (micro CT) was used to assess microarchitectural changes in the bone around the implants 2 weeks after implantation. All the animals were then killed and the femurs with implants harvested for histological analysis and pull-out testing. Micro CT analysis showed that the trabecular thickness and the bone:volume ratio (bone volume:total volume) (BV:TV) increased significantly in the micro/nano group compared with the other two groups, while the trabecular separation decreased significantly in the micro/nano group compared with the machined group. The mean (SD) bone-implant contacts (%) were 38.94 (9.48), 41.67 (8.71), and 51.49 (12.49) in the machined, micro, and micro/nano groups, respectively. The maximum pull-out forces (N) were 64.95 (6.11), 71.45 (7.15), and 81.90 (13.1), respectively. Both bone-implant contacts and maximum pull-out forces were significantly higher in the micro/nano group, but there was no significant difference between the micro group and the machined group. These data indicate that the hierarchical hybrid micro/nano surface of the implant can promote osseointegration in the earliest stage of implantation, and may be a promising option for further clinical use.

  10. Revision breast and chest wall reconstruction in Poland and pectus excavatum following implant complication using free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dionyssiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present the case of a female patient with Poland′s syndrome and pectus excavatum deformity who underwent breast and chest wall reconstruction with a pre-shaped free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap. A 57-year-old female patient with Poland′s syndrome and pectus excavatum presented with a Baker III capsular contracture following a previously performed implant-based right breast reconstruction. After a chest and abdominal CT angiography, she was staged as 2A1 chest wall deformity according to Park′s classification and underwent implant removal and capsulectomy, followed by a pre-shaped free abdominal flap transfer, providing both breast reconstruction and chest wall deformity correction in a single stage operation. Post-operative course was uneventful, and the aesthetic result remains highly satisfactory 24 months after surgery. Deep inferior epigastric free flap represents an interesting reconstructive solution when treating Poland′s syndrome female patients with chest wall and breast deformities.

  11. Non-rigid registration of breast surfaces using the laplace and diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Jao J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A semi-automated, non-rigid breast surface registration method is presented that involves solving the Laplace or diffusion equations over undeformed and deformed breast surfaces. The resulting potential energy fields and isocontours are used to establish surface correspondence. This novel surface-based method, which does not require intensity images, anatomical landmarks, or fiducials, is compared to a gold standard of thin-plate spline (TPS interpolation. Realistic finite element simulations of breast compression and further testing against a tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrate that this method is capable of registering surfaces experiencing 6 - 36 mm compression to within a mean error of 0.5 - 5.7 mm.

  12. Evaluation of Contralateral Breast Surface Dose in FIF (Field In Field) Tangential Irradiation Technique for Patients Undergone Breast Conservative Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Moon; Bang, Dong Wan; Bae, Yong Ki; Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate contra-lateral breast (CLB) surface dose in Field-in-Field (FIF) technique for breast conserving surgery patients. For evaluation of surface dose in FIF technique, we have compared with other techniques, which were open fields (Open), metal wedge (MW), and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) techniques under same geometrical condition and prescribed dose. The three dimensional treatment planning system was used for dose optimization. For the verification of dose calculation, measurements using MOSFET detectors with Anderson Rando phantom were performed. The measured points for four different techniques were at the depth of 0 cm (epidermis) and 0.5 cm bolus (dermis), and spacing toward 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm apart from the edge of tangential medial beam. The dose calculations were done in 0.25 cm grid resolution by modified Batho method for inhomogeneity correction. In the planning results, the surface doses were differentiated in the range of 19.6-36.9, 33.2-138.2 for MW, 1.0-7.9, 1.6-37.4 for EDW, and for FIF at the depth of epidermis and dermis as compared to Open respectively. In the measurements, the surface doses were differentiated in the range of 11.1-71, 22.9-161 for MW, 4.1-15.5, 8.2-37.9 for EDW, and 4.9% for FIF at the depth of epidermis and dermis as compared to Open respectively. The surface doses were considered as underestimating in the planning calculation as compared to the measurement with MOSFET detectors. Was concluded as the lowest one among the techniques, even if it was compared with Open method. Our conclusion could be stated that the FIF technique could make the optimum dose distribution in Breast target, while effectively reduce the probability of secondary carcinogenesis due to undesirable scattered radiation to contra-lateral breast.

  13. Comparative assessment of 3D surface scanning systems in breast plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patete, Paolo; Eder, Maximilian; Raith, Stefan; Volf, Alexander; Kovacs, Laszlo; Baroni, Guido

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we compared accuracy, repeatability, and usability in breast surface imaging of 2 commercial surface scanning systems and a hand-held laser surface scanner prototype coupled with a patient's motion acquisition and compensation methodology. The accuracy of the scanners was assessed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and to evaluate the usability of the scanners on humans, thorax surface images of 3 volunteers were acquired. Both the intrascanner repeatability and the interscanner comparative accuracy were assessed. The results showed surface-to-surface distance errors inferior to 1 mm and to 2 mm, respectively, for the 2 commercial scanners and for the prototypical one. Moreover, comparable performances of the 3 scanners were found when used for acquiring the breast surface. On the whole, this study demonstrated that handheld laser surface scanners coupled with subject motion compensation methods lend themselves as competitive technologies for human body surface modeling.

  14. In vitro Biocompatibility of New Silver(I Coordination Compound Coated-Surfaces for Dental Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation on implant materials causes a common problem: resistance to aggressive pharmacological agents as well as host defenses. Therefore, to reduce bacterial adhesion to implant surfaces we propose to use silver(I coordination networks as it is known that silver is the most powerful antimicrobial inorganic agent. As a model surface, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold Au(111 was used to permit permanent attachment of our silver(I coordination networks. The surface coatings showed typical nano-structured surfaces with a good biocompatibility for soft-tissue integration with fibroblast cells.

  15. Design of a radio-linked implantable cochlear prosthesis using surface acoustic wave devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeutter, D C; Josse, F

    1993-01-01

    Cochlear prosthesis systems for postlingually deaf individuals (those who have become deaf due to disease or injury after having developed mature speech capability) are considered. These systems require the surgical implantation of an array of electrodes within the cochlea and are driven by processed sound signals from outside the body. A system that uses an analog signal approach for transcutaneous transfer of six processed speech data channels using frequency multiplexing is described. The system utilizes a filterbank of six narrowband surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters in the range 72-78 MHz with a 1.2-MHz channel spacing to multiplex the six carrier signals, frequency modulated, by the processed speech signals, onto a composite signal. The same SAW filters are used in the receiver filterbank for signal separation, but are housed in a miniaturized package. The system includes a portable transmitter and a receiver package which is to be implanted in the patient. The implanted circuits are supplied exclusively from power transferred from outside the body via a separate 10-MHz transcutaneous link.

  16. Tribocorrosion behaviour of anodic treated titanium surfaces intended for dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A. C.; Oliveira, F.; Wenger, F.; Ponthiaux, P.; Celis, J.-P.; Rocha, L. A.

    2013-10-01

    Tribocorrosion plays an important role in the lifetime of metallic implants. Once implanted, biomaterials are subjected to micro-movements in aggressive biological fluids. Titanium is widely used as an implant material because it spontaneously forms a compact and protective nanometric thick oxide layer, mainly TiO2, in ambient air. That layer provides good corrosion resistance, and very low toxicity, but its low wear resistance is a concern. In this work, an anodizing treatment was performed on commercial pure titanium to form a homogeneous thick oxide surface layer in order to provide bioactivity and improve the biological, chemical and mechanical properties. Anodizing was performed in an electrolyte containing β-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate. The influence of the calcium acetate content on the tribocorrosion behaviour of the anodized material was studied. The concentration of calcium acetate in the electrolyte was found to largely affect the crystallographic structure of the resulting oxide layer. Better tribocorrosion behaviour was noticed on increasing the calcium acetate concentration.

  17. Fibroblast/fibrocyte: surface interaction dictates tissue reactions to micropillar implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David W; Liu, Xinchuan; Weng, Hong; Luo, Cheng; Tang, Liping

    2011-04-11

    Micropillar technology has shown great promise for medical implants or sensors in recent years. To study the influence of surface topography on cellular responses, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillar arrays with pillar spacing (20-70 μm) and height (14-25 μm) have been fabricated. The influence of micropillar arrays on cellular behavior was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in vitro, we observe a distinct response for 3T3 fibroblasts and RAW 264.7 macrophages to the topographical cues tested. Attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts was substantially enhanced by increasing pillar height, whereas macrophage adherence is significantly diminished by reduced pillar spacing. When implanted in the subcutaneous cavity of BALB/c mice for 14 days, we find a prevailing trend with capsule cell density and capsule thickness increasing, as both pillar height and spacing rise. Collagen deposition and neoangiogenesis, two pivotal factors in granulation tissue maturation, are also observed to have a stronger response to the increase in both pillar height and spacing. In contradiction to our original hypothesis, we observed that fibroblasts rather than macrophages are a key contributor to the in vivo outcome of micropillar arrays. Investigation into fibroblast activation, however, revealed that recruited fibrocytes, rather than resident fibroblasts, correspond to the in vivo outcome. The results from this work support the critical and often overlooked role of fibrocytes in tissue response to biomaterial implants with varying topography.

  18. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials.Materials and Methods: A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray techniques were made for each group. Impressions were poured with type IV stone, and linear and angular displacements of the replica heads were evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM. Also, accurate reproduction of the grooves was evaluated by a video measuring machine (VMM. These measurements were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference model that served as control, and the data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at P= 0.05.Results: There was less linear displacement for PVS and less angular displacement for PE in closed-tray technique, and less linear displacement for PE in open tray technique (P<0.001. Also, the open tray technique showed less angular displacement with the use of PVS impression material. Detail reproduction accuracy was the same in all the groups (P>0.05(.Conclusion: The open tray technique was more accurate using PE, and also both closed tray and open tray techniques had acceptable results with the use of PVS. The choice of impression material and technique made no significant difference in surface detail reproduction.Keywords: Dental Implants; Dental Impression Materials, Dental Impression Technique

  19. Reconstrucción mamaria con expansor tisular e implante: Indicaciones y experiencia en 24 casos Breast reconstruction with tissue expander: Indications and experience in 24 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutiérrez Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la reconstrucción mamaria forma parte integral del tratamiento del cáncer de mama; la selección de la paciente es crítica para obtener resultados satisfactorios. El presente trabajo recoge nuestra experiencia en reconstrucción mamaria con expansión tisular e implantes, haciendo hincapié en la selección de las pacientes candidatas a este método reconstructivo. Revisamos las reconstrucciones mamarias realizadas en un período comprendido entre los años 1998 y 2008 por la misma cirujana, analizando factores como tipo de mastectomía, edad, tiempo de la reconstrucción (inmediata o diferida, causa de la mastectomía, tipo de expansor y prótesis utilizados, complicaciones y satisfacción de las pacientes. En todas excepto en una, la reconstrucción se realizó en dos tiempos operatorios; durante el primero se hizo la colocación del expansor tisular y en el segundo, el cambio por la prótesis mamaria definitiva. Se realizaron un total de 24 reconstrucciones mamarias en 19 pacientes en el período de 10 años revisado, 14 unilaterales y 5 bilaterales. Las complicaciones presentadas en este grupo de pacientes fueron del 16,6 %. El seguimiento de las pacientes fue de 2 a 10 años. Solamente en 1 caso de cuadrantectomía, se realizó la reconstrucción de forma diferida por antecedente de radioterapia (4,1 %. En nuestra opinión, la reconstrucción mamaria con expansor tisular e implante es un procedimiento seguro, reproducible y con bajo índice de complicaciones, sin el inconveniente añadido de ocasionar morbilidad en el a área donante.Nowadays, breast reconstruction is part of breast carcinoma treatment; patient's selection plays an important role in satisfactory results. The present paper reports our experience in breast reconstruction with tissue expander/implant and emphasizes the importance of choosing the candidates for this method of reconstruction. We review the breast reconstructions realized in a 10 year period

  20. Finite element analysis on influence of implant surface treatments, connection and bone types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of different dental implant designs, bone type, loading, and surface treatment on the stress distribution around the implant by using the 3D finite-element method. Twelve 3D models were developed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. The analysis was processed using the FEMAP 10.2 and NeiNastran 10.0 software. The applied oblique forces were 200 N and 100 N. The results were analyzed using maps of maximum principal stress and bone microstrain. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The results showed that the Morse taper design was most efficient in terms of its distribution of stresses (p0.05). The different bone types did not show a significant difference in the stress/strain distribution (p>0.05). The surface treatment increased areas of stress concentration under axial loading (p<0.05) and increased areas of microstrain under axial and oblique loading (p<0.05) on the cortical bone. The Morse taper design behaved better biomechanically in relation to the bone tissue. The treated surface increased areas of stress and strain on the cortical bone tissue.

  1. Evolution of novel bioresorbable iron-manganese implant surfaces and their degradation behaviors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Michael; Walker, Emily; Nauman, Eric; Stanciu, Lia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance understanding of surface degradation kinetics for Fe-Mn bioresorbable alloys (specifically Fe-20%Mn) and target degradable fracture fixation implants for hard tissues. This study addresses how arc melted Fe-20%Mn discs degrade in a static, osteogenic medium for up to a 3 month time span. Degradation behavior of these bulk alloys was investigated using both mass loss tests for measuring long-term corrosion rates and potentiostatic tests for following the instantaneous rate of degradation. It was discovered that cold-rolling Fe-20%Mn to 77% cold work (CW) suppressed the instantaneous corrosion rate compared with the cast structure. It was also found that an unstable iron-rich oxide layer forms on the entire surface of these bulk samples and the act of machining the bulk metal into a defined shape may affect the morphology of the oxide layer on the outer edge of the samples during degradation. The mechanisms behind the surface evolution of these potential orthopedic implants are investigated in detail.

  2. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulutsuz, A. G., E-mail: asligunaya@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Besiktas, İstanbul (Turkey); Demircioglu, P., E-mail: pinar.demircioglu@adu.edu.tr; Bogrekci, I., E-mail: ismail.bogrekci@adu.edu.tr [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aytepe, 09010, Aydin (Turkey); Durakbasa, M. N., E-mail: durakbasa@gmx.at [Department of Interchangeable Manufacturing and Industrial Metrology, Institute for Production Engineering and Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/3113 A-1040 Wien (Austria); Katiboglu, A. B., E-mail: abkatiboglu@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in

  3. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P.; Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.; Katiboglu, A. B.

    2015-03-01

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface

  4. Surface Oxidation and Fast 18O Implant Diffusion in Nanostructured Layers of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Duvanov; A.G. Balogh

    2015-01-01

    A formation of the near surface barrier composite oxide film and two-stage 18O implant diffusion in modified layers of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were observed in the present work. Fast and super fast regimes occur during second stage of the diffusion. Sample modification was performed using ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) atmosphere. Parameters of ion implantation are the following: 18O+ ion energy of 30 keV; fluence of 3 × 1017 ion/cm2; RT. Post-implantatio...

  5. Modelling of the mechanical behavior of a polyurethane finger interphalangeal joint endoprosthesis after surface modification by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A.; Svistkov, A.; Iziumov, R.; Osorgina, I.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.; McKenzie, D.

    2016-04-01

    Production of biocompatible implants made of polyurethane treated with plasma is very perspective. During plasma treatment the surface of polyurethane acquires unique physic-chemical properties. However such treatment may change the mechanical properties of polyurethane which may adversely affect the deformation behaviour of the real implant. Therefore careful study of the mechanical properties of the plasma-modified polyurethane is needed. In this paper, experimental observations of the elastic characteristics of plasma treated polyurethane and modelling of the deformation behaviour of polyurethane bio-implants are reported.

  6. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation with interstitial implants. Analysis of factors affecting cosmetic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Lotter, Michael; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors for their impact on cosmetic outcome (CO) after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 171 patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen for this subanalysis of the German-Austrian APBI phase II-trial. 58% (99/171) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 42% (72/171) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. Endpoint of this evaluation was the CO, graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients were divided in two groups with an excellent (n = 102) or nonexcellent (n = 69) cosmetic result. Various factors were analyzed for their impact on excellent CO. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months (range: 21-91 months). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 59.6% (102/171), good in 29.8% (51/171), fair in 9.9% (17/171), and poor in 0.6% (1/171). The initial cosmetic status was significantly worse for the nonexcellent CO group (p = 0.000). The percentage of patients who received PDR brachytherapy APBI was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (68.1% vs. 51%; p = 0.026). Acute toxicity was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (24.6% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.045). Furthermore, the presence of any late toxicity was found to be associated with a worse cosmetic result (65.2% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.000). In detail, the appearance of skin hyperpigmentation (p = 0.034), breast tissue fibrosis (p = 0.000), and telangiectasia (p = 0.000) had a negative impact on CO. Conclusion: The initial, surgery-associated cosmetic status, brachytherapy modality, and the presence of acute and late toxicities were found to have an impact on overall CO. Our data have proven

  7. SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF YTTRIA-PARTIALLY-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA IMPLANTED WITH 57Fe IONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sintered plates of 5mol% yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia have been implanted at room temperature with 5×1015to 2×1017 Fe+ ions/cm2 at 140 KeV.Electrical measurement,Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy(RBS),Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) have been used to study the surface electrical properties and the structure of the implanted layer before and after thermal annealing treatment in N2.

  8. Radiographic Bone Density around Dental Implants with Surface Modification by Laser Ablation followed by Hydroxyapatite Coating: A Study in Rabbit Tibiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazelato, Tiago; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Morais, J

    Surface chemistry seems to affect peri-implant bone healing, increasing bone-to-implant contact and biological andmechanical properties. The present study aim to assess the radiographic bone density around implants with different surface treatment, comparing a surface treated by laser ablation...... followed by hydroxyapatite coating with a surface that was oxide-blasted followed by acid etching. On this study twenty-four rabbits received two implants in each tibia, an oxide-blasted + acid-etched (ATS) and a hydroxyapatite-coated (HAP) implant. Radiographs of the implants were recorded after 4, 8......, and 12 weeks of healing (8 animals in each healing period), and bone density was assessed in regions of interest (ROI) in cortical and cancellous bone adjacent to the implant using the shade of grey in the bone ROIs compared to a reference ROI in each image (a ratio was calculated: bone ROI/reference ROI...

  9. Surface modification of stainless steel by plasma-based fluorine and silver dual ion implantation and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinonaga, Yukari; Arita, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to modify dental device surface with fluorine and silver and to examine the effectiveness of this new surface modification method. Stainless steel plates were modified by plasma-based fluorine and silver ion implantation-deposition method. The surface characteristics and brushing abrasion resistance were evaluated by XPS, contact angle and brushing abrasion test. XPS spectra of modified specimens showed the peaks of fluoride and silver. These peaks were detected even after brushing abrasion test. Water contact angle significantly increased due to implantation-deposition of both fluorine and silver ions. Moreover, the contact angle of the modified specimen was significantly higher than that of fluorine only deposited specimen with the same number of brushing strokes. This study indicates that this new surface modification method of fluorine and silver ion implantation-deposition improved the brushing abrasion resistance and hydrophobic property making it a potential antimicrobial device.

  10. Retention behaviors of tritium loaded near the surface region of metals by gas absorption and plasma implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, T., E-mail: t-otsuka@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Ogawa, Y.; Higaki, M.; Ishitani, Y.

    2015-08-15

    Retention behaviors of hydrogen loaded by gas absorption and plasma implantation to pure copper, pure tungsten and the F82H steels at various temperatures have been examined by the tritium imaging plate technique. Three components are distinguished in hydrogen retained near the surface region; one is an endothermic trapping component in the bulk or near the surface region, second is an exothermic trapping component induced by plasma implantation and third is a trapping component in oxide layers. The relative amount of each component in depth near the surface region of the metals can alter retention behaviors of hydrogen with respect to the loading temperatures.

  11. Early Healing Events around Titanium Implant Devices with Different Surface Microtopography: A Pilot Study in an In Vivo Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Orsini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, the authors morphologically investigated sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces (SLA at very early experimental times. The tested devices were titanium plate-like implants with flattened wide lateral sides and jagged narrow sides. Because of these implant shape and placement site, the device gained a firm mechanical stability but the largest portion of the implant surface lacked direct contact with host bone and faced a wide peri-implant space rich in marrow tissue, intentionally created in order to study the interfacial interaction between metal surface and biological microenvironment. The insertion of titanium devices into the proximal tibia elicited a sequence of healing events. Newly formed bone proceeded through an early distance osteogenesis, common to both surfaces, and a delayed contact osteogenesis which seemed to follow different patterns at the two surfaces. In fact, SLA devices showed a more osteoconductive behavior retaining a less dense blood clot, which might be earlier and more easily replaced, and leading to a surface-conditioning layer which promotes osteogenic cell differentiation and appositional new bone deposition at the titanium surface. This model system is expected to provide a starting point for further investigations which clarify the early cellular and biomolecular events occurring at the metal surface.

  12. Surface Modification by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation on Austenitic AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel CASTRO-COLIN; William DURRER; Jorge ALPEZ; Enrique RAMIREZ-HOMS

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel plates nitrided by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technology were studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)to determine the effect of the nitriding process on the surface and subjacent layers.Elemental compositions obtained by AES and XPS at varying depths indicate that the saturation of N is relatively constant as a function of depth,indicating the reliability of PIII technology for subsurface saturation.It is concluded that the concentrations of both Cr and O increase with depth,the subjacent oxide is driven by the Ar+ sputtering process used to access the lower layers,and then N is bound to Cr.

  13. Electrostatic self-assembly of multilayer copolymeric membranes on the surface of porous tantalum implants for sustained release of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Xinming Guo1,*, Muwan Chen1,2,*, Wenzhou Feng1,*, Jiabi Liang1, Huibin Zhao1, Lin Tian1, Hui Chao3, Xuenong Zou11Orthopaedic Research institute/Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital and Department of Pharmacy, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO, Aarhus University, Denmark; 3Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *The first three authors contributed equally to this work as co-first authorAbstract: Many studies in recent years have focused on surface engineering of implant materials in order to improve their biocompatibility and other performance. Porous tantalum implants have increasingly been used in implant surgeries, due to their biocompatibility, physical stability, and good mechanical strength. In this study we functionalized the porous tantalum implant for sustained drug delivery capability via electrostatic self-assembly of polyelectrolytes of hyaluronic acid, methylated collagen, and terpolymer on the surface of a porous tantalum implant. The anticancer drug doxorubicin was encapsulated into the multilayer copolymer membranes on the porous tantalum implants. Results showed the sustained released of doxorubicin from the functionalized porous tantalum implants for up to 1 month. The drug release solutions in 1 month all had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. These results suggest that this functionalized implant could be used in reconstructive surgery for the treatment of bone tumor as a local, sustained drug delivery system.Keywords: self-assembly, surface modification, tantalum, drug delivery system, doxorubicin, bone tumor

  14. Implants composed of carbon fiber mesh and bone-marrow-derived, chondrocyte-enriched cultures for joint surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D; Efrat, M; Mendes, D G; Halperin, N; Nevo, Z

    1993-01-01

    The current study integrates two distinct approaches in joint resurfacing into a combined type of implant, composed of carbon fiber mesh impregnated and coated with a hyaluronic-acid-based delivery substance containing cultured cells. Rabbit autogeneic chondrocyte-enriched cultures obtained from mesenchymal stem cells (chondroprogenitor cells) derived from adult rabbit bone marrow were grown in vitro under conditions favoring chondrogenesis. The improvement in quality of repair when a combined implant containing both cells and a carbon scaffold was used, in comparison to the utilization of carbon fiber mesh alone, was clearly demonstrated using clinical, histological, biochemical, and biomechanical examinations. Evaluations of the joints were performed at 6 weeks and 6 months after implantation. The repair tissue in the cell-implanted joints consisted of a typical hyaline cartilage, which was more cellular and thicker than the repair tissue in the hyaluronic-acid-impregnated carbon-fiber-implanted control joints. The hyaline cartilage in the experimental group formed a superficial layer above the carbon fibers, flush with the joint surface. In the controls, in which carbon fiber and the delivery substance alone were implanted, a histologically and biochemically fibrous tissue that was inferior biomechanically to the new cartilage was formed by the cells containing implants.

  15. Thermal migration of deuterium implanted in graphite: Influence of free surface proximity and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, M.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Pipon, Y.; Ammar, M. R.; Rouzaud, J. N.; Deldicque, D.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of the behavior of activation products produced in irradiated nuclear graphite, graphite being the moderator of the first French generation of CO2 cooled nuclear fission reactors. This paper is focused on the thermal release of Tritium, a major contributor to the initial activity, taking into account the role of the free surfaces (open pores and graphite surface). Two kinds of graphite were compared. On one hand, Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG), a model well graphitized graphite, and on the other hand, SLA2, a porous less graphitized nuclear graphite. Deuterium ion implantation at three different energies 70, 200 and 390 keV allows simulating the presence of Tritium at three different depths, corresponding respectively to projected ranges Rp of 0.75, 1.7 and 3.2 μm. The D isotopic tracing is performed thanks to the D(3He,p)4He nuclear reaction. The graphite structure is studied by Raman microspectrometry. Thermal annealing is performed in the temperature range 200-1200 °C up to 300 h annealing time. As observed in a previous study, the results show that the D release occurs according to three kinetic regimes: a rapid permeation through open pores, a transient regime corresponding to detrapping and diffusion of D located at low energy sites correlated to the edges of crystallites and finally a saturation regime attributed to detrapping of interstitial D located at high energy sites inside the crystallites. Below 600 °C, D release is negligible whatever the implantation depth and the graphite type. The present paper clearly puts forward that above 600 °C, the D release decreases at deeper implantation depths and strongly depends on the graphite structure. In HOPG where high energy sites are more abundant, the D release is less dependent on the surface proximity compared to SLA2. In SLA2, in which the low energy sites prevail, the D release curves are clearly shifted towards lower temperatures when D is located

  16. Inspecting the surface of implanted Si(111) during annealing by reflective second harmonic generation: The influence of chamber pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chung-Wei; Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chun-Chu [Department of Electrophysics, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi 600, Taiwan (China); Lo, Kuang-Yao, E-mail: kuanglo@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi 600, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    The present study used the reflective second harmonic generation (RSHG) method to analyze the quality of the surface layer of implanted Si(111) and to discuss the influence of chamber pressure during rapid thermal annealing. Under a lower chamber pressure, the recrystallization is better, and the defects are eliminated for a higher implanted dose because dopant phosphorus (P) atoms on the surface region more easily out-diffuse at lower chamber pressures. Thus, the occurrence of less out-diffusion makes more P atoms remain on the surface layer and causes larger defects, especially for higher implanted doses. Defects on the surface region are influenced by chamber pressure. In the current work, the RSHG results showed more detailed information by linking secondary ion mass spectrometry and sheet resistance measurement. - Highlights: ► Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with different chamber pressures was performed. ► The quality of implanted Si was analyzed by reflective second harmonic generation. ► High-dose implanted Si is obviously influenced by the pressure in the RTA chamber. ► Pressure in the RTA chamber affects the generation of defects. ► Defect suppression is obvious at relatively low chamber pressure.

  17. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Alone or in Combination with a Titanium-Coated Polypropylene Mesh - A Detailed Analysis of the BREAST-Q and Overview of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, M; Angres, J; Stubert, J; Stachs, A; Reimer, T; Gerber, B

    2015-07-01

    Background: Complication rates and surgical outcomes are well reported for implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) using supportive materials for the inferior pole of the breast. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are underrepresented. The aim of this study was to compare PRO in IBBR using implants alone or in combination with a synthetic mesh. Methods and Methods: PRO was measured in patients undergoing IBBR alone or in combination with a titanium-covered polypropylene mesh (TiLOOP® Bra). In this non-randomized observational trial PRO was retrospectively assessed using the validated self-reporting BREAST-Q. The raw responses of all questions applied in each domain and transformed BREAST-Q data using the Q-Score are presented. Results: Of 90 eligible women, 42 received IBBR alone and 48 received IBBR in combination with mesh. No differences in complication rates were observed. The return rate was 67.7 % and was comparable between the groups (p = 0.117). PRO revealed no differences regarding satisfaction with breast shape (p = 0.079), outcome (p = 0.604), nipple sensitivity (p = 0.502), preoperative information (p = 0.195), office staff (p = 0.462), psychosocial well-being (p = 0.370), sexual well-being (p = 0.508) and physical well-being (p = 0.654). Significant differences were noted regarding satisfaction with the surgeon (p = 0.013) and medical staff (p = 0.035) as well as the response behavior of certain questions of the sub-domains, thus helping to further stratify PRO with regards to aesthetic outcome. However, no differences were observed in the main BREAST-Q results. Conclusion: Use of the TiLOOP® Bra in IBBR results in comparable BREAST-Q scores compared with IBBR alone. Evaluating the BREAST-Q sub-domains helps to stratify PRO more profoundly and assists in interpreting the overall results and specific research questions.

  18. Changes in local surface structure and Sr depletion in Fe-implanted SrTiO3 (001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobacheva, O.; Yiu, Y. M.; Chen, N.; Sham, T. K.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    Local surface structure of single crystal strontium titanate SrTiO3 (001) samples implanted with Fe in the range of concentrations between 2 × 1014 to 2 × 1016 Fe/cm2 at 30 keV has been investigated. In order to facilitate Fe substitution (doping), implanted samples were annealed in oxygen at 350 °C. Sr depletion was observed from the near-surface layers impacted by the ion-implantation process, as revealed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Hydrocarbon contaminations on the surface may contribute to the mechanisms of Sr depletion, which have important implications for Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3-δ materials in gas sensing applications.

  19. Complications of Radiotherapy after Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implant: Risk Factors and Management - Our Institute’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Heba G. El-Sheredy; Rabie Ramadan; Yasser Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In recent years, defined reconstruction principles along with numerous surgical techniques with volume replacement have been published. Autologous breast reconstruction is more natural but leaves donor site morbidity. It provides the opportunity to restore the breast mound without the need for scars. This study aims to evaluate the complications of radiotherapy after immediate breast reconstructi...

  20. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua [Alliance Global Technology Co., Ltd., Kaohsiung Medical Device Special Zone in Southern Taiwan Science Park, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6 μm to 18.3 μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. - Highlights: • TTCP (tetracalcium phosphate) as a physical anchorage on implant is characterized. • Theoretical values of anchored thickness and capping areas were estimated. • TTCP anchored by sandblasting can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. • TTCP anchored on SLA (sandblasting and acid etching) surface is a promising method.

  1. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials. Materials and Methods: A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE) and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray techniques were made for each group. Impressions were poured with type IV stone, and linear and angular displacements of the replica heads were evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Also, accurate reproduction of the grooves was evaluated by a video measuring machine (VMM). These measurements were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference model that served as control, and the data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at P= 0.05. Results: There was less linear displacement for PVS and less angular displacement for PE in closed-tray technique, and less linear displacement for PE in open tray technique (Ptray technique showed less angular displacement with the use of PVS impression material. Detail reproduction accuracy was the same in all the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The open tray technique was more accurate using PE, and also both closed tray and open tray techniques had acceptable results with the use of PVS. The choice of impression material and technique made no significant difference in surface detail reproduction. PMID:27252761

  2. Enhancement of surface properties of SAE 1020 by chromium plasma immersion recoil implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, M.; Mello, C. B.; Beloto, A. F.; Rossi, J. O.; Reuther, H.

    2007-04-01

    SAE 1020 steel is commonly used as concrete reinforcement and small machine parts, but despite its good mechanical properties, as ductility, hardness and wear resistance, it is susceptible to severe corrosion. It is well known that chromium content above 12% in Fe alloys increases their corrosion resistance. In order to obtain this improvement, we studied the introduction of chromium atoms into the matrix of SAE 1020 steel by recoil implantation process using a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) system. Potentiodynamic scans showed that the presence of Cr film leads to a gain in the corrosion potential, from -650 mV to -400 mV. After PIII treatment, the corrosion potential increased further to -340 mV, but the corrosion current density presented no significant change. Vickers microhardness tests showed surface hardness increase of up to about 27% for the treated samples. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that, for a 30 nm film, Cr was introduced for about 20 nm into the steel matrix. Tribology tests, of pin-on-disk type, showed that friction coefficient of treated samples was reduced by about 50% and a change in wear mechanism, from adhesive to abrasive mode, occurred.

  3. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  4. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on the surface microstructure and roughness of hydroxyapatite-coated implant

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on the change of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implant surface microstructure according to the laser energy and the application time. Methods The implant surface was irradiated by Er:YAG laser under combination condition using the laser energy of 100 mJ/pulse, 140 mJ/pulse and 180 mJ/pulse and application time of 1 minute, 1.5 minutes and 2 minutes. The specimens were exam...

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity and surface topography evaluation of additive manufacturing titanium implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Jukka T; Björkstrand, Roy V; Pernu, Mikael L; Salmi, Mika V J; Huotilainen, Eero I; Wolff, Jan E H; Vallittu, Pekka K; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2017-03-01

    Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. "Processed" and "polished" DMLS and EBM disks were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed titanium alloy particles and surface flaws on the processed materials. These surface flaws were subsequently removed by polishing. Surface roughness of EBM processed titanium was higher than that of DMLS processed. The cytotoxicity results of the DMLS and EBM discs were compared with a "gold standard" commercially available titanium mandible reconstruction plate. The mean cell viability for all discs was 82.6% (range, 77.4 to 89.7) and 83.3% for the control reconstruction plate. The DMLS and EBM manufactured titanium plates were non-cytotoxic both in "processed" and in "polished" forms.

  6. Bone response to endosseous titanium implants surface-modified by blasting and chemical treatment: a histomorphometric study in the rabbit femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Jang, Il-Sung; Suh, Jo-Young

    2008-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the addition of oxide structure with submicron-scale porous morphology on the periimplant bone response around titanium (Ti) implants with microroughened surfaces. Hydroxyapatite-blasted Ti implants with (experimental) and without (control) a porous oxide structure produced by chemical treatment were investigated in a rabbit femur model. Surface characterizations and in vivo bone response at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation were compared. The experimental implants had submicron-scale porous surface structure consisted of anatase and rutile phase, and the original R(a) values produced by blasting were preserved. The histomorphometric evaluation demonstrated statistically significantly increased bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for experimental implants, both in the three best consecutive threads (p < 0.01) and all threads (p < 0.05) at 4 weeks. There was no remarkable difference in the BIC% or bone area percentage between the two groups at 8 weeks. The porous Ti oxide surface enhanced periimplant bone formation around the Ti implants with microroughened surfaces at the early healing stage. Based on the results of this study, the addition of crystalline Ti oxide surface with submicron-sized porous morphology produced by chemical treatment may be an effective approach for enhancing the osseointegration of Ti implants with microroughened surfaces by increasing early bone-implant contact.

  7. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  8. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Brånemark Implants with an Anodized Surface following Seven-to-Eight Years of Functional Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gelb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic long-term outcomes of dental implants with an anodized TiUnite surface, placed in routine clinical practice. Two clinical centers participated in the study. One hundred and seven implants (80 in the maxilla and 27 in the mandible in 52 patients were followed in the long term. Both one- and two-stage techniques were used for 38 and 69 implants, respectively. Thirty-eight single tooth restorations and 22 fixed partial prostheses were delivered, according to a delayed loading protocol, within 4 to 12 months since implant placement. All implants were stable at insertion and at the long-term follow-up visit, which occurred between 7 and 8 years of functional loading. The mean followup was 7.33±0.47 years. The mean marginal bone level change at the long-term followup as compared to baseline was 1.49±1.03 mm. No implant failure occurred. Healthy peri-implant mucosa was found around 95% of implants, whereas 91% of implants showed no visible plaque at the implant surfaces at the long-term followup. The study showed that dental implants with the TiUnite anodized surface demonstrate excellent long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes.

  9. On the efficiency of combined ion implantation for the creation of near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Antonov, Denis; Fedder, Helmut; Denisenko, Andrej [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The efficiency of co-implantation of different ion species to generate near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is analyzed by comparing the areal densities of NV centers corresponding to various experimental conditions. In particular, the effect of helium (6 keV He{sub 2}{sup +}) and carbon (10 keV C{sup +}) co-implantation within a wide range of ion fluences are studied. The total density of NV centers by co-implantation are shown to be basically a sum of the nitrogen-induced NV centers and those activated from residual nitrogen impurities present in the substrate (approximately 1ppb) by the excess of vacancies at the carbon- and helium-induced ion tracks. Such low efficiency of the co-implantation events is discussed considering the model of local clusters of vacancies at each implantation-induced ion track. This is also experimentally supported by the presence of a photoluminescence (PL) background related to radiation-induced defects measured within all implanted areas with high carbon and helium ion fluences. Further limits set by the annealing temperature are also discussed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Co-Culture of S. epidermidis and Human Osteoblasts on Implant Surfaces: An Advanced In Vitro Model for Implant-Associated Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zaatreh

    Full Text Available Total joint arthroplasty is one of the most frequent and effective surgeries today. However, despite improved surgical techniques, a significant number of implant-associated infections still occur. Suitable in vitro models are needed to test potential approaches to prevent infection. In the present study, we aimed to establish an in vitro co-culture setup of human primary osteoblasts and S. epidermidis to model the onset of implant-associated infections, and to analyze antimicrobial implant surfaces and coatings.For initial surface adhesion, human primary osteoblasts (hOB were grown for 24 hours on test sample discs made of polystyrene, titanium alloy Ti6Al4V, bone cement PALACOS R®, and PALACOS R® loaded with antibiotics. Co-cultures were performed as a single-species infection on the osteoblasts with S. epidermidis (multiplicity of infection of 0.04, and were incubated for 2 and 7 days under aerobic conditions. Planktonic S. epidermidis was quantified by centrifugation and determination of colony-forming units (CFU. The quantification of biofilm-bound S. epidermidis on the test samples was performed by sonication and CFU counting. Quantification of adherent and vital primary osteoblasts on the test samples was performed by trypan-blue staining and counting. Scanning electron microscopy was used for evaluation of topography and composition of the species on the sample surfaces.After 2 days, we observed approximately 104 CFU/ml biofilm-bound S. epidermidis (103 CFU/ml initial population on the antibiotics-loaded bone cement samples in the presence of hOB, while no bacteria were detected without hOB. No biofilm-bound bacteria were detectable after 7 days in either case. Similar levels of planktonic bacteria were observed on day 2 with and without hOB. After 7 days, about 105 CFU/ml planktonic bacteria were present, but only in the absence of hOB. Further, no bacteria were observed within the biofilm, while the number of hOB was decreased to 10

  11. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C

    2015-02-01

    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after

  12. Surface Modification of PVD-TiN Films Using MEVVAIon Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-hua; GONG Yun-guo; CHENG Ming-fei; ZHANG Tong-he

    2004-01-01

    Ti ion implantation was implanted into PVD-TiN films using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source implanted zone was measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted zone by a pin-on-disc apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The structure of the implanted zone and unimplanted zone was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The wear mechanisms of the TiN film after ion implantation were discussed according to the results of XPS and HVEM.

  13. [Shift the skin paddle in an additional incision improves the result: Study of a series of 82 breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation at 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, S; Dissaux, C; Bruant-Rodier, C; Djerada, Z; Bodin, F; François, C

    2016-11-17

    The position of the skin paddle on the breast area is a fundamental element for the breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation. Should, as Millard advocated, to recreate the initial defect and include it in the mastectomy scar or is it better in an additional incision as have others authors. This study compares the long-term morphological results of these two attitudes, with or without additional incision.

  14. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashin, N.; Daghbouj, N.; Darras, F.-X.; Fnaiech, M.; Claverie, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He+, 3 keV H+), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  15. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkashin, N., E-mail: nikolay.cherkashin@cemes.fr; Darras, F.-X.; Claverie, A. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Daghbouj, N. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia); Fnaiech, M. [Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He{sup +}, 3 keV H{sup +}), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  16. Contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip implant with an aspherical bearing surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Gao, Leiming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Peiran; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-22

    Diameter and diametral clearance of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip implants and structural supports have been recognised as key factors to reduce the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures and improve lubrication performance. On the other hand, application of aspherical bearing surfaces can also significantly affect the contact mechanics and lubrication performance by changing the radius of the curvature of a bearing surface and consequently improving the conformity between the head and the cup. In this study, a novel metal-on-metal hip implant employing a specific aspherical bearing surface, Alpharabola, as the acetabular surface was investigated for both contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication under steady-state conditions. When compared with conventional spherical bearing surfaces, a more uniform pressure distribution and a thicker lubricant film thickness within the loaded conjunction were predicted for this novel Alpharabola hip implant. The effects of the geometric parameters of this novel acetabular surface on the pressure distribution and lubricant thickness were investigated. A significant increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a significant decrease in the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures were found with appropriate combinations of these geometric parameters, compared with the spherical bearing surface.

  17. Wear-reducing Surface Functionalization of Implant Materials Using Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldorf, P.; Peters, R.; Reichel, S.; Schulz, A.-P.; Wendlandt, R.

    The aim of the project called "EndoLas" is the development of a reproducible and reliable method for a functionalization of articulating surfaces on hip joint endoprostheses due to a reduction of abrasion and wear by the generation of micro structures using ultrashort laser pulses. On the one hand, the microstructures shall ensure the capture of abraded particles, which cause third-body wear and thereby increase aseptic loosening. On the other hand, the structures shall improve or maintain the tribologically important lubricating film. Thereby, the cavities serve as a reservoir for the body's own synovial fluid. The dry friction, which promotes abrasion and is a part of the mixed friction in the joint, shall therefore be reduced. In experimental setups it was shown, that the abrasive wear can be reduced significantly due to micro-structuring the articulating implant surfaces. To shape the fine and deterministic cavities on the surfaces, an ultra-short pulsed laser, which is integrated in a high-precision, 5-axes micro-machining system, was used. The laser system, based on an Yb:YAG thin-disk regenerative amplifier, has an average output power of 50 W at the fundamental wavelength of 1030 nm, a maximum repetition rate of 400 kHz and a pulse duration of 6 ps. Due to this, a maximum pulse energy of 125 μJ is achievable. Furthermore external second and third harmonic generation enables the usage of wavelengths in the green and violet spectral range.

  18. Surface modification of orthodontic implants by nanocomposite coatings based on chitosan and metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the properties of nanostructured coatings in orthodontic implants. Material and methods. Low and average molecular mass chitosan, 3-amynopropil-3-methoxysylan and suspensions of 5 nm and 10 nm gold nano-spheres stabilized with natrium citrate were used for nanocomposed surfaces. 2mg/ml polyethylenamin water solution was used for making the underlayer before putting polyion coverage using «POLYION-1M». The polyion covering dynamics was studied by polyquartz weighing method. Morphology of created layers was studied with atomic microscopy, elements were studied by secondary ion mass-spectrometry. Results. The best transmission among structures of chito-san/metals was showed by low molecular mass of chitosan and 8-1 Onm nanoparticles of metals. Analysis of roughness of surface shows that nanoparticles of gold make the most solid surface on 3-amynopropil-3-methoxysylan underlayer. Conclusion. The development of biocomparative materials in maxillofacial surgery is considered to be effective method of decreasing the risk of post-operative inflammatory complications by local antibacterial effect.

  19. Oriented collagen as a potential cochlear implant electrode surface coating to achieve directed neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Kirkwood, John E; Lai, Edwina; Dazert, Stefan; Fuller, Gerald G; Heller, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    In patients with severe to profound hearing loss, cochlear implants (CIs) are currently the only therapeutic option when the amplification with conventional hearing aids does no longer lead to a useful hearing experience. Despite its great success, there are patients in which benefit from these devices is rather limited. One reason may be a poor neuron-device interaction, where the electric fields generated by the electrode array excite a wide range of tonotopically organized spiral ganglion neurons at the cost of spatial resolution. Coating of CI electrodes to provide a welcoming environment combined with suitable surface chemistry (e.g. with neurotrophic factors) has been suggested to create a closer bioelectrical interface between the electrode array and the target tissue, which might lead to better spatial resolution, better frequency discrimination, and ultimately may improve speech perception in patients. Here we investigate the use of a collagen surface with a cholesteric banding structure, whose orientation can be systemically controlled as a guiding structure for neurite outgrowth. We demonstrate that spiral ganglion neurons survive on collagen-coated surfaces and display a directed neurite growth influenced by the direction of collagen fibril deposition. The majority of neurites grow parallel to the orientation direction of the collagen. We suggest collagen coating as a possible future option in CI technology to direct neurite outgrowth and improve hearing results for affected patients.

  20. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  1. Lateral carrier confinement of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diodes using boron ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Tatsushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Masamichi; Mitomo, Jugo; Satou, Susumu; Fuutagawa, Noriyuki; Narui, Hironobu

    2016-12-01

    Boron ion implantation, which is used for confining carriers in gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs), was studied. Detailed analysis indicated that boron ion implantation of GaN increases GaN’s absorption coefficient from zero to 800 cm-1 and its refractive index from 2.45 to 2.51 at the surface of the wafer at a wavelength of 453 nm. The depth profile of boron obtained by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) showed an exponential decrease toward the bottom of the wafer. Assuming that the changes in optical parameters caused by implantation are proportional to the concentration of boron in GaN, the boron ion implantation applied to GaN-VCSELs causes optical absorption of 0.04% per round trip in the cavity and extends the light path of the cavity by 2.2 nm, both of which apparently have negligible impact on the operation of GaN-VCSELs. The implanted boron ions pass through the active regions, introducing non-radiative recombination centers at the edges of those active regions made of InGaN multi-quantum wells, which, however, does not cause significant current injection loss.

  2. Bone reactions adjacent to titanium implants with different surface characteristics subjected to static load. A study in the dog (II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare bone reactions adjacent to titanium implants with either a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) or a machined surface subjected to lateral static loading induced by an expansion force. In 3 labrador dogs, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were extr...

  3. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  4. Effect of annealing process on the surface roughness in multiple Al implanted4H-SiC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hailei; Sun Guosheng; Yang Ting; Yan Guoguo; Wang Lei; Zhao Wanshun; Liu Xingfang; Zeng Yiping; Wen Jialiang

    2011-01-01

    A P-layer can be formed on a SiC wafer surface by using multiple Al ion implantations and postimplantation annealing in a low pressure CVD reactor.The Al depth profile was almost box shaped with a height of 1 × 1019cm-3 and a depth of 550 nm.Three different annealing processes were developed to protect the wafer surface.Variations in RMS roughness have been measured and compared with each other.The implanted SiC,annealed with a carbon cap,maintains a high-quality surface with an RMS roughness as low as 3.8 nm.Macrosteps and terraces were found in the SiC surface,which annealed by the other two processes (protect in Ar/protect with SiC capped wafer in Ar).The RMS roughness is 12.2 nm and 6.6 nm,respectively.

  5. Dynamic characterization for tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts on breast surface: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhan, Wang; Loew, Murray H.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between the thermal contrasts on the breast surface and the underlying physiological and pathological factors is important for thermogram-based breast cancer detection. Our previous work introduced a combined thermal-elastic modeling method with improved ability to simultaneously characterize both elastic-deformation-induced and tumor-induced thermal contrasts on the breast. In this paper, the technique is further extended to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the breast thermal contrasts during cold stress and thermal recovery procedures in the practice of dynamic thermal imaging. A finite-element method (FEM) has been developed for dynamic thermal and elastic modeling. It is combined with a technique to address the nonlinear elasticity of breast tissues, as would arise in the large deformations caused by gravity. Our simulation results indicate that different sources of the thermal contrasts, such as the presence of a tumor, and elastic deformation, have different transient time courses in dynamic thermal imaging with cold-stress and thermal-recovery. Using appropriate quantifications of the thermal contrasts, we find that the tumor- and deformation-induced thermal contrasts show opposite changes in the initial period of the dynamic courses, whereas the global maxima of the contrast curves are reached at different time points during a cold-stress or thermal-recovery procedure. Moreover, deeper tumors generally lead to smaller peaks but have larger lags in the thermal contrast time course. These findings suggest that dynamic thermal imaging could be useful to differentiate the sources of the thermal contrast on breast surface and hence to enhance tumor detectability.

  6. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  7. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  8. Spectral luminescent properties of bacteriochlorin and aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles as hydroxyapatite implant surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Maklygina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and the spectral research of unique coating as crystalline nanoparticles of IR photosensitizers were performed for the creation of hydroxyapatite implants with photobactericidal properties. It has been proved that by the interaction of nanoparticles covering implant with the polar solvent, which simulates the interaction of the implant with the biocomponents in vivo (fast proliferating and with immunocompetent cells, photosensitizers nanoparticles change the spectroscopic properties, becoming fluorescent and phototoxic. Thus, the developed coating based on crystalline photosensitizer nanoparticles with studied specific properties should have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect by the photodynamic treatment in the near implant area. This research opens the prospect of the local prevention of inflammatory and autoimmune reactions in the area of implantation. The results of the study suggest a promising this technology in order to create implants with photobactericidal properties.

  9. Surface Modification of PVD-TiN Films Using MEVVAIon Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJian-hua; GONGYun-guo; CHENGMing-fei; ZHANGTong-he

    2004-01-01

    Ti ion implantation was implanted into PVD-TiN films using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source with a low implantation dose and at a time-averaged ion beam current density of 251.tA.cm2. The wear characteristics of the implanted zone was measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted zone by a pin-on-disc apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The structure of the implanted zone and unimplanted zone was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The wear mechanisms of the TiN film after ion implantation were discussed according to the results of XPS and HVEM.

  10. Bone cutting capacity and osseointegration of surface-treated orthodontic mini-implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the practicality and the validity of different surface treatments of self-drilling orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) by comparing bone cutting capacity and osseointegration. Methods Self-drilling OMIs were surface-treated in three ways: Acid etched (Etched), resorbable blasting media (RBM), partially resorbabla balsting media (Hybrid). We compared the bone cutting capacity by measuring insertion depths into artificial bone (polyurethane foam). To compare osseointegration, OMIs were placed in the tibia of 25 rabbits and the removal torque value was measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after placement. The specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results The bone cutting capacity of the etched and hybrid group was lower than the machined (control) group, and was most inhibited in the RBM group (p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, the removal torque in the machined group was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), but was increased in the etched group (p < 0.05). In the hybrid group, the removal torque significantly increased at 2 weeks, and was the highest among all measured values at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The infiltration of bone-like tissue surface was evaluated by SEM, and calcium and phosphorus were detected via EDS only in the hybrid group. Conclusions Partial RBM surface treatment (hybrid type in this study) produced the most stable self-drilling OMIs, without a corresponding reduction in bone cutting capacity. PMID:27896213

  11. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.M., E-mail: rogerio@plasma.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, B.B.; Carreri, F.C.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M.M.N.F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, M.M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Pichon, L. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, University of Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Camargo, E.N.; Otubo, J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very rich nitrogen atomic concentration was achieved on the top surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved tribological and corrosion properties were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentration dependent diffusion coefficient was calculated. - Abstract: The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 {mu}s, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  12. Tetracycline-incorporated polymer nanofibers as a potential dental implant surface modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco C; Münchow, Eliseu A; Albuquerque, Maria T P; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Shahi, Rana; Gregory, Richard L; Chu, Tien-Min G; Pankajakshan, Divya

    2016-07-13

    This study investigated the antimicrobial and osteogenic properties of titanium (Ti) disks superficially modified with tetracycline (TCH)-incorporated polymer nanofibers. The experiments were carried out in two phases. The first phase dealt with the synthesis and characterization (i.e., morphology, mechanical strength, drug release, antimicrobial activity, and cytocompatibility) of TCH-incorporated fibers. The second phase was dedicated to evaluating both the antimicrobial and murine-derived osteoprecursor cell (MC3T3-E1) response of Ti-modified with TCH-incorporated fibers. TCH was successfully incorporated into the submicron-sized and cytocompatible fibers. All TCH-incorporated mats presented significant antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of the TCH-incorporated fibers-modified Ti was influenced by both the TCH concentration and bacteria tested. At days 5 and 7, a significant increase in MC3T3-E1 cell number was observed for TCH-incorporated nanofibers-modified Ti disks when compared to that of TCH-free nanofibers-modified Ti-disks and bare Ti. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on the Ti disks modified with TCH-incorporated nanofiber on days 7 and 14 was seen, suggesting that the proposed surface promotes early osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, the data suggest that TCH-incorporated nanofibers could function as an antimicrobial surface modifier and osteogenic inducer for Ti dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  13. Study of the effect of H implantation and annealing on LiTaO{sub 3} surface blistering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Changdong; Lu, Fei, E-mail: lufei@sdu.edu.cn; Ma, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of hydrogen ion implantation fluence on modification of the Z-cut LiTaO{sub 3} surface morphology and the evolution of blistering during annealing were experimentally analyzed. • RBS/Channeling and ERD were used to examine ion-induced structural and compositional changes in the samples. • The Föoppl-von Karman theory was introduced to calculate the critical internal pressure and stress to induce surface blistering. • Gibbs free energy and critical radius are introduced to explain the blister shrink and rupture observed in the experiment. - Abstract: LiTaO{sub 3} samples are implanted by 120 keV hydrogen ion with different fluences at room temperature. H{sup +} concentration and distribution is detected using Elastic recoil detection. Experimental results show that the threshold fluence for blistering in LiTaO{sub 3} surface is 6 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2}. Surface blistering phenomenon is studied by using optical microscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Bubble growing and surface blister’s dependence on annealing process is observed and analyzed. The critical internal pressure and stress of surface blistering in H{sup +}-implanted LiTaO{sub 3} is derived based on theoretical model and experimental results. Gibbs free energy and cavity critical radius are introduced to explain the blister shrink and rupture observed in the experiment.

  14. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  15. Surface characterization of the cement for retention of implant supported dental prostheses: In vitro evaluation of cement roughness and surface free energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajkovic, Denis [Clinic for Dentistry, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia); Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr. Subotica 4/2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kisic, Danilo [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Zelic, Ksenija; Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr. Subotica 4/2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko, E-mail: zlatkora@vinca.rs [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface free energy and surface roughness influence bacterial adhesion. • Bacterial colonization causes periimplantitis and implant loss. • Zinc-based, glass-ionomers and resin-cements were investigated. • Glass-ionomers-cements present the lowest values of surface free energy and roughness. • Glass-ionomer-cements surface properties result with reduced bacterial adhesion. - Abstract: Background: Material surface free energy and surface roughness strongly influence the bacterial adhesion in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze these two parameters in various commercial luting agents used for cementation of implant restorations. Materials and methods: Zinc-based, glass-ionomers, resin modified glass-ionomer and resin-cements were investigated. Contact angle and surface free energy were measured by contact angle analyzer using Image J software program. Materials’ average roughness and fractal dimension were calculated based on Atomic Force Microscope topography images. Results: Zinc phosphate cements presented significantly higher total surface free energy and significantly lower dispersive component of surface free energy compared to other groups, while resin-cements showed significantly lower polar component than other groups. The surface roughness and fractal dimension values were statistically the highest in the zinc phosphate cements and the lowest for the glass-ionomers cements. Conclusion: Glass-ionomers-cements presented lower values of surface free energy and surface roughness than zinc phosphate and resin cements, indicating that their surfaces are less prone to biofilm adhesion. Practical implications: Within limitations of an in vitro trial, our results indicate that glass-ionomers-cements could be the cements of choice for fixation of cement retained implant restorations due to superior surface properties compared to zinc phosphate and resin cements, which may result in reduced plaque formation

  16. Bacterial inactivation/sterilization by argon plasma treatment on contaminated titanium implant surfaces:In vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Marco; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Caputo, Pina; Nastri, Livia; Guida, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Surface treatment by argon plasma is widely used as the last step of the manufacturing process of titanium implant fixtures before their sterilization by gamma rays. The possibility of using such a technology in the daily clinical practice is particularly fascinating. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the argon plasma treatment on different titanium implant surfaces previously exposed In vitro to bacterial contamination. Material and Methods Sterile c.p. titanium implant discs with turned (T, Sa: 0.8 µm ), sandblasted/acid-etched (SAE, Sa: 1.3 µm) and titanium plasma sprayed (TPS, Sa: 3.0µm) surface were used in this study. A strain of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC3718 was grown at 37°C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h and then transferred on six discs for each of the three surface types. After 24 hours, a half of the contaminated discs (control group) were directly used to evaluate the colony forming units (CFUs). The other half of the contaminated discs (test group) were treated in an argon plasma chamber for 12 minutes at room temperature prior to be analyzed for CFU counting. All assays were performed using triplicate samples of each material in 3 different experiments. Results When the CFU counting was carried out on control discs, a total of 1.50x106±1.4x105, 1.55x106±7.07x104 and 3.15x106±2.12x105 CFU was respectively assessed for T, SAE and TPS discs, without statistically significant differences among the three surfaces. On the contrary, any trace of bacterial contamination was assessed for titanium discs treated in the argon plasma chamber prior to be analyzed, irrespectively to the implant surface tested. Conclusions Within the limit of this study, reported data suggested that the argon plasma technology could be efficiently used to decontaminate/sterilize previously infected titanium implant surfaces. Key words:Argon plasma, titanium implant surface, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. PMID

  17. Early Bone Formation around Immediately Loaded Transitional Implants Inserted in the Human Posterior Maxilla: The Effects of Fixture Design and Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Jefferson Trabach; Luongo, Giuseppe; Piattelli, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of fixture design and surface on the early bone formation around immediately loaded implants inserted in the human posterior maxilla. Materials and Methods. Ten totally edentulous subjects received two transitional implants: one tapered implant with knife-edge threads/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface (test: Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) and one cylindrical implant with self-tapping threads/sandblasted surface (control: EZPlus®, Megagen). The implants were placed according to a split-mouth design and immediately loaded to support an interim complete denture; after 8 weeks, they were removed for histologic/histomorphometric analysis. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) and the bone density (BD%) were calculated. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the differences. Results. With test implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 35.9 (±9.1) and 31.8 (±7.5) were found. With control implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 29.9 (±7.6) and 32.5 (±3.9) were found. The mean BIC% was higher with test implants, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.16). Similar BD% were found in the two groups (p = 0.9). Conclusions. In the posterior maxilla, under immediate loading conditions, implants with a knife-edge thread design/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface seem to increase the peri-implant endosseous healing properties, when compared to implants with self-tapping thread design/sandblasted surface.

  18. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Marta S; Carvalho, Ângela; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; Hansford, Derek; Ferraz, Maria Pia; Coimbra, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol–gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves). Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC) and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and collagen type I (COL I) on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior. PMID:27877662

  19. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S Laranjeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol–gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves. Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1 and collagen type I (COL I on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior.

  20. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Marta S.; Carvalho, Ângela; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; Hansford, Derek; Ferraz, Maria Pia; Coimbra, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol-gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves). Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC) and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and collagen type I (COL I) on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior.

  1. Copper and silver ion implantation of aluminium oxide-blasted titanium surfaces: proliferative response of osteoblasts and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Jörg; Kolitsch, Andreas; Kleffner, Bernhard; Henke, Dietmar; Stenger, Steffen; Brenner, Rolf E

    2011-09-01

    Implant infection still represents a major clinical problem in orthopedic surgery. We therefore tested the in vitro biocompatibility and antibacterial effects of copper (Cu)- and silver (Ag)-ion implantation. Discs of a commonly used titanium alloy (Ti6AlV4) with an aluminium oxide-blasted surface were treated by Cu- or Ag-ion implantation with different dosage regimen (ranging from 1e15-17 ions cm(-2) at energies of 2-20 keV). The samples were seeded with primary human osteoblasts and cell attachment and proliferation was analyzed by an MTT-assay. In comparison to the reference titanium alloy there was no difference in the number of attached viable cells after two days. After seven days the number of viable cells was increased for Cu with 1e17 ions cm(-2) at 2 and 5 keV, and for Ag with 1e16 ions cm(-2) at 5 keV while it was reduced for the highest amount of Ag deposition (1e17 ions cm(-2) at 20 keV). Antibacterial effects on S.aureus and E.coli were marginal for the studied dosages of Cu but clearly present for Ag with 1e16 ions cm(-2) at 2 and 5 keV and 1e17 ions cm(-2) at 20 keV. These results indicate that Ag-ion implantation may be a promising methodological approach for antibacterial functionalization of titanium implants.

  2. Effect of argon implantation on solid-state dewetting: control of size and surface density of silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Y.; Borowik, Ł.; Chevalier, N.; Barbé, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally induced solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin films on insulators is a process of prime interest, since it is capable of easily forming nanocrystals. If no particular treatment is performed to the film prior to the solid-state dewetting, it is already known that the size, the shape and the density of nanocrystals is governed by the initial film thickness. In this paper, we report a novel approach to control the size and the surface density of silicon nanocrystals based on an argon-implantation preliminary surface treatment. Using 7.5 nm thin layers of silicon, we show that increasing the implantation dose tends to form smaller silicon nanocrystals with diameter and height lower than 50 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Concomitantly, the surface density is increased by a factor greater than 20, going from 5 μm‑2 to values over 100 μm‑2.

  3. Adult stem cells properties in terms of commitment, aging and biological safety of grit-blasted and Acid-etched ti dental implants surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo-Guirado, José L; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibility. Human adipose - derived stem cells (ADSCs) were then seeded onto these implants in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Gene expression analyzing with real-time PCR was carried out to investigate the osteoinductivity of the biomaterials. Finally, the genetic stability of the cells cultured onto dental implants was determined by karyotyping. Our results demonstrated that Ti dental implants are not mutagenic, do not cause hemolysis, and are biocompatible. The MTT assay revealed that ADSCs, seeded on Ti dental implants, proliferate up to 30 days in culture. Moreover, ADSCs loaded on Ti dental implants show a substantial expression of some osteoblast specific markers, such as COL1A1, OPN, ALPL, and RUNX2, as well as chromosomal stability after 30 days of culture in a medium without osteogenic factors. In conclusion, the grit-blasted and acid-etched treatment seems to favor the adhesion and proliferation of ADSCs and improve the osteoinductivity of Ti dental implant surfaces.

  4. Implantation of decellularized small-caliber vascular xenografts with and without surface heparin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xue-Ning; Chen, Chang-Zhi; Yang, Min; Gu, Y. John

    2007-01-01

    Heparin treatment of decellularized xenografts has been reported to reduce graft thrombogenicity. However, little is known about the in vivo comparison of heparin-treated with non-heparin-treated xenografts, especially for small-caliber vascular implants. We implanted either a heparin-treated or a n

  5. Surface Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy by Oxygen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chunbei; GONG Chunzhi; TIAN Xiubo; YANG Shiqin; Ricky K.Y.Fu; Paul K.CHU

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation(PIII)has been conducted on AZ31B magnesium alloy using different bias voltages.The modified layer is mainly composed of MgO and some MgAl2O4.Results form Rutherford backscattering spectrometry(RBS)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)indicate that the bias voltage has a significant impact on the structure of the films.The oxygen implant fluences and the thickness of the implanted layer increase with higher bias voltages.A high bias voltage such as 60 kV leads to an unexpected increments in the oxygen-rich layer's thickness compared to those of the samples implanted at 20 kV and 40 kV.The hardness is hardly enhanced by oxygen PIII.The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy may be improved by a proper implantation voltage.

  6. Time-dependent release of growth factors from implant surfaces treated with plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ilárduya, María Belén; Trouche, Elodie; Tejero, Ricardo; Orive, Gorka; Reviakine, Ilya; Anitua, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs) technology is an autologous platelet-rich plasma approach that provides a pool of growth factors and cytokines that have been shown to increase tissue regeneration and accelerate dental implant osseointegration. In this framework, the spatiotemporal release of growth factors and the establishment of a provisional fibrin matrix are likely to be key aspects governing the stimulation of the early phases of tissue regeneration around implants. We investigated the kinetics of growth factor release at implant surfaces functionalized either with PRGFs or platelet-poor plasma and correlated the results obtained with the morphology of the resulting interfaces. Our main finding is that activation and clot formation favors longer residence times of the growth factors at the interfaces studied, probably due to their retention in the adsorbed fibrin matrix. The concentration of the platelet-derived growth factors above the interfaces becomes negligible after 2-4 days and is significantly higher in the case of activated interfaces than in the case of nonactivated ones, whereas that of the plasmatic hepatocyte growth factor is independent of platelet concentration and activation, and remains significant for up to 9 days. Platelet-rich plasma preparations should be activated to permit growth factor release and thereby facilitate implant surface osseointegration.

  7. Accuracy of implant transfer and surface detail reproduction with polyether and polyvinyl siloxane using closed-tray impression technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Making accurate impressions of prepared teeth when they are adjacent to dental implants is of great importance. In these situations, disregarding the selection of appropriate impression material and technique, not only can affect accuracy of transferring of the 3-dimentional spatial status of implant, but also can jeopardize the accurate recording of tooth. In the present study, the accuracy of two impression materials with taper impression copings for recording implant position and surface details was evaluated.   Materials and Methods: One metal reference model with 2 implants (Implantium and a preparation of three grooves on a tooth according to ADA no. 19 standard was fabricated. 10 medium- consistency polyEther (PE impressions using custom trays and 10 polyVinyl Siloxane (PVS putty wash impressions using prefabricated trays with conical impression coping were made. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone. A Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM evaluated x, y and angular displacement of the implant analog heads and also accuracy of groove reproduction were measured using a Video Measuring Machine (VMM. These measurements were compared to the ones from reference model. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and T-test.   Results: Putty wash PVS had less linear discrepancy compared with reference model (P > 0.001. There was no significant difference in the surface detail reproduction (P = 0.15.   Conclusion: Putty wash PVS had better results for linear displacement compared with medium consistency PE. There was no significant difference in surface detail reproduction between the two impression materials.

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  9. Deuterium recycling rate constants derived from plasma implantation/desorption shots in a martensitic steel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT/DIAE, Madrid (Spain); European Commission/JRC, H-Materials Interaction Sector, Ispra (Italy); Esteban, G.A. [UPV-EHU/ETSIIT, D. Nuc. Eng. and Fluid Mec., Bilbao (Spain); Perujo, A. [European Commission/JRC, H-Materials Interaction Sector, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-12-04

    The recombination (K{sub 2}) and dissociation rate constants (K{sub 1}) are essential magnitudes for the tracking of tritium at the first wall (FW) of fusion reactors (FR). This paper presents our plasma implantation/recycling test, the modelling of the experiment and the results obtained for K{sub 2} and K{sub 1} in the case of a deuterium (D{sub 3}{sup +}/D{sub 2}{sup +}) plasma in the martensitic steel DIN 1.4914 (MANET). Once parasitic contributions were accounted, the D{sub 2} release from the target was seen to be surface limited. The values obtained for K{sub 1} and K{sub 2} show low dispersion on impinging flux and ion energies. For K{sub 1} a roughly constant value of 7 x 10{sup -6} mol Pa{sup -1} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} is derived. The obtained K{sub 2} is written as: K{sub 2} = 2.414 exp (-1571/RT) (m{sup 4} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}), with R = 8.314 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. Our activation energies agree with those existing in the literature derived from permeation experiments. High reflection coefficients are derived, which are in good agreement with the classical theory of ion scattering at low energy. (orig.)

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  11. The use of laser therapy for dental implant surface decontamination: a narrative review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Marina Salah; Khosa, Amardeep; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Leichter, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to critically evaluate in vitro studies assessing the efficacy of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces. The MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases were used to search for articles relating to the use of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium specimen surfaces using predetermined search statements. Clinical studies, case reports, case series, review articles and animal models were excluded. Study selection was carried out independently and then cross-checked by two authors through abstract viewing. Eighteen articles were selected for full-text analysis. Erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers had a wide range of powers capable of inducing bacterial decontamination. While carbon dioxide and gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode lasers demonstrated the ability to produce bacterial decontamination, the bacterial sensitivity to each varied depending on the species involved. There is no concensus on the laser type or settings that are optimal for bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces as studies employ various test specimens, contamination methodologies, irradiation settings and protocols, and outcome measures resulting in limited study comparability. More investigations are required to provide guidelines for the use of laser therapy in the decontamination of implant surfaces.

  12. Evolution of arsenic in high fluence plasma immersion ion implanted silicon : Behavior of the as-implanted surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanath, V.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Vanzetti, L.; Koh, A. L.; Steinhauser, G.; Pepponi, G.; Bersani, M.; Meirer, F.; Foad, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    High fluence (>1015 ions/cm2) low-energy (3 + on (1 0 0) silicon was investigated, with the focus on stability and retention of the dopant. At this dose, a thin (∼3 nm) amorphous layer forms at the surface, which contains about 45% arsenic (As) in a silicon and oxygen matrix. The presence of silicon

  13. Biological Activation of Inert Ceramics: Recent Advances Using Tailored Self-Assembled Monolayers on Implant Ceramic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Böke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-strength ceramics as materials for medical implants have a long, research-intensive history. Yet, especially on applications where the ceramic components are in direct contact with the surrounding tissue, an unresolved issue is its inherent property of biological inertness. To combat this, several strategies have been investigated over the last couple of years. One promising approach investigates the technique of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM and subsequent chemical functionalization to create a biologically active tissue-facing surface layer. Implementation of this would have a beneficial impact on several fields in modern implant medicine such as hip and knee arthroplasty, dental applications and related fields. This review aims to give a summarizing overview of the latest advances in this recently emerging field, along with thorough introductions of the underlying mechanism of SAMs and surface cell attachment mechanics on the cell side.

  14. A Randomized Case-Series Study Comparing the Stability of Implant with Two Different Surfaces Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediately Loaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vanden Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hydrophilic and moderately rough implant surfaces have been proposed to enhance the osseointegration response. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare early changes of stability for two implants with identical macrodesign but with different surface topographies. Materials and Methods. In 11 patients, a total of 22 implants (11 bimodal (minimally rough, control and 11 proactive (moderately rough and hydrophilic, test, Neoss Ltd., Harrogate, UK were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets and immediately loaded. The peak insertion torque (IT was measured in Ncm at placement. Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA measurements were made at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Results. The two implant types showed similar IT and RFA values at placement (NS. A dip of RFA values after 2 weeks followed by an increase was observed, where the test implant showed a less pronounced decrease and a more rapid recovery than the control implant. The test implants were significantly more stable than the control ones after 12 weeks. Conclusions. The results from the present study indicated that the hydrophilic and rougher test implant was more resistant to immediate loading and showed a significantly higher stability than the smoother control implant after 12 weeks.

  15. Passive Mechanisms of Surfaces Produced by Ion Beam Mixing and Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    34 evaporated thin film of several hundreds to thousands angstroms thickness is induced to intermix with the substrate using the collisional cascades...behavior of the ion implanted samples was silar to that of Al and the pitting potentials of the ion implanted samples ere 115 to 155 mV higher than that of...state so that the desired mixed oxide films were not formed. Ion beam mixing did impart additional stability compared to as-deposited samples since the

  16. Microbial analysis of biofilms on cement surfaces: An investigation in cement-associated peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Michael; Walther, Winfried; Marten, Silke-Mareike; Obst, Ursula

    2014-09-05

    The cementation of implant-supported restorations always poses the risk of excess cement retained in the peri-implant sulcus despite careful clinical control. Excess cement can become the basis of colonization by oral microorganisms. As a result of the biofilm formation peri-mucositis or peri-implantitis may develop. Complications were observed in the routine prosthetic restoration of implants when a methacrylate-based cement was used. These developed a few weeks after cementation of the suprastructure and caused bleeding on probing as well as suppuration from the peri-implant tissue. In the revision therapy, excess cement in the peri-implant sulcus was found in many cases. This excess cement was sampled from ten patients and investigated for biofilm formation. For this purpose, the cement samples were collected and analyzed for bacterial in situ colonization by 16S rDNA-based methods. In laboratory experiments, the methacrylate-based cement and two other dental cements were then investigated for their proneness to form biofilm. The results of the in situ and in vitro investigations revealed a strong tendency towards bacterial invasion of the methacrylate-based cement by opportunistic species and pathogens.

  17. Diamond-like carbon films synthesized on bearing steel surface by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xi; TANG Bao-yin; WANG Lang-ping; WANG Xiao-feng; YU Yong-hao; SUN Tao; HU Li-guo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) on 9Cr18 bearing steel surface. Influences of working gas pressure and pulse width of the bias voltage on properties of the thin film were investigated. The chemical compositions of the as-deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The micro-hardness, friction and wear behavior, corrosion resistance of the samples were evaluated, respectively. Compared with uncoated substrates, micro-hardness results reveal that the maximum is increased by 88.7%. In addition, the friction coefficient decreases to about 0.1, and the corrosion resistance of treated coupons surface are improved significantly.

  18. Improved Osteointegration of Ti-6Al-4V-implants of Different Surface Texture by the Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-3 (BMP-3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Half of altogether 60 cylindrical implant devices mode of titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy( Ti-6Al-4 V) were plasma-sprayed with a hydroxyapatite-coating and the other half had a corundum blasted porous surface. 15 implants of each group of the titanium test implants were coated with 230μgporcine, high-purified BMP- 3-precipitate per implant. In each case a BMP- 3-coated and an uncoated control-device were implanted into the femoral part of the patellofemoral joint of the right and left leg of 30 adult giant rabbits. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical we found in both groups with BMP- 3-coated test devices an improved osteointegration. Statistical evaluation using the t-test for matched samples showed 5 weeks after surgery a significant higher volume of new formed bone of the BMP- 3-coated corundum-blasted or hydroxyapatite-coated Ti-6Al-4 V test devices compared to the non-coated controls of the same type (p < 0.01, t-test for matched samples). In both implatt groups with BMP-coating a synergetic effect was verifiable although the bone ongrowth in the hydroxyapatite coated implants was more extensive than in the corundum blasted implants. Light microscopy demonstrated osteointegration without connective tissue membrane around the surface of the implants. Our results indicate that composite metal implants, as used in endoprosthetics and implantology , are suitable carriers for BMP- 3 and improved fixation of the implants can be achieved. The hydroxyapatite surface is superior to the corundum-blasted surface with regards to the observed parameters because of its pronounced bioactivity and its osteoconductive characteristics.

  19. Los implantes de titanio con superficie grabada con ácidos: Un seguimiento clínico a 2 años Titanium implants with acid etched surface: A 2-year clinical follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La tecnologia implantológica está mejorando la experiencia clínica de los implantes oseointegrados, con nuevos diseños y composición en su superficie. El estudio muestra la evaluación de los implantes oseointegrados de titanio con superficie grabada con ácidos y carga precoz en pacientes con pérdida dental unitaria, parcial y total. Métodos. 35 pacientes fueron tratados con 100 implantes TSA Defcon®, 53 en la mandibula y 47 en el maxilar superior. Todos los implantes fueron insertados en 1 fase quirúrgica. Los implantes fueron cargados funcionalmente tras un periodo de tiempo de 6 semanas (mandibula y de 8 semanas (maxilar superior. Los hallazgos clínicos (implantológicos y prostodóncicos se han seguido durante 2 años. Resultados. Tras la cicatrización (6-8 semanas, 19pacientes fueron restaurados con coronas unitarias (54,3%,9 pacientes con sobre dentaduras (25,7% y 7 pacientes con puentes fijos (20%, respectivamente. Se observaron complicaciones precoces, durante el periodo de cicatrización libre de carga funcional, en 3 implantes que fueron extraidos por movilidad. Estos resultados indican una supervivencia y éxito de los implantes, de 97%. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos clínicos del presente estudio sugieren que la utilización de los implantes de titanio con superficie grabada al ácido pueden obtener la oseointegración y ser cargados precozmente, representando un procedimiento técnico con éxito en los pacientes con pérdida de dientes.Introduction. Implant technology is improving the clinical experience of osseointegrated implants with new designs and compositions of their surfaceso This study reports the results of evaluation of titanium implants with acid-etched surface and early loading in patients with unitary, partially and fully tooth loss. Methods. 100 TSA Defcon® implants were inserted in 36 patients. 63 implants were placed in the mandible and 47 in the maxilla. All implants were inserted in one

  20. In situ plasma fabrication of ceramic-like structure on polymeric implant with enhanced surface hardness, cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Haigang; Yang, Kun; Wang, Gexia; Wang, Pingli; Ji, Junhui; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Polymeric materials are commonly found in orthopedic implants due to their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility but the poor surface hardness and bacterial infection hamper many biomedical applications. In this study, a ceramic-like surface structure doped with silver is produced by successive plasma implantation of silicon (Si) and silver (Ag) into the polyamine 66 (PA66) substrate. Not only the surface hardness and elastic modulus are greatly enhanced due to the partial surface carbonization and the ceramic-like structure produced by the reaction between energetic Si and the carbon chain of PA66, but also the antibacterial activity is improved because of the combined effects rendered by Ag and SiC structure. Furthermore, the modified materials which exhibit good cytocompatibility upregulate bone-related genes and proteins expressions of the contacted bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For the first time, it explores out that BMSCs osteogenesis on the antibacterial ceramic-like structure is mediated via the iNOS and nNOS signal pathways. The results reveal that in situ plasma fabrication of an antibacterial ceramic-like structure can endow PA66 with excellent surface hardness, cytocompatibility, as well as antibacterial capability.

  1. Design and implementation of a web application to estimate the surface density of implanted ions in solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, B. R.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; Niño, E. D. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research a web application is designed and implemented allowing us to calculate the dose of implanted ions on solid substrates from experimental parameters (repetition rate and pulse duration of current, potential difference, work pressure and treatment time) and current pulses acquired during start-up and shutdown of high voltage electrical discharges at low pressures. By physical and mathematical processing, it is achieved at first estimate the value of the ionic charge, and then the areal density. This study will provide more accurate and suitable developments in relation to applications of ion implantation as an alternative technique to increase the service life of the surfaces of the materials used in various industrial sectors developments.

  2. Processing and Characterization of Novel Biomimetic Nanoporous Bioceramic Surface on β-Ti Implant by Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chander; Kansal, H. K.; Pabla, B. S.; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    Herein, a β-Ti-based implant was subjected to powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) for surface modification to produce a novel biomimetic nanoporous bioceramic surface. The microstructure, surface topography, and phase composition of the non-machined and machined (PMEDMed) surfaces were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surfaces was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion resistance of the surfaces was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid. The application of PMEDM not only altered the surface chemistry, but also imparted the surface with a nanoporous topography or a natural bone-like surface structure. The characterization results confirmed that the alloyed layer mainly comprised bioceramic oxides and carbide phases (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2, SiO2, TiC, NbC, SiC). The microhardness of PMEDMed surface was twofold higher than that of the base material (β-Ti alloy), primarily because of the formation of the hard carbide phases on the machined layer. Electrochemical analysis revealed that PMEDMed surface featured insulative and protective properties and thus displayed higher corrosion resistance ability when compared with the non-machined surface. This result was attributed to the formation of the bioceramic oxides on the machined surface. Additionally, the in vitro biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated using human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. PMEDMed surface with a micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited bioactivity and improved biocompatibility relative to β-Ti surface. Furthermore, PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the non-machined substrate.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the influence of biological implant surface coatings on periimplant bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Gregor; Jauernik, Johanna; Bierbaum, Susanne; Bigler, Martin; Grätz, Klaus W; Rücker, Martin; Stadlinger, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of biological implant surface coatings on periimplant bone formation in comparison to an uncoated titanium reference surface in experimental large animal models. The analysis was structured according to the PRISMA criteriae. Of the1077 studies, 30 studies met the inclusion criteriae. Nineteen studies examined the bone implant contact (BIC) and were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the mean increase in BIC for the test surfaces compared to the reference surfaces was 3.7 percentage points (pp) (95% CI -3.9-11.2, p = 0.339). Analyzing the increase in BIC for specific coated surfaces in comparison to uncoated reference surfaces, inorganic surface coatings showed a significant mean increase in BIC of 14.7 pp (95% CI 10.6-18.9, p < 0.01), extracellular matrix (ECM) surface coatings showed an increase of 10.0 pp (95% CI 4.4-15.6, p < 0.001), and peptide coatings showed a statistical trend with 7.1 pp BIC increase (95% CI -0.8-15.0, p = 0.08). In this review, no statistically significant difference could be found for growth factor surface coatings (observed difference -3.3 pp, 95% CI -16.5-9.9, p = 0.6). All analyses are exploratory in nature. The results show a statistically significant effect of inorganic and ECM coatings on periimplant bone formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2898-2910, 2016.

  4. Hydrogen Implantation in Silicates: The role of solar wind in OH bond formation on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Micah J; Baragiola, Raul

    2014-06-01

    Airless bodies in space such as the Moon, asteroids and interplanetary dust particles are subject to bombardment from energetic electrons and ions, ultraviolet photons, micrometeorites and cosmic rays. These bombarding particles modify optical, chemical and physical characteristics of the ices and minerals that make up these bodies in a process known as space weathering. In particular, solar wind protons implanted in silicate materials can participate in hydroxylation reactions with the oxygen to form OH. This mechanism has been suggested to explain a reported 3-14% absorption signal identified as OH on the surface of lunar soil grains and present in decreasing magnitude from polar to equatorial latitudes. With the goal of determining a precise OH formation rate due to H+ implantation in silicates, a series of experiments were carried out on terrestrial minerals as analogs to lunar and interstellar material.Experiments were carried out under UHV pressures (OH in thermally grown silicon oxide and San Carlos olivine, before and after irradiated with 1 - 5 keV H+ ions. The increase in Si-OH content due to irradiation was determined by subtracting the unirradiated spectra from the irradiated spectra. The implanted protons induced OH stretch absorptions in the mid-infrared peaked at 3673 cm-1 for SiO2 and 3570 cm-1 for olivine. The initial yield (OH formed per incident ion) was ~90% and the OH absorption band was found to saturate at implantation fluences of ~2x1017 H/cm2. Irradiation also modified the Si-O stretch band at ~1090 cm-1 (9.2 μm) causing an exponential decrease in the peak height with increasing fluence and the appearance of a silanol structure peaking at ~1030 cm-1. These measurements allow constraints to be placed on stellar wind contribution to observational and theoretical models of water on the lunar surface and on interstellar dust grains.

  5. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.R., E-mail: arribeiro@inmetro.gov.br [Department of Periodontology, Araraquara Dental School, University Estadual Paulista, Rua Humaitá 1680, 14801-903 Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil); Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Oliveira, F., E-mail: fernando@dem.uminho.pt [Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Boldrini, L.C., E-mail: lcboldrini@inmetro.gov.br [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leite, P.E., E-mail: leitepec@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Falagan-Lotsch, P., E-mail: prifalagan@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Linhares, A.B.R., E-mail: adrianalinhares@hotmail.com [Clinical Research Unit, Antonio Pedro Hospital, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. - Highlights: • A nanometric-structured calcium-rich amorphous layer with improved bioactivity was produced on titanium surfaces.

  6. Avaliação da biocompatibilidade de implantes mamários de silicone esterilizados por calor seco e pelo óxido de etileno Biocompatibility assessment of silicone gel breast implants sterilized by dry-heat and by ethylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Campos de Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os implantes mamários de silicone têm sido empregados, tanto nas cirurgias de aumento de mama, quanto na reconstrução do tecido mamário. A segurança biológica deste tipo de implante deve ser garantida, pois, em função da esterilização estes materiais, podem sofrer alterações oriundas dos processos esterilizantes por comprometimento da estrutura química dos polímeros. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na avaliação da biocompatibilidade de implantes mamários preenchidos com gel de silicone, de superfície lisa e texturizada submetidos à esterilização por calor seco e óxido de etileno. Empregou-se, para tanto, método in vitro, avaliando a citotoxicidade pelo método de captura do vermelho neutro, utilizando a linhagem celular NCTC clone 929. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram não haver comprometimento da biocompatibilidade dos biomateriais submetidos aos dois processos (calor seco e óxido de etileno, assim como comprovaram a eficácia de ambos na esterilização dos implantes.Silicone breast implants have been widely used for mammary augmentation and reconstruction surgery. Biological safety of these implants can be altered by sterilization methods. This study consisted of the biocompatibility assessment of smooth and textured silicone gel breast implants sterilized by dry-heat and ethylene oxide through cell viability, employing neutral red uptake method. The NCTC clone 929 cell were employed and the results showed no cytotoxicity of implants after both sterilization processes.

  7. Prospective comparative study of tapered implants with SLA surfaces in the maxillary posterior area according to 3- and 6-month loading time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Pil-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate clinical outcomes of sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA)-surfaced tapered implants when early loaded in partially edentulous spaces in the maxilla. SLA-surfaced implants were placed in participants in the maxillary posterior edentulous area. At the time of definitive restoration, participants were allocated either to group 1 (3-month loading group) or group 2 (6-month loading group). A total of 36 participants (18 people [35 implants] in group 1 and 18 [33 implants] in group 2) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes, including survival rate and peri-implant parameters such as marginal bone loss were measured 1 year after loading. The survival rate was 97.0% in group 1 and 100% in group 2. Marginal bone loss was 0.22 ± 0.34 mm in group 1 and 0.17 ± 0.25 mm in group 2 at 1 year after loading (P = .488). There were no significant differences between groups in keratinized mucosal width (P = .206), Plaque Index (P = .677), or Gingival Index (P = .558). With adequate remaining bone height and primary implant stability achieved, the 3-month early loading of SLA-surface tapered implants may be a viable choice when restoring posterior maxillary edentulous areas.

  8. Using surface markers for MRI guided breast conserving surgery: a feasibility survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehran; Siegler, Peter; Modhafar, Amen; Holloway, Claire M. B.; Plewes, Donald B.; Martel, Anne L.

    2014-04-01

    Breast MRI is frequently performed prior to breast conserving surgery in order to assess the location and extent of the lesion. Ideally, the surgeon should also be able to use the image information during surgery to guide the excision and this requires that the MR image is co-registered to conform to the patient’s position on the operating table. Recent progress in MR imaging techniques has made it possible to obtain high quality images of the patient in the supine position which significantly reduces the complexity of the registration task. Surface markers placed on the breast during imaging can be located during surgery using an external tracking device and this information can be used to co-register the images to the patient. There remains the problem that in most clinical MR scanners the arm of the patient has to be placed parallel to the body whereas the arm is placed perpendicular to the patient during surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of co-registration based on a surface marker approach and, in particular, to determine what effect the difference in a patient’s arm position makes on the accuracy of tumour localization. Obtaining a second MRI of the patient where the patient’s arm is perpendicular to body axes (operating room position) is not possible. Instead we obtain a secondary MRI scan where the patient’s arm is above the patient’s head to validate the registration. Five patients with enhancing lesions ranging from 1.5 to 80 cm3 in size were imaged using contrast enhanced MRI with their arms in two positions. A thin-plate spline registration scheme was used to match these two configurations. The registration algorithm uses the surface markers only and does not employ the image intensities. Tumour outlines were segmented and centre of mass (COM) displacement and Dice measures of lesion overlap were calculated. The relationship between the number of markers used and the COM-displacement was also studied. The lesion COM

  9. Bone regeneration associated with nontherapeutic and therapeutic surface coatings for dental implants in osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alghamdi, H.S.A.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral implantology is considered as the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth in elderly people. However, implant complications may occur in patients with osteoporosis. The pathogenesis underlying osteoporosis is due to an alteration in bone cell response to hormonal, nutritional, and aging

  10. Surface modification of single crystal LiTaO3 by H and He implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changdong; Lu, Fei; Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Fan, Ranran

    2017-02-01

    Defects production and evolution in H and He ions co-implanted LiTaO3 under different implantation order (H + He and He + H) are investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to study the lattice damage, composition and structure change in the buried damage region. Obvious differences of ions aggregation mechanism are found in H and He implanted LiTaO3. Blistering or splitting of LiTaO3 is more easily achieved in the case where He is implanted first compared to the reverses case. Significant damage enhancement and micro-fractures are observed in samples with He preimplant. The dispersed damage in H-first sample is due to the destruction by He post-bombardment of H-clusters. This order effect indicates the strong aggregation and trapping ability of He ions and He bubbles. The effect of coimplantation parameters on the cleaving of LiTaO3 is discussed.

  11. Relevant insight of surface characterization techniques to study covalent grafting of a biopolymer to titanium implant and its acidic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Mélanie; Amalric, Julien; Brunon, Céline; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Toury, Bérangère

    2015-02-01

    Peri-implant bacterial infections are the main cause of complications in dentistry. Our group has previously proposed the attachment of chitosan on titanium implants via a covalent bond to improve its antibacterial properties while maintaining its biocompatibility. A better knowledge of the coating preparation process allows a better understanding of the bioactive coating in biological conditions. In this work, several relevant characterization techniques were used to assess an implant device during its production phase and its resistance in natural media at different pH. The titanium surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by grafting of an organic coupling agent; succinic anhydride, able to form two covalent links, with the substrate through a Ti-O-Si bond and the biopolymer through a peptide bond. Each step of the coating synthesis as well as the presence confirmation of the biopolymer on titanium after saliva immersion was followed by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, 3D profilometry, XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses. Results allowed to highlight the efficiency of each step of the process, and to propose a mechanism occurring during the chitosan coating degradation in saliva media at pH 5 and at pH 3.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of saliva proteins for the noninvasive differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Shaohua; Lin, Duo; Chen, Guannan; Xu, Yuanji; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    The capability of saliva protein analysis, based on membrane protein purification and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), for detecting benign and malignant breast tumors is presented in this paper. A total of 97 SERS spectra from purified saliva proteins were acquired from samples obtained from three groups: 33 healthy subjects; 33 patients with benign breast tumors; and 31 patients with malignant breast tumors. Subtle but discernible changes in the mean SERS spectra of the three groups were observed. Tentative assignments of the saliva protein SERS spectra demonstrated that benign and malignant breast tumors led to several specific biomolecular changes of the saliva proteins. Multiclass partial least squares-discriminant analysis was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from healthy subjects, benign breast tumor patients, and malignant breast tumor patients, yielding diagnostic sensitivities of 75.75%, 72.73%, and 74.19%, as well as specificities of 93.75%, 81.25%, and 86.36%, respectively. The results from this exploratory work demonstrate that saliva protein SERS analysis combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for the noninvasive and label-free detection of breast cancer.

  13. Preliminary simulation of implants breast through the accelerated partial irradiation technique: coverage rates and homogeneity; Simulacion previa de implates de mama mediante la tecnica de irradiacion parcial acelerada: indices de cubrimiento y homegeneidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Sanchez, S. C.; Paula Carranza, B. de; Erzibengoa, M.; Bragado Alvarez, L.; Guisasola Berasetegui, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we present and evaluate the process of pre-simulation we have drawn up when it comes to treatments of accelerated partial irradiation of breast. Previous simulation that we will allow you to have greater control over the location of catheters with respect to the area to radiate. The goodness of this procedure is evaluated through representative quality indexes of the implant. (Author)

  14. Silver nanoparticles and growth factors incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings on metallic implant surfaces for enhancement of osteoinductivity and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao-Ming; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Ke-Feng; Meng, Fan-Zhi; Jiang, Ou; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Zhi, Wei; Fang, Li-Ming

    2014-06-11

    Research on incorporation of both growth factors and silver (Ag) into hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metallic implant surfaces for enhancing osteoinductivity and antibacterial properties is a challenging work. Generally, Ag nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate and lead to a large increase in local Ag concentration, which could potentially affect cell activity. On the other hand, growth factors immobilization requires mild processing conditions so as to maintain their activities. In this study, bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) and Ag nanoparticle contained HA coatings were prepared on Ti surfaces by combining electrochemical deposition (ED) of Ag and electrostatic immobilization of BMP-2. During the ED process, chitosan (CS) was selected as the stabilizing agent to chelate Ag ions and generate Ag nanoparticles that are uniformly distributed in the coatings. CS also reduces Ag toxicity while retaining its antibacterial activity. Afterwards, a BMP/heparin solution was absorbed on the CS/Ag/HA coatings. Consequently, BMP-2 was immobilized on the coatings by the electrostatic attraction between CS, heparin, and BMP-2. Sustained release of BMP-2 and Ag ions from HA coatings was successfully demonstrated for a long period. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the CS/Ag/HA coatings have high antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Osteoblasts (OB) culture reveals that the CS/Ag/HA coatings exhibit good biocompatibility. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) culture indicates that the BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings have good osteoinductivity and promote the differentiation of BMSCs. Ti bars with BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings were implanted into the femur of rabbits to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the coatings. Results indicate that BMP/CS/Ag/HA coatings favor bone formation in vivo. In summary, this study presents a convenient and effective method for the incorporation of growth factors and antibacterial agents into HA coatings. This

  15. [A case of gastric metastasis and carcinomatous peritonitis of breast cancer with improved QOL by stent implantation and gemcitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaibashi, Tomoe; Kojima, Izumi; Yamanaka, Ayumi; Nishiyama, Sachiko; Yamanaka, Takashi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Matsuura, Hitoshi; Matsuzu, Kenichi; Inaba, Masaaki; Yoshida, Akira; Shimizu, Satoru

    2013-08-01

    A 73-year-old woman had undergone mastectomy for left breast cancer. One year later, bone metastasis was detected. After 7 years, the patient experienced epigastric discomfort, and gastrointestinal endoscopy showed stenosis of the pylorus and enlarged gastric folds. Stomach cancer was suspected at first, but gastric metastasis of breast cancer was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic reexamination and computed tomography(CT)images. The patient could not drink water, and therefore, gastrointestinal stenting was performed, which facilitated ingestion to some extent. However, at the same time, an elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)level and jaundice were observed. Therefore, biliary tract stenosis due to carcinomatous peritonitis was diagnosed. We attempted to treat the jaundice with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography( ERCP)or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(PTCD), but the treatment was not successful, and an increase in ascites was noted. Accordingly, gemcitabine was administered as systemic therapy. As a result, ascites decreased and jaundice improved. Patients with gastric metastasis of breast cancer have poor quality of life(QOL)because of difficulties in ingestion or vomiting, and poor prognoses, because of frequent concurrent carcinomatous peritonitis. We experienced a case of gastric metastasis and carcinomatous peritonitis, and were able to improve the patient's QOL by gastrointestinal stenting and gemcitabine administration.

  16. Evolution of surfaces properties for 100Cr6 steel by implantation and ionic mixing; Evolution des proprietes de surface de l`acier 100Cr6 par implantation et melange ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussemagne, A.

    1996-07-09

    Physico-chemical characterizations performed on samples of 100Cr6 steel implanted both with boron and nitrogen revealed the formation of boron nitride along with the following new phases: Fe{sub 1-x}(B, N), Fe{sub 2-x}(B, N) and Fe{sub 3-x}(B, N). A thorough analysis of boron NITRIDE (5BN) indicates that a low ion current density (3 {mu}A.cm{sup -2}) in the case of the boron plus nitrogen sequence favours the formation of sp{sup 2} bonds (hexagonal-BN) while a higher ion current density (6{mu}A.cm{sup -2}) promotes sp{sup 3} bonds (cubic-BN) in the opposite sequence. Tribological tests carried out on these samples revealed that nitrogen and boron implantations do not lead to any significant improvement of friction and wear at variance with the results obtained by others authors. However, on a set samples accidentally contaminated with carbon during implantation, we noticed a considerable improvement of these tribological parameters. As this pollution is commonly encountered in surface treatment by ion beams, one can invoke this phenomenon to explain the origin of the discrepancy reported by the literature. Extensive investigations allowed us to conclude that surface carbon, whatever its origin (contamination, ion implantation or ion beam mixed coating), provided that its amount is sufficiently high ({>=}2 x 10{sup 16} C.cm{sup -2}), decreases the coefficient of friction by a factor 5 and reduces drastically ({approx} 100) the wear. A careful examination of the whole results led us to propose a theoretical model, based on the role of the asperities of the two bodies in contact, to explain the evolution of the coefficient of friction and wear with the amount of surface carbon. This analysis revealed that in order to improve friction and wear of 100Cr6 steel, one needs to coat this material with a well adherent carbon layer having a thickness higher than the asperity heights of the two bodies in contact. Finally, this study allowed us to develop a simple lower

  17. Correlation between surface damage and micro-defects in Si covered with insulating layer by implantation of He and H ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.L., E-mail: liuchanglong@tju.edu.c [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimension Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics Faculty of Science, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, M.K.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.J.; Liao, J.Q.; Zhang, D.C.; Zhang, X.L.; Shen, Y.Y. [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-03-01

    Cz n-type Si (100) wafers covered with a 220 nm SiO{sub 2} layer or a 170 nm Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer were singly implanted with 160 keV He ions at a dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} or successively implanted with 160 keV He ions at a dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and 110 keV H ions at a dose of 1 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}. Surface morphologies together with defect microstructures have been studied by means of several techniques, including optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Only surface blistering has been observed for He and H sequentially implanted SiO{sub 2}/Si samples after annealing in temperature range up to 1000 {sup o}C. However, as for the He and H implanted Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si samples, surface features including blistering and the localized exfoliation of both the top Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer and the implanted Si layer have been well demonstrated during subsequent annealing. XTEM observations reveal quite different defect morphologies in two kinds of materials under the same implantation and annealing conditions. The possible mechanisms of surface damage in two kinds of materials have been discussed and presented based on the XTEM results.

  18. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  19. Prevention of droplet condensation on metal surfaces by means of ion implantation; Einstellung von Tropfenkondensation an metallischen Oberflaechen durch Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, M.H.; Froeba, A.P.; Leipertz, A. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik (LTT)

    2006-07-01

    Droplet condensation affects heat transfer more than film condensation, which is more common on metal surfaces, owing to the fact that droplet runoff makes wall surfaces locally condensate-free. There have been many research activities on how to achieve long-term stability of droplet condensation on metals in order to make use of it in technical applications. Coating methods involving materials of poor wettability were investigated which however have low long-term stability and also result in enhanced resistance to thermal conductivity, which would partly compensate the positive effect of droplet condensation. This contribution describes the research that has been going on at LTT Erlangen for a decade, in which the surface of the base metal is modified by ion implantation. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of effects between MRI imaging and Archimedes method for measurement of breast volume on immediate implant breast reconstruction%磁共振成像与阿基米德法测量乳房体积在即刻假体乳房再造中的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛兆河; 徐凤磊; 王海波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct the comparative study of the measurement of breast volume by MRI imaging and Archimedes method in immediate implant breast reconstruction.Methods A total of 44 patients who were diagnosed as breast cancer and undergone immediate implant breast reconstruction were selected from March 2011 to March 2013.22 cases were guided to select suitable breast implants by measuring the breast volume and correlative radial line based on MRI imaging.Control group containing 22 cases were guided to select breast implants by traditional Archimedes method and clinical experience.3 breast surgeons and plastic surgeons who did not participate in the operation were selected to judge the postoperative breast shape.Data of two groups were analyzed by using chisquare test.Results All the patients recovered smoothly after operation without infection,and the wound healed well.The breast shape was evaluated.21 cases (95.5 %) were good in test group and 1 case (4.5%) was poor;16 cases (72.7%) were good in control group and 6 cases (27.3) were poor.The comparison between the test group and control group had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusions The method to measure the breast volume and correlative radial line based on MRI imaging has important values for selecting breast implants in immediate implant breast reconstruction.It could be extensively used in clinical practice.%目的 探讨磁共振成像(MRI)与阿基米德法测量乳房体积在即刻假体乳房再造中的临床效果.方法 选择青岛大学附属医院乳腺中心2011年3月至2013年3月行即刻假体乳房再造的乳腺癌患者44例.其中试验组22例,采用基于MRI的乳房体积及相关径线测量方法,指导选择合适的乳房假体;对照组22例,采用传统的阿基米德法及临床经验来选择乳房假体.选择3名未参与手术的乳腺外科及整形外科医师对两组患者术后乳房形态进行评价.结果 44例患者术后恢复均顺利,无1例并

  1. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Chung, Sung-Min; Lee, In-Seop; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 degrees C and 450 degrees C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  2. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  3. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  4. Surface modification of traditional and bioresorbable metallic implant materials for improved biocompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Emily Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Due to their strength, elasticity, and durability, a variety of metal alloys are commonly used in medical implants. Traditionally, corrosion-resistant metals have been preferred. These permanent materials can cause negative systemic and local tissue effects in the long-term. Permanent stenting can lead to late-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. Metallic pins and screws for fracture fixation can corrode and fail, cause loss of bone mass, and contribute to inflammation and pain at the im...

  5. Multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation: an audit of implant quality based on dosimetric evaluation comparing intra-operative versus post-operative placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Lavanya; Joshi, Kishor; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji; Sarin, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in early breast cancer (EBC) patients outside the trial setting has increased. Hence, there is a need to critically evaluate implant quality. Moreover, there is a scarcity of reports using an open cavity technique. We report the dosimetric indices of open and closed cavity MIB techniques. Material and methods The dosimetric parameters of 60 EBC patients treated with MIB (open and closed cavity) who underwent three dimensional, computerized tomography (CT) based planning for APBI from November 2011 to July 2015 were evaluated. Coverage Index (CI), Dose Homogeneity Index (DHI), Conformity Index (COIN), Plan Quality Index (PQI), and Dose Non-uniformity Index (DNR) were assessed. Results Forty-one patients underwent open cavity and 19 patients underwent closed cavity placement of brachytherapy catheters. The median number of planes was 4 and median number of needles was 20. Median dose was 34 Gy with dose per fraction of 3.4 Gy, given twice a day, 6 hours apart. The D90 of the cavity and clinical target volume (CTV) were 105% and 89%, respectively. The median doses to the surgical clips were greater than 100%. The median CI of the cavity and CTV was 0.96 and 0.82, respectively. The DHI and COIN index of the CTV was 0.73 and 0.67. There were no significant differences in the dosimetric parameters based on whether the technique was done open or closed. Conclusions Critical evaluation of the dosimetric parameters of MIB-APBI is important for optimal results. While the open and closed techniques have similar dosimetry, our institutional preference is for an open technique which eases the procedure due to direct visualization of the tumor cavity. PMID:27257415

  6. Most women recover from psychological distress after postoperative complications following implant or DIEP flap breast reconstruction: A prospective long-term follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P.; Brinkman, J. Nick; Kleijne, Annelies; Seynaeve, Caroline; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B. E.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Tibben, Aad; Mureau, Marc A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Substantial complication rates after postmastectomy breast reconstruction (BR) in breast cancer patients have been reported. Few studies have reported on the resulting psychological distress (PD) and satisfaction with the aesthetic result in relation to postoperative complications after completion of implant or DIEP flap BR. The present study investigated whether women were able to recover from complication related distress in the long term. Methods PD was prospectively measured using questionnaires regarding anxiety, depression and cancer distress. Eligible patients completed questionnaires before BR (T0, n = 144), after one month (T1, n = 139) and after completion of BR, approximately 21 months after initial reconstructive surgery (T2, n = 119). Satisfaction with the aesthetic result was assessed 21 months after BR. Data concerning complications, subsequent additional surgery and total reconstruction failure up to T2 were collected from the medical records. Analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses correcting for age. Results One or more complications occurred in 61 patients (42%) and 50 women required subsequent surgery (35%). In time, mean PD significantly declined towards baseline scores independent of complications. However, a total reconstruction failure (n = 10) was significantly associated with a large temporary increase in depression scores. After additional surgery due to complications patients were less satisfied with aesthetic outcome, although patient satisfaction was independent of PD. Conclusions PD outcomes generally declined to normal levels after completion of the entire BR course. Patients experiencing a total reconstruction failure reported more depression after this loss, but in the long term recovered to the same level as women without complications. These findings indicate that women generally can cope efficiently with these serious adverse events, even if they were less satisfied with the aesthetic result

  7. The effect of exposed glass fibers and particles of bioactive glass on the surface wettability of composite implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (P < 0.001) polar (γ(P)) and total SFE (γ(TOT)) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m(2), resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m(2), resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (γ(P)) value, while the dispersive (γ(D)) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (P < 0.001). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.

  8. The Effect of Exposed Glass Fibers and Particles of Bioactive Glass on the Surface Wettability of Composite Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aous A. Abdulmajeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a fiber reinforced composites (FRCs with different fiber orientations and (b polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (<0.001 polar (P and total SFE (TOT components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m2, resp. than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m2, resp.. The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (P value, while the dispersive (D value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (<0.001. Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.

  9. Early bone response to machined, sandblasting acid etching (SLA) and novel surface-functionalization (SLAffinity) titanium implants: characterization, biomechanical analysis and histological evaluation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Hsu, Heng-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen; Wu, Ching-Zong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi; Walinski, Christopher J; Sugiatno, Erwan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine early tissue response and osseointegration in the animal model. The surface morphologies of SLAffinity were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The microstructures were examined by X-ray diffraction, and hardness was measured by nanoindentation. Moreover, the safety and toxicity properties were evaluated using computer-aided programs and cell cytotoxicity assays. In the animal model, implants were installed in the mandibular canine-premolar area of 12 miniature pigs. Each pig received three implants: machine, sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched, and SLAffinity-treated implants. The results showed that surface treatment did affect bone-to-implant contact (BIC) significantly. At 3 weeks, the SLAffinity-treated implants were found to present significantly higher BIC values than the untreated implants. The SLAffinity treatments enhanced osseointegration significantly, especially at early stages of bone tissue healing. As described above, the results of the present study demonstrate that the SLAffinity treatment is a reliable surface modification method.

  10. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  11. The microstructure of Si surface layers after plasma-immersion He+ ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomov, Andrey; Shcherbachev, Kirill; Chesnokov, Yurii

    2017-01-01

    The structural changes in the surface layer of p-type Cz-Si(001) samples after high-dose low-energy (2 keV) He+ plasma-immersion ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing were studied using a set of complementary methods: high-resolution X-ray reflectometry, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The formation of a three-layer structure was observed (an amorphous a-SiOx layer at the surface, an amorphous a-Si layer and a heavily damaged tensile-strained crystalline c-Si layer), which remained after annealing. Helium-filled bubbles were observed in the as-implanted sample. The influence of annealing on the evolution of the three-layer structure and the bubbles is considered. The bubbles are shown to grow after annealing. Their characteristic size is determined to be in the range of 5–20 nm. Large helium-filled bubbles are located in the amorphous a-Si layer. Small bubbles form inside the damaged crystalline Si layer. These bubbles are a major source of tensile strain in the c-Si layer.

  12. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-01-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints. PMID:27345704

  13. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-06-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints.

  14. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G.; Chathuranga Senarathna, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Premachandra, T.N. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Ranasinghe, C.S.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Bandara, I.M.C.C.D. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia); Singh, Sanjleena [Central Analytical Research Facility, Institute of Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO{sub 2} thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. - Highlights: • Colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods are prepared by a novel method. • Surfaces of titanium metal plates are modified by self-forming TiO{sub 2} thin-films. • Prostheses are prepared by coating hydroxyapatite on surface modified Ti metal. • Bioactivity and noncytotoxicity are increased with surface modifications.

  15. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemond, J E; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2013-03-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and bone implant contact specimens were implanted in the femoral condyle of goats. For mechanical push out tests to analyse mechanical implant fixation specimens were implanted in the iliac crest. The follow up periods were 4 (7 goats) and 15 weeks (7 goats). Both the SLM and EBM produced trabecular-like structures showed a variable bone ingrowth after 4 weeks. After 15 weeks good bone ingrowth was found in both implant types. Irrespective to the follow up period, and the presence of a coating, no histological differences in tissue reaction around SLM and EBM produced specimens was found. Histological no coating was detected at 4 and 15 weeks follow up. At both follow up periods the mechanical push out strength at the bone implant interface was significantly lower for the coated SLM specimens compared to the uncoated SLM specimens. The expected better ingrowth characteristics and mechanical fixation strength induced by the coating were not found. The lower mechanical strength of the coated specimens produced by SLM is a remarkable result, which might be influenced by the gross morphology of the specimens or the coating characteristics, indicating that further research is necessary.

  16. Data mining approach to evaluating the use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, S Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2010-02-01

    The Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) uses a score formed with measured skin surface electropotentials and a prior Level Of Suspicion (LOS) value (predicted by the physician based on the patient's ultrasound or mammography results) to calculate a revised Post-BDS LOS to indicate the presence of breast cancer. The demographic details, BDS test results, and the recorded electropotential values form a potentially useful dataset, which can be further explored with data mining tools to extract important information that can be used to improve the current predictive accuracy of the device. According to the proposed data mining framework, the BDS dataset with 291 cases was first pre-processed to remove outliers and then used to select relevant and informative features for classifier development and finally to evaluate the capability of the built classifiers in detecting the presence of the disease. Two popular feature selection techniques, namely, the filter and wrapper methods, were used in parallel for feature selection. A few statistical inference based classifiers and neural networks were used for classification. The proposed technique significantly improved the BDS prediction accuracy. Also, the use of prior LOS and, hence, the Post-BDS LOS, associates a mild subjective interpretation to the current prediction methodology used by BDS. However, the feature subset selected in our analysis that gave the best accuracy did not use either of these features. This result indicates the possibility of using BDS as a better objective assessment tool for breast cancer detection.

  17. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvoni Kirmanidou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world.

  18. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world.

  19. 背阔肌肌皮瓣联合假体在乳腺癌术后二期乳房再造中的应用%Application of Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap with Breast Implant in Delayed Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑厚兵; 单秀英; 陈祥锦; 张惠灏; 朱有志; 王美水; 王彪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨背阔肌肌皮瓣联合假体植入在乳腺癌术后二期乳房再造术中的临床应用。方法2009年至2013年,共8例乳腺癌术后年轻患者接受二期乳房再造手术。术前以排水法测定健侧乳房体积,根据患者健侧乳房形状、大小及背部组织情况,设计胸背部供区皮瓣,术中测量移植皮瓣的容积,然后根据健侧乳房和移植皮瓣的容积差,选择大小合适的乳房假体,将假体埋植于背阔肌-胸大肌后间隙,利用背阔肌肌皮瓣移植联合乳房硅胶假体进行二期乳房再造。结果本组患者术后随访6个月至4年,再造乳房外形较佳,效果满意,供区无明显并发症。结论对于年轻有生育要求的乳腺癌术后乳房缺失患者,健侧乳房较大,利用背阔肌肌皮瓣联合假体进行乳房再造,可取得良好的手术效果。%Objective To explore the application of latissimus dorsi myocutneous flap and breast implant in delayed breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy. Methods From 2009 to 2013, 8 cases received delayed breast reconstruction operation after mastectomy. The breast volumetry measurement technique was used to determine the mass of the breast preoperatively, then the donor flap was designed at the chest-back region according to the condition of the dorsal skin and the shape of the contralateral breast. The mass of graft flap was measured intraoperatively, then the suitable implant was selected based on the difference between the volume of the contralateral breast and the graft flap. The breast implant was then placed in the interspace between the latissimus dorsi muscle and the pectoralis major muscle to reconstruct the breast (secondary phase). Results All patients were followed up for 6 months to 4 years. The overall appearance of the constructed breast were satisfactory, no significant complications were observed in the donor region. Conclusion For young patients of breast cancer with

  20. Breast segmentation in MRI using Poisson surface reconstruction initialized with random forest edge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Anne L.; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Lu, YingLi

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of breast tissue in MRI images is an important pre-processing step for many applications. We present a new method that uses a random forest classifier to identify candidate edges in the image and then applies a Poisson reconstruction step to define a 3D surface based on the detected edge points. Using a leave one patient out cross validation we achieve a Dice overlap score of 0.96 +/- 0.02 for T1 weighted non-fat suppressed images in 8 patients. In a second dataset of 332 images acquired using a Dixon sequence, which was not used in training the random classifier, the mean Dice score was 0.90 +/- 0.03. Using this approach we have achieved accurate, robust segmentation results using a very small training set.

  1. Biomechanical and histomorphometric analysis of etched and non-etched resorbable blasting media processed implant surfaces: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Suzuki, Marcelo; Janal, Malvin N; Gil, Jose N; Nemcovsky, Carlos; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-07-01

    This study characterized the interplay between topography/chemistry and early bone response of etched and no-etched resorbable blasted media (RBM) processed surfaces. Screw-root form Ti-6Al-4V implants treated with alumina blasting/acid-etching (AB/AE), RBM alone (RBM), and RBM + acid-etching (RBMa) were evaluated. The surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Implants placed in the tibia of dogs remained 3 and 5 weeks in vivo. Following euthanasia, half of the specimens were torqued to interface failure and the remaining subjected to bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) between threads evaluation. The AB/AE surface was rougher than the RBM and RBMa. Higher levels of calcium and phosphorous were observed for the RBM surface compared to the RBMa. No significant differences were observed in torque, BIC, and BAFO between surfaces. Woven bone formation at 3 weeks and its initial replacement by lamellar bone at 5 weeks were observed around all implants' surfaces.

  2. Effect of erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet laser irradiation on the surface microstructure and roughness of sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched implants

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) implant surface microstructure according to varying energy levels and application times of the laser. Methods The implant surface was irradiated by the Er:YAG laser under combined conditions of 100, 140, or 180 mJ/pulse and an application time of 1 minute, 1.5 minutes, or 2 minutes. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  3. Crystallographic analysis of the implanted TiNi monocrystal containing misoriented localized shear mesobands in its near-surface layer [001]{sub B2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tverdokhlebova, A. V., E-mail: a@vtverd.ru; Poletika, T. M., E-mail: poletm@ispms.tsc.ru; Girsova, S. L., E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The study was carried on for the implanted single TiNi crystal containing misoriented localized shear mesobands in its near-surface layer [001] B2. Due to the response of material to the Si ion implantation treatment of the single TiNi crystal, deformation mesobands would form in its near-surface layer. Specially designed software tools were employed for the treatment of experimental data obtained from X-ray and electron diffraction patterns. The 3D crystallographic orientations were calculated for the localized shear regions, which were displaced relative to one another and with respect to the original monocrystal orientation.

  4. Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Smith, Graham C.

    2017-01-01

    properties of the laser-treated surfaces. The surface roughness and topography of the laser-treated materials were analysed by a 2D roughness testing and by AFM. The surface morphologies before and after 24 h of bacterial cell culture were captured by SEM, and bacterial viability was determined using live...

  5. Room-temperature vacancy migration in crystalline Si from an ion-implanted surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Christensen, Carsten; Petersen, Jon Wulff

    1999-01-01

    examined, the vacancies migrate to a maximum depth of about 1 µm and at least one vacancy per implanted Ge ion migrates into the silicon crystal. The annealing of the E centers is accompanied, in an almost one-to-one fashion, by the appearance of a new DLTS line corresponding to a level at EC......–Et[approximate]0.15 eV that has donor character. It is argued that the center associated with this line is most probably the P2–V complex; it anneals at about 550 K. A lower limit of the RT-diffusion coefficient of the doubly charged, negative vacancy is estimated to be 4×10–11 cm2/s. ©1999 American Institute...

  6. [XPS characterization of TiN layer on bearing steel surface treated by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xi; Jiang, Ye-hua; Zhan, Zhao-lin; Tang, Bao-yin

    2009-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TIN) hard protective films were fabricated on AISI52100 bearing steel surface employing plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) technique. The TiN films were characterized using a variety of test methods. Atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that the titanium nitride film has extremely smooth surface, very high uniformity and efficiency of space filling over large areas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicated that (200) crystal face of titanium nitride phase is the preferred orientation and three kinds of titanium components exist in the surface modified layer. Tailor fitting analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with Ar ion etching proved that Ti2p(1/2) and Ti2p(3/2) have two peaks in the titanium nitride film layer, respectively. It is shown that different chemical state exists in titanium compound. N(1s) bond energy of XPS has also three fitting peaks at 396.51, 397. 22 and 399.01 eV, corresponding to the nitrogen atom in TiNxOy, TiN and N--N, respectively. Combined with the XPS Tailor fitti