WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast feeding patients

  1. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  2. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  3. Breast-feeding multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  4. Biochemical monitoring of pregnancy and breast feeding in five patients with classical galactosaemia - and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadewaldt, Peter; Hammen, Hans-Werner; Kamalanathan, Loganathan; Wendel, Udo; Schwarz, Martin; Bosch, Annet M.; Guion, Nele; Janssen, Mirian; Boers, Godfried H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and postpartal metabolic control was monitored biochemically in five patients (22-38 years of age) with clinically, enzymatically, and genotypically established classical galactosaemia and good dietary compliance. Three of the patients performed breast feeding of their newborns.

  5. Breast Milk Feeding Rates in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate at a North American Craniofacial Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovich, Michael; Frey, Jordan D; Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; Vyas, Raj M

    2017-05-01

      Our study goal was to evaluate the rates of breast milk feeding among patients with oral clefts at a large North American Craniofacial Center.   Parents of patients with oral clefts born from 2000 to 2012 and treated at our center were interviewed regarding cleft diagnosis, counseling received for feeding, and feeding habits.   Data were obtained from parents of 110 patients with oral clefts. Eighty-four percent of parents received counseling for feeding a child with a cleft. Sixty-seven percent of patients received breast milk for some period of time with a mean duration of 5.3 months (range 0.25 to 18 months). When used, breast milk constituted the majority of the diet with a mean percentage of 75%. Breast milk feeding rates increased successively over the 13-year study period. The most common method of providing breast milk was the Haberman feeder at 75% with other specialty cleft bottles composing an additional 11%. Parents who received counseling were more likely to give breast milk to their infant (P = .02). Duration of NasoAlveolar Molding prior to cleft lip repair did not affect breast milk feeding length (P = .72). Relative to patients with cleft lip and palate, patients with isolated cleft lip had a breast milk feeding odds ratio of 1.71.   We present breast milk feeding in the North American cleft population. Although still lower than the noncleft population, breast milk feeding with regards to initiation rate, length of time, and proportion of total diet is significantly higher than previously reported.

  6. Comparison of wound dehiscence and parent's satisfaction between spoon/syringe feeding and breast/bottle feeding in patients with cleft lip repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Surakunprapha, Palakorn; Pattangtanang, Pantamanas; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Jenwitheesuk, Kamonwan; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies affecting approximately 2.49 of every 1,000 children born in North-east of Thailand. Srinagarind Hospital has 100-150 cases of cleft lip each year. Children with cleft lip and palate need surgical procedures as soon as possible. After lip repair the normal recommendation is not using bottle or breast feeding for 2 weeks to avoid tension at the sutured area during sucking and possible cause of wound dehiscence. So this is quite complicated for the parents, and patients feel frustrated, cry, and move their head around, because of hunger which cannot easily be satisfied. Previous research found that sucking does not cause wound dehiscence, but mentioned no detail about severity of cleft. Primary objective is to compare surgical wound dehiscence between breast feeding/bottle and spoon/syringe feeding after lip repair. This is an experimental study: non-inferiority trials study. The population is the patients with cleft lip who underwent lip repair in Inpatient Department 3C, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. The study period is during May 2010-February 2013. The total sample size in the present study is 192 participants, 96 cases breast/bottle feeding, 96 cases spoon/syringe feeding. The wound dehiscence rate was analyzed by Z-test. Parents'satisfaction is a qualitative data and was analyzed through content analysis. No statistical significant diference between breast/bottle and spoon/syringe groups (p-value = 0.320, 95% confidence interval -0.031-0.010). Parents were more satisfied to feed children by breast/bottle and patients were more relaxed with breast/bottle feeding. Breast/bottle feeding and syringe/spoon feeding have the same result on the surgical wound. Breast/bottle feeding are not causes of wound dehiscence.

  7. Breast feeding and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. O. Kulia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Prevalence of allergy in children is increasing. Influence of feeding on the risk of development of allergy in infants was studied in 140 infants. Methods and results. Along with general clinical evaluation methods immunological parameters assessment was used. It was showed that great care must be given to the pregnant woman treatment, especially with antibiotics, vitamins. Conclusion. As secondary preventive measures suggest: early (in the first 30 minutes application of the newborn babies on the breast, exclusively breastfeeding, careful and minimal medicines prescription, rational feeding.

  8. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.

  9. Breast feeding practices in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, M M; Al-tawil, K

    1989-01-01

    Medical staff at the neonatal outpatient clinic of the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar randomly distributed a questionnaire about breast feeding and socioeconomic characteristics to 340 women (53.5% Qataris and 46.5% other Arabic speaking women) from February-August 1988. Only 32% of the mothers exclusively breast fed at birth. This low incidence could be due to excessive advertising by formula manufacturers and the increasing purchasing power of the Qataris. 5l5% used both breast milk and formula. 13% only bottle fed their infants. 50% of the mothers from the below average income group (5000 Qatar Riyals) breast fed their infants, while only 12% of those from the high income group (10,000 Qatar Riyals) did. Further, 55% of the mothers with less than secondary school education exclusively breast fed whereas 25% of those with secondary school and above breast fed. This result confirmed the downward trend for breast feeding in Qatar as identified in the early 1980s. Even though most mothers decided themselves not to breast feed, 31% reported that their physician suggested feeding formula to their infants. The longer infants stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit the less likely their mothers would breast feed them. For example, 72% were breast fed if discharged 1 week after admission while none were breast fed if discharged 3 weeks after admission. The leading reasons for bottle feeding included that the infant was still hungry (634%), night feeding (12%), mother worked (11%), and maternal diseases (5%). Regardless of the reasons for the downward trend in breast feeding in Qatar, public health professionals and health practitioners must begin direct and specific health education efforts about the benefits of breast feeding.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    V.К. Kotlukov; L.G. Kuzmenko; N.V. Antipova; М.V. Polyakov

    2011-01-01

    The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6): 170–175)

  11. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  13. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework: A New Framework to Improve Breast-feeding Duration and Exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    Targeting mothers and fathers in breast-feeding promotion programs is recommended as research has found that father's support positively impacts breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Breast-feeding coparenting refers to the manner in which parents work together to achieve their breast-feeding goals. The Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework was developed on the basis of diverse coparenting models and research related to father's involvement with breast-feeding. This framework consists of 5 components: joint breast-feeding goal setting, shared breast-feeding responsibility, proactive breast-feeding support, father's/partner's parental-child interactions, and productive communication and problem solving. This framework may be of value to policy makers and program providers working to improve breast-feeding outcomes.

  15. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  16. Breast feeding as seen by Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawwas, A W

    1988-01-01

    Islamic law requires mothers to breast feed their children for 2 years. the father must assist the mother in breast feeding the children by providing her with food and clothing. If the father dies or does not live at home, the heir must support the mother thereby allowing her to breast feed her infants. A wet nurse can feed a child only if the mother's milk is not available. Allah recognizes that breast milk is the most wholesome food source for infants. It is made daily based on the infant's needs for growing and nourishment, while other milks and/or formulas remain the same regardless of the infant's daily requirements. For example, the 1st milk, a small amount of yellowish colostrum, contains protein, minerals, and antibodies. Colostrum also acts as a laxative. Breast milk is also comprised of enzymes which make breast milk easy to digest. These digestive enzymes also destroy any microorganisms in the stomach that may have entered thereby providing extra protection against disease. Further, breast milk is sterile. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) among breast fed infants are 4 time lower than IMRs of artificially fed infants. In addition, breast feeding establishes a strong bond between mother and child in which the child feels happiness and security. Breast feeding also benefits the mother. The uterus of a breast feeding mother fully contracts to its original size, while the uterus of a mother who does not breast feed does not. Further, breast feeding women are less prone to breast cancer than those women who have never breast fed. In addition, the more a women breast feeds the less likely she is to get breast cancer. Breast feeding also acts to a certain degree as a contraceptive.

  17. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies.

  18. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  19. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, J; Green, J

    2000-11-11

    To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Content analysis. Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. UK mass media. Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with "ordinary" families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding.

  20. Promoting and supporting breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J; Coombs, J

    2000-04-01

    The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and identifies potential problem areas. Hospital practices should focus on rooming-in, early and frequent breast-feeding, skilled support and avoidance of artificial nipples, pacifiers and formula. Infant follow-up should be two to four days postdischarge, with liberal use of referral and support groups, including lactation consultants and peer counselors.

  1. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  2. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    data from the focus group discussions was analysed using content analysis with the help of qualitative research computer software Nvivo. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding practice was at 61%. The factors that were found to be statistically significant to exclusive breast feeding were age of infant and ...

  3. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    1University of Zambia Department of Nursing Sciences. 2University of Zambia ... a focus group discussion guide at study sites. Quantitative data was ... this study. The study population was breast feeding mothers with infants aged from birth to six months. A sample of 171 breast feeding mothers with infants aged from birth to ...

  4. Breast-feeding and inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, A; de Luca, U; Vaccaro, F; Valiante, A; Impagliazzo, N; Caracciolo, G

    1995-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the association between breast-feeding and inguinal hernia. The case group was significantly less often breast fed than control subjects (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.83) and exclusive breast-feeding was associated with a significant dose-response risk reduction. The association was not confounded by birth weight, maternal education, type of birth, number of other children in the family, or gender. Breast-feeding may represent a protective factor against inguinal hernia.

  5. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  6. Breast-feeding, neonatal jaundice and kernicterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Glenn R

    2002-04-01

    Despite the many advantages of breast-feeding, there is ample documentation of the strong association between breast-feeding and an increase in the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed infants. Suggested mechanisms for these findings include poor fluid and caloric intake, inhibition of hepatic excretion of bilirubin, and intestinal absorption of bilirubin (enterohepatic circulation). On rare occasions, breast-fed infants without evidence of haemolysis have developed extreme hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. Because almost all of the cases of kernicterus reported in the last 15 years have occurred in fully or partially breast-fed newborns, it is important that these infants be followed closely. Appropriate support and advice must be provided to the lactating mother so that successful breast-feeding can be established and the risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia reduced.

  7. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  8. Breast feeding, bottle feeding and caries experience in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...

  9. REALIZING OF BREAST FEEDING IS NECESSARY OBJECTIVE OF A PEDIATRICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes several problems of breast feeding existing. The data on composition of breast milk in different groups of women, recommended terms of beginning and duration of breast feeding are presented. Authors discuss principles of effectiveness evaluation and advantages of prolonged breast feeding on the basis of comparative estimation of physical and psychical development and morbidity of children with different types of feeding. Methods of breast feeding optimization including modern electronic breast pump use are described.Key words: infants, breast feeding, breast pumps.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 86–91

  10. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Curious about extended breast-feeding? Know the benefits, the role breast milk plays ... baby beyond age 1 — also known as extended breast-feeding — you might have questions about the process. Get ...

  11. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (pbreast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Difficulties in Breast Feeding Full - Term New - Born Children

    OpenAIRE

    Felcmanová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis deals the breast-feeding in term of difficulties, that can be found by mothers during a period of lactation. The Theoretical Part is discussing importance of the breast-feeding for a child, a mother and society and it includes instructions for the successful breast-feeding. There are especially mentioned the most frequent difficulties of the breast-feeding, prevention and finding solution of these difficulties. The consulting servise for the breast-feeding are mentioned,...

  13. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, Josephine

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Design Content analysis. Subjects Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. Setting UK mass media. Main outcome measures Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Results Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with “ordinary” families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. Conclusions The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding. PMID:11073512

  14. Pregnancy, breast-feeding and drugs used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H

    2012-08-01

    Despite advances in the study of birth defects related to drug exposures during pregnancy, medication use during pregnancy still causes anxiety and misunderstanding among both members of the public and health care professionals. This may result in a woman's unknowingly taking a medication that may harm the fetus or cause a birth defect or discontinuing medications necessary for treating chronic conditions. Using medications while breast-feeding also represents a challenge for patients and prescribers. Many mothers are told they must stop breast-feeding or "pump and discard" their breast milk if they are taking certain medications; however, in many cases, this advice-based on what may be limited education on the part of the health care provider about breast-feeding and medication use-may be incorrect. The authors review the current evidence regarding drugs that may be safe for pregnant or breast-feeding patients and medications that such patients should avoid. When considering prescribing in pregnancy, the dentist must weigh the risk to the fetus versus the benefit to the mother, and the appropriate conclusion should reflect current evidence. In some cases medication dosing should be avoided or altered; however, there are times when it is unnecessary to stop the use of medications. Breast-feeding also represents a clinical challenge, the risks and benefits of which need to be understood by both the patient and practitioner before any medication is administered. Dentists should be familiar with the risks and benefits for pregnant or breast-feeding patients posed by five types of medications: analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, local anesthetics, sedatives and emergency medications.

  15. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  16. Practices, predictors and consequences of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Tarrant, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and predictors of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants and its association with total duration of breast-milk feeding. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. A total of 2450 mother-infant pairs were recruited in 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 and followed up prospectively for 12 months or until breast-milk feeding had stopped. Across the first 6 months postpartum, the rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding ranged from 5·1 to 8·0 % in 2006-2007 and from 18·0 to 19·8 % in 2011-2012. Factors associated with higher rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding included supplementation with infant formula, lack of previous breast-milk feeding experience, having a planned caesarean section delivery and returning to work postpartum. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding was associated with an increased risk of early breast-milk feeding cessation when compared with direct feeding at the breast. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) ranged from 1·25 (1·04, 1·51) to 1·91 (1·34, 2·73) across the first 6 months. Mothers of healthy term infants should be encouraged and supported to feed directly at the breast. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding should be recommended only when medically necessary and not as a substitute for feeding directly at the breast. Further research is required to explore mothers' reasons for exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding and to identify the health outcomes associated with this practice.

  17. Major surgery diminishes systemic arginine availability and suppresses nitric oxide response to feeding in patients with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2017-08-05

    Plasma arginine (ARG) levels are reduced in breast cancer, suggesting diminished systemic ARG availability. ARG and its product nitric oxide (NO) are important in early postoperative recovery due to its roles in immune function and wound healing. It remains unclear whether major surgery further diminishes systemic ARG availability due to enhanced ARG catabolism and/or insufficient endogenous ARG synthesis negatively affecting NO synthesis in patients with early stage breast cancer. In 9 women with early stage breast malignancy and 9 healthy women with genetic predisposition to breast cancer, whole body ARG and citrulline (CIT) rates of appearances were measured to determine their production rates prior to and within 24 h after major breast surgery by stable isotope methodology in the postabsorptive and postprandial state. The conversions of CIT > ARG, ARG > CIT, and ARG > Urea (markers of de novo ARG and NO synthesis, arginase activity, respectively), and ARG clearance (reflecting ARG disposal capacity) were calculated. Prior to surgery, plasma ARG, CIT and glutamine concentrations were lower in cancer (P  ARG (P  CIT conversion (P  CIT conversion, plasma CIT (P early stage breast cancer further reduces systemic ARG availability in the early phase of recovery due to a combined process of increased ARG catabolism and impaired endogenous ARG synthesis. The suppressed postprandial NO increase in early stage cancer suggests that specific nutritional approaches are advised to increase ARG availability after major surgery although the effects on postoperative recovery remain unclear. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00497380. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. MATERNAL EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING PRACTICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate the among the unemployed and self-employed mothers was lower than that of those in paid employment. This is contrary to expectation, since the unemployed/scif~employed are usually not separated from their children unlike those in paid employment who usually separated during working. Exclusive breast feeding ...

  19. MATERNAL EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING PRACTICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were paid employment with maternity leave ... (ENE) and five community health workers who had been trained prior to onset of study and who showed understanding. DEFINITIONS. Exclusive breast feeding: the infant has received only ... mothers with paid employment and this was significant when compares with ...

  20. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. maternity hospital in South West England. 218 breast feeds (160 mother-infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach's alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach׳s alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. Conclusions the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. Implications for practice the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. PMID:25061006

  2. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regarding motivation, struggle for breast feeding and long-term maintenance among medical personnel, mothers and their families. It is especially important to provide premature infants and sick children, who are often born unable to suck adequately, with breast feeding. The authors provide results of a study conducted at the SCCH demonstrating that special medical devices (nipples, feeding bottles developed on the basis of studies of maternal breast sucking physiology facilitate a gradual transition from tube feeding to breast feeding

  3. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and…

  4. Eating for pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Hannah E

    2007-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential to help support a successful pregnancy and breast-feeding. Women planning a pregnancy should follow a balanced nutrient-rich diet and consume a daily folic acid supplement up until the end of the first trimester. Many pregnancies, especially amongst teenagers, are unplanned, and educating women of childbearing age about the need to take folic acid to prevent neural tube defects is important. Maintaining a healthy body weight and weight gain is also important: if the mother is underweight, overweight or obese this can harm the health of both mother and fetus. Care should be taken to monitor the nutritional status of vulnerable groups (e.g. teenagers, vegans, women who are underweight, and those at risk of too little vitamin D) to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. During breast-feeding the mother needs to eat a sufficient and nutrient-rich diet to provide enough energy and nutrients to support milk production.

  5. Mothers' experience of fathers' support for breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Lauren E; Sykes, Abby C; Fung, Teresa T

    2012-09-01

    To examine mothers' experience of support received from fathers for breast-feeding. We conducted in-depth in-person interviews with women with recent breast-feeding experience. Interview transcripts were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Interviews were designed to explore the mothers' perception of role of fathers in breast-feeding, education on breast-feeding that fathers received and their perception of the fathers' view on breast-feeding. Urban and suburban community. Nineteen women from a metropolitan area in the north-eastern USA. Ten themes emerged, these involved practical and emotional support provided by fathers, especially during times of unexpected breast-feeding challenges. In addition, mothers perceived fathers may benefit from more peer and professional support, lactation consultant service and breast-feeding education. Mothers appreciated the support from fathers for breast-feeding continuation, including encouragement and understanding. These results may be useful for health-care practitioners to promote breast-feeding continuation by supporting fathers in their role in the breast-feeding process.

  6. Breast-Feeding and Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R.; Stene, Lars C.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Cinek, Ondrej; Svensson, Jannet; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Memon, Anjum; Gimeno, Suely G.; Wadsworth, Emma J.K.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Goldacre, Michael J.; Radon, Katja; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C.; Chetwynd, Amanda; Karavanaki, Kyriaki; Brigis, Girts; Pozzilli, Paolo; UrbonaitĖ, Brone; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Sipetic, Sandra; Joner, Geir; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E.; Harrild, Kirsten; Benson, Victoria; Savilahti, Erkki; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Salem, Mona; Rabiei, Samira; Patterson, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75–1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81–1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I2 = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I2 = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. CONCLUSIONS The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies. PMID:22837371

  7. Breast-feeding and HIV: an update | Coutsoudis | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding is a route of transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and the ideal way of feeding an infant, as well as providing a unique biological and emotional basis for child development. This article highlights the dilemma created by the ...

  8. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  9. Breast-feeding, self-exam, and exercise practices before and after reduction mammoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer R; Holton, Luther H; Chung, Thomas L; Slezak, Sheri

    2008-10-01

    The current indications for reduction mammoplasty include the relief of painful physical symptoms of macromastia. Numerous studies have demonstrated not only improvement in physical symptoms following reduction mammoplasty, but postoperative psychological benefits as well, including increased ability to participate in physical activity as a result of pain relief and decreased breast mass. Reduction mammoplasty may have additional effects on the patient's ability to breast-feed and perform breast self-exam. The present study is a retrospective study of the effects of reduction mammoplasty on breast-feeding, breast self-exam, physical symptoms, and physical activity. One-hundred and forty-one patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty at our institution between the years 1996-2005 agreed to participate in the study. Each was asked a series of questions in order to assess changes in symptoms and behaviors including breast-feeding and breast self-exam practices before and after the surgery. Patients were also asked questions regarding their pain symptoms and physical activity profiles. Ninety-seven percent of the participants claimed to have back, neck, and/or shoulder pain that was either significantly improved or completely resolved. Moreover, 100% of patients report that physical activity such as exercise was easier following reduction mammoplasty. Ninety-three percent of participants reported that performing breast self-exam following surgery was either the same (68%) or easier (25%) as a result of having less breast tissue. Eighty-nine percent of participants had no children following surgery, therefore effects on breast-feeding practices following reduction mammoplasty were not statistically significant. However, we suggest that when patients are seen in consultation or in the perioperative period, there is an opportunity to teach patients about the benefits of breast-feeding, and to assure patients that a pedicle flap reduction will likely allow breastfeeding

  10. Direct Feeding at the Breast Is Associated with Breast Milk Feeding Duration among Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevski-Kadir, Shiran; Shust-Barequet, Shir; Zajicek, Michal; Leibovich, Mira; Strauss, Tzipi; Leibovitch, Leah; Morag, Iris

    2017-11-01

    In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC). Perinatal data were collected retrospectively from infants' computerized charts. Mothers were approached >12 months postpartum and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Those who agreed to participate were asked (during their visit to the follow-up clinic or by phone or mail) to complete a questionnaire regarding mode and duration of BMF as well as reasons for its discontinuation. Mothers were also asked about their pre-partum intentions to feed directly at the breast. Out of 162 eligible mothers, 131 (80.8%) initiated BMF during their intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Of these, 66 (50.3%) discontinued BMF earlier than six months postpartum. BMF ≥ 6 months was significantly associated with direct feeding at the breast, duration of exclusive BMF, and singleton birth. Regression analysis revealed that direct feeding at the breast (any or only) and duration of BMF exclusivity were the only significant variables associated with BMF duration (Odds ratio (OR) 5.5 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00-15.37; OR 1.5 and 95% CI 1.25-1.88, respectively). Milk supply (inadequate or nonexistent) was the most commonly reported cause for BMF discontinuation feeding at the breast was significantly associated with BMF duration and was more common among singletons. Direct feeding at the breast and duration of exclusive BMF are associated with duration of BMF among infants born <32 weeks of gestational age (GA). These findings suggest that

  11. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Belyaeva; T. V. Turti; M. D. Mitish; E. P. Zimina; M. S. Rtishcheva; E. O. Tarzyan

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological) perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regardin...

  12. Prediction of duration of breast feeding in primiparas.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, H J; Walker, P C

    1983-01-01

    A random sample of 617 primiparas was identified from birth notifications over a 12 month period and 534 of these were interviewed four weeks after confinement. Those breast feeding at the time of interview were contacted again at four months and those still breast feeding then were contacted at six and a half months. Duration of breast feeding was found to be significantly associated with five interassociated personal characteristics of the mother and with specific aspects of her knowledge a...

  13. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Belyaeva; T. V. Turti; O. L. Lukoyanova; M. I. Ivardava; E. O. Tarzyan

    2014-01-01

    Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding...

  14. [Maternal body mass index and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driul, L; Forzano, L; Londero, A P; Fachechi, G; Liva, S; Marchesoni, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether maternal BMI influences breast-feeding practice in quality and duration A retrospective case-control study were included Fifty women with Body Max Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 considered overweigh and obese and fifty controls with BMIlactation integration. Obese women presented an elevated Body Max Index one year apart from childbirth and are correlated to maternal complications during breastfeeding. Maternal overweight and obesity is negatively correlated to duration and quality of lactation.

  15. Student nurses' attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs of students newly enrolled in an urban university baccalaureate nursing program. A qualitative approach was used to conduct in-depth semistructured interviews with 12 students prior to their formal course work in maternal-child nursing. Four themes emerged from the data analysis: 1. Personal experiences are important in the development of breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs. 2. The students generally believed that breast-feeding offered benefits for babies and mothers, but the beliefs were stronger for those who grew up with breast-feeding as the norm. 3. All the students believed that there were barriers to breast-feeding in the United States that they identified as the societal view of the breast, dependence/independence conflicts, and concerns about intimacy. 4. The students identified an educational rather than promotional role for nurses in breast-feeding because of conflicts about personal choice. This study suggests that students need help identifying their attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding and reflecting how their personal experiences influence breast-feeding promotion.

  16. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  17. Breast-feeding in a UK urban context: who breast-feeds, for how long and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charlotte M; Parkinson, Kathryn; Scott, Jane

    2006-09-01

    To investigate what factors relate most strongly to breast-feeding duration in order to successfully support breast-feeding mothers. Prospective birth cohort study using questionnaires, routinely collected weights and health check at age 13 months. Gateshead, UK. Parents of 923 term infants born in a defined geographical area and recruited shortly after birth, 50% of whom were breast-feeding initially. Only 225 (24%) infants were still breast-fed at 6 weeks, although 136 (15%) continued beyond 4 months. Infants in the most affluent quintile were three times more likely to be initially breast-fed (P weight gain and were tallest at age 13 months. Non-breast-fed infants had 50% more family doctor contacts up to age 4 months (P = 0.005). Initiation of breast-feeding in urban Britain remains strongly determined by socio-economic background and early cessation seems to be related to frequent feeding and rapid growth as well as a continuing failure to eradicate health practices that undermine breast-feeding. Those infants not receiving breast milk suffered increased morbidity, but the apparent association between breast-feeding duration and growth probably reflects reverse causation.

  18. Social Support and Exclusive Breast feeding among Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Chris M; Islam, Nazrul; Janssen, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between exclusive breast feeding and four dimensions of social support: (i) tangible, (ii) affectionate, (iii) positive social interaction, and (iv) emotional and informational, based on the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. Absolute and relative differences in the probability of breast feeding exclusively and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In adjusted models, differences in the probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months were not different among women with high vs. low social support. The association between social support and breastfeeding exclusively was modified by education level, with significantly higher probability of breast feeding exclusively among women with lower education and high vs. low levels of tangible and affectionate support. Among women with education below a high school level, high tangible and affectionate support significantly increased probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months in this study. Efforts to encourage exclusive breast feeding need to address social support for mothers, especially those with lower education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990 | Zollner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990. ... Journal Home > Vol 83, No 8 (1993) > ... and duration of breast-feeding alllong Venda mothers as well as the foods that Venda children commonly ate in their first 2 years of life. Nearly ...

  20. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  1. Effect of natural-feeding education on successful exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding self-efficacy of low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Çelebioğlu, Ayda

    2014-02-01

    The ideal nourishment for newborns with low birth-weight is breast milk. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of natural-feeding education given to mothers of low-birth-weight infants, on the mothers' breast-feeding self-efficacy level, breast-feeding success, and the growth of the infants. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental way. The study group consisted of a total of 85 low-birth-weight infants and their mothers who had been treated in the neonatal clinics of two hospitals. The mothers included in the test group were given breast-feeding education for half an hour per day, during the first 5 days of their hospitalization. Home visits were carried out at the homes of the participants from both the test and control groups, until the infants reached 6 months of age. For collecting data, the following forms were used: Personal Information Form, Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Form, LATCH Breast-feeding Assessment Tool, and Anthropometric Measurements Form. For analyzing the collected data, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and chi-square we used, and, in independent groups, t-tests were employed. Findings : It was determined that natural-feeding education given to the mothers increases their breast-feeding self-efficacy levels and success in breast-feeding (P<0.05). It was found that in the test group, the rate of feeding the infants exclusively with breast milk is higher in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Results of the study indicate that natural-feeding education increases breast-feeding self-efficacy levels, breast-feeding success, and the breast-feeding duration.

  2. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  3. [Risk of inffective breast-feeding: a nursing diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Cláudia Silveira

    2004-01-01

    This study is aimed at presenting the 'risk of ineffective breast-feeding' nursing diagnosis regarding mothers of premature infants who are hospitalized in a neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The case study outlined the methodology of the study, and the sample is composed of 35 mothers. Such a diagnosis was detected in 100% of the sample and the risk factors are prematureness; insufficient opportunity to breast-feed due to the newborn's hospitalization; lack of knowledge regarding the maintenance of lactation; maternal fear; inconstancy of breast suction due to separation; and artificial feeding of the newborn. It is believed that the identification of the risks of ineffective breast-feeding during the newborn's hospitalization period makes possible a nursing care focused on the prevention of an 'ineffective breast-feeding' diagnosis.

  4. HIV TRANSMISSION BREAST-FEEDING AND HIV: AN UPDATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2004-11-02

    Nov 2, 2004 ... Breast pathology — mastitis, abscesses,. Subclinical mastitis as evidenced by increased breast-milk sodium levels cracked or bleeding nipples. Primary infection/new infection. Prolonged duration of breast-feeding —. Low maternal levels of vitamins B, C and E more than 6 months. Infant oral candidiasis.

  5. [Effects of breast-feeding education and support services on breast-feeding rates and infant's growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun-Ja; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of breast-feeding education and support services on rate of breast-feeding three and six months after birth, and the effect on infant's growth (weight, height, body mass index [BMI]). The experimental group which had both education and support services was compared with the control group which had only breast-feeding education. This study was a quasi-experimental study with a time-series design. The participants were 39 mothers who were hospitalized for childbirth. Twenty mother were assigned to the experimental group and 19 mothers, to the control group. The breast feeding education was done during hospitalization, and support services were provided once a week after discharge for a month (a total 4 times) by a maternity ward nurse. Data regarding breastfeeding rate at one month after childbirth was collected by phone call; the breast-feeding rates at three and six months after childbirth were collected in a visit to the families. The child's weight and height were also measured during the visit. The experimental group had a statistically significant higher rate for frequency of breast-feeding at one, three and six months after childbirth than the control group. However, there was no meaningful difference between the two groups for infant growth. The results of this study suggest that breast-feeding education is helpful for a start, but support services are also necessary to sustain breast-feeding.

  6. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  7. Effect of Natural-Feeding Education on Successful Exclusive Breast-Feeding and Breast-Feeding Self-Efficacy of Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Çelebioğlu, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The ideal nourishment for newborns with low birth-weight is breast milk. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of natural-feeding education given to mothers of low-birth-weight infants, on the mothers’ breast-feeding self-efficacy level, breast-feeding success, and the growth of the infants. Methods: The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental way. The study group consisted of a total of 85 low-birth-weight infants and their mothers who had been treated in the neonatal clinics of two hospitals. The mothers included in the test group were given breast-feeding education for half an hour per day, during the first 5 days of their hospitalization. Home visits were carried out at the homes of the participants from both the test and control groups, until the infants reached 6 months of age. For collecting data, the following forms were used: Personal Information Form, Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Form, LATCH Breast-feeding Assessment Tool, and Anthropometric Measurements Form. For analyzing the collected data, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and chi-square we used, and, in independent groups, t-tests were employed. Findings : It was determined that natural-feeding education given to the mothers increases their breast-feeding self-efficacy levels and success in breast-feeding (Pfeeding the infants exclusively with breast milk is higher in comparison with the control group (Pfeeding education increases breast-feeding self-efficacy levels, breast-feeding success, and the breast-feeding duration. PMID:25793045

  8. Neonatal sucking behavior: comparison of perioral movement during breast-feeding and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Madoka; Mizuno, Katsumi; Tamura, Masanori

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare orofacial motion and mouth angle during breast-feeding and bottle feeding in normal infants. Thirteen normal infants were enrolled in the study, and feeding sessions were recorded using a digital video camera at 4 or 5 days following birth. The analysis was successfully performed for 12 infants during both breast-feeding and bottle feeding. Markers were placed at the lateral angle of the eye, the tip of the jaw, and the throat region. Jaw and throat region movements were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The angle of the mouth was also measured. Throat region movement was significantly larger than jaw movement in both breast-feeding (eye-throat region changes: 1.51 +/- 0.37 mm, eye-jaw changes: 0.91 +/- 0.31 mm, P bottle feeding (eye-throat region changes: 2.91 +/- 0.46 mm, eye-jaw changes: 1.77 +/- 0.33 mm, P feeding than those during bottle feeding (P feeding is larger than that during bottle feeding (P bottle feeding differ from those during breast-feeding. This partly results from the difference in the angle of the mouth during feeding.

  9. Breast feeding and weaning practices of urban housewives in Srinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, C; Rowlands, R

    1988-11-01

    Researchers interviewed 125 mothers in Srinagar, India about breast feeding and weaning practices. Overall the mothers were generally illiterate (52%), housewives (67.2%), Muslim (76%), and from a nuclear family (56%). 39% were in the low income group. Most of the children (48%) ranged for 6-12 months old. 96% of the children had been breast fed. Some of the reasons for breast feeding included nutritional quality, economical, pleased the mother, and made the infant feel secure. 65.8% breast fed their infants on demand. 65.7% weaned their infants between 7-9 months yet 52% believed breast feeding should continue to 18 months. 96% breast fed their infants while ill with diarrhea. 57% believed colostrum to be unhygienic and did not feed it to their infants. 72% decided to breast feed before becoming pregnant while 36% decided to bottle feed before pregnancy. 89% of illiterate mothers breast fed while only 45% of literate mothers did. Further, only 11.8% of the mothers whose family income was 1500 rupees/month breast fed whereas 47% in the lower and 41.2% in the middle income groups did. At 7-9 months, 69.8% of illiterate and 69.5% of literate mothers had already introduced semi solid foods. 78.3% of literate mothers gave semi solid foods to their infants 2 times/day, but only 11.6% of the illiterate mothers did so. Moreover 81.4% of illiterate mothers only fed their infants semi solid foods once a day. Literate mothers were more likely than literate mothers to feed their infants solid foods (75% vs. 46.2%), introduce them at an earlier age (22.2% vs 10%, 7-9 months), and feed them more often (55.5% vs 16.6%; twice a day). In conclusion, the higher the educational status the more likely mothers were likely to breast feed.

  10. Breast feeding practices in the Black community | Ross | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed optimally. Women ...

  11. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  12. Breast-feeding and bottle-feeding of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ooki, Syuichi

    2004-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the rates of breast-feeding and/or bottle-feeding in mothers of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births compared to those in mothers of singletons, and identify factors associated with decision as to breast-feed or bottle-feed. The subjects were 1,529 mothers of twins aged 6 months-6 years and 258 mothers of triplets and higher order multiple births (higher multiples) aged 6 months-6 years (234 mothers of triplets, 20 mothers of quadruplets, 4 mothers of quintuplets). Also, 1,300 subjects were recruited as a control group from mothers of singletons aged 6 months-6 years. Information regarding feeding methods, including exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding with formula milk only, and duration of breast-feeding (in months) was collected. There were significantly higher rates of bottle-feeding in mothers of twins and higher multiples than in mothers of singletons. Duration of breast-feeding in mothers who chose exclusive breast-feeding or mixed-feeding for twins and higher multiples was significantly shorter than those for the singletons. The feeding methods for the twins or higher multiples were not associated with prematurity or low birth weight. However, after adjusting for each associated factor using logistic regression analysis, the decision to bottle-feed was significantly associated with non-cooperation of the husband in childrearing and degree of anxiety that mothers felt when informed of a multiple pregnancy. The odds ratio indicated that mothers who received no cooperation from the husband for childrearing were 1.83 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who received cooperation. Further, the odds ratio indicated that mothers who felt greater anxiety when informed of a multiple pregnancy were 1.73 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who did not feel much anxiety. This study found that establishment and continuation of breast-feeding for twins, triplets and

  13. Breast-feeding and postpartum maternal weight trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Laura; O'Higgins, Amy C; Cawley, Shona; Kennedy, Rachel; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether breast-feeding, and in particular exclusive breast-feeding, was associated with maternal weight and body composition changes at 4 months postpartum independently of other maternal variables. Prospective longitudinal study. Women were recruited in the first trimester after an ultrasound examination confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy. Weight and body composition were measured using advanced bio-electrical impedance analysis at the first antenatal visit and 4 months postpartum. Detailed questionnaires were completed on breast-feeding, socio-economic status, diet and exercise in addition to routine clinical and sociodemographic details. Large Irish university maternity hospital. Women who delivered a baby weighing ≥500 g between November 2012 and March 2014. At the postpartum visit, the mean weight was 70·9 (sd 14·2) kg (n 470) and the mean BMI was 25·9 (sd 5·0) kg/m2. 'Any breast-feeding' was reported by 65·1 % of women (n 306). Irish nativity (OR=0·085, Pbreast-feeding. At 4 months postpartum there was no difference in maternal weight change between women who exclusively breast-fed and those who formula-fed (+2·0 v. +1·1 kg, P=0·13). Women who exclusively breast-fed had a greater increase in percentage body fat at 4 months postpartum compared with women who formula-fed (+1·0 v. -0·03 %, P=0·02), even though their dietary quality was better. Exclusive breast-feeding was not associated with postpartum maternal weight or body fat percentage change after adjusting for other maternal variables. There are many reasons why breast-feeding should be strongly promoted but we found no evidence to support postpartum weight management as an advantage of breast-feeding.

  14. Breast feeding among Brazilian adolescents: practice and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J C S; Dias, F A; Stefanello, J; Reis, M C G; Nakano, A M S; Gomes-Sponholz, F A

    2014-03-01

    to characterise breast feeding practices among Brazilian adolescents and identify their breast feeding needs. the study was undertaken in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in two stages. The first stage analysed data from the Second National Survey of Breast-feeding Prevalence, held in August 2008, which included 229 adolescent mothers. The second stage was a qualitative approach, and involved interviews with 10 adolescent mothers in a primary care unit. The data from the first stage were analysed in June 2010 based on descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the interviews were transcribed and organised using thematic content analysis. breast feeding was reported by 75% of the adolescent mothers. Of the 144 mothers with infants aged breastfeeding as longer as possible in a satisfactory way for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables? Think of it as an early stealth strategy ... medicine," Mennella said. When an expectant mother eats vegetables, they flavor her amniotic fluid -- and later, her ...

  16. Long-term efficacy of a tongue tie service in improving breast feeding rates: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jennifer; Yardley, Iain; Upadhyaya, Manasvi

    2018-02-01

    Breast feeding rates in England at 3months of age are approximately 17% for exclusive breast-feeding and 55% for breast-feeds supplemented with formula. Tongue-tie (TT) in infants is cited as a significant cause of difficulty with maintaining breast-feeding. Early treatment and support can improve breast-feeding and allow infants to benefit from the many long-term benefits of breast-feeding. Our aim was to determine BF rates in infants 3months after attending our tongue-tie clinic (TTC). Institutional ethical approval and study approval were obtained. Patients attending the TTC from May to July 2016 were included. Telephone contact was made 3months postprocedure to establish current behaviour. Symptom resolution was recorded as complete resolution (CR), moderate resolution (MoR), or minimal resolution (MiR). Feeding pattern was either exclusively BF or combined breast and formula feeds or exclusively formula fed. 100 infants were included with complete follow-up data on 87 (87% response rate). Median age at release of TT was 17 (2-88) days without any recurrence. Status at 3months was CR (n=70, 80%); MoR (n=13, 15%), and MiR (n=4, 5%). 43 (49%) were exclusively BF, 36 (41%) were supplementing BF with some formula (2/3 by choice and 1/3 owing to insufficient milk production), and 8 (10%) were using only formula milk (7 by choice and 2 owing to ongoing feeding difficulties). Of the 17 mothers still experiencing symptoms, 5 were exclusively breast-feeding, and 8 were persisting with combined feeds. Infants attending our tongue-tie clinic achieved both higher exclusive breastfeeding and combined breast and bottle-feeding when compared to national breast-feeding data at 3months of age. This can facilitate the achievement of long-term breastfeeding, exposing infants and mothers to many of the associated benefits. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. We only talk about breast feeding: a discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Fenwick; Elaine, Burns; Athena, Sheehan; Virginia, Schmied

    2013-05-01

    the aim of the study was to examine the dominant discourses that midwives draw on to present information on breast feeding in group-based antenatal education sessions. breast-feeding initiation rates are high among Australian women however, duration rates are low. Antenatal breast-feeding education is considered a key strategy in promoting breast feeding to childbearing women. The efficacy and effectiveness of such a strategy is equivocal and there is little qualitative work examining group-based antenatal breast-feeding education. discourse analysis was used to explore the language and practises of midwives facilitating group antenatal breast-feeding education sessions at two Australian maternity facilities. Nine sessions were observed and tape recorded over a 12 month period. Each session lasted between 60 and 140 mins. the analysis revealed four dominate discourses midwives used to promote breast feeding during group-based antenatal education session. The predominant discourses 'There is only one feeding option': breast feeding' and 'Selling the 'breast is best' reflected how midwives used their personal and professional commitment to breast feeding, within supportive and protective policy frameworks, to convince as many pregnant women as possible to commit to breast feeding. Sessions were organised to ensure women and their partners were 'armed' with as much information as possible about the value of breastmilk, successful positioning and attachment and practical strategies to deal with early breast-feeding problems. Antenatal commitment to breast feeding was deemed necessary if women were to overcome potential hurdles and maintain a commitment to the supply of breast milk. The latter two discourses, drawn upon to promote the breast-feeding message, presented infants as 'hard wired' to breast feed and male partners as 'protectors' of breast feeding. midwives clearly demonstrated a passion and enthusiasm for breast-feeding education. Examining the dominant

  18. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient. Semi-automatic detection (depending on grey levels threshold manually chosen by radiologist) was compared with results of two expert radiologists; inter-observer variability and reliability of semi-automatic approach were assessed. Anatomic analysis of breast lesions revealed that 20% of patients had masses in internal half, 50% in external half and the 30% in subareolar/central area. As regards the 44 tumors in internal half, based on radiologic consensus, 40 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (61% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 14% by lateral thoracic vessels, 16% by both thoracic vessels and 9% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (66% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 11% by lateral thoracic vessels, 9% by both thoracic vessels and 14% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (25% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 39% by lateral thoracic vessels, 18% by both thoracic vessels and 18% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (27% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 45% by lateral thoracic vessels, 4% by both thoracic vessels and 24% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel. An excellent reliability for semi-automatic assessment (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96) was reported. Predominant feeding vessel location was correlated with breast lesion location: internal thoracic artery supplied the highest proportion of breasts with tumor in internal half and lateral thoracic

  19. Infant feeding practices and the decline of breast feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Nahedh, N N; Morley, D C

    1994-01-01

    Socioeconomic change in Saudi Arabia over the last two to three decades has introduced many foreign ideas into the country, many of which have influenced the Saudi people and changed long-established habits. The present level of breast feeding remains much higher in Saudi Arabia than in some other developing countries, but there is nonetheless a trend toward bottle feeding both in urban and rural areas. The increasing tendency to feed by bottle, especially among illiterate mothers and under bad hygienic conditions, must be stopped. Most of these mothers can successfully breastfeed their babies. A lack of breast milk and pregnancy have been stated as the reasons for giving artificial feeds by the majority of mothers in most studies from Saudi Arabia, although high purchasing capacity, easy availability, excessive advertisements, and acceptance of the promotion of artificial feeds may also be reasons for the increasing tendency to bottle feed. Widespread ignorance of modern research on breast feeding by the medical profession and nurses also drives many health personnel to either encourage or ignore the trend. The use of raw milk for infant feeding is a common practice in certain areas where brucellosis is endemic. Poor supplementation with solid food is a common problem in developing countries and is a major cause of malnutrition, since supplementation hastens the discontinuation of breast feeding. Supplementation and the allowance of fluids other than breast milk must be discouraged from the beginning.

  20. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  1. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  2. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... labeling. (b) Where a specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

  3. [Breast feeding: an effective method to prevent breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, Maria J; González Jiménez, E; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C A; Mur Villar, N; García López, P A; Valenza Peña, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological tumor in young women in Western countries. Its profound implications for health and an increasingly early age of diagnosis have been carefully analyzed its causes and possible preventive measures, making their study in a primary goal of epidemiological research. We reviewed medical records pertaining to 504 female patients aged 19 to 91 years. All of them were diagnosed and treated for breast cancer between 2003-2008 at the Hospital Universitario "San Cecilio" of Granada (Spain). We found a significant correlation (p = 0.001) between the age of cancer diagnosis, length of breastfeeding, and the existence of personal and family history for cancer. By contrast, there were no statistically significant differences test (t-test) between the average age of diagnosis of cancer and having had offspring or not (t = 0.559, p = 0.576). Breastfeeding for periods of longer than six months, not only provides children with many health benefits, but may also protect the mother from serious diseases, such as breast cancer.

  4. Do state breastfeeding laws in the USA promote breast feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-03-01

    Despite the passage of state laws promoting breast feeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breast feeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the USA creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326 263 mothers from 32 states in the USA. For each mother, we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breast fed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and, if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breast feed for ≥4 weeks. Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breast feed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. State laws that support breast feeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breast feeding.

  5. Feeding at the Breast and Expressed Milk Feeding: Associations with Otitis Media and Diarrhea in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    To examine the associations of substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery with occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea in the first year of life. At 12 months postpartum, women (n = 813; 62% response) completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographics, infant occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea, and the timing of starting/stopping feeding at the breast, expressed milk, and formula. Women who intended to "bottle feed" exclusively were not recruited. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were conducted in the full sample (n = 491) and no-formula (n = 106) and bottle-only (n = 49) subsamples. Longer duration of expressed milk feeding was associated with increased odds of experiencing otitis media (6-month OR [OR6-month] 2.15, 95% CI 1.01-4.55) in the no-formula subsample. Longer durations of breast milk feeding (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92; 6-month incidence rate ratio [IRR6-month] 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.91), and feeding at the breast (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.89; IRR6-month 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88) were associated with less diarrhea, and longer formula feeding duration was associated with increased risk of diarrhea (IRR6-month 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.54) in the full sample. Substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery have different contributions to infant health depending on the health outcome of interest. Feeding at the breast may be advantageous compared with expressed milk feeding for reducing the risk of otitis media, and breast milk feeding compared with formula may reduce the risk of diarrhea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fifteen-minute consultation on the healthy child: breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleugh, F; Langseth, A

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive evidence about the benefits of breast feeding for both infants and mothers, breastfeeding rates in the UK remain low. Most infants presenting with feeding issues are otherwise well but are often over diagnosed with clinical conditions such as maternal milk insufficiency, cow's milk intolerance or reflux. With simple advice and troubleshooting common problems, all child health professionals can support mothers to establish and continue breast feeding exclusively for longer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...... of breast feeding and subsequent diabetes risk....... for their post-natal health visitor records. These include data on birth weight, birth length, immunizations, and feeding habits. A total of 77 cases were re-identified. No differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics between these cases and those not identified. For each diabetic subject, two...

  8. Breast feeding: preventive therapy for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for six months, continued along with top feed up to the age of 2 years and beyond, is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization. Apart from the various benefits that it provides, breast feeding may also serve to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers, and type 1 diabetes and overweight/ obesity in their offspring. This review discusses the evidence related to breastfeeding and type 2 diabetes. It highlights pertinent aspects of breast feeding management, which can help facilitate optimal use of this natural preventive intervention.

  9. Influences of household structure and composition on breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deang, L P; Doan, R M; Popkin, B M

    1988-01-01

    Researchers applied longitudinal data on 2884 women who were at least 6 months pregnant between May 1983-April 1984 and living in the Cebu metropolitan area, the Philippines to examine assumptions which may explain the association between lower breast feeding levels and dwindling social support for mothers who breast feed in urban areas. Extended family households were much more common in urban areas than rural areas (46.3% vs. 27.5%). This finding did not support the 3rd assumption of falling extended family patterns with urbanization. Further as the levels of complexity and extension of the household rose so did infant care support regardless of location. For example, the number of hours of help with infant care for mothers in nuclear families in urban areas was 1.23 which climbed from 2.53 for horizontal extended families to 2.9 for vertical extended families and to 3.09 for horizontal and vertical extended families. This result supported the 2nd assumption of much more social support in extended families than nuclear families. Yet social support did not translate into promotion of breast feeding--the 1st assumption. Mothers in horizontally extended families had a lower likelihood of breast feeding than those in nuclear families. Further only adult female relatives of the same generation as the mother has a negative influence on breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In fact, female children of at least 7 years old, female servants, and yayas all negatively affect breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In rural households, young female relatives (at least 7 years old) significantly increased the probability of breast feeding whereas young male relatives decreased the probability.

  10. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U

    1991-07-01

    This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.

  11. Direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, R

    2011-08-01

    Rates of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge are low in premature infants due to the many associated challenges. Although there are many benefits associated with breast milk, the effects of direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between direct breast-feeding (infant sucking directly from the breast) and duration and success with breast milk feedings until discharge in premature infants. This retrospective cohort was conducted on 66 very-low birth weight infants whose mothers initiated breast milk feedings in the NICU. Chart review revealed documented type (breast milk with or without fortifiers or type of infant formula), volume and mode (nasogastric tube, breast or bottle) of all gastric feeds for each day of NICU hospitalization. From this documentation, whether the mother initiated breast milk feedings, the number of times the mother put the infant to breast, the gestational age of the first direct breast-feeding, whether the first oral feeding was at the breast, the duration of breast milk feedings and whether breast milk feedings continued until NICU discharge were determined. Associations between breast-feeding participatory factors and breast milk feeding outcomes were investigated using linear and logistic regression. Positive associations were found between breast milk feedings at discharge and mothers putting their infants directly to breast in the NICU (P=0.0005). The duration of breast milk feedings was associated with: mothers putting their infants directly to breast (P=0.0110), whether the first oral sucking feeding was at the breast (P=0.0108) and the gestational age of the first breast-feeding attempt (PBreast milk feedings are encouraged in most NICU's, but direct breast-feeding is often overlooked as an important area of research in the tightly controlled environment of the NICU. This study demonstrates a link between direct

  12. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  13. Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana

    2014-06-01

    Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Turti; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; I. A. Belyaeva; E. P. Zimina; M. D. Mitish; E. A. Bakovich; N. Y. Savvateeva

    2014-01-01

    The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, ...

  15. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan: for activities to support child-rearing with breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Akiyo; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Eise; Miyake, Takeo; Harano, Satoru; Suzuki, Kenshu; Ibuka, Eiji; Tsutsui, Takako; YukoYamamoto; Ohida, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    Benefits of breast-feeding are not only limited to nutrition and sanitation in developing countries but also extend to cost-saving health care and alleviation of anxiety related to childrearing in developed countries. This study aims to elucidate factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan and use this information to achieve child-rearing support worldwide by promoting breast-feeding. This cross-sectional study used data from a survey conducted by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of the Japanese government, the First Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century. All subjects were infants (n=53,575) born in Japan in 2001 between January 10 and 17 and between July 10 and 17. According to the data, the exclusive breast-feeding rate in Japan during the first 6 months of life was 21.0%. We examined the factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Among the factors examined, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for exclusive breast-feeding was low for late childbearing, low birth weight infants, multiple births, smoking parents, living with grandparents, and feeling burdened by childrearing. The adjusted OR was high for factors that included sufficient childcare leave and consultation about childrearing with the spouse, a birth attendant and/or nurse, and a peer in a child-rearing circle. Exclusive breast-feeding is associated not only with medical factors but also with social factors. This study clarifies the necessity of social support to reduce the child rearing burden and a political system to promote paternal participation in childrearing and to improve the childcare leave system.

  16. Oxytocin administered during labor and breast-feeding: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fortea, Pedro; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Cazorla, Olga; Delgado-Ríos, M; González-Valenzuela, María J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between labor physiology and the onset of lactation leads to assess the potential correlation between oxytocin administration during labor and duration of breast-feeding. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study where patients given synthetic oxytocin during labor induction were considered as the exposed cohort, and patients not given oxytocin formed the non-exposed cohort. Four hundred of the 7465 children born at our maternity during 2006 were randomly selected. Information about breast-feeding was available for 316 of these children. Eventual confounding or adjustment factors were analyzed using stratified and multivariate analysis. Oxytocin was used for delivery of 189 (59.8%) newborns, multiplying the risk of bottle-feeding by 1.451 (95% CI 1.28-1.63). The best-fit regression model of oxytocin use effect on bottle-feeding included sex and gestational age of the newborn. The use of oxytocin also multiplies the risk of breast-feeding withdrawal at 3 months by 2.29 (95% CI 1.41-3.74). This effect is confounded by maternal age, being higher for mothers under 27 years. Oxytocin administration during labor had some impact on both onset and duration of breast-feeding, particularly in mothers under 27 years of age and newborns delivered at term. Clinical Study registered at U.S. NCT01951040.

  17. Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærug, Anne; Laake, Petter; Løland, Beate Fossum; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tufte, Elisabeth; Fretheim, Atle

    2017-08-01

    In high-income countries, lower socioeconomic position is associated with lower rates of breast feeding, but it is unclear what factors explain this inequality. Our objective was to examine the association between socioeconomic position and exclusive breast feeding, and to explore whether socioeconomic inequality in exclusive breast feeding could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics, for example, maternal age and parity, smoking habits, birth characteristics, quality of counselling and breastfeeding difficulties. We used data from a questionnaire sent to mothers when their infants were five completed months as part of a trial of a breastfeeding intervention in Norway. We used maternal education as an indicator of socioeconomic position. Analyses of 1598 mother-infant pairs were conducted using logistic regression to assess explanatory factors of educational inequalities in breast feeding. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding were present from the beginning and persisted for five completed months, when 22% of the most educated mothers exclusively breast fed compared with 7% of the least educated mothers: OR 3.39 (95% CI 1.74 to 6.61). After adjustment for all potentially explanatory factors, the OR was reduced to 1.49 (95% CI 0.70 to 3.14). This decrease in educational inequality seemed to be mainly driven by sociodemographic factors, smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, in particular perceived milk insufficiency. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding at 5 months were largely explained by sociodemographic factors, but also by modifiable factors, such as smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, which can be amenable to public health interventions. NCT01025362. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Excessive weight gain during full breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Maria; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Breast-feeding is considered to offer optimal nutrition for healthy infant growth and development. Observational studies have linked breast-feeding to reduced obesity. CASE OBSERVATION: We observed an infant who was born macrosomic (4.56 kg) and showed excessive weight gain markedly exceeding the 97th percentile of weight during full breast-feeding. At the age of 4 months, the weight was greater than 11 kg. Clinical evaluation did not reveal any underlying pathology. After the introduction of complementary feeding and hence reduction of the breast milk intake, the excessive weight gain was attenuated and the slope of the percentile curve paralleled upper percentiles. Since this pattern suggested full breast-feeding as the driver of excessive weight gain, we analyzed the human milk composition at the infant age of 1 year and compared the results with published data on composition at this stage of lactation. The milk contents of lactose, fat, fatty acids, polar lipids, carnitine species, and insulin were similar to the reference data. The adiponectin content was increased. The most remarkable alteration was a high milk protein content (mean 1.25 g/dl, reference 0.8 g/dl). A very high protein supply in infancy has been previously shown to increase plasma concentrations of the growth factors insulin and IGF-1, weight gain, and later obesity. We speculate that interindividual variations in human milk adiponectin and protein contents may contribute to modulation of the growth of fully breast-fed infants and in this case may have contributed to excessive weight gain during full breast-feeding. This hypothesis merits being tested in future cohort studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Breast feeding and early adolescent behaviour, self-esteem and depression: Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-11-01

    Breast feeding may contribute to neurological development and hence mental health. However, associations from Western populations are unclear, and most likely confounded by socioeconomic position (SEP), making evidence from other sociocultural settings valuable. We examined whether breast feeding was associated with early adolescent emotional and behavioural problems, self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a non-Western developed setting, where socioeconomic patterning of breast feeding differs from but other postnatal characteristics are similar to Western settings. The adjusted associations of breast feeding with emotional and behavioural problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter z-score at ~11 years (n=5598, 67% follow-up), self-reported self-esteem z-score at ~11 years (n=6937, 84%) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 z-score at ~13 years (n=5797, 70%) were examined using multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, 'Children of 1997'. Mothers from families with higher education tended to start but not sustain breast feeding, whereas migrant mothers tended to start and sustain breast feeding. Breast feeding for 3+ months had mostly null associations with Rutter score, self-esteem or depressive symptoms adjusted for sex, age, survey mode, SEP, parents' age, birth weight-for-gestational age, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure, although partial breast feeding for any length of time or exclusive breast feeding for <3 months was associated with poorer behaviour (higher Rutter z-score (0.10, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.16)) and lower self-esteem (-0.09, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04). In a non-Western developed setting, breast feeding was inconsistently associated with several early adolescent mental health measures suggesting a reflection of setting specific unmeasured confounding.

  20. Early postpartum breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy in Turkish mothers undergoing vaginal birth or cesarean birth with different types of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alus Tokat, Merlinda; Serçekuş, Pinar; Yenal, Kerziban; Okumuş, Hülya

    2015-04-01

    To compare the breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy, in the first 24 postpartum hours, of mothers who underwent vaginal birth, cesarean birth with epidural anesthesia, and cesarean birth with general anesthesia. A comparative study was conducted in Turkey. A total of 334 mothers participated. Data were evaluated through descriptive data form, breast-feeding outcomes form, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale. It was observed that the mothers who had cesarean birth with general anesthesia experienced more breast-feeding problems. With regard to breast-feeding self-efficacy, all the groups were similar. For reducing breast-feeding problems, nurses should provide more care and support to mothers undergoing cesarean birth. Therefore, the fact that the breast-feeding self-efficacy was similar among the groups might be related to culture. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  1. Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, M; Mizuno, K; Murase, M; Nishida, Y; Itabashi, K; Mukai, Y

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the changes in feeding behaviour from 1 to 6 months of age. By comparing breast- and bottle-feeding, we intended to clarify the difference in longitudinal sucking performance. Sucking variables were consecutively measured for 16 breast-fed and eight bottle-fed infants at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. For breast-feeding, number of sucks per burst (17.8 +/- 8.8, 23.8 +/- 8.3 and 32.4 +/- 15.3 times), sucking burst duration (11.2 +/- 6.1, 14.7 +/- 8.0 and 17.9 +/- 8.8 sec) and number of sucking bursts per feed (33.9 +/- 13.9, 28.0 +/- 18.2 and 18.6 +/- 12.8 times) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age respectively showed significant differences between 1 and 6 months of age (p feed did not differ among different ages. Bottle-feeding resulted in longer sucking bursts and more sucks per burst compared with breast-feeding in each month (p bottle-fed infants.

  2. [Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding, sucking habits and malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Medeiros-Bezerra, Priscila K; Moura, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at verifying the prevalence of nutritive (breast-feeding and bottle-feeding) and non-nutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children. The study was a cross-sectional oral health survey of 342 children (196 boys and 146 girls) between the ages of 3 and 5 in Campina Grande, Brazil. The data was collected by interviews with the children's mothers or minders and by clinical examinations carried out by a calibrated examiner (kappa = 0,86). Descriptive statistics using the EPI-INFO Program (version 3.3) and Chi-square test at 0.05 probability level were produced. Sucking habit prevalence was very high in all groups, ranging from 70 % to 77,4 %. Malocclusion was present in 87 %, dummy use in 84,8 % and finger-sucking in 7,2 %. About 84,2 % of the children had a history of bottle-feeding and 79,9 % showed some evidence of malocclusion at the time of dental examination. There were significant differences for the following variables: sucking habits and malocclusion; breast-feeding time and sucking habits; breast-feeding time and malocclusion; type of feeding and sucking habits; and type of feeding and malocclusion. Dummy-sucking incidence was higher than that of finger-sucking in Brazilian children. Sucking habit incidence was higher in bottle-fed children than in breast-fed children. The relationship between incidence of habits and malocclusion was statistically significant.

  3. Factors contributing to early breast-feeding cessation among Chinese mothers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Wu, Kendra M

    2014-10-01

    Although more than 85% of all new mothers in Hong Kong now initiate breast feeding, few exclusively breast feed and the overall duration is short. More than one-third stop breast feeding within the first month post partum. To explore the breast-feeding experiences of Hong Kong Chinese mothers who prematurely discontinue breast feeding and to identify contributing factors that might be remediated to help women breast feed longer. Qualitative exploratory study. In-depth, exploratory interviews were carried out with 24 new mothers who stopped breast feeding within one month after birth, and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five core themes emerged from the data: unnatural expectations, left to figure it out, uncertainty, unfulfilling experiences, and guilt versus relief. Because breast feeding is 'natural' participants expected that it would come naturally and thus be easy. When breast feeding did not happen naturally, however, midwives were too busy to provide breast-feeding support and mothers were left to figure it out on their own. Participants also reported difficulty in gauging whether the infant was getting adequate nutrition from their breastmilk. Few participants had positive breast-feeding experiences; while the decision to stop breast feeding caused guilt for most participants, others expressed relief at stopping breast feeding. Greater postnatal breast-feeding support, both in the hospital and after the mother returns home, would likely increase the mother׳s confidence and enhance her mothering experience. Further antenatal and postnatal education on the realistic breast-feeding expectations and the amount of breastmilk required by babies is also important. More research is needed to test professional and peer support breast-feeding interventions to provide guidance to policy makers on the most effective breast-feeding support strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthy late preterm infants and supplementary artificial milk feeds: effects on breast feeding and associated clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Elisabet; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Wickström, Maria; Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Volgsten, Helena

    2015-04-01

    to compare the influence of supplementary artificial milk feeds on breast feeding and certain clinical parameters among healthy late preterm infants given regular supplementary artificial milk feeds versus being exclusively breast fed from birth. a comparative study using quantitative methods. Data were collected via a parental diary and medical records. parents of 77 late preterm infants (34 5/7-36 6/7 weeks), whose mothers intended to breast feed, completed a diary during the infants׳ hospital stay. infants who received regular supplementary artificial milk feeds experienced a longer delay before initiation of breast feeding, were breast fed less frequently and had longer hospital stays than infants exclusively breast fed from birth. Exclusively breast-fed infants had a greater weight loss than infants with regular artificial milk supplementation. A majority of the mothers (65%) with an infant prescribed artificial milk never expressed their milk and among the mothers who used a breast-pump, milk expression commenced late (10-84 hours after birth). At discharge, all infants were breast fed to some extent, 43% were exclusively breast fed. clinical practice and routines influence the initiation of breast feeding among late preterm infants and may act as barriers to the mothers׳ establishment of exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of breast-feeding frequency on hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed term neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Juang; Yeh, Tsu-Fu; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemic neonates have significantly less bodyweight gain from nursery discharge to outpatient department (OPD) follow up. We tested the hypothesis that discharge instructions encouraging frequent breast-feeding given in the nursery would increase infant bodyweight gain and decrease the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled consecutively live-born neonates who were discharged from the nursery and who received OPD follow up within the first 2 weeks of birth in 2011. The nursing staff discussed the discharge instructions with the parents at the time of nursery discharge. Parents were asked to fill in a nursing information form to record the frequency of breast-feeding and diaper change per day. Parents of 98 breast-fed term neonates provided complete nursing information forms. These 98 neonates were classified into two groups according to breast-feeding frequency, namely breast-feeding frequency and diaper change frequency per day indicated that the data were highly reliable. The gestational age, Apgar score, birthweight, and bodyweight at nursery discharge and at OPD were similar between the two groups. Neonates who were breast-fed ≥8 times/day had a significantly lower incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Nursery discharge instructions that encouraged mothers to breast-feed their newborns frequently decreased the rate of hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breast-fed term neonates. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, R.; Islam, A.; Hamadani, J; Amin, N. J.; Kabir, I.; Malek, M. A.; D Mahalanabis; Habte, D

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by th...

  7. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  8. Breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration among Hong Kong Chinese women: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Kin Sin

    2014-06-01

    to (1) estimate the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration rate; (2) identify the reasons to initiate and wean breast feeding and (3) explore predictors of breast-feeding duration. a prospective longitudinal study antenatal clinics of five regional hospitals from four clusters in Hong Kong a population-based sample of 2098 women in the second trimester of pregnancy was recruited with a systematic sampling method. three different sets of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration, demographic, socio-economic, obstetric, complications of pregnancy and intrapartum variables at three time points. Reasons for initiating and weaning breast feeding, the formal and informal supportive resources of participants during breast feeding were collated at the third time points. the rates of artificial feeding and breast feeding were 41.1% and 58.9%, whereas breast-feeding intention and initiation rates were 85.3% and 67.0%, respectively. The breast-feeding duration rates were 11.1%, 10.3%, 10.7% and 26.7%, for the 'within 3-6 weeks' and '>6 weeks' groups. The common reasons for initiating breast feeding were that breast feeding is beneficial for both the baby (89.8%) and mother (39.7%). Reasons for weaning breast feeding were insufficient breast milk (32.7%), tiredness and fatigue (39.7%) and return to work (29.6%). Partner, relatives and nurse midwives were important supportive resource during breast feeding. Ordinal logistic regression analysis identified five predictive factors of breast-feeding duration. Participants who were working part-time or were housewives (p=0.037), had monthly family income of breast-feeding intention (p=0.001) and early breast feeding within the first hour (pbreast feeding than their counterparts. mothers in Hong Kong do not meet the recommendation of the international standards for breast feeding. Understanding of reasons for initiation, weaning and predictors of breast-feeding

  9. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Design Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. Setting England and Wales, UK. Participants Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August–September 2005 and August–October 2010. Main outcome measure Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Results Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays–Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Conclusions Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. PMID:27401354

  10. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-07-08

    To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. England and Wales, UK. Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August-September 2005 and August-October 2010. Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays-Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The Influence of Smoking on Breast feeding Among Women Who Quit Smoking During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Heather M; Emery, Rebecca L; Bogen, Debra L; Levine, Michele D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding factors related to breast-feeding intention, initiation, duration, and weaning among women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy may inform interventions to increase breast-feeding rates among women who smoke. Women (N = 300) who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy and enrolled in a postpartum relapse prevention trial were interviewed about breast-feeding intention prior to delivery. Breast-feeding initiation, duration, reasons for weaning, and relapse to smoking were assessed at 12-weeks postpartum. The majority of pregnant former smokers intended to breastfeed (68%), and actual rates of breast feeding were higher (74%). Among women who initiated breast feeding, weaning before 2 months was common (41%). For most women (69%), smoking had no effect on breast-feeding decisions. Among the 31% of women who reported that smoking influenced their feeding decisions, 83% indicated that they did not smoke or decreased smoking frequency in order to breastfeed while 17% did not breastfeed or quit breast feeding in order to smoke. Women who decided to forgo breast feeding to smoke were significantly more likely to have a high school education or less (p breast feeding, and the majority report smoking did not influence feeding decisions. Importantly, among women for whom smoking did influence feeding decisions, most reported changing smoking behavior to enable breast feeding. Interventions to increase breast-feeding initiation and duration may decrease postpartum relapse and improve maternal and infant health. This study extends the literature on women's perception of the influence of smoking on breast feeding by assessing breast-feeding intent, initiation, duration, and reasons for weaning longitudinally among women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy. The results support a need for additional research to determine the effectiveness of breast feeding supports as a component of interventions to reduce postpartum smoking relapse.

  12. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain? Data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiday, R E; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K N

    2004-09-01

    To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. A longitudinal cohort study. Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the study. In all, 502 usable diaries were returned from 54% of the cohort. Breast-fed infants were fed more frequently (2.71 h between feeds) than bottle-fed infants (3.25 h between feeds) and mixed-fed infants (3.14 h between feeds) (Pweight gain at 6 weeks for breast-feeders, but no analysed factors were associated with higher weight gain for bottle-feeders. This large-scale study of first-week feeding patterns sheds light on the important and complicated issues of breast-feeding continuation and infant weight gain, with implications for the feeding advice given to mothers. Supplementary bottle feeds were clearly associated with discontinued breast-feeding at 6 weeks. Over that period, higher weight gain was associated with more frequent feeding for breast-fed infants only. Henry Smith Charity, SPARKS, Child Growth Foundation. Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  13. African American women's infant feeding choices: prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and narratives from a black feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.

  14. Symptoms of maternal depression immediately after delivery predict unsuccessful breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luigi; Petrozzi, Angela; Rusconi, Franca

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal depression may interfere with breast feeding. This study tested the ability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to predict later breast feeding problems, hypothesising that risk of unsuccessful breast feeding increased with increasing EPDS scores, even at low values. The authors administered the EPDS on days 2-3 after delivery to 592 mothers of a healthy baby. Feeding method was recorded at 12-14 weeks. Median EPDS score was 5 (IQR 2 -8); 15.7% of women scored >9. At 12-14 weeks, 50.7% of infants received full breast feeding, 21.0% mixed breast feeding and 28.4% bottle feeding. Mothers with higher EPDS scores were more likely to bottle feed at 3 months; the odds of bottle feeding increased with EPDS result, even at low scores (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11). Higher EPDS scores immediately after delivery were associated with later breast feeding failure.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-10-01

    Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding.

  16. Breast-Feeding Tied to Lower Heart, Stroke Risk for Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or stroke later in life, versus women who bottle-fed their babies. How might breast-feeding help heart health? One theory holds that breast- ... who'd breast-fed, versus those who'd bottle-fed. It also appeared that the ... of breast-feeding per baby, the odds of cardiovascular trouble declined ...

  17. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  18. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  19. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  20. Parturients' Awareness and Perception of Benefits of Breast Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with similar dental erosion to that of formula and more than that of plain cow milk.19 In addition, this is also sequel to the issue of rampant caries associated with night breastfeeding whereby mothers leave the breast nipple in the mouth of the infants to comfort them while they sleep, and this feeding method or ...

  1. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  2. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    348 Results ... Abstract A stratified randOlll cluster survey, using a struc- tured interview schedule, was perfonned to deter- tnine the prevalence, frequency and duration of breast-feeding alllong Venda lllothers as well as the foods that Venda children COllllllOnly ate in their first 2 years oflife. Nearly all children under. 2 years ...

  3. Complete coverage and covering completely: Breast feeding and complementary feeding: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil; Thapar, R K; Gupta, R K

    2018-01-01

    Knowing current trends for timely comprehensive action for health promotion practices is an important prerequisite for medical practitioners and policy makers. A survey of mothers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in central India. On the knowledge front >83.75% of the mothers studied showed good knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Similar, but not as encouraging, were the results about attitude, with 76.25% of mothers having a positive attitude. The results of the practices part were varied. The WHO indicators assessed were 'early initiation of breastfeeding' (68.75%), 'exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months' (85%) (however exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months was carried out by only 36.25%), 'introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods' (48.75%), 'continued breastfeeding at 1 year' (63.75%) and 'continued breastfeeding at 2 years' (6.25%). There is a discrepancy between knowledge and practices. The exclusive breast feeding rates are far from the ideal and there is a decline of continued breast feeding beyond 15 months. This calls for sustained efforts with the aim - 'cover all and cover completely'. The ideal WHO indicator for exclusive breast feeding should be 'exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months' which will provide information about the completeness of this ideal practice.

  4. Reproductive history, breast-feeding and risk of triple negative breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Etiology in Minorities (BEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Hines, Lisa M; Phipps, Amanda I; Koo, Jocelyn; Longacre, Teri A; Ingles, Sue A; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Slattery, Martha L; Wu, Anna H

    2018-01-13

    Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data from three population-based studies (558 TNBC and 5,111 controls) and examined associations of TNBC risk with reproductive history and breast-feeding. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression. For younger women, aged breast-fed compared to nulliparous women (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.12-3.63). For younger parous women, longer duration of lifetime breast-feeding was associated with a borderline reduced risk (≥24 vs. 0 months: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.26-1.04, P trend  = 0.06). Considering the joint effect of parity and breast-feeding, risk was increased two-fold for women with ≥3 full-term pregnancies (FTPs) and no or short-term (breast-feeding compared to women with 1-2 FTPs and breast-feeding ≥12 months (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.22-5.35). None of these associations were observed among older women (≥50 years). Differences in reproductive patterns possibly contribute to the ethnic differences in TNBC incidence. Among controls aged breast-feeding and ≥3 FTPs was highest for Hispanics (22%), followed by African Americans (18%), Asian Americans (15%) and non-Hispanic whites (6%). Breast-feeding is a modifiable behavioral factor that may lower TNBC risk and mitigate the effect of FTPs in women under age 50 years. © 2018 UICC.

  5. Breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility: what are the mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacker, A; Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Cable, N; Bartley, M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility and the possible mediating role of neurological and stress mechanisms. Secondary analysis of data from the 1958 and the 1970 British Cohort Studies. Longitudinal study of individuals born in Britain during 1 week in 1958 and 1970. 17 419 individuals participated in the 1958 cohort and 16 771 in the 1970 cohort. The effect of breast feeding on intergenerational social mobility from age 10/11 to age 33/34 was analysed after multiple imputations to fill in missing data and propensity score matching on a wide range of confounders measured in childhood (1958 cohort N=16 039-16 154; 1970 cohort N=16 255-16 361). Own Registrar General's Social Class (RGSC) at 33/34 years adjusted for father's RGSC at 10/11 years, gender and their interaction. Breastfed individuals were more likely to be upwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38; 1970 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) and less likely to be downwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 0.81 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90; 1970 cohort: OR 0.79 95% CI 0.71 to 0.88). In an ordinal regression model, markers of neurological development (cognitive test scores) and stress (emotional stress scores) accounted for approximately 36% of the relationship between breast feeding and social mobility. Breast feeding increased the odds of upward social mobility and decreased the odds of downward mobility. Consistent with a causal explanation, the findings were robust to matching on a large number of observable variables and effect sizes were alike for two cohorts with different social distributions of breast feeding. The effect was mediated in part through neurological and stress mechanisms.

  6. Breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility: what are the mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacker, A; Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Cable, N; Bartley, M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility and the possible mediating role of neurological and stress mechanisms. Design Secondary analysis of data from the 1958 and the 1970 British Cohort Studies. Setting Longitudinal study of individuals born in Britain during 1 week in 1958 and 1970. Participants 17 419 individuals participated in the 1958 cohort and 16 771 in the 1970 cohort. The effect of breast feeding on intergenerational social mobility from age 10/11 to age 33/34 was analysed after multiple imputations to fill in missing data and propensity score matching on a wide range of confounders measured in childhood (1958 cohort N=16 039–16 154; 1970 cohort N=16 255–16 361). Main outcome measures Own Registrar General's Social Class (RGSC) at 33/34 years adjusted for father's RGSC at 10/11 years, gender and their interaction. Results Breastfed individuals were more likely to be upwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38; 1970 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) and less likely to be downwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 0.81 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90; 1970 cohort: OR 0.79 95% CI 0.71 to 0.88). In an ordinal regression model, markers of neurological development (cognitive test scores) and stress (emotional stress scores) accounted for approximately 36% of the relationship between breast feeding and social mobility. Conclusions Breast feeding increased the odds of upward social mobility and decreased the odds of downward mobility. Consistent with a causal explanation, the findings were robust to matching on a large number of observable variables and effect sizes were alike for two cohorts with different social distributions of breast feeding. The effect was mediated in part through neurological and stress mechanisms. PMID:23798701

  7. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  9. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  10. UTX promotes hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis through feed-forward transcription regulation with estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G; Liu, X; Zhang, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Chen, Z; Xu, B; Yang, J; He, L; Zhang, Z; Jin, T; Yi, X; Sun, L; Shang, Y; Liang, J

    2017-09-28

    UTX is implicated in embryonic development and lineage specification. However, how this X-linked histone demethylase contributes to the occurrence and progression of breast cancer remains to be clarified. Here we report that UTX is physically associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and functions in ER-regulated transcription. We showed that UTX coordinates with JHDM1D and CBP to direct H3K27 methylation-acetylation transition and to create a permissive chromatin state on ER targets. Genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional targets of UTX by ChIP-seq identified a set of genes such as chemokine receptor CXCR4 that are intimately involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. We demonstrated that UTX promotes the proliferation and migration of ER(+) breast cancer cells. Interestingly, UTX itself is transactivated by ER, forming a feed-forward loop in the regulation of hormone response. Indeed, UTX is upregulated during ER(+) breast cancer progression, and the expression level of UTX is positively correlated with that of CXCR4 and negatively correlated with the overall survival of ER(+) breast cancer patients. Our study identified a feed-forward loop between UTX and ER in the regulation of hormonally responsive breast carcinogenesis, supporting the pursuit of UTX as an emerging therapeutic target for the intervention of certain ER(+) breast cancer with specific epigenetic vulnerability.

  11. Breast-feeding improves gut maturation compared with formula feeding in preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kostan W; de Vaan, Loes; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Derikx, Joep P M

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is higher in formula-fed babies than in breast-fed babies, which may be caused by breast-feeding-induced gut maturation. The effect of breast-feeding on gut maturation has been widely studied in animal models. This study aimed to assess the effects of breast-feeding on intestinal maturation in prematurely born babies by evaluating postnatal changes in urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels, a specific enterocyte marker. Gut maturation in 40 premature babies (breast-fed and 19 were formula-fed infants. Urinary I-FABP levels as the measure of gut maturation were measured at 5, 12, 19, and 26 days after birth. In breast-fed infants, there was a significant increase in median urinary I-FABP levels between 5 and 12 days after birth (104 [78-340] pg/mL to 408 [173-1028] pg/mL, P = 0.002), whereas I-FABP concentration in formula-fed infants increased between 12 and 19 days after birth (105 [44-557] pg/mL, 723 [103-1670] pg/mL, P = 0.004). Breast-fed babies had significantly higher median urinary I-FABP levels at postnatal day 12 (P = 0.01). The time course of the postnatal increase in urinary I-FABP levels reflecting gut maturation was significantly delayed in formula-fed babies, suggesting a delayed physiological response in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants.

  12. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, therefore, various functional digestive disorders (aerophagias, regurgitations, flatulence, colics. It is important to ensure proper latching of the baby to the breast, as it is conductive of effective sucking, and recover complete breast feeding in the event of temporary supplementary and mixed feeding. The article presents results of a trial conducted at the FSBI Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Use of special medical products (nipples, phials developed on the basis of thorough study of maternal breast sucking physiology in the breast feeding termination risk group children (n = 33 allows maintaining children’s need in breast feeding and promotes effective breast feeding recovery.Key words: breast feeding, aerophagia, neonates, premature children, causes of weaning, special medical products (phials, nipples.

  13. Breast-feeding Duration: Early Weaning-Do We Sufficiently Consider the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karall, Daniela; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Heichlinger, Angelika; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Stojakovic, Sarah; Leitner, Hermann; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the recommended form of nutrition for the first 6 months. This target is unmet, however, in most industrialized regions. We evaluated aspects of breast-feeding in a cohort of mother-baby dyads. Breast-feeding practices in 555 mother-baby dyads were prospectively studied for 24 months (personal interview at birth and 7 structured telephone interviews). Of the babies, 71.3% were fully breast-fed on discharge from maternity hospitals and 11.9% were partially breast-feed. Median breast-feeding duration was 6.93 (interquartile range 2.57-11.00) months; for full (exclusive) breast-feeding 5.62 (interquartile range 3.12-7.77) months; 61.7% received supplemental feedings during the first days of life. Breast-feeding duration in babies receiving supplemental feedings was significantly shorter (median 5.06 months versus 8.21 months, P breast-feeding. Risk factors for early weaning were early supplemental feedings (odds ratio [OR] 2.87, 95% CI 1.65-4.98), perceived milk insufficiency (OR 7.35, 95% CI 3.59-15.07), low breast-feeding self-efficacy (a mother's self-confidence in her ability to adequately feed her baby) (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.48-7.94), lower maternal age (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.45-10.46), and lower education level of the mother (OR 7.30, 95% CI 2.93-18.20). The recommended full breast-feeding duration of the first 6 months of life was not reached. Sociodemographic variables and factors directly related to breast-feeding practices play an important role on breast-feeding duration/weaning in our region. Understanding risk factors will provide insights to give better support to mothers and prevent short- and long-term morbidity following early weaning.

  14. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  15. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  17. Association of breast-feeding and feeding on demand with child weight status up to 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Thijs, C.; Stafleu, A.; Buuren, S. van; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of childhood overweight are unclear. This study examines the association of breast-feeding with weight gain in the first year, and body mass index (BMI) and overweight up to 4 years. In addition, we

  18. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  19. Infant safety with antipsychotic therapy in breast-feeding: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2008-04-01

    A relatively high number of women may suffer from psychotic symptoms at postpartum onset. Such symptoms may have devastating effects not only on the mothers but also on the later infant's well being. Children born to mothers with psychosis are at increased risk of physiologic, psychological, and personality development disturbance, whereas children born to mothers with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of early-onset psychiatric disorders. Hence, clinicians should consider it imperative to prevent or manage effectively psychotic and affective relapses in new mothers. To analyze the literature for information about the safety of first- and second-generation antipsychotics for breast-fed infants in order to individuate the safest treatment option for women who need such medications during puerperium. A computerized search was carried out on MEDLINE/PubMed/TOXNET (1950-January 2008). The following key words were used: breast-feeding, lactation, puerperium, psychotropic drugs, atypical antipsychotics, typical antipsychotics, and neuroleptics. No conclusions can be drawn about the risk/benefit profile of the majority of antipsychotic medications in breast-feeding. Hence, when clinicians are forced to start antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients, the choice of the safest option should be based on the general effectiveness profile of each agent, with 2 possible exceptions: clozapine (the drug should be considered contraindicated during breast-feeding because of its liability of inducing potential life-threatening events in the infant), and olanzapine (the drug seems to be associated with an increased risk of inducing extrapyramidal reactions in the breast-fed babies). Conversely, in patients who need to continue antipsychotic therapy during breast-feeding, it is suitable to maintain the previous pharmacologic regimen, if known as effective.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding--a clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-06-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians. Currently available data are evaluated and clinical recommendations given. Citalopram and sertraline can be used during pregnancy, while some controversy remains over in utero exposure to paroxetine and fluoxetine, which might be associated with an increased risk of foetal cardiovascular malformation. Less data is available concerning fluvoxamine and escitalopram use but current data does not indicate a specific risk. Citalopram, paroxetine and sertraline can be used during breast-feeding, while fluoxetine probably should be avoided. Nortriptyline, amitriptyline and clomipramine can be used during pregnancy and lactation, although data are more abundant for SSRI treatment. Venlafaxine can be used during pregnancy, while caution is advised during breast-feeding. Other antidepressants should be avoided because of lack of data on their effect. A strongly indicated lithium therapy should be continued. Close monitoring of lithium levels throughout pregnancy is mandatory, as is detailed foetal echocardiography in weeks 18-22 of gestation. Lithium should not be used during breast-feeding. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a valid option if indicated, both during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

  1. A survey on difficulties and desires of breast-feeding women in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Su, Min; Redding, Sharon R

    2016-06-01

    exclusive breast feeding in China is relatively low and no research has been conducted to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese lactating mothers. Currently, Chinese women turn to massage therapists to increase breastmilk volume, implying that many breast-feeding women faced problems but had few support mechanisms.This study aimed to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese breast-feeding women and to propose strategies for increasing the rate of exclusive breast feeding. three hundred and seventy-five primiparous women were recruited from two randomized cluster communities in Wuhan following ethical approval. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 76 of the participants to collect data on their infants' feeding status, duration of exclusive breast feeding, reasons for stopping, difficulties encountered, and sources of support for lactation. the breast feeding initiation rate was 93.6%, but exclusive breast feeding was only 6.2% at six months. The most frequently cited reason for giving up exclusive breast feeding was perceived breastmilk insufficiency. Women cited a desire for professional and individualised instruction from following resources: (1) lactation consultants in hospital and communities; (2) Qualified cuirushi; (3) breast feeding website;(4) Relatives, friends and peers;(5) Telephone hotline. to improve the rate and duration of exclusive breast feeding in China, effective and available resources must be available. Timely,professional and face-to-face lactation counselling such as lactation consultant, qualified cuirushin is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatricians', obstetricians', gynecologists', and family medicine physicians' experiences with and attitudes about breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Inés; Berkeley, Lizabeth; Mulla, Zuber D; Byrd, Theresa; Nuwayhid, Bahij; Handal, Gilbert; Akins, Ralitsa

    2012-05-01

    Investigate physicians' breast-feeding experiences and attitudes using a survey based on two behavioral theories: theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the health belief model (HBM). There were 73 participants included in the investigation. These participants were resident and faculty physicians from pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and family medicine at a university campus, located on the US-Mexico border. The sample was reduced to 53 and 56 records for the attitude and confidence variables, respectively. Physicians answered a survey about their breast-feeding experiences and attitudes to learn about intention and ability applying constructs from TRA and HBM. An attitude scale, confidence variable (from self-efficacy items), and a lactation training index were created for the analysis. Analysis of the association between physicians' breastfeeding experiences and their attitudes revealed physicians are knowledgeable about breast-feeding and have positive attitudes towards breast-feeding. They did not seem to remember how long they breast-fed their children or whether they enjoyed breast-feeding, but they wanted to continue breast-feeding. Physicians cite work as a main reason for not continuing to breast-feed. Physicians' attitudes toward breast-feeding are positive. They are expected to practice health-promotion behavior including breast-feeding; however, physicians' breast-feeding rates are low and although they are knowledgeable about breast-feeding their training lacks on didactic depth and hands-on experience. If physicians learn more about breast-feeding and breast-feed exclusively and successfully, the rates in the United States would increase naturally.

  3. Artificial feeding in patients with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, George; Dani, Melanie; Torrance, Anne; Mir, Mohammed

    2014-01-08

    Patients with advanced dementia commonly experience swallowing and feeding difficulties that predispose to weight loss, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Artificial feeding using nasogastric and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes has been used to combat these problems.

  4. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  5. Pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breast-feeding: a cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.

  6. Maternal intention to breast-feed and breast-feeding outcomes in term and preterm infants: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2000-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaizy, Tarah T; Saftlas, Audrey F; Morriss, Frank H

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effect of intention to breast-feed on short-term breast-feeding outcomes in women delivering term and preterm infants. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) for three states, Ohio, Michigan and Arkansas, during 2000-2003 were analysed. SAS 9·1·3 and SUDAAN 10 statistical software packages were used for analyses. Arkansas, Michigan and Ohio, USA. Mothers of recently delivered infants, selected by birth certificate sampling. Of 16,839 mothers included, 9·7% delivered preterm. Some 52·2% expressed definite intention to breast-feed, 16·8% expressed tentative intention, 4·3% were uncertain and 26·8% had no intention to breast-feed. Overall 65·2% initiated breast-feeding, 52·0% breast-fed for ≥4 weeks and 30·8% breast-fed for ≥10 weeks. Women with definite intention were more likely to initiate (OR = 24·3, 95% CI 18·4, 32·1), to breast-feed for ≥4 weeks (OR = 7·12, 95% CI 5·95, 8·51) and to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks (OR = 2·75, 95% CI 2·20, 3·45) compared with women with tentative intention. Levels of intention did not differ between women delivering preterm and term. Women delivering at breast-feeding (OR = 2·24, 95% CI 1·64, 3·06) and to breast-feed for ≥4 weeks (OR = 2·58, 95% CI 1·96, 3·41), but less likely to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks (OR = 0·55, 95% CI 0·44, 0·68), compared with those delivering at term. Women delivering between 34 and 36 weeks were less likely to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks than those delivering at term (OR = 0·63, 95% CI 0·49, 0·81). Prenatal intention to breast-feed is a powerful predictor of short-term breast-feeding outcomes in women delivering both at term and prematurely.

  7. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  8. [The use of psychotropic drugs during breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Maria; Kuśmierek, Maciej; Orzechowska, Agata; Błaszczyk, Justyna; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Breast milk is the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. In the United States around 500 000 cases of mental disorders affecting pregnant women are diagnosed each year. It is estimated that approximately 1/3 of these women need psychotropic drugs in a period of breast-feeding. Despite the serious consequences of depression and its well-known effect on a newborn, the women are still reluctant to begin pharmacological treatment. The fear of side effects unfortunately still plays an important role in making such a decision. It has been proved that all psychiatric drugs can transfer into breast milk, but their levels are very low or even negligible for the newborn. Most laboratory tests do not reveal an adequate sensitivity to detect these low concentrations. One have to remember that in case of any disturbing symptoms which may result from the use of these drugs, the only procedure is to discontinue breastfeeding immediately. The knowledge of these effects of particular groups of psychotropic drugs in breast-feeding mothers is essential for every practitioner. This knowledge should also be available not only to psychiatrists, but gynecologists and pediatricians as well. For this reason, it seems to be reasonable to summarize the results of previously published studies dealing with the topic. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  9. Breast feeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether breast feeding is related to subsequent risk of breast cancer. DESIGN--Population based case-control study designed primarily to investigate the relation between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer; data obtained from questionnaires administered by interviewers, general practitioner notes, and family planning clinic records. SETTING--11 health regions in Britain. SUBJECTS--Women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 36 living in the defined study areas. One control per case, matched for age, was selected from the list of the case's general practitioner. 755 case-control pairs were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of breast feeding each liveborn infant; timing of return of menses; hormone use; other risk factors for breast cancer. RESULTS--Risk of breast cancer fell with increasing duration of breast feeding (relative risk = 0.94 per three months' breast feeding; test for trend p = 0.026) and with number of babies breast fed (relative risk = 0.86; test for trend, p = 0.017). Breast feeding each baby for longer than three months conferred no additional benefit. Breast feeding was more strongly negatively associated with risk of breast cancer than duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (chi 2 test for trend, p = 0.69). Hormonal suppression of lactation was unrelated to risk of breast cancer (relative risk = 0.96 per episode of suppressed lactation; test for trend, p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that breast feeding protects against the development of breast cancer in young women. PMID:8343660

  10. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  11. Malocclusions in young children: Does breast-feeding really reduce the risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğramacı, Esma J; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Dreyer, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have purported that breast-feeding can decrease the risk of malocclusions. The authors studied the relationship of breast-feeding on malocclusions in young children by means of conducting a systematic review of association (etiology). The authors used a 3-step search strategy, including electronic searches. They considered studies whose investigators included healthy children with primary dentition with a history of breast-feeding and in which the study investigators had assessed specific malocclusion outcomes to be eligible for inclusion in this review. The authors considered prospective and retrospective (longitudinal) studies, case-control studies, and analytical cross-sectional studies. Two of the authors, using standardized instruments, independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted data from the included studies. For situations for which there were a sufficient number of studies, the authors conducted meta-analyses using the random-effects model, supplemented with the fixed-effects model in situations for which statistical heterogeneity was 50% or less, assessed using the I 2 statistic. The authors identified 7 studies that were included in the review. They found that children who had breast-fed suboptimally had an increased risk of developing malocclusions and that a strong and significant association existed between a shorter duration of breast-feeding (less than 12 months) and the development of an anterior open bite (n = 1,875; risk ratio, 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 2.55 to 5.03; P breast-feeding have a higher prevalence and risk ratio for malocclusions. These children have an increased risk of developing a class II canine relationship, posterior crossbite, and anterior open bite. Dental health care professionals should continue to encourage and promote breast-feeding; however, patients should be aware that children still can develop malocclusions, despite having received optimal breast-feeding, owing to the

  12. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fahami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  13. Breast-feeding among female employees at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisaiye, A; Oyediran, M A

    1983-01-01

    The importance of breast-feeding to the health of infant and mother is discussed. However the working conditions of employed women in developing countries prevent exclusive breast-feeding once the mother has returned to work after delivery and also present obstacles to partial breast-feeding. The breast-feeding practices of women employed at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria are examined. Duration of breast-feeding was in inverse relation to salary level. Women on the lowest salaries had a mean duration of breast-feeding their last child of 8 months, whereas women in senior professional positions had a mean breast-feeding duration of 3.3 months. Conflicts with work responsibilities were the most commonly cited reason for terminating breast-feeding earlier than the mother desired. If a creche was available at place of work, half the women surveyed said they would breast-feed for longer. Anticipated durations, if a creche was available, would lengthen breast-feeding to 12 months for lowest paid women and to nearly 9 months for women at the higher salary levels. Present options available to the employed women who wishes to breast-feed as long as possible, namely the use of wet-nurses and expression of breast-milk, are discussed. It is concluded that the most satisfactory means of promoting breast-feeding among employed women is the provision of paid leave post delivery for at least three months and the provision of a creche at place of work. The costs should be borne by the employer, assisted by government in the form of grants and tax-relief.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Breast milk feeding in infants with inherited metabolic disorders other than phenylketonuria - a 10-year single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Michel, Miriam; Zlamy, Manuela; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Ralser, Elisabeth; Jörg-Streller, Monika; Karall, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Published data on breast milk feeding in infants suffering from inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) other than phenylketonuria (PKU) are limited and described outcome is variable. We aimed to evaluate retrospectively whether breastfeeding and/or breast milk feeding are feasible in infants with IMDs including organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation disorders, urea cycle disorders, aminoacidopathies or disorders of galactose metabolism. Data on breastfeeding and breast milk feeding as well as monitoring and neurological outcome were collected retrospectively from our database of patients with the mentioned IMD, who were followed in our metabolic center within the last 10 years. Twenty patients were included in the study, who were either breast fed on demand or received expressed breast milk. All the infants were evaluated clinically and biochemically at 2-4-week intervals, with weight gain as the leading parameter to determine metabolic control. Good metabolic control and adequate neurological development were achieved in all patients but one, who experienced the only metabolic crisis observed within the study period. Breast milk feeding with close clinical and biochemical monitoring is feasible in most IMD and should be considered as it offers nutritional and immunological benefits.

  15. [Breast-feeding: can health staff positively affect its duration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Casanova, M C; García Casanova, S; Pi Juan, M; Ruiz Mariscal, E; Parellada Esquius, N

    2005-04-15

    Mother's milk is the ideal meal for the baby during the first six months of life. A good health education (before and after birth) helps to prolong breastfeeding (BF). To know the prevalence of BF among a group of women and to study the relationship with health education. Observational and analytic study. Dr. Pujol i Capsada Primary Health Center (El Prat de Llobregat); Casagemes CAD's afterbirth group in Badalona, and Alba Lactancia Women's group. SUBJECTS OF THE STUDY: 135 women with babies born between the 1st of March 2002 and the 28th of February 2003. Mother's motivation for breast-feeding and the type of information she has got were evaluated. Breast-feeding period was measured from the second month of baby's life by means of a survey passed by nursing staff. The average BF period was of 160 days, 22% breastfed their babies for less than a week, and 14% between a week and a month. The main variables in relation with the increase of BF are: to want to breast-feed (P=.05); mother sleeping with the baby (P=.03); to receive assistance from nursing staff while in hospital (P=.01); not to receive additional meals in hospital (P=.02); no problems during the first month of life (P<.0001); to receive information from health center (P=.009). If the first contact mother-baby (bringing the baby close to the breast) lasts more than 30 minutes 51% give up BF before the first month; but if the first contact is before of 30 minutes only give up 20.8% (P=.002). The prevalence of BF increases among the women that got health education and support from the health professionals.

  16. Use of common migraine treatments in breast-feeding women: a summary of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B Lee

    2013-04-01

    Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication "The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) - a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians treating migraine should discuss both acute and

  17. Use of Common Migraine Treatments in Breast-Feeding Women: A Summary of Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J.; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. Methods A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication “The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) – a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Results Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Conclusions Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians

  18. COMPONENTS OF SUCCESS ON THE PATH TO PROLONGATION OF THE BREAST-FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kachalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a perfect nutrition for infants during their first year of life. Despite the enormous significance of breast feeding for the formation of children health, its prevalence is still very low. Careful doctors’ attention to every woman, consulting on the issues of breast feeding will help to overcome its inadequate prevalence and prolong its duration to the maximum. Advantages of the breast feeding, including situations when a child requires supplementary bottle feeding, are described in this article. Selection of appropriate nipples and bottles, for one thing, will help to reduce children’s anxiety, associated with colic, and, in the second place, will contribute to maintaining of the breast feeding, if the process of suction from bottles is analogous to the process of feeding from mother’s breast.

  19. A study to promote breast feeding in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Leena S; Kaunonen, Marja E; Puukka, Pauli J

    2014-06-01

    the aim of this study was to assess the impact of providing intensified support for breast feeding during the perinatal period. a quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control group. three public maternity hospitals (two study, one control) in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland. a convenience sample of 705 mothers (431 in the intervention group, 274 in the control group). in this study, families in the intervention group had access to intensified breast feeding support from midpregnancy, whereas those in the control group had access to normal care. Intensified support included lectures and workshops to health professionals, and families in the intervention group had access to more intensive support and counselling for breast feeding and a breast feeding outpatient clinic. Additionally, an internet-based intervention was only used in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Mothers in the control group received normal care from the midwifery and nursing professionals who were to continue their work normally. The data were analysed statistically. altogether 705 women participated in the study. In the intervention group (n=431), 76% of the women breast fed exclusively throughout the hospital stay, compared to 66% of the mothers in the control group (n=274). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of exclusive breast feeding at the time of responding (at hospital discharge or after that at home) was increased by the mother not being treated for an underlying illness or medical problem during pregnancy, being in the intervention group, having normal vaginal childbirth, high breast feeding confidence, positive attitude towards breast feeding, good coping with breast feeding, and 24-hour presence of the infant's father in the ward. the low exclusive breast feeding rates of newborns could be increased by using intensified breast feeding support. Mothers' health problems during pregnancy can decrease exclusive breast feeding. Mothers with health

  20. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-08-29

    Objective  To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants  72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures  Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results  Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; Pbreast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; Pbreast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially influenced by postpartum amenorrhea (% mediated was 34% (95% confidence interval 15% to 59%) for total breast feeding and 57% (27% to 82%) for exclusive breast feeding). Conclusion  Among women who experienced at least one pregnancy that lasted at least six

  1. Lactation counseling increases breast-feeding duration but not breast milk intake as measured by isotopic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G; Haisma, Hinke; Wright, Antony; Coward, William A

    The importance of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 mo of life is widely recognized, but most mothers still do not reach this goal. Several studies have shown that face-to-face lactation counseling is effective in increasing not only exclusive breast-feeding rates but also the total duration

  2. [Breast-feeding (part IV): Therapeutic uses, dietetic and addictions--guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, L; Chantry, A A

    2015-12-01

    To describe the practical aspects of the use of the most commonly prescribed drugs during the postpartum period, the dietetic measures and the management of breast-feeding in case of addictive behaviors. Review of the literature between 1972 and May 2015 from the databases Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and international recommendations of learned societies. The precaution to stop breast-feeding when drugs are necessary is not justified in many situations (professional consensus). Aspirin at antiaggregant dose is allowed during breast-feeding while high doses are not recommended; NSAIDs with short half-life can be used (professional consensus). Precautions are needed in cases of use of morphonics (professional consensus). There is no justification to delay the initiation of breast-feeding in case of locoregional or general analgesia or for caesarean section. Antibiotic treatment does not justify discontinuing breast-feeding (professional consensus). Anxiolytics of the class of antihistaminic sedating H1 such as hydroxyzine (Atarax®) should not be prescribed in case of breast-feeding (professional consensus). Imaging does not justify to stop breast-feeding (professional consensus). Tobacco consumption is discouraged but is not a contraindication to breast-feed (professional consensus). It is recommended to avoid the consumption of alcohol (professional consensus). In case of occasional and moderate consumption of alcohol, delaying breast-feeding for a minimum of two hours is recommended (professional consensus). Cocaine consumption is a contraindication of breast-feeding (professional agreement), and breast-feeding is not recommended in case of cannabis use (professional consensus). Few drug treatments are not compatible with breast-feeding that can be continued in most of the cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Prolonged demand breast-feeding and nursing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerheijm, K L; Uyttendaele-Speybrouck, B F; Euwe, H C; Groen, H J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the characteristics and to explore risk factors within a group of Dutch children breast-fed on demand over a prolonged period, whose mothers attended the meetings of La Leche League. Ninety-six children, 55 boys and 41 girls (mean age 28.8 months, SD 8.8), were examined. Most of the parents belong to a higher socio-economic working class. The examination included a questionnaire and dietary sheet, combined with the caries status of the child. On average the children were breast-feed for 21.5 months (SD 9.8). The mean age at which the parents started brushing the children's teeth was 11.7 months (SD 5.1). Fluoridated toothpaste (250 ppm fluoride) was used by 70% of the children. The children were divided into three groups according to their caries pattern: 1 caries-free; 2 caries, and 3 nursing caries. Dentine caries was found in 14 (14.5%) of the children, of which 9 (9.3%) met the criteria of nursing caries. The mean dmfs of all children examined was 1.2 (SD 4.8). Up to 18 months of age the breast was given significantly more frequently during the night and up to 24 months during the day time, to the children of the nursing caries group compared to the children in the other two groups. The children still being breast-fed at the time of investigation more frequently slept in their parents' bed. The children of the nursing-caries group used fluoridated dentifrices less often. The majority of children of the caries and nursing-caries groups did not receive fluoride from other sources. The results of the present study demonstrate that prolonged demand breast-feeding does not lead to a higher caries prevalence although comparison between the groups demonstrates that frequent breast-feeding and low additional fluoride use should be considered as contributing factors in the process of nursing caries.

  4. Factors affecting breast-feeding initiation in Greece: What is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Andriopoulou, Eirini; Kreatsas, George; Linos, Athena

    2015-02-01

    to investigate the association between breast-feeding initiation and socio-demographic, lifestyle-related, clinical and lactation-related factors in a sample of mothers living in Greece. cross-sectional study. Tertiary University Hospital, maternity ward. 428 mothers were interviewed (43.2% response rate) from February until December 2009, using a structured face-to-face questionnaire after at least 24 hours from childbirth. 71.0% of mothers were Greeks and 29.0% immigrants; the mean age was 32.0 years. 44.4% initiated exclusive breast feeding, 7.9% artificial milk -feeding and 47.7% partial feeding. In the multivariate analysis, exclusive breast feeding was inversely related to maternal body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of gestation (odds ratio (OR)=0.93, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)=0.89-0.98) and caesarean section (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.84). Lactation-related factors which favourably affected exclusive breast-feeding initiation included previous breast-feeding experience (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.39-3.78), information about breast feeding (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.41-4.01) and rooming-in (OR=1.62 95% CI=1.03-2.54), whilst any breast feeding was favourably affected by encouraging women to breast feed (OR=5.42, 95% CI=1.90-15.50), providing information about breast feeding (OR=6.92, 95% CI=2.53-18.89), and rooming-in (OR=6.93 95% CI=2.01-23.88), and negatively associated with caesarean section (OR=0.11, 95% CI=0.03-0.39). Being an immigrant mother was also positively associated with any breast-feeding initiation (OR=7.97, 95% CI=1.02-62.19). Maternal age, education and income, as well as, smoking status, were not associated with any breast-feeding initiation. maternal BMI and immigrant status, information provided by midwives and encouragement, rooming-in and mode of childbirth (caesarean section), were found to be important for breast-feeding initiation in this study population. No other indicator of socio-demographic status was found to be associated with breast-feeding

  5. Relationship between breast milk feeding and atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, O; Iwama, M; Tabata, Y; Katsuyama, K; Sasai, Y; Nakagawa, M; Matsushita, A; Hossaka, K; Sato, J; Hidaka, Y; Uda, H; Nakamata, K; Yanagawa, H; Hosaka, K

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether or not the breast milk feeding has a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in 60 municipalities locating 10 selected prefectures during designated 2 months between October and December 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 3856 children (81.6% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 96.4% of children who participated them) were analyzed. After the adjustment for all potential confounding factors using unconditional logistic models, the risk of atopic dermatitis was slightly higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.40). Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.96-1.37) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.14, 95% CI; 0.95-1.35) showed odds ratios that were higher than unity without statistical significance. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly without statistical significance; the risk may be, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders.

  6. [The gift of breast feeding--the practice of breast feeding in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan Kaluski, D; Leventhal, A

    2000-04-16

    Breast milk is the optimal food for infant growth and development, the prevention of infectious diseases and mother-child bonding. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is cost-effective both for the family and society as a whole. The Israeli Ministry of Health encourages breastfeeding as the exclusive source of nutrition for infants in the first 4-6 months of life, with gradual addition of complementary foods thereafter. The promotion of breastfeeding in Israel requires comprehensive national activity with involvement of all the stakeholders. This includes implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and joining the international "Baby Friendly Hospitals" project. Knowledge of breastfeeding should be spread, health professionals should be encouraged to become agents of change, support by breast counselors should be encouraged, post-delivery vacations from work should be prolonged and empowerment of women implemented.

  7. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  8. [The practice of breast feeding in rural communities of a semi-arid area of Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, A M; Prado, M da S; Freitas, M do C; Silva, R de C; Ramos, L B; Machado, A D

    1994-10-01

    A Research project in the establishment and duration of total and exclusive breast-feeding in rural communities of Cansação, BA, Brazil, is presented. It included 226 children, from zero to two years old, of families of peasants living on small-holdings in one of the driest and poorest regions of the Brazilian Northeast. The data were collected through questionnaires answered by mothers or any adult responsible for the child during 1988 and 1989. It relates to all children from these families who were two years of age at the time of the study. The survival time was the statistical method used to calculate the median duration of breast-feeding; 91.6% of the 226 children started to be breast-fed. This finding shows that the establishment of the breast-feeding was high. The median duration of total breast-feeding was of 90.28 days and exclusive breast-feeding presented a median duration of 0.1 day. Through the establishment of breast-feeding can be considered high, the median duration of total breast-feeding is extremely short and that of exclusive breast-feeding insignificant.

  9. [Effects of an Individual Breast-feeding Promotion Program for Married Immigrant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.

  10. Breast feeding is associated with postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Costello, Tracy J.; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Wetter, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between breast feeding and postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy and who were participating in a randomized clinical trial of an intervention designed to prevent postpartum relapse. Methods: A total of 251 women were enrolled in the intervention between 30 and 33 weeks postpartum and were followed through 26 weeks postpartum. Participant characteristics were assessed at the prepartum baseline visit, any breast feeding was assessed at 8 weeks postpartum, and smoking abstinence was assessed at 8 and 26 weeks postpartum. Results: Although 79.1% of participants intended to breast feed, only 40.2% reported breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum. Characteristics associated with breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum included Caucasian race/ethnicity, greater education, higher household income, and being married/living with a significant other. Logistic regression analysis indicated that breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was significantly associated with smoking abstinence at 8 weeks postpartum, odds ratio (OR) = 7.27 (95% CI = 3.27, 16.13), p Breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was also associated with abstinence at 26 weeks postpartum after controlling for smoking status at 8 weeks postpartum, OR = 2.64 (95% CI = 1.14, 6.10), p = .02. Discussion: Encouraging breast feeding among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy may facilitate postpartum smoking abstinence while increasing adherence to current infant feeding guidelines. PMID:20713441

  11. Drinking-water quality, sanitation, and breast-feeding: their interactive effects on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, J; Popkin, B; Briscoe, J

    1994-01-01

    The promotion of proper infant feeding practices and the improvement of environmental sanitation have been two important strategies in the effort to reduce diarrhoeal morbidity among infants. Breast-feeding protects infants by decreasing their exposure to water- and foodborne pathogens and by improving their resistance to infection; good sanitation isolates faecal material from the human environment, reducing exposures to enteric pathogens. Taken together, breast-feeding and good sanitation form a set of sequential barriers that protect infants from diarrhoeal pathogens. As a result, breast-feeding may be most important if the sanitation barrier is not in place. This issue is explored using data from a prospective study of 2355 urban Filipino infants during the first 6 months of life. Longitudinal multivariate analyses are used to estimate the effects of full breast-feeding and mixed feeding on diarrhoeal disease at different levels of sanitation. Breast-feeding provides significant protection against diarrhoeal disease for infants in all environments. Administration of even small portions of contaminated water supplements to fully breast-fed infants nearly doubles their risk of diarrhoea. Mixed-fed and weaned infants consume much greater quantities of supplemental liquids, and as a result, the protective effect of full breast-feeding is greatest when drinking-water is contaminated. Similarly, full breast-feeding has stronger protective effects among infants living in crowded, highly contaminated settings.

  12. A grounded theory study of Swedish women's experiences of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Linda J; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2006-06-01

    to gain an understanding of the experiences of women who have had an episode of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. a grounded theory approach, inspired by Glaser and Strauss, was used in an interview study. the study was carried out at a midwife-led breast-feeding clinic in Sweden. the strategic sample consisted of 14 mothers, all of whom had had an episode of breast inflammation between 10 and 22 weeks before the interview. Nine were primiparous. Ages ranged between 24 and 38 years. the analysis resulted in the emergence of one core category and five conceptual categories. The core category was 'the will to breast feed', and the five conceptual categories were 'perspectives on breast feeding', 'personal strategies', 'enduring and adjustment', 'support' and 'causal frameworks'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent on them. an episode of breast inflammation is a possible threat to the maintenance of breast feeding, but the will to breast feed may make it possible for mothers to withstand physical and emotional difficulties caused by the illness. Breast-feeding mothers may have chosen a goal for the length of time they wish to breast feed, and the attainment of this goal is prestige-filled. Midwives, throughout the chain of care, could improve the amount and type of information given about the demands and possible complications of breast feeding. The availability of immediate clinical expertise for these mothers is an important factor, and health-care planners should be aware of this.

  13. [Enteral feeding tubes for critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Bein, T; Wiese, C H R; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A

    2011-04-01

    The use of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of early enteral feeding in intensive care medicine. In other faculties with non-critically ill patients, such as (oncologic) surgery, neurology, paediatrics or even in palliative care medicine feeding tubes are used under various circumstances as a temporary or definite solution. The advantage of enteral feeding tubes is the almost physiologic administration of nutrition, liquids and medication. Enteral nutrition is thought to be associated with a reduced infection rate, increased mucosal function, improved immunologic function, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced costs. However, the insertion and use of feeding tubes is potentially dangerous and may be associated with life-threatening complications (bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, etc.). Therefore, the following article will give a summary of the different types of enteral feeding tubes and their range of application. Additionally, a critical look on indication and contraindication is given as well as how to insert an enteral feeding tube.

  14. Breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria – 2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the impact of “baby friendly hospital initiative” on breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria, 2 years after introduction. Setting: Holy Rosary Maternity Hospital Onitsha Materials and methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 178 breast feeding mothers on maternal ...

  15. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  16. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A.; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the

  17. Fathers' knowledge about and attitudes towards breast feeding in Manisa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşpınar, Ayten; Çoban, Ayden; Küçük, Mert; Şirin, Ahsen

    2013-06-01

    to determine the extent of knowledge fathers of newborns have about breast feeding and lactation and to examine their attitudes regarding breast feeding. a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Manisa Maternity and Children's Hospital. 203 fathers of newborn infants. although a wide majority of the participants (92.1%) expressed a desire to have their infants breastfed, it was found that only 58.6% discussed this with their partners. It was discovered that 88.7% of the fathers were happy to help with the housework so that their wives could breast feed while 57.6% stated that breast feeding would be psychologically beneficial to both the mother and the baby. Approximately half of the study subjects (48.8%) expressed an interest in attending an educational programme on breast feeding for fathers. The study also showed that the fathers' level of education, the type of family they were a part of and previously received education on lactation and breast feeding had an effect on their knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding (pfeeding and lactation was limited, leading to the conclusion that fathers may benefit from a supportive educational programme on breast feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children (aged 0-36 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 29, 2001. 60. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children. (aged 0-36 months) in a rural area of ... The prevalence of breast feeding in urban areas of the developing world seems to be declining (Zetterström,. 1994). Several researchers have ...

  19. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  20. Important determinants of newborn health: postpartum depression, teen parenting, and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Katie E; Sandrock, Deborah; Spector, Nancy D; Pattishall, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The present article addresses recent research related to three important determinants of newborn health: postpartum depression, teenage parents and their offspring, and breast-feeding. Postpartum depression can impact the entire family unit, and fathers may be affected more than previously recognized. Teenage mothers and their infants are at risk of a number of poor physical and mental health outcomes. New research continues to support the benefits of breast-feeding infants, and hospitals have adopted policies to improve breast-feeding rates. Recognizing both maternal and paternal depression during outpatient visits is key to family well-being, as well as to infant development and attachment. Pediatric providers should address the unique emotional, socioeconomic, educational, and health needs of teen mothers. Hospital implementation of evidence-based policies may increase the number of mothers who are successful in establishing breast-feeding, and pediatric healthcare providers should be prepared to support mothers of breast-feeding infants.

  1. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2014-06-01

    breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006-March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1-6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. thematic analysis of the data suggested was mostly considered the 'right thing to do,' preferable, natural, and 'supposedly healthier,' but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for 'thinking about yourself' was part of caesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breast-feeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following caesarean section. Some breast-feeding difficulty stemmed from 'mucus' expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be 'interested' in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breast feeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breast feed on the postnatal unit after their caesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. for the majority of mothers, breast feeding after a caesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breast-feeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after caesarean section childbirth. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding-A clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... and changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians....

  3. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  4. Breast-feeding counselling mitigates the negative association of domestic violence on exclusive breast-feeding duration in rural Bangladesh. The MINIMat randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    To determine if exclusive breast-feeding counselling modifies the association of experience of any lifetime or specific forms of domestic violence (DV) on duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). In the MINIMat trial pregnant women were randomized to receive either usual health messages (UHM) or usual health messages with breast-feeding counselling (BFC) in eight visits. During pregnancy (30 weeks), lifetime experience of any or specific forms of DV was measured. Infant feeding practice information was collected from 0 to 6 months at 15 d intervals. Matlab, Bangladesh. Pregnant and postpartum women (n 3186) and their infants. Among women in the UHM group, those who had experienced any lifetime DV exclusively breast-fed for a shorter duration than women who did not experience any lifetime DV (P=0·02). There was no difference, however, in duration of EBF among women in the BFC group based on their experience of any lifetime DV exposure (P=0·48). Using Cox regression analysis, there was an interaction of exposure to any lifetime DV, sexual violence and controlling behaviour, and counselling group with duration of breast-feeding at or before 6 months (P-interaction≤0·08). Among the UHM group, experience of any lifetime DV, sexual violence or controlling behaviour was associated with fewer days of EBF (Pbreast-feeding counselling programmes could assist this vulnerable group towards better infant feeding practices.

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Questionnaire Based on the Nursing Outcomes Classification to Determine the Knowledge of Parents on Breast-Feeding: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Del Carmen Sánchez-Dalda, María; Rozadillas-Sanmiguel, Elena; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier

    2017-04-01

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate a questionnaire based on the outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to determine the knowledge of parents on breast-feeding. The NOC outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" allows for nurses/midwives to assess the efficacy of interventions aimed to improve the knowledge on breast-feeding in parents thought the clinical interview/observation. However, the use of self-administered questionnaires by patients could facilitate its evaluation. Two-phased study: (1) Development of the questionnaire based on experts' opinions; (2) Methodological design to assess its psychometric properties. The availability of tools that enable the determination of the knowledge of patients would facilitate nurses/midwives to set objectives, individualize interventions, and measure their effectiveness. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  6. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  7. Body image concerns during pregnancy are associated with a shorter breast feeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Rance, J; Warren, L

    2015-01-01

    breast feeding is affected by numerous psycho-social factors. Antenatal concerns such as embarrassment regarding public feeding and the impact of breast feeding upon breast shape are known to lead to artificial milk use. However, although work has explored the relationship between maternal weight and infant feeding, wider body image concerns have not been examined. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between maternal body image concerns during pregnancy upon intended and actual breast feeding duration. a two stage self report questionnaire completed during pregnancy and at six months post partum. mothers were recruited from local mother and infant groups, nurseries and online mother and infant forums. 128 pregnant women completed both stages. phase one: completion of a questionnaire exploring body image during pregnancy (concerns about stretch marks, weight gain and appearance) and planned breast feeding duration during the second/third trimester of pregnancy (body image, weight, intended duration) followed by a second questionnaire measuring actual breast feeding duration and breast feeding experiences. factor analysis revealed three primary body image concerns: pregnancy body image, prospective postnatal body image and dieting during pregnancy. Higher concerns on all three factors were associated with both intended and actual shorter breast feeding duration. Amongst mothers who stopped breast feeding before six months, those with higher body image concerns were more likely to report stopping due to embarrassment or the perceived impact upon their breast shape. The relationship was not explained by maternal weight, although a higher residual weight gain at six months was associated with a shorter breast feeding duration. mothers who are affected negatively by changes to their body during pregnancy may be less likely to plan to or initiate breast feeding potentially due to underlying issues such as embarrassment or perceived impact of

  8. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of breast-feeding practices in some countries in the far east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intengan, C L

    1976-04-01

    This nutritional evaluation of breast feeding practices in some countries in the Far East focuses on feeding practices, composition of human milk, trend in infant feeding, urbanization and breast feeding, reasons for weaning, human milk substitutes, food supplements, and vitamin supplements. The background of malnutrition is complex. In addition to adverse ecological factors that prevail in developing areas, there are the cultural factors of poor dietary practices and food beliefs. Traditionally, infants are breast fed by the mothers. In some families, particularly lower income families, breast milk is the only food given to the baby. It is generally accepted that mother's milk is nutritionally adequate only up to 5-6 months of age. After this point, breast milk without any supplement will be inadequate to support the fast growth of the child. Consequently, the baby is always hungry and irritable. A case of protein-energy malnutrition is slowly developing, compounded with anemia since milk is a poor source of iron. The baby from a higher-income family may be denied the opportunity of breast feeding. The greatest danger with bottle feeding is the prevailing poor hygiene and sanitation in the developing areas. The type of feeding commonly practiced in most countries in the Far East is still breast feeding although the popularity of breast feeding is declining in these countries. A study of breast feeding in the Philippines revealed that 2-1/2 times more mothers in rural areas than in urban areas were breast feeding. In Luzon, Philippines, the major cause or reason for weaning in urban areas was inadequacy of the mother's milk. The next most frequently given reason for terminating lactation was that the child was old enough to be weaned. 70% of study mothers in rural Luzon chose sweetened condensed milk for use in artifical feeding; 73% of the urban mothers preferred powdered milk. The most frequent food supplement given to infants in both rural and urban areas in

  10. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives: this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. Methods: data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006–March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. Result...

  11. The relative importance of social class and maternal education for breast-feeding initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2009-12-01

    To examine changes in breast-feeding take-up rates among young children in Scotland and to assess whether maternal education or occupation-based social class is a stronger and better predictor of breast-feeding take-up. Binary logistic regression models were developed from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland longitudinal survey, for the two cohorts of children. A national representative survey for Scotland. A baby cohort of 5012 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2004 and May 2005, and a toddler cohort of 2732 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2002 and May 2003. Mothers from more privileged social classes and those with more educational qualifications resulted as more likely to breast-feed. However, maternal education was a better and more robust predictor of breast-feeding take-up compared with social class. There were no significant differences in breast-feeding take-up between the two cohorts and only minor differences between mothers aged 20-29 years and those who stated an intention to bottle-feed prior to birth. The study suggests that the importance of maternal education in influencing breast-feeding has been somewhat overlooked in research based in more developed countries. The results indicate that, compared with occupation-related social class, maternal education is a more informative, accurate and useful lens through which to understand and explain patterns of breast-feeding take-up.

  12. Reasons for non-exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Monika A; Hamulka, Jadwiga

    2017-12-15

    Maternal sociodemographic, delivery- and infant-related factors as well as hospital practice are relevant for breast-feeding practice. The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and delivery-related factors that may affect exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) of infants aged 0-6 months in Poland. A total of 446 mothers (18-42 years old) of infants aged 0-6 months were interviewed using the computer-assisted Web interview method. The questionnaire collected information about maternal sociodemographic situation and anthropometrics, delivery-related factors, and infant feeding-related factors. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Predictors of non-exclusive breast-feeding (N-EBF) in the first 6 months of life were assessed on multivariate logistic regression. A total of 43% of mothers did not breast-feed exclusively (n = 191; N-EBF group) and 57% did breast-feed exclusively during the study period (n = 255; EBF group). After adjustment for other potential risk factors, the highest risk factors for N-EBF were maternal age breast-feeding knowledge (OR, 3.43; P ≤ 0.01), whereas the lowest risk was associated with pre-pregnancy intention to breast-feed (OR, 0.35; P ≤ 0.01), very good knowledge about breast-feeding (OR, 0.45; P ≤ 0.001) and maternal age 26-30 years (OR, 0.48; P ≤ 0.001). In a multivariate model, maternal education, employment status and preterm delivery were no longer statistically significant. Breast-feeding practice is influenced by a variety of factors, including sociodemographic and psychosocial conditions, maternal obesity and mode of delivery. Further work is needed to establish the role of education and prophylactic programs in modifying the aforementioned risk factors. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Barriers to breast-feeding in obese women: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Alice; Lawton, Julia; Swanson, Vivien; Denison, Fiona C

    2015-05-01

    to explore the factors that influence breast-feeding practices in obese women who had either stopped breast-feeding or were no longer exclusively breast-feeding 6-10 weeks following the birth of their babies, despite an original intention to do so for 16 weeks or longer. Specifically (i) to identify the barriers to successful breast-feeding and reasons for introducing formula and/or stopping breast-feeding, and (ii) to explore the women׳s views and experiences of current breast-feeding support services. descriptive, qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. participants recruited from one large maternity unit in Scotland and interviewed in their homes. 28 obese women at 6-10 weeks following birth. three major themes emerged from the data analysis: the impact of birth complications, a lack of privacy, and a low uptake of specialist breast-feeding support. Impact of birth complications: 19 of 28 women had given birth by caesarean section and some felt this led to feeling 'out of it' post-operatively, a delay in establishing skin-to-skin contact, and in establishing breast-feeding. Lack of privacy; several women described reluctance to breast feed in front of others, difficulties in achieving privacy, in hospital, at home and in public. Low uptake of postnatal breast-feeding support; despite experiencing problems such as physical difficulties during breast-feeding or a perception of low milk supply, breast-feeding support services were underused by this sample of women. A small number of the women in this study used breast-feeding clinics and reported finding these useful. A further small number felt they benefitted from the support of a friend who was successfully breast-feeding. midwives should be mindful of the presence of additional factors alongside maternal obesity, such as caesarean delivery, physical difficulties when breast-feeding

  14. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  15. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies.

  16. The professionalising of breast feeding--where are we a decade on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Longman, Jo; Schmied, Virginia; Sheehan, Athena; Rolfe, Margaret; Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    This paper is an empirically informed opinion piece revisiting an argument published in Midwifery 10 years ago, that the increasing professionalisation of breast feeding was not supporting women in Australia in sustaining breast feeding. We present the last 10 years of primary research on the topic, explore major policy initiatives and the establishment and growth of lactation consultants in Australia to see if this has made a difference to sustained rates of breast feeding. We present an analysis of the only consistently collected national statistics on breast feeding and compare this with national and state level government data collections from the last decade. We have found that the considerable effort invested in trying to improve duration of breast feeding amongst women in Australia appears to have failed to improve sustained breast-feeding rates. We argue that this situation might be related to losing sight of the embodied nature of breast feeding and the relationships that must exist between the mother and baby, the knowledge and skills women quickly develop, and a loss of woman to woman support. We conclude that midwives have a major role in avoiding us reproducing similar, unintended, negative consequences to those resulting from increasing obstetrician managed normal birth. These include midwifery scrutiny and involvement in policy development and institutional practices and the design of services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chinese women's experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R

    2018-02-01

    To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.

  18. Formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Maternal breast milk may contain less nutrients than artificial formula milk but may confer important non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula milk compared with maternal breast milk on rate of growth and developmental outcomes in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - June 2007) and EMBASE (1980 - June 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to June 2007) (all accessed via OVID) and previous reviews including cross references. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus preterm human milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised trials of formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. This may relate to a perceived difficulty of allocating an alternative feed to an infant whose mother wishes to feed with her own breast milk. Maternal breast milk remains the default choice of enteral nutrition because observational studies, and meta-analyses of trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk, suggest that feeding with breast milk has major non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.

  19. Is use of nifurtimox for the treatment of Chagas disease compatible with breast feeding? A population pharmacokinetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Altcheh, Jaime; Panchaud, Alice; Ito, Shinya

    2010-03-01

    Women with Chagas disease receiving treatment with nifurtimox are discouraged from breast feeding. Many patients who would receive treatment with nifurtimox live in extreme poverty, have limited access to resources such as clean water and baby formula and may not have safe alternatives to breast milk. We aimed to estimate, using limited available pharmacokinetics data, potential infant exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk. Original nifurtimox plasma concentrations were obtained from published studies. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modelling with NONMEM V.VI. A total of 1000 nifurtimox plasma-concentration profiles were simulated and used to calculate the amount of drug that an infant would be exposed to, if breast fed 150 ml/kg/day. Breast milk concentrations on the basis of peak plasma levels (1361 ng/ml) and milk-plasma ratio were estimated. We calculated infant nifurtimox exposure of a breastfed infant of a mother treated with this drug to be below 10% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose, even if milk-plasma ratio were overestimated. Simulation led to similar estimates. Risk for significant infant exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk seems small and below the level of exposure of infants with Chagas disease receiving nifurtimox treatment. This potential degree of exposure may not justify discontinuation of breast feeding.

  20. Breast feeding, infant growth, and body mass index at 30 and 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; Horwood, L John

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the associations between duration of breast feeding, early infant growth, and body mass index (BMI) at 30 and 35 years, in a birth cohort studied to age 35. Data were gathered on duration of exclusive and non-exclusive breast feeding (months), early growth (kg; 0-9 months), and BMI at ages 30 and 35 from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. The Christchurch Health and Development Study is a study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977. Population-averaged generalised estimating regression models showed statistically significant associations between: duration of breast feeding and mean BMI; and early growth and mean BMI. After adjustment for perinatal, family, and social background factors, statistically significant associations were found between: longer duration of breast feeding and lower adult BMI (B = -0.424 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.708, -0.140]); and increasing early growth and higher adult BMI (B = 0.393 [95% CI 0.080, 0.707]). When breast feeding and infant growth were entered into the regression model and adjusted for covariates, breast feeding was no longer statistically significantly associated with BMI (B = -0.250 [95% CI -0.553, 0.054]), while early growth remained statistically significantly associated with BMI (B = 0.355 [95% CI 0.039, 0.671]). A test for mediation showed that the association between breast feeding and BMI was mediated by early growth (P = 0.01). The association between longer duration of breast feeding and later lower BMI scores in adulthood was mediated by lower early growth. Breast feeding may be included as one component of multicompartment programmes targeted at early growth and later obesity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Maternal Body Mass Index Moderates the Influence of Smoking Cessation on Breast Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking cessation is associated with greater breast feeding in newly postpartum women, while being overweight or obese is associated with lower rates of breast feeding. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the increases in breast feeding associated with smoking cessation are moderated by maternal body mass index (BMI). To our knowledge, the interaction of maternal smoking status and overweight/obesity on breast feeding has not been previously reported. Methods: Participants (N = 370) were current or recent smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in controlled trials on smoking cessation or relapse prevention during/after pregnancy. Study participants were followed from the start of prenatal care through 24 weeks postpartum. Smoking status was biochemically verified, and maternal reports of breast feeding were collected at 2-, 4-, 8-, 12-, and 24-week postpartum assessments. Results: Women who reported postpartum smoking abstinence or had a normal/underweight prepregnancy BMI (breast feeding at the time that smoking status was ascertained (odds ratio [OR] = 3.02, confidence interval [CI] = 2.09–4.36, and OR = 2.07, CI = 1.37–3.12, respectively). However, smoking status and BMI interacted such that (a) normal/underweight women showed a stronger association between smoking abstinence and breast feeding (OR = 4.58, CI = 2.73–7.66) than overweight/obese women (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.11–3.23), and (b) abstainers showed an association between normal/underweight BMI and breast feeding (OR = 3.53, CI = 1.96–6.37), but smokers did not (OR = 1.46, CI = 0.88–2.44). Conclusions: Overweight/obesity attenuates the positive relationship between smoking abstinence and greater breast feeding among newly postpartum women. PMID:24203932

  2. Breast feeding initiation rate across Western countries: does religion matter? An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Cohen, Emmanuel; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding initiation rates remain below 80% in some Western countries. Many individual-level determinants are known; however, less is known regarding cultural and societal determinants, such as religion, that could explain population-level variations. We examined the correlations of the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the breast feeding initiation rates across and within Western countries. Using publicly available data, we carried out an ecological study comparing the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the rates of breast feeding initiation. We correlated data at the country level, and additionally explored within-country data in five Western countries: France (Departments), Ireland (counties), the UK (countries), Canada (provinces) and the USA (states). Our analyses accounted for human development index, gross domestic product and population density. We observed a negative correlation (r=-0.30) between the proportion of Catholics and the rate of breast feeding initiation in Western countries. This correlation was consistent when using within-country data in France (r=-0.27), Ireland (r=-0.23), the UK (r=-0.79) and Canada (r=-0.62). In the USA, the positive correlation (r=0.26) between a state's proportion of Catholics and its breast feeding initiation rate was confounded by race, education and socioeconomic status (SES). After controlling for education and SES, the state proportion of non-Hispanic white Catholics was negatively correlated (r=-0.29) with the rate of breast feeding initiation. In this ecological study, we found consistent negative correlations between Catholicism and breast feeding initiation rates. Qualitative and quantitative studies at the individual level are needed to confirm and explain our findings. Our results suggest that women living in a country or region where Catholicism has historically dominated are less likely to initiate breast feeding, and that breast feeding promotion policies should be adapted to

  3. Regular monitoring of breast-feeding rates: feasible and sustainable. The Emilia-Romagna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Borsari, Silvana; Verdini, Eleonora; Battaglia, Sergio; Cisbani, Luca; Sforza, Stefano; Cuoghi, Chiara; Basevi, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    An efficient breast-feeding monitoring system should be in place in every country to assist policy makers and health professionals plan activities to reach optimal breast-feeding rates. Design/Setting/Subjects From March to June 2015, breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age were monitored in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region, using four questions added to a newly developed paediatric immunization database with single records for each individual. Data were collected at primary-care centres. Breast-feeding definitions and 24 h recall as recommended by the WHO were used. Direct age standardization was applied to breast-feeding rates. Record linkage with the medical birth database was attempted to identify maternal, pregnancy and delivery factors associated with full breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age. Data on breast-feeding were collected for 14044 infants. The mean regional full breast-feeding rate at 3 months was 52 %; differences between local health authorities ranged from 42 to 62 %. At 5 months of age, the mean regional full breast-feeding rate dropped to 33 % (range between local health authorities: 26 to 46 %). Record linkage with the birth certificate database was successful for 93 % of records. Total observations more than doubled with respect to the previous regional survey. The new monitoring system implemented in 2015 in Emilia-Romagna region, totally integrated with the immunization database, has proved to be feasible, sustainable and more efficient than the previous one. This system can be a model for other regions and countries where the vast majority of mothers obtain vaccinations from public health facilities and that already have an immunization database in place.

  4. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  5. Views of fathers in Ireland on the experience and challenges of having a breast-feeding partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Annemarie E; McCartney, Daniel; Kearney, John M

    2016-09-01

    this study investigated the relationship between fathers and breast feeding in Ireland. a cross-sectional semi-quantitative questionnaire with closed-ended and open-ended questions was posted to 1398 men with an Irish partner who had given birth 4-7 months previously. Fathers who specified that their partner breast fed their last or only child were questioned about their: influence on the breast feeding decision; ability to assist with breast feeding challenges; preferred type of information on breast feeding; perceived advantages and disadvantages to breast feeding; and views on breastfeeding in public. Data from closed-ended questions on breast feeding were presented using frequencies and associated percentages. Answers to open-ended questions on breast feeding were categorised into themes using content analysis. Each theme was assigned a numerical code and the themes developed were quantitatively counted and presented as frequencies and percentages. of the 583 respondents (42% response rate), 417 (71.5%) had a partner who had breast-fed their last or only child. Most of the 417 fathers were employed (95.7%, n399), college-educated (76.7%, n320) and married (87.8%, n366). Most (75.5%, n315) fathers were involved in the breast feeding decision. The majority (77.5%, n323) of fathers were unprepared for at least one aspect of breast feeding, most commonly that their partner encountered difficulties in establishing breast feeding. Of those fathers with a partner who experienced difficulties with breastfeeding (56.8%, n237), half (49.4%, n117) were unable to help their partner to overcome her breast feeding difficulties. Two-fifths (41.0%, n133) of fathers felt deprived of bonding time. Almost one in ten (9.4%, n39) fathers felt uncomfortable with an unrelated woman breast feeding in public, and this increased to three in ten or one third (34.3%, n143) if the woman in question was their partner. while fathers in a well-educated and socially advantaged sample are

  6. The effect of predominant breast-feeding on the risk of obesity in Korean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hee Soon; Chu, Sang-Hui; Jekal, Yoon-Suk; Lee, Ja-Yin

    2015-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of predominant breast-feeding practices based on the criteria given by the World Health Organization and to identify the association between predominant breast-feeding during infancy and the development of obesity during preschool in South Korean children. This study employed a nonexperimental, retrospective study design. Five hundred and twenty-eight preschool children aged three to six years and their mothers were recruited. Twenty-seven percent of the participants engaged in predominant breast-feeding; on average they fed predominantly breast milk for the first 6.7 months. After adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, children who had mixed feeding were 1.68 times more likely to become obese than those who were predominantly breast-fed. In this study, it was identified that predominant breast-feeding has a positive effect on maintaining healthy body weight in Korean preschoolers. While encouraging predominant breast-feeding is only a part of the solution, it is an effective and important first step toward preventing preschool obesity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Perinatal depressive symptoms, sociodemographic correlates, and breast-feeding among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Chan, Kin Sun

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the relationship between breast-feeding initiation and duration and patterns of perinatal depressive symptoms and (2) identify the sociodemographic correlates of such initiation and duration. A sample of 2365 women in their second and third trimesters and 6 weeks postdelivery was recruited via systematic sampling from 6 regional public hospitals in Hong Kong. The women were identified as having perinatal depressive symptoms, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Their sociodemographic variables were investigated using the empirical evidence. A total of 285 (47.66%) of the participants were found to have initiated breast-feeding, of whom 222 had breast-fed for more than 3 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed a monthly family income less than HK$5000 to be significantly associated with breast-feeding initiation and that housewives or part-time workers with antenatal depressive symptoms at 32 weeks of gestation were significantly more likely to breast-feed for longer duration. These findings help explicate breast-feeding practices among Chinese women and indicate that effective breast-feeding promotion should consider sociodemographic correlates and perinatal depressive symptoms. The study's limitations and implications are discussed.

  8. Breast-feeding patterns in nine Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R

    1993-01-01

    This article uses data from demographic and health surveys carried out in nine Latin American and Caribbean countries between 1984 and 1988 to compare breast-feeding patterns in those countries, where findings indicate that 6% to 23% of the infants are not breast-fed beyond two months of age. Although wide variations in breast-feeding patterns occurred, a number of general trends were noted. To begin with, the mean rate of breast-feeding declined relatively fast in one group of countries (Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Trinidad and Tobago), where half the infants surveyed had been weaned from the breast well before their first birthday. This differs from the situation found in the other four countries (Bolivia, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Peru), where half the infants were still being breast-fed during their second year of life. Within each of the nine countries, the mean breast-feeding duration was longer in rural than in urban areas and among women with relatively low levels of education. The direction of these relationships was similar when analyses were performed across countries. In addition, a strong inverse relationship was found between the percentage of births attended by health workers in the countries surveyed and the mean duration of breast-feeding in those countries.

  9. Breast-feeding trends and the breast-feeding promotion programme in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1990-03-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) duration and incidence have declined in the Philippines since 1973, particularly among urban, better-educated and higher income groups. As more and more women move into these modern groups, BF may continue to decline, making attempts to decrease fertility more difficult. The National Movement for the Promotion of Breastfeeding (NMPB) seeks to overcome the declines by encouraging a wide range of BF promotion activities including improving hospital practices and implementing a 5-year plan. In 1988, the 2nd 5 years of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund support for BF promotion started as part of a program to strengthen health services for child survival. Also in 1988, the Ministry of Health directed private hospitals to have rooming-in. In 1984, BF promotion messages began in the mass media. In 1983, NMPB was set up. The NMPB is housed in the Department of Public Health and has 30 member agencies: 14 governmental organizations and 25 nongovernmental agencies/institutions. From 1982-84 a longitudinal study on decision making regrading infant feeding practices was started. A hospital-based BF promotion program was started in the city of Baguio in the 70s. "Rooming-in" is required in government facilities, but there is a need for education programs for women so that they will continue their healthy practices at home. Challenges of the Philippines BF promotion program corner 4 areas: 1) health facilities; 2) information, education, and communication; 3) training; and 4) outreach. Research activities for the future include: 1) continued monitoring of patterns and trends of BF, including evaluation of the 1988 national survey; 2) analysis of the impact of "rooming-in" programs; 3) studies on the cost effectiveness of different strategies for increasing BF incidence and length and modifying BF practices and beliefs; 4) testing of strategies for helping working women to breastfeed; 5) research on obstacles to BF in private hospitals

  10. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    .... This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Peking city...

  11. Breast-feeding and hospitalization for asthma in early childhood: a nationwide longitudinal survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Yamauchi, Yoshitada; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Whether or not breast-feeding is protective against asthma among children is still controversial. Therefore, we examined the effects of breast-feeding on hospitalization for asthma in early childhood. Secondary data analyses of a nationwide longitudinal survey of children in Japan ongoing since 2001, with results collected from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the associations of breast-feeding with hospitalization for asthma in children between the ages of 6 and 42 months, adjusting for children's factors (sex, day-care attendance and presence of older siblings) and maternal factors (educational attainment and smoking habit). Setting All over Japan. Term singleton children with information on feeding practices during infancy (n 43367). After adjusting for maternal factors and children's factors, exclusive breast-feeding at 6-7 months of age was associated with decreased risk of hospitalization for asthma in children. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.77 (95% CI 0.56, 1.06). One-month longer duration of breast-feeding was associated with a 4% decreased risk of hospitalization for asthma (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99). The protective effects of breast-feeding on hospitalization for asthma were observed in children between the ages of 6 and 42 months.

  12. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.

  13. Breast-feeding: The Problem of ‘Not Enough Milk’

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1986-01-01

    ‘Not enough milk’ is the most common cause for early weaning to a bottle. However, it is almost always a non-problem, which is partly iatrogenic, and partly due to ignorance of normal breast-feeding in our society. For a woman who desires to breast-feed, recourse to bottle feeding is almost never necessary. For most babies who are ‘not getting enough milk’, only simple measures are required: feeding on demand; banning formula or water supplements, pacifiers, and nipple shields; and proper pos...

  14. [Breast-feeding and the mother's sentiment towards child rearing. Analysis of database on health checkups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Murai, Chikako; Miyashita, Akane; Tatsumi, Tomomi; Fujioka, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the breast-feeding rate and associated factors and to get better understanding on the mother's sentiment towards child rearing due to differences in feeding methods. This information can be used as primary sources providing effective support through community-based health care for mothers and infants. The study was carried out in Osaka city from April 2005 to December 2009. Data from the health-checkup records on infants aged 3-5 months were used after excluding any personal information. The data used included feeding methods (exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottlefeeding), gestational age, multiple pregnancy status, gender, birth weight, use of an incubator, and birth year. Moreover, the data included the following maternal factors: planned or unplanned nature of pregnancy, smoking and drinking status during pregnancy, presence or absence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, maternal age at delivery, working status, presence or absence of financial anxiety, presence or absence of child-rearing support, presence or absence of individuals who can provide advice concerning child rearing, and sentiments of mothers during child rearing. From April 2005 to December 2009, 2552 infants underwent health checkups designed for infants. Of these, data on 2476 children, excluding 61 infants with unknown feeding methods and 15 infants aged 6 months, were used for analyses. The results showed that 56.6%, 28.7%, and 14.7% of children received exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottle-feeding, respectively. Infant feeding methods were significantly associated with the birth year: in recent years, a decrease in the number of mothers who chose to bottle-feed their infants was observed. Furthermore, the feeding methods were associated with multiple births, birth weight, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, and maternal age at delivery. The results revealed that mothers who chose to breast-feed exclusively enjoyed child rearing at

  15. Effect of a hospital policy of not accepting free infant formula on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Yw; Fong, Daniel Yt; Lee, Irene Ly; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Wu, Kendra M; Bai, Dorothy L; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy My; Chan, Noel Pt; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of public hospitals in Hong Kong not accepting free infant formula from manufacturers on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. Two cohorts of breast-feeding mother-infant pairs (n 2560). Cohort 1 (n 1320) was recruited before implementation of the policy to stop accepting free infant formula and cohort 2 (n 1240) was recruited after policy implementation. Participants were followed prospectively for 12 months or until they stopped breast-feeding. The mean number of formula supplements given to infants in the first 24 h was 2·70 (sd 3·11) in cohort 1 and 1·17 (sd 1·94) in cohort 2 (Pbreast-fed during the hospital stay increased from 17·7 % in cohort 1 to 41·3 % in cohort 2 (Pbreast-feeding cessation was significantly lower in cohort 2 (hazard ratio=0·81; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·90). Participants who non-exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay had a significantly higher risk of stopping any or exclusive breast-feeding. Higher levels of formula supplementation also increased the risk of breast-feeding cessation in a dose-response pattern. After implementation of a hospital policy to pay market price for infant formula, rates of in-hospital formula supplementation were reduced and the rates of in-hospital exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding duration increased.

  16. POSSIBILITIES OF BREAST FEEDING ORGANIZATION FOR CHILDREN WITH PERINATAL LESIONS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and/or chronic hypoxia is a leading cause of perinatal lesions of central nervous system. Severe consequences of this condition can be the reason of temporary withdrawal from breast-feeding started soon after birth. Study objectives included: scrutiny of lactation establishment, influence of various factors on lactation duration in mothers of children with perinatal lesions of CNS. Study included 86 pairs mother-child, with duration of 12 months. It has been shown that in cases where breast feeding was impossible, regular expression of breast milk with the help of breast pump in the early lactation period allows not only to organize breast feeding by the time of discharge from the hospital, but also to extend its duration almost to the normal one. Severity of perinatal CNS lesion does not correspond with the duration of lactation period of the mother.

  17. [Smoking cessation in Galician [Spain] smokers during pregnancy and breast feeding, 1954-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Alonso, Begoña

    2006-01-01

    To determine how many women living in Galicia (Spain) quit smoking during pregnancy and in the first 6 months of breast feeding. A second objective was to identify possible temporal changes in smoking cessation. Data retrospectively provided by smokers and ex-smokers living in Galicia were analyzed. A total of 31.9% (26.9-37.0) of Galician smokers did not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the 6 first months of breast feeding. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of women who stopped smoking in relation to the period when they became pregnant. A tendency towards lower cessation rates was found. A high percentage of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the first 6 months of breast feeding. These data indicate that health policies on smoking during pregnancy and breast feeding should be improved.

  18. Analysis of the Concept of Successful Breast-Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no comprehensive definition of successful breastfeeding that consequently leads to failure in identification of ineffective breastfeeding and clinical problems that, in turn, result in infants’ early hospitalization. The present study aimed to describe the concept of successful breastfeeding using Walker and Avant approach. Data sources: CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched for literature published between 1995 and 2015 using the term successful breast-feeding. Materials and Methods: To analyse the concept of successful breastfeeding in this study, Walker and Avant approach was used. Primary research was conducted by searching for “successful breastfeeding” and “infant”. Finally, 84 resources were selected as the sample. Then, the data were classified as characteristics, influencing factors, incidences, consequences, and empirical referents related to successful breastfeeding. Results: Four basic characteristics of successful breastfeeding, as an interactive process, included how to hold the infant while breastfeeding, how to put the breast in the infant’s mouth, sucking, and transmission of milk from mother to infant. Moreover, some events related to successful breastfeeding contain “infant’s posture during breastfeeding”, “physiology and anatomy of the breast”, and “physiology and anatomy of infant’s mouth”. The consequences were also “infant’s behaviour when s/he is full”, “leaving the breast”, “not responding to sucking reflex”, “seemingly calm infant”, and “lack of pain and discomfort in the breast”. Discussion and Conclusion: The study results revealed that determining the characteristics, events, and consequences of successful breastfeeding is very essential and important for both clinical application and nursing discipline purposes. In fact, precise definition of the concept of successful breastfeeding leads to identification of

  19. Breast-feeding support in Ireland: a qualitative study of health-care professionals' and women's views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Barbara; Kearney, John M

    2015-08-01

    To examine women's experience of professional support for breast-feeding and health-care professionals' experience of providing support. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews among women with experience of breast-feeding and health-care professionals with infant feeding roles. Interviews with women were designed to explore their experience of support for breast-feeding antenatally, in hospital and postnatally. Interviews with health-care professionals were designed to explore their views on their role and experience in providing breast-feeding support. Interview transcripts were analysed using content analysis and aspects of Grounded Theory. Overarching themes and categories within the two sets were identified. Urban and suburban areas of North Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-two women all of whom had experience of breast-feeding and fifty-eight health-care professionals. Two overarching themes emerged and in each of these a number of categories were developed: theme 1, facilitators to breast-feeding support, within which being facilitated to breast-feed, having the right person at the right time, being discerning and breast-feeding support groups were discussed; and theme 2, barriers to breast-feeding support, within which time, conflicting information, medicalisation of breast-feeding and the role of health-care professionals in providing support for breast-feeding were discussed. Breast-feeding is being placed within a medical model of care in Ireland which is dependent on health-care professionals. There is a need for training around breast-feeding for all health-care professionals; however, they are limited in their support due to external barriers such as lack of time. Alternative support such as peer support workers should be provided.

  20. Breast feeding, parity and breast cancer subtypes in a Spanish cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M Redondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in the incidence and outcome of breast cancer among Hispanic women compared with white women are well documented and are likely explained by ethnic differences in genetic composition, lifestyle, or environmental exposures. METHODOLGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 510 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2010 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. The different breast cancer tumor subtypes were compared on their clinico-pathological characteristics and risk factor profiles, particularly reproductive variables and breastfeeding. Among the 501 breast cancer patients (with known ER and PR receptors, 85% were ER+/PR+ and 15% were ER-&PR-. Among the 405 breast cancer with known ER, PR and HER2 status, 71% were ER+/PR+/HER2- (luminal A, 14% were ER+/PR+/HER2+ (luminal B, 10% were ER-/PR-/HER2- (triple negative breast cancer, TNBC, and 5% were ER-/PR-/HER2+ (non-luminal. A lifetime breastfeeding period equal to or longer than 7 months was less frequent in case patients with TNBC (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.08-0.68 compared to luminal A breast cancers. Both a low (2 or fewer pregnancies and a high (3-4 pregnancies number of pregnancies combined with a long breastfeeding period were associated with reduced odds of TNBC compared with luminal A breast cancer, although the association seemed to be slightly more pronounced among women with a low number of pregnancies (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.005-0.54. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In case-case analyses with the luminal A cases as the reference group, we observed a lower proportion of TNBC among women who breastfed 7 or more months. The combination of longer breastfeeding duration and lower parity seemed to further reduce the odds of having a TNBC compared to a luminal A breast cancer.

  1. Breast feeding, parity and breast cancer subtypes in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Carmen M; Gago-Domínguez, Manuela; Ponte, Sara Miranda; Castelo, Manuel Enguix; Jiang, Xuejuan; García, Ana Alonso; Fernández, Maite Peña; Tomé, María Ausencia; Fraga, Máximo; Gude, Francisco; Martínez, María Elena; Garzón, Víctor Muñoz; Carracedo, Ángel; Castelao, J Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the incidence and outcome of breast cancer among Hispanic women compared with white women are well documented and are likely explained by ethnic differences in genetic composition, lifestyle, or environmental exposures. METHODOLGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 510 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2010 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. The different breast cancer tumor subtypes were compared on their clinico-pathological characteristics and risk factor profiles, particularly reproductive variables and breastfeeding. Among the 501 breast cancer patients (with known ER and PR receptors), 85% were ER+/PR+ and 15% were ER-&PR-. Among the 405 breast cancer with known ER, PR and HER2 status, 71% were ER+/PR+/HER2- (luminal A), 14% were ER+/PR+/HER2+ (luminal B), 10% were ER-/PR-/HER2- (triple negative breast cancer, TNBC), and 5% were ER-/PR-/HER2+ (non-luminal). A lifetime breastfeeding period equal to or longer than 7 months was less frequent in case patients with TNBC (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.08-0.68) compared to luminal A breast cancers. Both a low (2 or fewer pregnancies) and a high (3-4 pregnancies) number of pregnancies combined with a long breastfeeding period were associated with reduced odds of TNBC compared with luminal A breast cancer, although the association seemed to be slightly more pronounced among women with a low number of pregnancies (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.005-0.54). In case-case analyses with the luminal A cases as the reference group, we observed a lower proportion of TNBC among women who breastfed 7 or more months. The combination of longer breastfeeding duration and lower parity seemed to further reduce the odds of having a TNBC compared to a luminal A breast cancer.

  2. Postpartum Smoking Relapse and Breast Feeding: Defining the Window of Opportunity for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Chad A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Though many women spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, a large proportion relapse after delivery. Efforts aimed at reducing postpartum smoking relapse have been largely ineffective. Several studies have reported breast feeding as a primary factor influencing smoking abstinence duration. However, data on the potential role of breast feeding in smoking intervention efforts remain incomplete. The Ulm SPATZ Health Study cohort consists of 1006 newborns of 970 mothers recruited in the University Medical Center Ulm, Germany. Kaplan-Meier plots, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess differences in predominant and total breast-feeding duration stratified by smoking abstinence at 2 years and relapse period (by 6 weeks, 6 months, and 2 years postdelivery). Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to identify significant differences in demographic and lifestyle factors across smoking categories. Approximately 70% of previous smokers who initiated breast feeding relapsed within 2 years. Relapse by 6 months was significantly associated with noninitiation of predominant breast feeding. Total breast-feeding duration rates among abstaining mothers and those who relapsed after 6 weeks mirrored those of nonsmokers respectively up to 1 year and 3 months. Lower age and education were mostly associated with smoking by 6 weeks. First parity and having a nonsmoking partner were associated with abstinence up to 2 years. Interventions promoting breast feeding to incentivize continued smoking abstinence may be effective prior to weaning. Those promoting breast feeding longer than 6 months and partner smoking cessation may increase rates of long-term smoking abstinence lasting longer than 2 years postdelivery. Most mothers who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse within 6 months of delivery. Though interventions targeting new mothers have been largely unsuccessful, relapse is often delayed until after weaning and targeted breast-feeding

  3. Pumping Milk Without Ever Feeding at the Breast in the Moms2Moms Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Boone, Kelly M; Oza-Frank, Reena; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2017-09-01

    More than 85% of contemporary lactating women in the United States express their milk at least sometimes. Some produce milk exclusively through pumping. We characterized women who pumped but never fed at the breast and compared their infant feeding practices with those of women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. Study participants were those delivered at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in 2011 and completed a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum (n = 478). We used bivariate and multivariate approaches (survival analysis) to compare women who pumped but never fed at the breast with women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. Women (n = 33, 6.9%) who pumped but never fed at the breast comprised a diverse group but were more likely to have delivered preterm and were of lower socioeconomic status on average. They initiated pumping and formula feeding earlier (median = day 1 after delivery) and were more likely to report difficulty making enough milk compared with women who fed at the breast with or without pumping. They had much shorter total duration of milk production (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.1, 5.2) after controlling for clinical and sociodemographic confounders. Pumping without feeding at the breast is associated with shorter milk feeding duration and earlier introduction of formula compared with feeding at the breast with or without pumping. Establishing feeding at the breast, rather than exclusive pumping, may be important for achieving human milk feeding goals.

  4. Breast-feeding and Infant Hospitalization for Infections: Large Cohort and Sibling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ketil; Lundeby, Karen M; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Nakstad, Britt; Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Stene, Lars C

    2017-08-01

    Breast-feeding may protect against infections, but its optimal duration remains controversial. We aimed to study the association of the duration of full and any breast-feeding with infections the first 18 months of life. The Norwegian Mother and Child study (MoBa) is a prospective birth cohort which recruited expecting mothers giving birth from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed data from the full cohort (n = 70,511) and sibling sets (n = 21,220) with parental report of breast-feeding and infections. The main outcome measures were the relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization for infections from 0 to 18 months by age at introduction of complementary foods and duration of any breast-feeding. Although we found some evidence for an overall association between longer duration of full breast-feeding and lower risk of hospitalizations for infections, 7.3% of breast-fed children who received complementary foods at 4 to 6 months of age compared to 7.7% of those receiving complementary foods after 6 months were hospitalized (adjusted RR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.03). Higher risk of hospitalization was observed in those breast-fed 6 months or less (10.0%) compared to ≥12 months (7.6%, adjusted RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.31), but with similar risks for 6 to 11 months versus ≥12 months. Matched sibling analyses, minimizing the confounding from shared maternal factors, showed nonsignificant associations and were generally weaker compared with the cohort analyses. Our results support the recommendation to fully breast-feed for 4 months and to continue breast-feeding beyond 6 months, and suggest that protection against infections is limited to the first 12 months.

  5. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  6. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  7. Impact of peer counselling breast-feeding support programme protocols on any and exclusive breast-feeding discontinuation in low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozga, Mary R; Kerver, Jean M; Olson, Beth H

    2015-02-01

    Peer counselling (PC) programmes have been shown to improve breast-feeding outcomes in populations at risk for early discontinuation. Our objective was to describe associations between programme components (individual and combinations) and breast-feeding outcomes (duration and exclusivity) in a PC programme for low-income women. Secondary analysis of programme data. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between type and quantity of peer contacts with breast-feeding outcomes. Types of contacts included in-person (hospital or home), phone or other (e.g. mail, text). Quantities of contacts were considered 'optimal' if they adhered to standard programme guidelines. Programme data collected from 2005 to 2011 in Michigan's Breastfeeding Initiative Peer Counseling Program. Low-income (n 5886) women enrolled prenatally. For each additional home, phone and other PC contact there was a significant reduction in the hazard of discontinuing any breast-feeding by 6 months (hazard ratio (HR)=0·90 (95% CI 0·88, 0·92); HR=0·89 (95% CI 0·87, 0·90); and HR=0·93 (95% CI 0·90, 0·96), respectively) and exclusive breast-feeding by 3 months (HR=0·92 (95% CI 0·89, 0·95); HR=0·90 (95% CI 0·88, 0·91); and HR=0·93 (95% CI 0·89, 0·97), respectively). Participants receiving greater than optimal in-person and less than optimal phone contacts had a reduced hazard of any and exclusive breast-feeding discontinuation compared with those who were considered to have optimum quantities of contacts (HR=0·17 (95% CI 0·14, 0·20) and HR=0·28 (95% CI 0·23, 0·35), respectively). Specific components of a large PC programme appeared to have an appreciable impact on breast-feeding outcomes. In-person contacts were essential to improving breast-feeding outcomes, but defining optimal programme components is complex.

  8. Determinants of trends in breast-feeding indicators in Nigeria, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley E; Claudio, Fernanda

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the trends and differentials in key breast-feeding indicators in Nigeria for the period 1999-2013. Longitudinal study of trends (1999-2013) in optimal feeding practices using a series of population-based Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys. Trends in socio-economic, health service and individual characteristics associated with key breast-feeding indicators were examined using multilevel regression analyses. Nigeria. Children (n 88 152) aged under 24 months (n 8199 in 1999; n 7620 in 2003; n 33 385 in 2008; n 38 948 in 2013). Among educated mothers, there was an increase in prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding (26% in 1999 to 30% in 2013) and predominant breast-feeding (27% in 1999 to 39% in 2013) compared with mothers with no schooling. A similar increasing trend was evident for mothers from wealthier households and mothers who had a higher frequency of health service access compared with mothers from poorer households and women who reported no health service access, respectively. Mothers with no schooling predominantly breast-fed, but the odds for bottle-feeding were higher among educated mothers and women from wealthier households. The odds for early initiation of breast-feeding were lower for mothers who reported no health service contacts and mothers of lower socio-economic status. Significant increasing trends in key breast-feeding indicators were evident among mothers with higher socio-economic status and mothers who had more health service access in Nigeria. Broader national and sub-national policies that underpin nursing mothers in work environments and a comprehensive community-based approach are proposed to improve feeding practices in Nigeria.

  9. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding complemented by continuing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyzi, O; Güleçyüz, M; Dinçer, Z; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G

    1991-07-01

    The study, aiming to document the effect of continued support for mothers on frequency of exclusive breast feeding, was carried out by inclusion of breast feeding counselling in the context of well-baby care. One hundred and forty-six mothers who had been exposed to two educational sessions on breast feeding after delivery were given appointments to bring their baby to the paediatric hospital for well-baby care. The mother-infant pairs were followed by the same two residents for 4 months. Mean number of visits was six. A conscious effort was made during all visits to influence the mothers and their close relatives towards exclusive breast feeding. It was observed that in a large proportion of the infants, breast milk was being supplemented with water at the time of the first visit and no further effort was made to change this traditional behaviour. Comparison of the results with a group of mothers who had been exposed to similar educational sessions after delivery but without further support showed a striking increase in frequency of exclusive breast feeding (breast milk and water) in the supported group.

  10. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste

    2013-10-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns And Determinants Of Breast Feeding Among Mother Infant Pairs In Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moazzam Ali; Qureshi, Zubia; Khan, Kauser Aftab; Gill, Fouzia Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine the patterns and explore the determinants associated with breast feeding practices among the nursing women in Dera Ghazi Khan. A cross sectional study was conducted on randomly selected lactating mother infant pairs in Dera Ghazi Khan. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Analysis was done by using SPSS, chi square test was applied to see the association between breast feeding practices and its determinants such as knowledge of breast feeding practices. Majority 372 (93%) of mothers mentioned that they had ever breastfed the youngest child. About 292 (73%) mothers gave colostrum to the child, and 48 (12%) exclusively breastfed. Weaning babies before four month of age was practiced by 84 (21%) of the mothers, 120 (55%) mothers started weaning at 4-6 months of child age, while 72 (18%) started to give additional food after baby turned six months old. Out of total 276 (69%) mothers reported that they had knowledge regarding breast feeding. Significant association was found between knowledge of breastfeeding and initiation and Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) practices (p-values Breast feeding practices in the studied area were not up to the mark. There is a strong need to improve the breastfeeding practices by Behavior Change Communication.

  12. A description of breast-feeding outcomes among U.S. mothers using nipple shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Sheryl; Wilson, Marian; Norwood, Susan

    2013-06-01

    this study explored satisfaction with the use of ultrathin silicone nipple shields and breast-feeding experiences among mothers with early breast-feeding difficulties. a convenience sample of 81 postpartum mothers at a Baby Friendly community hospital in the northwest region of the U.S. participated in an exploratory, longitudinal descriptive study. A structured survey measured mothers' ratings of the helpfulness of the nipple shield, duration of nipple shield use and breast feeding, and infant weight gain patterns. the majority of mothers were satisfied with the nipple shield and 72% found it to be 'extremely helpful.' The median duration for nipple shield use was 6.6 weeks, with close to half of mothers stopping use of nipple shields by the fifth week postpartum. On average, study mothers breastfed for 12.6 weeks, and 31% of the mothers were still breast feeding at six months postpartum. study findings are consistent with prior research findings that nipple shields can help mothers who might otherwise abandon breast feeding. Problems with latch or painful, inverted or flat nipples may be managed in some cases with nipple shields. Health-care professionals should be aware of this option and offer mothers information on nipple shields when clinically indicated to alleviate breast-feeding difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast-Feeding and Diabetes: Long-Term Impact on Mothers and Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P.

    2010-01-01

    In the general population, breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk of the offspring being overweight later in life by 22% to 24% across the age spectrum, from preschool children to adults. There is a dose-response gradient with increasing duration of breast-feeding, and lowest risk with prolonged, exclusive breast-feeding. Breast-feeding has been shown to slow infant growth up to 2 years of age. By contrast, the scientific evidence is inconclusive about whether breast-feeding protects against the onset of overweight and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes among offspring whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy. Moreover, evidence is insufficient to determine if lactation protects against development of type 2 diabetes later in life in women with a diabetes history during pregnancy. Given the paucity of the evidence and equivocal findings about the long-term effects of breast-feeding on future health of women with diabetes during pregnancy and their infants, further research is recommended. PMID:18631440

  14. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ghost mothers and wet nurses: breast feeding practices and care of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghost mothers and wet nurses: breast feeding practices and care of children in crisis in Ellembelle Nzema. Douglas Frimpong-Nnuroh. Abstract. No abstract available for this article... Keywords: ghost mothers, wet nurses, breast fedding, children, Ellembelle Nzema Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 85-92).

  16. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating mothers practicing exclusive breast-feeding on term infants. The cross sectional study was carried out between May 1st and 30th, 2005 at the University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City among ...

  17. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2005-05-30

    May 30, 2005 ... Breast-Feeding Mothers in Benin City, Nigeria. Okoeguale Michael Ibadin. 1*. , Chijindu Christopher Osubor. 2. , Peter Ajokpoghene. Onoberhie. 2. ABSTRACT. The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating ... preterm babies, especially if they are.

  18. Breast feeding basic competence in primary care: Development and validation of the CAPA questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol-Pons Rn Ibclc, Anna; Aubanell-Serra ScB, Mercè; Vidal Rn, Mireia; Ojeda-Ciurana Rn, Imma; Martí-Lluch PhD, Ruth; Ponjoan PhD, Anna

    2016-11-01

    validated and reliable tools measuring the level of competence about breastfeeding amongst health professionals who attend mothers in primary care are scarce. to develop and validate a self-administered online questionnaire to assess basic competence about breastfeeding in the full range of health professionals attending lactating mothers in primary care. methodological study. the study was conducted in 33 primary care centers administered by the Catalan Health Institute (Institut Català de la Salut) in the Girona Region (northeast Spain). the questionnaire was sent to 398 health professionals who were likely to be in contact with breast feeding mothers. We included midwives, general practitioners, pediatric nurses (who provide care for children from birth to 14 years old), non-pediatric nurses (who provide care for patients older than 14 year), pediatricians, and gynecologists. The random sampling was stratified by discipline to ensure representativeness. the development and validation of the self-administered online questionnaire had five phases: (1) literature review, preparation of a draft for evaluation by an expert panel and pilot study; (2) design of a questionnaire based on observations from Phase 1; (3) questionnaire administration to a random sample of 398 health professionals, stratified by discipline; (4) re-testing after four weeks; and (5) assessment of construct validity using factor analysis and hypothesis-testing, comparing scores between professional groups and estimating effect size. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha and reproducibility by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The response rate was 69.3%. The final version of the questionnaire has 24 items. The uni-dimensionality of the questionnaire was confirmed by the factor analysis. The score differed significantly between professional groups (F=12.904; pnurses the lowest (111±14 points).The effect sized values ranged from 0.6 and 1.5. Cronbach alpha was 0.870 (95% CI

  19. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  20. A Content Analysis of the Breast-Feeding Information Given by the Physicians in the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Shirley A.

    Twenty books, pamphlets and booklets given by South Bend-Mishawaka, Indiana obstetricians and family practice physicians to expectant mothers were studied to determine their supportiveness towards breast feeding. Only booklets with four or more paragraphs on infant feeding were used. Successful and unsuccessful breast feeding and supportive and…

  1. Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.

  2. Breast-feeding communIty practIces In a Black

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... satisfactory and safe alternative to breast-feeding has lead to a progressive increase in the number of women who provide formula-feeding for their infants.' Since this is now known to be a highly disadvantageous practice, particularly as regards infant survival in a socially underprivileged community,2 it ...

  3. Breast-feeding and responses to infant vaccines: constitutional and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G

    2012-11-01

    Neonates and nursing infants are special with regard to immune development and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Although breast-feeding is essential to modulate and prime immune defenses, vaccines (an interventional prophylaxis) are crucial to prevent and control infectious diseases. During nursing, the type of feeding influences infants' natural defenses (including gut colonization) and their response to vaccines, both through cell-mediated immunity and specific antibody production. Given the variety and combination of vaccine components (antigens and excipients, preservative thimerosal, and aluminum adjuvants) and route of administration, there is a need to examine the role of infant feeding practices in intended and nonintended outcomes of vaccination. Maternal factors related to milk constituents (nutrients and pollutants) and feeding practices can affect response to vaccines. Collectively, studies that compared type of feeding (or used breast-feeding-adjusted statistical models) showed significant influence on some vaccines taken during infancy. Nurslings deprived of the full benefit of breast-feeding could have altered immune responses affecting vaccine outcome. In the absence of studies elucidating neurodevelopment (including excitoxicity) and immunotoxicity issues, vaccination practices should promote and support breast-feeding. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  5. THE APPLICATION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL MODES FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF BREAST FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of breast feeding when it is complicated due to mother and/or child health state is an important and difficult challenge. The application of bottles and nipples which contribute to imitation of the child’s suction process of mother’s breast is urgent to the lactation maintenance. The aim of the study was to perform comparative evaluation of different series bottles with nipples usage for artificial feeding of infants of the first months of life. The received results showed that the majority of children were more willingly to be fed with «Natural» series nipples, continuing to be breast-fed.

  6. Feeding policy protects patients' rights, decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, D

    1985-06-01

    In adopting a policy to guide patients and care givers in treatment decisions, the Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm, Davenport, IA, have taken an important step toward resolving issues related to force-feeding. The policy enables residents of Kahl Home for the Aged and Infirm to discuss their future health care with relatives and physicians while they are competent. It also establishes guidelines concerning the insertion of feeding tubes and provides for periodic evaluation of residents' feeding needs. Formulating such a policy, of course, requires consideration of the ethical assumptions underlying decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining therapy. It requires an understanding of the difference between a diminished capacity to pursue life's ends and the complete inability to do so when a person is permanently comatose. this difference affects the decision as to whether it is time to allow one to die--a decision that should precede the medical decision to withhold or withdraw treatment. For example, to present as an option the removal of feeding tubes and intravenous equipment when a patient is brain dead is poor medicine and bad ethics. The patient is dead; thus no choice exists whether to end treatment. Despite objections to decision making based on quality-of-life criteria, this concept--when related to a person's ability to pursue life's temporal goals--is critical to good decision making and allows decision makers to avoid arbitrary judgments in determining when it is time to let a person die.

  7. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  8. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  9. High education and increased parity are associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration among Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with positive maternal and infant health and development outcomes. To assist identifying women less likely to meet infant nutritional guidelines, we investigated the role of socio-economic position and parity on initiation of and sustaining breast-feeding for at least 6 months. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Parous women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (born 1973-78), with self-reported reproductive and breast-feeding history (N 4777). While 89 % of women (83 % of infants) had ever breast-fed, only 60 % of infants were breast-fed for at least 6 months. Multiparous women were more likely to breast-feed their first child (~90 % v. ~71 % of primiparous women), and women who breast-fed their first child were more likely to breast-feed subsequent children. Women with a low education (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·09 (1·67, 2·62)) or a very low-educated parent (1·47 (1·16, 1·88)) had increased odds of not initiating breast-feeding with their first or subsequent children. While fewer women initiated breast-feeding with their youngest child, this was most pronounced among high-educated women. While ~60 % of women breast-fed their first, second and third child for at least 6 months, low-educated women (first child, adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·19 (1·79, 2·68)) and women with a very low (1·82 (1·49, 2·22)) or low-educated parent (1·69 (1·33, 2·14)) had increased odds of not breast-feeding for at least 6 months. A greater understanding of barriers to initiating and sustaining breast-feeding, some of which are socio-economic-specific, may assist in reducing inequalities in infant breast-feeding.

  10. Effect of Feeding Conditions on the Methylation Status of Fatp1 Gene in Chicken Breast Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding conditions on methylation status of FATP1 gene, which is an important candidate gene of Intramuscular fat and important indicator of chicken meat quality. We selected Daninghe (DNH and Qingjiaoma (QJM chickens under scatter-feeding and captivity-feeding conditions as experimental animals, and detected the methylation status of FATP1 genes in chicken breast muscle using Bisulfite Sequencing PCR method. The results showed that the methylation level of FATP1 in scatter-fed chicken was lower than in captivity-fed conditions in DNH and QIM chicken breast tissues; DNA methylation in the promoter and exon1 region was demonstrated to negatively regulate the expression of the FATP1 gene. These results suggested that feeding conditions affect the methylation status and expression level of FATP1, thereby affecting the Intramuscular fat content in DNH and QJM chicken breast muscle.

  11. Nutritional support via enteral tube feeding in hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth

    Patients receiving enteral tube feeding are often encountered in the ward environment of an acute care setting. Patients may receive enteral tube feed through tubes intended for short-term feeding, or they may have a long-term feeding tube in situ. This article aims to provide a practical overview of feeding solutions and administration to enable nursing staff to understand prescribed regimens and provide patients with optimum care.

  12. Why do women stop breast-feeding? Results from a contemporary prospective study in a cohort of Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, R M; Davies, P S W

    2016-12-01

    Australian guidelines recommend infants be breast-fed for at least their first year of life; however, for a variety of reasons many mothers cease breast-feeding before this age. The objective of this study was to determine the reasons why women stop breast-feeding their infant completely, in relation to the age of the infant. Primiparous Australian women aged between 18 and 40 years underwent a self-administered questionnaire-based birth cohort study on infant-feeding attitudes, behaviours and feeding patterns. Data were extracted from the demographic questionnaire and from questionnaires administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of infant age between October 2010 and September 2011. Breast-feeding initiation in this cohort was 97%; however, by 52 weeks of infant age 46% of mothers had completely ceased breast-feeding. In those mothers who had ceased breast-feeding before 26 weeks the most common reason was 'I did not have enough milk'. In those mothers who had completely stopped breast-feeding between 26 and 52 weeks the most common reason reported as being very important in the decision to cease breast-feeding was 'My baby lost interest'. Maternal concerns regarding breast trauma, milk supply and infant satiety were central mediators of breast-feeding duration among these Queensland women. Further research into the antecedents of sucking pathologies and reasons for nipple trauma is indicated. Health professionals can assist women to recognise cues of hunger and satiety in their infants and understand the dynamics and natural history of breast-feeding to prolong breast-feeding relationships.

  13. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ANTENATAL MATERNAL EDUCATION: ITS OUTCOME AND EFFECT ON PATTERNS OF BREAST-FEEDING IN KUMAON REGION OF UTTARAKHAND

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Hussain; Ajay Kumar Arya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast-feeding and to assess the effectiveness of antenatal maternal breast-feeding education for increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration. STUDY DESIGN A prospective clinical observational study performed for six-month period at a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. METHODS 150 healthy pregnant women attending ANC Clinic and their newborns admitted in Department of Paediatrics and Obstetrics &...

  15. Breast-feeding is associated with improved growth in length, but not weight, in rural Senegalese toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Simondon, Kirsten; Simondon, François; Costes, R.; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, A.

    2001-01-01

    Background : Prolonged breast-feeding is frequently associated with malnutrition in less-developed countries, even after adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. However, in rural Senegal, breast-feeding is prolonged when the child is stunted. Objective : We aimed to test whether the lower height-for-age of children weaned late is explained by their height before weaning or whether prolonged breast-feeding is associated with impaired growth. Design : A cohort of 443 Senegalese children recru...

  16. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  17. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  18. Support needs of breast-feeding women: views of Australian midwives and health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; Hall, Helen; Gilmour, Carole; Cant, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    to explore the views of midwives and maternal-child health nurses regarding factors that influence breast feeding initiation and continuation, focusing on how support for women could be improved to increase breast feeding duration. a focus group study. hospital or domiciliary (home-visiting) midwives and community-based maternal and child health (MCH) nurses in one region of Victoria, Australia. twelve MCH nurses and five midwives who provided supportive services to women in the immediate postnatal period attended one of three audio-recorded focus groups. Thematic findings were identified. four key themes were: 'Guiding women over breast-feeding hurdles', 'Timing, and time to care'; 'Continuity of women's care' and 'Imparting professional knowledge'. Given the a pattern of hospital discharge of mother and infant on day one or day two after birth, participants thought the timing of immediate postnatal breast-feeding support was critical to enable women to initiate and continue breast feeding. Community-based MCH nurses reported time gaps in uptake of new mother referrals and time-pressured face-to-face consultations. Both groups perceived barriers to continuity of women's care. health services subscribe to the Baby Friendly Health Initiative and government policies which support breast feeding, however providers described time pressures and a lack of continuity of women's care, including during transition from hospital to community services. there is a need to examine administration of service delivery and how domiciliary and community nurses can collaborate to establish and maintain supportive relationships with breast feeding women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal experiences of embodied emotional sensations during breast feeding: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Marcelina; Murray, Craig; Simpson, Jane

    2016-05-01

    the purpose of this study was to explore mothers׳ experiences of embodied emotional sensations during breast feeding and to understand the meaning and consequences that such experiences may have on mothers' sense of self and the relationships they form with their children. a qualitative design was applied to this study as it was judged as the most appropriate approach to this novel field of enquiry. the study was conducted in United Kingdom using a sample of mothers drawn from five different countries from Europe, America and Australia. the sample consisted of 11 mothers who reported experiencing or having experienced negative embodied emotional sensations associated with breast feeding in the past five years. semi-structured interviews were conducted with the mothers and interviews were transcribed to enable the process of data analysis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b) was chosen as a method of data analysis, enabling in depth understanding and interpretation of the meaning of mothers' experiences. IPA was chosen due to its idiographic commitment and particular interest in sense-making, phenomenology and hermeneutics. three themes were generated reflecting the multifaceted nature of breast feeding experiences (i) 'Breast feeding: An unexpected trigger of intense embodied emotional sensations incongruent with view of self', (ii) 'Fulfilling maternal expectations and maintaining closeness with the child', (iii) 'Making sense of embodied emotional sensations essential to acceptance and coping'. breast feeding has the potential to trigger a range of conflicting cognitions and emotions in mothers that may impact on how mothers view themselves and relate to their children. increasing awareness about emotional breast feeding experiences and recognising the multifaceted, individual nature of difficulties around breast feeding enables professionals to offer mothers person-centred care and avoid making clinical decisions and

  20. Breast-feeding patterns of ethnic groups in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fang; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lengxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding pattern of four main ethnic groups (the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang) living in rural western China. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. Forty-five counties in ten provinces in western China in 2005. A sample of 11 783 children younger than 36 months old (8960 Han, 1281 Uygur, 792 Tibetan and 750 Zhuang) and their mothers were recruited using a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling method. The rates of exclusive breast-feeding of children at 6 months of age in the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups were 11.6 %, 0.8%, 4.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The rates of any breast-feeding for children at 24 months of age were 8.5%, 25.7%, 3.0% and 4.3% in the four ethnic groups, respectively. After adjusting for related factors, Zhuang children had a higher odds ratio of exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months compared with Han children, whereas Uygur and Tibetan children had lower odds ratio (Zhuang: OR=1.291; 95% CI 1.006, 1.657; Uugur: OR=0.062; 95% CI 0.032, 0.121; Tibetan: OR=0.323; 95% CI 0.220, 0.475). Uygur children had a lower hazard ratio of discontinued breast-feeding compared with Han children, whereas Tibetan children had a higher hazard ratio (Uygur: HR=0.368; 95% CI 0.333, 0.408; Tibetan: HR=1.366; 95% CI 1.244, 1.500). The breast-feeding pattern differed among the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups. The results suggest that health education regarding the benefits of breast-feeding is needed in rural western China.

  1. Reduced risk of peanut sensitization following exposure through breast-feeding and early peanut introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Tracy J; Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Chan, Edmond S; Watson, Wade T A; Chooniedass, Rishma; Azad, Meghan B

    2018-02-01

    Recent trials have shown that avoiding peanuts during infancy increases the risk of peanut allergy; however, these studies did not address maternal peanut consumption. We sought to investigate the relationship between maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding, timing of direct peanut introduction, and peanut sensitization at age 7 years. Secondary analysis of a nested cohort within the 1995 Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study intervention study was performed. Breast-feeding and maternal and infant peanut consumption were captured by repeated questionnaires during infancy. Skin prick testing for peanut sensitization was performed at age 7 years. Overall, 58.2% of mothers consumed peanuts while breast-feeding and 22.5% directly introduced peanuts to their infant by 12 months. At 7 years, 9.4% of children were sensitized to peanuts. The lowest incidence (1.7%) was observed among children whose mothers consumed peanuts while breast-feeding and directly introduced peanuts before 12 months. Incidence was significantly higher (P breast-feeding but delayed introducing peanuts to their infant beyond 12 months (15.1%), or if mothers avoided peanuts themselves but directly introduced peanuts by 12 months (17.6%). Interaction analyses controlling for study group and maternal atopy confirmed that maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding and infant peanut consumption by 12 months were protective in combination, whereas either exposure in isolation was associated with an increased risk of sensitization (P interaction = .003). In this secondary analysis, maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding paired with direct introduction of peanuts in the first year of life was associated with the lowest risk of peanut sensitization, compared with all other combinations of maternal and infant peanut consumption. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early, regular breast-milk pumping may lead to early breast-milk feeding cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Pence, Brian W; Aiello, Allison; Ennett, Susan; Bengtson, Angela M; Chetwynd, Ellen; Robinson, Whitney

    2018-02-13

    To estimate the effect of early, regular breast-milk pumping on time to breast-milk feeding (BMF) and exclusive BMF cessation, for working and non-working women. Using the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (IFPS II), we estimated weighted hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of regular pumping (participant defined) compared with non-regular/not pumping, reported at month 2, on both time to BMF cessation (to 12 months) and time to exclusive BMF cessation (to 6 months), using inverse probability weights to control confounding. USA, 2005-2007. BMF (n 1624) and exclusively BMF (n 971) IFPS II participants at month 2. The weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 1·62 (95 % CI 1·47, 1·78) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·25). Among non-working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 2·05 (95 % CI 1·84, 2·28) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·10 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Among working women, the weighted HR for time to BMF cessation was 0·90 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·07) and for time to exclusive BMF cessation was 1·14 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·36). Overall, regular pumpers were more likely to stop BMF and exclusive BMF than non-regular/non-pumpers. Non-working regular pumpers were more likely than non-regular/non-pumpers to stop BMF. There was no effect among working women. Early, regular pumpers may need specialized support to maintain BMF.

  3. Effectiveness of CenteringPregnancy on Breast-Feeding Initiation Among African Americans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Hanson, Lisa

    2018-01-17

    While breast-feeding initiation rates for African American mothers are low, an innovative model of group prenatal care, CenteringPregnancy, holds promise to increase breast-feeding rates. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy versus individual prenatal care on breast-feeding initiation among African American mothers. Using a systematic approach and PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were used to search the literature. English-language studies, comparing CenteringPregnancy and individual prenatal care, including African American participants, and specifying breast-feeding initiation as an outcome were screened for inclusion. Study strength and quality were assessed and 7 studies were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breast-feeding initiation by 53% (95% confidence interval = 29%-81%) (n = 8047). A subgroup analysis of breast-feeding initiation among only African American participants was performed on 4 studies where data were available. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breast-feeding initiation by 71% (95% confidence interval = 27%-131%) (n = 1458) for African American participants. CenteringPregnancy is an effective intervention to increase breast-feeding initiation for participants, especially for African Americans. To close the racial gap in breast-feeding initiation, high-quality research providing specific outcomes for African American participants in CenteringPregnancy are needed.

  4. Maternity hospital practices and breast feeding self-efficacy in Finnish primiparous and multiparous women during the immediate postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Katja S; Aho, Anna L; Hannula, Leena; Kaunonen, Marja

    2014-04-01

    to explore the relationship between maternity hospital practices and breast feeding self-efficacy. the data were collected using a cross-sectional survey. The study is a part of a larger longitudinal research and development project called 'Urban parenthood'. three urban maternity hospitals in Southern Finland. altogether 1400 questionnaires were given out and 573 primiparous and multiparous women completed the questionnaire within a week after childbirth. The response rate was 41%. early and successful initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in and exclusive breast feeding during the hospital stay were associated with higher maternal breast feeding self-efficacy in both primiparous and multiparous women. The reason (medical or non-medical), frequency or method (bottle or cup) for supplementation was not associated with breast feeding self-efficacy. breast feeding experiences during the immediate postpartum period have an association with breast feeding self-efficacy. Mothers who are not able to initiate breast feeding within an hour after birth or whose infants are supplemented during the hospital stay may benefit from additional support and breast feeding counselling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Atopic dermatitis and prolonged exclusive breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, M; Elhani, I; Doussari, S; Amir, A

    2012-04-01

    We sought to compare the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding throughout at least the first 6 months of life in patients presenting atopic dermatitis (AD) with a control group, and to check for a correlation between the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the severity of AD. We conducted a case-control study with prospective inclusion over a period of 3 years. The study group consisted of 114 patients aged less than 15 years, from an urban area, presenting AD but with no personal or family history of atopy. Each patient was compared with two controls from the same town, matched for age and gender, with no personal or family history of atopy, and free of AD. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software package, version 15.0. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life in the patient group was significantly lower than in the control group (P=0.0413). On the other hand, AD was significantly less severe in patients exclusively breastfed for longer than 9 months (P=0.0079). The correlations recorded in our study do not allow us to draw any definite conclusions about a protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding with regard to AD. However, other benefits of extended exclusive breastfeeding justify supporting breastfeeding in a community with an existing sociocultural predisposition for this feeding method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Formula milk versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M A; Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. Feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula milk might increase nutrient input and growth rates. However, since feeding with formula milk may be associated with a higher incidence of feeding intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, this may adversely affect growth and development. To determine the effect of formula milk compared with donor human breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two reviewer authors, and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. Eight trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only one trial used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. Enteral feeding with formula milk compared with donor breast milk resulted in higher rates of growth in the short term. There was no evidence of an effect on long-term growth rates or neurodevelopmental outcomes. Meta-analysis of data from five trials demonstrated a statistically significantly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in the formula fed group: typical relative risk 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2, 5.1); typical risk difference: 0.03 (95% confidence interval 0.01, 0.06; number needed to harm: 33 (95

  7. Antenatal education and postnatal support strategies for improving rates of exclusive breast feeding: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin-Lin; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Chan, Yah-Shih; Fok, Doris; Tun, Kay-Thwe; Ng, Faith S P; Rauff, Mary

    2007-09-22

    To investigate whether antenatal breast feeding education alone or postnatal lactation support alone improves rates of exclusive breast feeding compared with routine hospital care. Randomised controlled trial. A tertiary hospital in Singapore. 450 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Primary outcomes were rates of exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital and two weeks, six weeks, three months, and six months after delivery. Secondary outcomes were rates of any breast feeding. Compared with women who received routine care, women in the postnatal support group were more likely to breastfeed exclusively at two weeks (relative risk 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.90), six weeks (1.85, 1.11 to 3.09), three months (1.87, 1.03 to 3.41), and six months (2.12, 1.03 to 4.37) postnatally. Women receiving antenatal education were more likely to breast feed exclusively at six weeks (1.73, 1.04 to 2.90), three months (1.92, 1.07 to 3.48), and six months (2.16, 1.05 to 4.43) postnatally. The numbers needed to treat to achieve one woman exclusively breast feeding at six months were 11 (6 to 80) for postnatal support and 10 (6 to 60) for antenatal education. Women who received postnatal support were more likely to exclusively or predominantly breast feed two weeks after delivery compared with women who received antenatal education (1.53, 1.01 to 2.31). The rate of any breastfeeding six weeks after delivery was also higher in the postnatal support group compared with women who received routine care (1.16, 1.02 to 1.31). Antenatal breast feeding education and postnatal lactation support, as single interventions based in hospital both significantly improve rates of exclusive breast feeding up to six months after delivery. Postnatal support was marginally more effective than antenatal education. Clinical Trials NCT00270920 [ClinicalTrials.gov].

  8. FORMATION OF INTESTINAL BIOCOENOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH BREAST AND ARTIFICIAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyzed main stages of formation of intestinal biocoenosis in children with breast and artificial feeding. They presented principal risk factors of disorders of normal biocoenosis forming in infant. Advantages of administration of bifidus bacteria strain BB12 in children with artificial feeding are presented. Authors described proper experience of children’s feeding with adopted milk mixture. It was shown that an influence of mixture on the restoration of intestinal biocoenosis and formation of colonialist resistance of infants’ gastrointestinal tract is comparable to that one during breast feeding.Key words: infants, feeding, intestinal biocoenosis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:103-108

  9. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  11. Differences in breast-feeding initiation and continuation by maternal diabetes status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Chertok, Ilana; Bartley, Adam

    2015-03-01

    To examine (i) the prevalence of and associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by maternal diabetes status and (ii) the reasons for not initiating and/or continuing breast-feeding by maternal diabetes status. Secondary data analyses of a population-based cross-sectional study were conducting using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2009-2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by diabetes status. Thirty states and New York City, USA. Mothers of recently live-born infants, selected by birth certificate sampling. Among 72755 women, 8.8 % had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 1.7 % had pregestational diabetes mellitus (PDM). Breast-feeding initiation was similar among GDM and no diabetes mellitus (NDM) women (80.8 % v. 82.2 %, respectively, P=0.2), but continuation was lower among GDM (65.7 % v. 68.8 %, respectively, P=0.01). PDM women had lower initiation and continuation compared with NDM (78.2 %, P=0.03 and 60.4 %, Pdiabetes status may reflect differences in prenatal education, indicating the need for increased efforts among PDM women. Additionally, non-smoking women with PDM or GDM would benefit from additional breast-feeding education.

  12. Cumulative risks and cessation of exclusive breast feeding: Australian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; van der Mei, Ingrid; Wills, Karen; Hansen, Emily; Nelson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cessation of exclusive breast feeding at each month up to 6 months and document key factors and cumulative risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding cessation for children aged from 0 to 6 months. Secondary analysis using a national representative sample of 22 202 mother and infant pairs derived from the 2010 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare cross-sectional survey, the Australian Infant Feeding Survey. Among breastfed infants, 49% had ceased exclusive breast feeding before they had reached 2 months of age. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, cessation of exclusive breast feeding was most strongly associated with partners preferring bottle feeding (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.69 to 20.6) or having no preference (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.42), regular dummy use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.39) and maternal obesity (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.35). Living within the most disadvantaged areas of Australia (quintile 1) was not strongly associated with cessation (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) compared with least disadvantaged areas. Having three risk factors significantly increased the risk of cessation by 31% (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.6). The prevalence of early cessation of exclusive breast feeding is alarmingly high with 50% of infants no longer exclusively breast fed by age 2 months. Given that not one factor is associated with cessation of exclusive breast feeding, the greatest public health impact is likely to be achieved when multiple risk factors are modified or prevented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival.......02). Children aged 12-35 months who were not breast fed had a 3.5 times higher mortality (1.4 to 8.3) than breast fed children. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of breast feeding are not restricted to infancy. Though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than...... was higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...

  14. Supporting breast-feeding women from the perspective of the midwife: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerts, Marlies; Westhof, Ellen; Bogaerts, Annick; Lemiengre, Joke

    2016-06-01

    In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants should be fed exclusively with breast milk until the age of six months. However, breast feeding rates remain lower than recommended. The crucial period for breast feeding support is the first two weeks after birth. During this period breast feeding support from the midwife is needed. The aim of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of midwives in their support of breast-feeding women, from their own perspective. Two researchers independently conducted a systematic and comprehensive literature search. Studies needed an empirical qualitative research design (1), had to focus on the role of the midwife in the support of the breast-feeding woman from the midwife's perspective (2), and had to be published between January 2005 and December 2014 (3) in order to be included. Language restrictions were English, Dutch, German and French. Eight qualitative research studies were included, using mainly focus group and in-depth interview studies, which were reported in 11 papers representing 231 midwives and 24 maternity nurses. All but one study concerned midwives working in hospital settings. A critical appraisal was performed of each study. Midwives value breast feeding education and breast feeding support as a significant part of their role as a postnatal midwife. However, the ways in which a midwife approaches and supports the breast-feeding woman vary. We distinguished two perspectives: 'the midwife as technical expert' and 'the midwife as a skilled companion'. The 'technical expert' midwife is mainly breast centred, focuses on techniques, uses the hands on approach and sees a woman as a novice. The 'skilled companion' midwife is woman centred, focuses on the mother - infant relationship and uses a hands off approach during the breast feeding support. The midwives working in a hospital setting face many barriers when performing breast feeding support, such as time restraints, which

  15. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a medical-psychological-pedagogical questioning of 85 mothers of premature infants demonstrate insufficient work of medical personnel in the sphere of preserving breast feeding in whole and in the children born with perinatal pathologies in particular; and the need of young women and their families in obtaining information on the benefits of breast feeding, training and assistance in the course of parental performance. The study resulted in formulation of recommendations on breast feeding support. It is important to establish the possibility to return to full breast feeding after enforced weaning and in the event of supplementary/mixed feeding. Results of the second study (n = 33 demonstrated that the use of special medical devices (pacifiers, feeding bottles developed on the basis of thorough research in the sphere of maternal breast sucking physiology in natural feeding termination risk group children helps to preserve children’s need therein and ensures efficient return of children to maternal breast feeding.

  16. Breast-feeding is associated with improved growth in length, but not weight, in rural Senegalese toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Simondon, F; Costes, R; Delaunay, V; Diallo, A

    2001-05-01

    Prolonged breast-feeding is frequently associated with malnutrition in less-developed countries, even after adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. However, in rural Senegal, breast-feeding is prolonged when the child is stunted. We aimed to test whether the lower height-for-age of children weaned late is explained by their height before weaning or whether prolonged breast-feeding is associated with impaired growth. A cohort of 443 Senegalese children recruited from dispensaries at 2 mo of age were visited in their homes at 6-mo intervals when they were approximately 1.5 to 3 y of age. Weight, length, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Six-month increments were analyzed in relation to breast-feeding (breast-fed compared with weaned children or breast-feeding duration), season, and maternal housing with use of multiple linear regression. The mean duration of breast-feeding was 24.1 mo (quartiles 1 and 3: 21.9 and 26.4). Height-for-age at the age of 3 y was negatively associated with age at weaning (P < 0.01), but this association disappeared after adjustment for height-for-age in infancy. Length increments were significantly greater in both the second and third years of life in children breast-fed for longer durations (P < 0.05) and tended to be greater in breast-fed than in weaned children in the second year of life (P = 0.05). In the third year of life, breast-fed children had greater length increments than did weaned children in the subgroup with poor housing (P for interaction < 0.05). Growth in weight did not differ significantly according to breast-feeding. Prolonged breast-feeding improved linear growth, and the negative relation between height-for-age and duration of breast-feeding was due to reverse causality.

  17. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  18. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother's statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant's illness (only up to six months), mother's consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother's educational level, child's gender, place of birth, pregnancies' interval, mother's ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother's breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child's crying and discomfort. It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child's gender as far as cultural context and preference of a son is considered, observance of pregnancy

  19. Breast-feeding in a complex emergency: four linked cross-sectional studies during the Bosnian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Cockcroft, Anne; Sherr, Lorraine

    2010-12-01

    To examine changes in breast-feeding and impacts on child health during the Bosnian conflict. Four linked representative cross-sectional household surveys, 1994 to 1997. The countries of former Yugoslavia largely missed the international wave of enthusiasm for breast-feeding of the 1980s and early 1990s. The concern is that breast-feeding deteriorates during humanitarian emergencies, when children need it most. The four surveys visited a random sample of clusters from population registers in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and the Republica Srpska (RS). Interviewers asked about breast-feeding and other factors related to child health, and measured mid upper-arm circumference in 1123 infants aged 1-12 months. One-fifth of infants were not breast-fed at all (220/1087). Muslim and displaced children were less likely to breast-feed; 59 % of Muslim displaced children never breast-fed. Among infants in sites visited by all four surveys, there was no change in the proportion ever breast-fed and a significant increase in duration of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding between 1994 and 1997. Children were breast-fed for shorter durations in male absent households, in frontline communities, the RS, and households that did not receive remittances from abroad. Non-breast-fed children and those who breast-fed for less than 4 months were more likely to be malnourished, as were those with complementary foods added either before or after their sixth month of life. If relief agencies had promoted and supported breast-feeding, this might have avoided some of the increased malnutrition that occurred during the conflict.

  20. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J L

    2004-04-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing transfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  1. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, J

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  2. [Efficacy of feeding pump for patients on enteral tube feeding: a systematic literature review and analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jin A; Lee, Seon Heui; Jeon, Mi Hye; Kim, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hwa Soon; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Duk

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to establish a guideline on the utilizing of feeding pump in patients requiring enteral tube feeding. As a first step, textbooks on nutrition and guidelines from regional clinical nutrition societies were analyzed. Afterwards, data on the efficacy, safety, and practicality of feeding pump application were collected and evaluated by systematically reviewing the related literature. As data sources, 8 domestic databases including KoreaMed and global databases such as Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were utilized. A total of 2,016 related articles was selected by applying the keyword "(enteral feeding.mp AND pump.mp)". Textbooks and guidelines were not able to draw conclusions on the effects of the feeding pump because the injection speed, tube size, and etcetera were different for enteral feeding. Feeding pump assisted enteral tube feeding was an efficient, safe, and practical procedure for reducing maladjustment-related complications of enteral tube feeding, which are obvious obstacles for maintaining nutritional balances in patients requiring tube feeding. Feeding pump application can be considered an efficient and safe measure that is acceptable in patients on small intestinal tube feeding, critically-ill patients on gastro-intestinal tube feeding, premature babies, and critically-ill or severely malnourished children (recommendation grade D).

  3. The Associations of Breast Feeding with Infant Growth and Body Mass Index to 16 years: 'Children of 1997'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tuck Seng; Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-12-27

    Controversial findings concerning associations of breast feeding with growth have been reported. This study examined whether the associations of breast feeding with early growth trajectories and body mass index to 16 years differed by sex or age. In Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' population-representative birth cohort, contemporaneously reported breast-feeding status in the first 3 months was classified as exclusive breast feeding (BF) (n = 470), mixed feeding (MF) (n = 2693), and formula feeding (FF) (n = 4204). Adjusted sex- and age-specific associations of breast feeding with infant growth (gains in weight-for-age z scores (WAZ), length/height-for-age z scores (LAZ), and body-mass-index-for-age z score (BAZ) based on the World Health Organization standards/references from birth to 36 months) were assessed using linear regression and mixed modelling, respectively. Adjusted sex-specific associations of breast feeding with average BAZ from 3 months to 16 years were assessed using generalized estimating equation. Potential confounders were maternal and infant characteristics, and household income. Among 7367 children, associations of breast feeding with infant growth did not vary by sex, but WAZ gains varied by age. Greater WAZ gains were observed in BF than FF infants from 0 to 3 months but in FF than BF infants from 3 to 9 months. Breast feeding was not associated with overall BAZ from 3 months to 16 years, with no differences by sex. Our findings suggest that breast feeding may only have short-term effects on growth. Further studies of the role of breast feeding in other metabolic diseases may be needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BREAST-FEEDING, CO-SLEEPING, AND SOMATIC COMPLAINTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elisabeth Maria; Lusher, Joanne Marie; Banbury, Samantha; Chandler, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The central aim of this study was to expand a limited body of knowledge on the complex relationship between breast-feeding, co-sleeping, and somatic complaints in early childhood. An opportunity sample of 98 parents from the general population with children aged 18 to 60 months consented to participate in the study. Each parent completed a series of questionnaires measuring somatic complaints, sleep problems, co-sleeping, breast-feeding, and demographic factors. Findings indicated that co-sleeping was associated with increased somatic complaints and that breast-feeding associated with decreased somatic complaints. Co-sleeping also was found to be associated with an increase in sleep problems. Boys demonstrated significantly higher levels of sleep problems than did girls. These findings highlight the relationship between co-sleeping during early childhood, which could have implications for prevention, treatment, and intervention regarding somatic complaints and sleep problems in early childhood. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Breast-feeding: the role of multinational corporations in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M B

    1976-01-01

    The decline in birthrates in the developed countries of the world has forced multinational corporations engaged in the production of infant formula to seek out new markets in the developing countries, where burgeoning population rates potentially guarantee the long-term profitability of these corporations. This development, ostensibly benign and nutritionally advantageous to infants in developing countries, has serious public health consequences, due to the high relative cost of purchased formula and the paucity of hygienic facilities essential to the sterile preparation of bottle formula. This paper delineates in detail economic and contraceptive advantages of breast-feeding, and examines the role of health personnel and multinational advertising techniques which have catalyzed the decline in breast-feeding. In addition, the paper focuses on the question of cultural imperialism and current efforts to regulate the multinational firms through both United Nations groups and stock-holders' suits. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning ameliorative public policy approaches to the breast-feeding controversy.

  6. [Assessment of vitamins and minerals intake with supplements during breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gorzel, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of supplements intake during breast-feeding was aim of the work. Seventy three women were examined in age 19-42 years coming from the Lublin province. The information about applying supplements during breast-feeding was obtained using questionnaire method. Achieved results served for calculations of taking vitamins and minerals coming from supplements. During breast-feeding 48% women accepted supplements. Average intakes of vitamin B2 (113%), B6 (120%), folic acid (144%) and vitamin D (166%) from supplements were above 100% recommended values. The highest average consumption was noted for iron (229% of recommended value), however the lowest on level 10-35% recommendations for vitamin A (33%), calcium (11%), selenium (12%) and magnesium (20%). Nearly 100% of the norm realization was obtained in case of the vitamin C (93%), E (102%), PP (105%), B1 (107%) and zinc (99%).

  7. Association between Breast Feeding and Paediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Garcia, Cecilia; Hernandez, Ivonne Angelica; Major, Paul; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Breast feeding has been suggested as a potential protective factor against childhood snoring and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). SDB can have major health consequences. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the available literature concerning any potential association between infant feeding methods and SDB in young children. Five electronic databases were searched. All searches were inclusive until August 5, 2016. Two authors independently reviewed potentially relevant articles for eligibility. Any prospective or retrospective study, case-control study, cohort study, clinical trial, and cross-sectional study that evaluated the association between infant feeding methods and SDB were included. Data on study design, aim of study, sample size, study population, assessment tool, infant feeding methods, and outcome measures were extracted. Nine studies fulfilled the criteria to be finally included in this review, only cohorts and cross-sectional studies were identified. While seven of the selected studies reported a statistically significant association between breast feeding and reduced risk of SDB, the remaining two studies did not report any association. The main methodological limitation was high heterogeneity in the diagnostic criteria and assessment tools to identify SDB and limited data collection on infant feeding methods. The current evidence may point to a protective association, however, as uncertainty is moderate, any suggestion that breast feeding may or may not decrease the risk of SDB is currently unwarranted. More research on the topic is required to resolve some of the contradictions between included studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Breast-feeding pattern and onset of menstruation among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adeyemi, Adebayo B; Owolabi, Alexander T

    2007-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding practices and duration of lactational amenorrhoea among women within the first year of delivery in a Nigerian population. Cross-sectional study carried out between January 2005 and April 2006, among mothers within one year of delivery, who were attending the Infant Welfare Clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, mothers were interviewed to obtain information regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, parity, breast-feeding habits, use of contraception and onset of menstruation after delivery. Information obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 11. All 268 (100%) mothers interviewed breast-fed their babies, 261 (97.4%) of which for at least 6 months. Most (71.6%) suckled exclusively for 6 months and more; only 10 (3.7%) never carried out exclusive breast-feeding. Age, parity and educational level did not affect the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Lactational amenorrhoea lasted 3 months or more in 229 (85.5%) of the mothers. Of the 174 who exclusively breast-fed for 6 months, 109 (62.6%) remained amenorrhoeic during that time and, hence, met the criteria for use of LAM contraception. Exclusive breast-feeding among nursing mothers is highly prevalent among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria. Since lactational amenorrhoea lasts 6 months in about two-thirds of the women nursing for that period of time, there is a great potential for the application of LAM for contraception.

  9. Effect of Postnatal HIV Treatment on Clinical Mastitis and Breast Inflammation in HIV-Infected Breast-feeding Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Sabrina; Westreich, Daniel; Hudgens, Michael G; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; Martinson, Francis; Zimba, Chifundo; Tegha, Gerald; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Pence, Brian W; King, Caroline C; Kourtis, Athena P; Msungama, Wezi; van der Horst, Charles

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning. Among 1472 HIV-infected women who delivered live infants between 2004 and 2007, we estimated cumulative incidence functions and sub-distribution hazard ratios (HR) of mastitis or breast inflammation comparing women in maternal ART (n = 487) or infant nevirapine (n = 492) groups to the standard of care (n = 493). Nutritional supplement groups (743 took, 729 did not) were also compared. Through 28-weeks post-partum, 102 of 1472 women experienced at least one occurrence of mastitis or breast inflammation. The 28-week risk was higher for maternal ART (risk difference (RD) 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 8.1) and infant NVP (RD 3.6, 95% CI 0.3, 6.9) compared to standard of care. The hazard of late-appearing mastitis or breast inflammation (from week 5-28) was also higher for maternal ART (HR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0, 22.6) and infant NVP (HR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5, 17. 5) compared to the standard of care. Mastitis or breast inflammation while breast-feeding is a possible side effect for women taking prophylactic ART and women whose infants take NVP, warranting additional research in the context of postnatal HIV transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Postnatal weight loss in substitute methadone-exposed infants: implications for the management of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Carol; Young, David; Campbell, Nicole; Mactier, Helen

    2012-05-01

    It is widely accepted that maternal drug-exposed infants demonstrate excessive early weight loss, but this has not previously been quantified. Among 354 term, substitute methadone-exposed infants, median maximal weight losses were 10.2% and 8.5% for breast- and formula-fed infants, respectively (p=0.003). Weight loss was less in small for gestational age compared to appropriately grown infants (plactation and may help to guide management of breast feeding in this population.

  11. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  12. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed.

  13. Attention-deficit disorder associated with breast-feeding: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Raymond

    2012-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders that develop in children. In the United States and Canada, the prevalence is about 6%. The causes of ADHD are not known. ADHD, like autism, occurs mainly in boys aged 3-6, and there are some thoughts that both diseases may have a common mechanism. This study uses nutritional epidemiology linked to exclusive 6-month breast-feeding. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported in 2003 and 2007 extensive studies on ADHD involving several million children in 50 states. The prevalence of ADHD in each state in 2003 or 2007 was compared to the average of exclusive 6-month breast-feeding from 2001 to 2004 or 3-month exclusive breast-feeding in 2007 in each of the 50 states. Several parameters, such as premature births, low birth weight, and very low birth weight, that had previously associated with ADHD were compared to ADHD incidence. Other parameters such as obesity, infant death rate, neonatal death rate, poverty, per capita income, and the percentage of individuals enrolled in the U.S. WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) program were also compared to ADHD incidence. A highly significant inverse relationship of ADHD to exclusive 6-month and 3-month breast-feeding in 2007 was observed. Direct relationships were observed between premature births, low birth weight and very low birth weight, obesity, infant deaths, neonatal deaths, and ADHD. Breast milk contains components that appear to prevent ADHD.

  14. Breast-feeding and the development of cows' milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, K M; Juntunen-Backman, K; Järvenpää, A L; Klemetti, P; Kuitunen, P; Lope, L; Renlund, M; Siivola, M; Vaarala, O; Savilahti, E

    2000-01-01

    Early feeding with cows' milk (CM) may cause cows' milk allergy (CMA). Breast milk contains many immune factors which compensate for the undeveloped defence mechanisms of the gut of the newborn infant. We studied the effect of supplementary CM feeding at the maternity hospital on the subsequent incidence of CMA, the effects of formula and breast feeding on the subsequent immunologic types of CMA, and the importance of immune factors present in colostrum in the immune responses of infants with CMA. In a cohort of 6209 infants, 824 were exclusively breast-fed and 87% required supplementary milk while in the maternity hospital: 1789 received CM formula, 1859 pasteurized human milk, and 1737 whey hydrolysate formula. The cumulative incidence of CMA, verified by a CM elimination-challenge test, was 2.4% in the CM, 1.7% in the pasteurized human milk and 1.5% in the whey hydrolysate group. Among these infants, exposure to CM at hospital and a positive atopic heredity increased the risk of CMA. Of the exclusively breast-fed infants, 2.1% had CMA. Risk factors for the development of IgE-mediated CMA were: exposure to CM at hospital, breast-feeding during the first 8 weeks at home either exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM and long breast-feeding. The content of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in colostrum from mothers of infants with IgE-mediated CMA was lower than from mothers of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA. In infants with CMA, TGF-beta1 in colostrum negatively correlated with the result of skin prick test and the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CM, but positively with infants' IgA and IgG antibodies to CM proteins. Feeding of CM formula at maternity hospital increases the risk of CMA, but exclusive breast-feeding does not eliminate the risk. Prolonged breast-feeding exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM during the first 8 weeks induces the development of Ig

  15. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  16. Comparison of breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs before and after educational intervention for rural Appalachian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J

    2013-03-01

    Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.

  17. Comparison of subjective sleep and fatigue in breast- and bottle-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobback, Els; Behaeghel, Katoesjka; Hanoulle, Ignace; Delesie, Liesbeth; Loccufier, Anne; Van Holsbeeck, Ann; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An

    2017-04-01

    Artificial milk supplementation remains a popular practice in spite of the well documented and indisputable advantages of breast feeding for both mother and child. However, the association between maternal sleep, fatigue and feeding method is understudied and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceived sleep and fatigue differ between breast- and bottle feeding post partum women. In addition, the relationship between subjective sleep characteristics and fatigue is examined. Post partum women (four to 16 weeks) filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Sixty-one within the past week exclusively breast- and 44 exclusively bottle-feeding mothers were included. The first group showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency as measured by the PSQI. Global PSQI, as well as subjective fatigue and global CIS, did not differ between the two groups. Significant positive correlations were found between global CIS and the number of night feeds and global PSQI. However, only global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS in relation to the number of night feeds. Within a general pattern of deteriorated sleep quality, breast-feeding women showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency, between four and fourteen weeks after childbirth. However, the PSQI component scores compensated for each other, resulting in absence of any difference in global PSQI sleep quality between the two groups. Global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS, resulting in an absence of any difference in post partum fatigue according to feeding method. Midwives and nurses should, together with the parents, continue to focus on exploring ways to improve maternal sleep quality and to reduce postnatal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  19. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  20. 'Life does not make it easy to breast-feed': using the socio-ecological framework to determine social breast-feeding obstacles in a low-income population in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Gutierrez, Diana; Chantry, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Breast-feeding rates reflect sociodemographic discrepancies. In Mexico, exclusive breast-feeding under 6 months of age has deteriorated among the poor, rural and indigenous populations from 1999 to 2012. Our objective of the present study was to identify the main social obstacles to breast-feeding in a low-income population in Tijuana, Mexico. Qualitative study using a socio-ecological framework for data collection. Low-income communities in Tijuana, Mexico. Mothers (n 66), fathers (n 11), grandparents (n 27) and key informants (n 25). One hundred and twenty-nine individuals participated in the study: six focus groups (n 53) and fifty-one interviews among mothers, fathers and grandparents; and twenty-five interviews among key informants. Seven social themes were identified: (i) embarrassment to breast-feed in public; (ii) migrant experience; (iii) women's role in society; (iv) association of formula with higher social status; (v) marketing by the infant food industry; (vi) perception of a non-breast-feeding culture; and (vii) lack of breast-feeding social programmes. Socio-structural factors influence infant feeding practices in low-income communities in Tijuana. We hypothesize that messages emphasizing Mexican traditions along with modern healthy practices could help to re-establish and normalize a breast-feeding culture in this population. The target audience for these messages should not be limited to mothers but also include family, health-care providers, the work environment and society as a whole.

  1. Jejunostomy tube feeding in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Hamin, Tamara; Walter, Stephen; Tan, A Lawrence; Unruh, Helmut W; Guyatt, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Surgical jejunostomy tubes are a routine part of elective esophagectomies in patients with carcinomas and provide a route for nutritional support in those who experience complications. We wished to determine how frequently oral intake is delayed and the amount of nutrition delivered via the jejunostomy tube. We reviewed the charts of all adults undergoing esophagectomy for carcinoma between January 2000 and June 2008. We determined the proportion of patients unable to resume oral nutrition after 8 days and the amount of nutrition delivered in each of the 8 days. In all, 111 patients underwent elective esophagectomy for carcinoma, and 103 had a jejunostomy tube placed. The mean age was 67 ± 10.8 years. The median time to oral intake was 7 (interquartile range 7-11) days. Seventy-four (67%) patients resumed oral intake within 8 days. The mean nutrition delivered by jejunostomy within the first 8 days as a percentage of the target was 45.6% (95% confidence interval 41.2%-49.9%). Six (5.4%) patients experienced complications attributable solely to the jejunostomy tube; 3 (2.9%) required surgery. Forty (38.8%) patients had abdominal issues serious enough to warrant delaying the progression of feeding. Two-thirds of patients undergoing elective esophagectomy were tolerating oral intake by the end of the eighth postoperative day, and less than half of the target nutrition was delivered over the first 8 days. We now selectively place surgical jejunostomy tubes in patients undergoing elective esophagectomies.

  2. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Maria; McGuire, William

    2014-04-22

    When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of optimal levels of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula compared with donor breast milk on growth and development in preterm or low birth weight infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), CINAHL (1982 to March 2014), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula versus donor breast milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. Nine trials, in which 1070 infants participated, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and five compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus donor breast milk. Only the two most recent trials used nutrient-fortified donor breast milk. The trials contain various methodological quality weaknesses, specifically uncertainty about adequate allocation concealment methods in three trials and lack of blinding in most of the trials.Formula-fed infants had higher in hospital rates of increase in weight [mean difference (MD): 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98 to 3.71) g/kg/day], length [MD 1.93 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.62) mm/week] and head circumference [MD 1.59 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.24) mm

  3. Breast-feeding and Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Helena; Bastos, Ana; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-02-01

    To quantify the association between breast-feeding and Helicobacter pylori infection, among children and adolescents. We searched MEDLINE™ and Scopus™ up to January 2013. Summary relative risk estimates (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were computed through the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I² statistic. Twenty-seven countries/regions; four low-income, thirteen middle-income and ten high-income countries/regions. Studies involving samples of children and adolescents, aged 0 to 19 years. We identified thirty-eight eligible studies, which is nearly twice the number included in a previous meta-analysis on this topic. Fifteen studies compared ever v. never breast-fed subjects; the summary RR was 0·87 (95% CI 0·57, 1·32; I²=34·4%) in middle-income and 0·85 (95% CI 0·54, 1·34; I²=79·1%) in high-income settings. The effect of breast-feeding for ≥4-6 months was assessed in ten studies from middle-income (summary RR=0·66; 95% CI 0·44, 0·98; I²=65·7%) and two from high-income countries (summary RR=1·56; 95% CI 0·57, 4·26; I²=68·3%). Two studies assessed the effect of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months (OR=0·91; 95% CI 0·61, 1·34 and OR=1·71; 95% CI 0·66, 4·47, respectively). Our results suggest a protective effect of breast-feeding in economically less developed settings. However, further research is needed, with a finer assessment of the exposure to breast-feeding and careful control for confounding, before definite conclusions can be reached.

  4. Synthetic breast phantoms from patient based eigenbreasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M; Park, Subok; Segars, William Paul; Lo, Joseph Y

    2017-12-01

    The limited number of 3D patient-based breast phantoms available could be augmented by synthetic breast phantoms in order to facilitate virtual clinical trials (VCTs) using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation. These synthetic breast phantoms were developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe a training set of images. PCA decomposed a training set of M breast CT volumes (with millions of voxels each) into an M-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts. Each of the training breast phantoms was compactly represented by the mean image plus a weighted sum of eigenbreasts. The distribution of weights observed from training was then sampled to create new synthesized breast phantoms. The resulting synthesized breast phantoms demonstrated a high degree of realism, as supported by an observer study. Two out of three experienced physicist observers were unable to distinguish between the synthesized breast phantoms and the patient-based phantoms. The fibroglandular density and noise power law exponent of the synthesized breast phantoms agreed well with the training data. Our method extends our series of digital breast phantoms based on breast CT data, providing the capability to generate new, statistically varying ensembles consisting of tens of thousands of virtual subjects. This work represents an important step toward conducting future virtual trials for task-based assessment of breast imaging, where it is vital to have a large ensemble of realistic phantoms for statistical power as well as clinical relevance. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. [Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Chen, Siao-Min; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues. This study compares differences in the type and frequency of behavioral cues between breast- and bottle-fed preterm infants. A comparison study design and secondary data analysis method were used to assess data from two previous research projects. Infant feeding behavioral cues were observed and compared between two groups: 7 preterm infants who were breastfed and 7 preterm infants who were bottle-fed. After cases were matched by infant gestational age, behavioral responses were coded according to the preterm feeding cues coding system (PFCCS) from 7 paired maternal-infant feeding videos that featured preterm infants of 25 to 32 weeks gestational age at birth. The PFCCS classifies 24 feeding behavioral cues into hunger cues, self-regulatory cues, stress cues, and satiety cues. Infants in the breastfeeding group had a higher hunger cue frequency than their bottle-fed peers (p = .013), while bottle-fed infants had a higher stress cue frequency than their breastfed peers (p = .041). Other significant differences in behavioral cues between the two feeding methods included "fluid spillage" (bottle- >breast-, p = .008), "central cyanosis" (bottle- >breast-, p = .024) and "hand pushing" (breast- >bottle-, p = .034). Preterm infants in this study who breastfed showed significantly fewer stress cues than those who bottle fed. These findings support the importance of enhancing care provider sensitivity with regard to behavioral-cue observation. Findings further support breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding for preterm infants.

  6. [1981-1983 breast feeding studies of 1,500 mothers in Dortmund and Haltern. II. Volume of breast milk in the maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, M; Koester, H; Wennemann, J; Wember, T; Schöch, G

    1987-05-01

    In two large maternity wards encouraging breast-feeding, breast-milk volumes (weighing of the baby before and after each feeding) and weight development of the infants were determined until dismissal. On days 2, 3 and 4, 20-30%, 60-70%, and 80-90% of the mothers, respectively, produced milk. The largest increase in milk volume ("Einschuss") usually took place between days 3 and 4. Milk volume increased from an average of 150-180 ml on day 4 to 270-300 ml on day 6. Development of milk production was independent of type of delivery; however, the usual delay of one day following caesarean section was not made up for until discharge. Fully breast-feeding mothers produced on the average the same amounts of milk as mothers at the turn of the century. Throughout their stay in the maternity ward, mothers with good breast-feeding experience produced more milk than those with bad or without any breast-feeding experience. Nursing all infants at fairly regular intervals during the day and at night is recommended in order to achieve that as many mothers as possible are fully breast-feeding on discharge. Comparing energy intake and weight development between groups of fully, partially and non breast-fed infants suggested a better utilization of breast-milk.

  7. Feeding of preterm infants and fortification of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mangili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of the adequate amount of nutrients helps to improve a correct short-term linear growth and long-term neurocognitive development. To reduce the extra-uterine growth delay in very low birth weight infants (VLBW the best strategy of nutrition (parenteral or enteral should be established rapidly, since the first day of life. In preterm infants, nutrition can be administered parenterally and enterally. Prematurity is the most frequent indication for parenteral nutritional support due to intestinal functional immune deficiency, deficiency of digestive enzymatic systems and reduced nutritional reserve of these infants. In terms of enteral nutrition, breast milk is the first choice. In case of preterm and VLBW infants, fortifiers are used to overcome breast milk’s protein and mineral deficiencies. When breast milk is not available, specific infant formula is the alternative.

  8. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I

    2000-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities.

  9. Breast feeding and the sudden infant death syndrome in Scandinavia, 1992–95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, B; Wennergren, G; Norvenius, S; Skjaerven, R; Lagercrantz, H; Helweg-Larsen, K; Irgens, L

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effects of breast feeding habits on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Methods: The analyses are based on data from the Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study, a case–control study in which parents of SIDS victims in the Scandinavian countries between 1 September 1992 and 31 August 1995 were invited to participate, each with parents of four matched controls. The odds ratios presented were computed by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: After adjustment for smoking during pregnancy, paternal employment, sleeping position, and age of the infant, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 5.1 (2.3 to 11.2) if the infant was exclusively breast fed for less than four weeks, 3.7 (1.6 to 8.4) for 4–7 weeks, 1.6 (0.7 to 3.6) for 8–11 weeks, and 2.8 (1.2 to 6.8) for 12–15 weeks, with exclusive breast feeding over 16 weeks as the reference. Mixed feeding in the first week post partum did not increase the risk. Conclusions: The study is supportive of a weak relation between breast feeding and SIDS reduction. PMID:12023166

  10. Planning a Breast-Feeding Promotion Campaign. EAPRO Handbooks on Communication and Training No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office.

    The development of the communication component of a program promoting breast feeding to a variety of audiences through a variety of media is the focus of this paper. The introduction discusses groups, in addition to pregnant and lactating mothers, who should be involved and receive information. The paper then (1) identifies audiences--including…

  11. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  12. Breast-feeding knowledge and attitudes of teenage mothers in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewan, N.; Wood, L.; Maxwell, S.; Cooper, C.; Brabin, B.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes of teenage mothers towards breast-feeding. Design A questionnaire of teenage ( <-20 years) and non-teenage (&GE;20 years) primigravidae attending the antenatal care services at the Liverpool Women's Hospital, during the period April-May 2000.

  13. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOTHERS IN PROTECTION AND SUPPORTING OF BREAST FEEDING: HISTORY AND PRESENT TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Abol’yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a data on creation of social associations of mothers — groups of maternal supporting of breast feeding in continuation with international initiative «Baby-Friendly Hospital» of WHO/UNICEF in Russia. As breast feeding is mostly a medical problem usual for medical personnel in obstetrical and children’s medical institution (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists, pediatricians, there is a question on legality of such groups’ presence and its competence, relations to medical personnel, forms of work. The Soviet public health had wide experience of successful collaboration of public activists of Russian Red Cross Society and Health Care Administrations in performance of prophylactic and health-improving measures and hygienic education among population. Successful activity of voluntary associations supporting breast feeding depends on collaboration with medical personnel, development of scientifically-based programs of mothers-consultants education, and presence of informational, methodical and hygienical educational materials.Key words: breast feeding, groups of maternal support.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:15-18

  14. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  15. Imatinib use during pregnancy and breast feeding: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ridvan; Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Kimya, Yalcin; Koksal, Nilgun; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Gulten, Tuna; Yorulmaz, Hakan; Tunali, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    The development of imatinib as a therapeutic agent targeting BCR-ABL has increased the treatment options for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by significantly impacting outcomes, and imatinib is recommended by treatment guidelines as the first-line therapy. However, treatment of maternal CML with imatinib during gestation is not recommended because of the potential risk to the fetus. We describe the clinical presentation, course and outcome of one pregnant patient with CML who was treated with imatinib. We review all pregnancies associated with imatinib documented in the literature. A 27-year-old pregnant patient was diagnosed to have Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic phase CML in August 2007. Imatinib was administered (400 mg/day) between the 21st and 39th weeks of gestation. The patient tolerated the drug well and achieved complete hematological and cytogenetic remission. There were no imatinib-related maternal complications during the pregnancy. Fetal growth remained normal as well as amniotic fluid volume estimation. Labor was induced at the 39th gestational week, resulting in the uneventful vaginal delivery of a healthy male infant without any congenital anomaly. Umbilical cord blood and infant peripheral blood were collected at delivery. No postnatal complications occurred; however, imatinib was present in the umbilical cord blood (338 ng/mL) and in the infant's peripheral blood (478 ng/mL). Breast milk was collected on different postpartum days, and concentrations of imatinib were detected. At 10 months of age, the baby had normal growth and development. In light of reported cases and our experience, treatment of CML during the second and third trimesters of gestation and breast feeding seems to be safe, but the data are still limited and the effects of chronic exposure of infants to imatinib are not known. We think that each case should be examined and considered independently, and decisions should be individualized.

  16. The Relationship Between Breast Feeding and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is generally accepted that breast feeding has a beneficial effect on the health of infants and children. The evidence that breast feeding protects against obesity is inconclusive also the influence of breast feeding on blood pressure in later life is uncertain. The major aim of this study was to assess the association between method of infant breast feeding and components of the body mass index and blood pressure in pre-school children. Materials & Methods: In a cohort study, a total of 800 pre-school children, 359 (47.2% males, and 402 (52.8% females, born in 2003 in Yazd, Iran were selected based on a systematic stratified random model. Of eight hundred questionnaires sent, 761 (95% were returned to the investigators. At 6 years, blood pressure was measured on the right arm at rest. Body mass index (BMI was calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg/m2.Data on infants feeding were collected respectively during first two years of life .Data were managed and analyzed using SPSS (SPSS, Inc, version 13.0 Results: Of the 761 subjects included in this study, 452 (59.4% were exclusively breast fed, 136 (17.9% were bottle fed and 173 (22.7% were partially breast fed. Body mass index was not significantly different between bottle feeding, partial and exclusive breast feeding groups (P=0.398 ..No relationship was found between method and duration of breast feeding, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.244, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.781 and mean blood pressure (P=0.483. Conclusion: We did not find association between method of infant feeding, duration of breast feeding and systolic, diastolic mean blood pressures and also with body mass index

  17. ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK ON THE POPULARIZATION, MOTIVATION AND SUPPORT OF BREAST FEEDING IN PRIMORSKI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Burmistrova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 in Primorski territory the first strides were made on the popularization of breast feeding, rooming; in 1998 the center of protection, support and popularization of breast feeding was established. Now in the territory there are nine obstetrics institutions which are titled «friendly to the child hospital». In Arsenyev city all obstetrics and children's institutions have this title. This approach let decrease morbidity, especially of the diseases related with a feeding pattern (infectious and parasitic diseases, blood diseases, disorders of the endocrine system, respiratory, digestive and urogenital organs. Whereas the common sickness rate of children under one year in Primorski territory had increased from 1996 to 2005 by 17,3%, in Arsenyev — by 15,2%. The illness ratio of children under one year in Arsenyev had been changed: the incidence of diseases, directly or indirectly related with the feeding kind, had decreased: pneumonia — 12,3 times (from 2,22 to 0,18%, enteric infections — 1,96 times (from 0.51 to 0,26%.Key words: breast feeding, morbidity of children under one year, «friendly to the child hospital».

  18. Relactation, translactation, and breast-orogastric tube as transition methods in feeding preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Rebeca Raposo; Osório, Mônica Maria

    2009-11-01

    The transition from tube feeding to exclusive breastfeeding represents an important period for preterm babies because of their clinical fragility and immature development. This study describes this transition in preterm infants in relation to different feeding approaches: relactation, translactation, and breast-orogastric (OG) tube, considering the duration of the transition, weight gain in the transition, feeding-related problems, and breastfeeding status at discharge. This is a descriptive study of a series of 432 babies using retrospective data from the medical records at the IMIP Kangaroo Mother Care Unit, in the northeast of Brazil. At discharge, the percentage of babies who were exclusively breastfed in the relactation, translactation, and breast-OG tube groups were 85%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, with a satisfactory transition time and weight gain and with 1.6% of cases with feeding-related problems. The results showed that the relactation, translactation, and breast-OG tube seem to be efficient methods in the feeding transition of preterm infants.

  19. Birthright Denied: The Risks and Benefits of Breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephanie G.; Highland, Joseph H.

    This document compares the benefits and risks of breastfeeding in light of recent evidence that mothers' milk contains high levels of chemical contaminants. Information is presented on the occurrence and toxicity of agricultural and industrial chemicals found in breast milk and on the lead, industrial chemicals, nitrates, and bacterial…

  20. No direct correlation between rotavirus diarrhea and breast feeding: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Bi-Meng; Zhu, Sheng-Guo; Chen, Jian-Jie

    2017-08-26

    Some studies indicated that children with exclusive breast feeding had a reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus diarrhea, while some others held the opposite views. In this study, we aimed to systematically find the associations between rotavirus diarrhea and breast feeding. A literature search up to June 2016 in electronic literature databases, including PubMed and Embase, was performed. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to conduct the quality assessment of all the selected studies. Statistical analyses were performed using the R package version 3.12 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Beijing1, China, meta package), and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. The heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q-statistic and I 2 test, and the sensitivity analysis was performed by trimming one study at a time. A total of 17 articles, which included 10,841 participants, were investigated in the present meta-analysis. There was no significant difference between the case group and control group (OR, 0.59 95% CI 0.33-1.07) in the meta-analysis of exclusive breast feeding, and no significant difference was found between the case group and the control group (OR, 0.86; 95% CI 0.63-1.16) in the meta-analysis of breast feeding. No significant difference was found between the case group and control group (OR, 0.78 95% CI 0.59-1.04) for all quantitative data. There may be no direct correlation between rotavirus diarrhea and breast feeding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P care.

  2. The effect of prolonged breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in population with insufficient calcium intake and vitamin D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B H; Chon, S J; Choi, Y S; Cho, S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2016-09-01

    Breast-feeding affects bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis, and prolonged breast-feeding may influence the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in highly susceptible populations. The study determined that breast-feeding may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in people with low calcium intakes and vitamin D deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast-feeding is a risk factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in highly susceptible population. The study was performed using data from the 2010 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and it included 1231 postmenopausal women who were aged between 45 and 70 years. Osteoporosis was defined using the World Health Organization's T-score criteria, namely, a T-score of ≤-2.5 at the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. The patients' ages, body mass indexes, daily calcium intakes, serum vitamin D levels, exercise levels, smoking histories, and reproductive factors relating to menarche, menopause, delivery, breast-feeding, hormone treatment, and oral contraceptive use were evaluated. Comparisons between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis groups were undertaken using Student's t test and the chi-square test, and logistic regression models were built. A significant increase in the risk of osteoporosis was apparent in postmenopausal women with prolonged breast-feeding histories (≥24 months) (model 1: odds ratio [OR] = 2.489; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.111 to 5.578, p = 0.027; model 2: OR = 2.503; 95 % CI = 1.118 to 5.602, p = 0.026; model 3: OR = 2.825; 95 % CI = 1.056 to 7.56, p = 0.039), particularly in those with inadequate serum vitamin D levels and calcium intakes (Breast-feeding seems to increase the risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, its impact may not be definitive in women with sufficient vitamin D levels and calcium intakes

  3. [Plasma and milk concentrations of acenocoumarin in breast-feeding women during post partum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Luis Eduardo Romero; Gómez, Aurora Belmont; González, Victor Manuel Vidal

    2004-11-01

    Patients are receiving anticoagulants during postpartum. Literature data still is controversy in milk excretion of acenocoumarin; there are conducts in favor and against. Because of the benefits of maternal milk it's necessary to probe if acenocoumarin is excreted by human milk. To determine the milk excretion of acenocoumarin in different periods of the postpartum and the milk excretion index in anticoagulant women. It's an observational, descriptive and prospective study. The milk and plasma concentrations of acenocoumarin were determined in breast-feeding mothers with anticoagulation during the postpartum. ANOVA was used to determine the differences in pharmacokinetic constants in the different days of study. Two patients required light anticoagulation, nine moderate and five intense. The 37.5% of the new born were full term hypotrophy and the 18.75% were preterm. The highest plasma average concentration of acenocoumarin was found in day 45th postpartum (0.21 microg/mL). Acenocoumarin present in milk was found until day 30th; the average concentrations were low 0.011 microg/mL. The value of the maternal milk excretion index was 0.057 in day 45, what represents that approximately the 5% of acenocoumarin is eliminated by milk. The calculated dose of acenocoumarin that a new born could receive through maternal milk was lower than the recommended doses (1.79 microg/kg/day). These results allowed us to recommend breastfeeding in patients who are been anticoagulated with acenocoumarin.

  4. [Anesthesia in the breast feeding period. Excretion of anesthetic agents and adjuvants into breast milk and potential pharmacological side-effects on the suckling infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Geldner, G; Wulf, H

    2003-10-01

    Whenever an anesthetic is needed during the breast feeding period, potential pharmacological side-effects imposed on the infant by any kind of anesthetic agent used during both general and regional anesthesia are in contrast to the potential beneficial effects of breast feeding for the infant and the mother. Despite an increasing knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of excretion of drugs and their metabolites through breast milk, information about most anesthetic drugs are still either inconclusive or contradictory. Often it is impossible to decide whether a certain substance that is potentially excreted through breast milk might be harmless or harmful for the breast-fed infant. In addition to that only few anesthetic agents and drugs used in conjunction with an anesthetic are officially approved for use during pregnancy and the period of breast feeding and for medico-legal reasons pharmaceutical companies generally advise against the use of any of those drugs during this period. However, based on the knowledge of pharmacological properties of commonly used anesthetic agents it is reasonable to assume that continuing breast feeding in the immediate postoperative period after a single anesthetic can be considered safe for the infant since no adverse effects caused by or secondary to the single use of those drugs can be expected. Provided there is a careful choice of anesthetic drugs, there is no need to consider that a single general or regional anesthetic is an indication to stop breast feeding. Even planned elective surgical procedures do not need to be postponed. No scientifically based interval between surgery under general or regional anesthesia and resumption of breast feeding can be recommended. Instead current opinion is that breast feeding can be resumed as soon as the mother feels physically and mentally capable to do so.

  5. Addressing barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and programmatic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; LaCroix, Elizabeth; Dau, Hallie; Engmann, Cyril

    2017-12-01

    Despite numerous global initiatives on breast-feeding, trend data show exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates have stagnated over the last two decades. The purpose of the present systematic review was to determine barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in twenty-five low- and middle-income countries and discuss implications for programmes. A search of Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO was conducted to retrieve studies from January 2000 to October 2015. Using inclusion criteria, we selected both qualitative and quantitative studies that described barriers to EBF. Low- and middle-income countries. Following application of systematic review criteria, forty-eight articles from fourteen countries were included in the review. Sixteen barriers to EBF were identified in the review. There is moderate evidence of a negative association between maternal employment and EBF practices. Studies that examined EBF barriers at childbirth and the initial 24 h post-delivery found strong evidence that caesarean section can impede EBF. There is moderate evidence for early initiation of breast-feeding and likelihood of practising EBF. Breast-feeding problems were commonly reported from cross-sectional or observational studies. Counselling on EBF and the presence of family and/or community support have demonstrated improvements in EBF. Improving the counselling skills of health workers to address breast-feeding problems and increasing community support for breast-feeding are critical components of infant and young child feeding programming, which will aid in attaining the 2025 World Health Assembly EBF targets. Legislation and regulations on marketing of breast-milk substitutes, paid maternity leave and breast-feeding breaks for working mothers require attention in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    .... They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked...

  7. The Nutritional Status of Mothers Practicing Breast Feeding In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a globally recommended way of feeding and caring for young infants (0-6 months). Its benefits to both infants and mothers have been established. However, its impact on the maternal nutritional status is still a subject of contention. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of ...

  8. Electromyographic analysis of masseter muscle in newborns during suction in breast, bottle or cup feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ellia C L; Sousa, Cejana B; Aragão, Lucas C; Costa, Luciane R

    2014-05-01

    When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child's development. The aim of this study was to analyze the electrical activity of the masseter muscle using surface electromyography during suction in term newborns by comparing breastfeeding, bottle and cup feeding. An observational, cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on healthy, clinically stable term infants, assigned to receive either breast, or bottle or cup feeding. Setting was a Baby Friendly accredited hospital. Muscle activity was analyzed when each infant showed interest in sucking using surface electromyography. Root mean square averages (RMS) recorded in microvolts were transformed into percentages (normalization) of the reference value. The three groups were compared by ANOVA; the "stepwise" method of the multiple linear regression analysis tested the model which best defined the activity of the masseter muscle in the sample at a significance level of 5%. Participants were 81 full term newborns (27 per group), from 2 to 28 days of life. RMS values were lower for bottle (mean 44.2%, SD 14.1) than breast feeding (mean 58.3%, SD 12.7) (P = 0.003, ANOVA); cup feeding (52.5%, SD 18.2%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). For every gram of weight increase, RMS increased by 0.010 units. Masseter activity was significantly higher in breastfed newborns than in bottle-fed newborns, who presented the lowest RMS values. Levels of masseter activity during cup-feeding were between those of breast and bottle feeding, and did not significantly differ from either group. This study in healthy full term neonates endorses cup rather than bottle feeding as a temporary substitute for breastfeeding.

  9. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Petar Stefanovski; Snezhana Smichkoska; Marija Raleva; Beti Dejanova

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) ...

  10. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  11. Breast-feeding is associated with reduced postpartum maternal glucose intolerance after gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, M; Avalos, G; Dennedy, M C; O'Sullivan, E P; Dunne, F P

    2012-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse foetal and maternal outcomes, and identifies women at risk of future Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Breast-feeding may improve postpartum maternal glucose tolerance. We prospectively examined the prevalence of postpartum dysglycaemia after GDM and examined the effect of lactation on postpartum glucose tolerance. We compared postpartum 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results from 300 women with GDM and 220 controls with normal gestational glucose tolerance (NGT). Breast-feeding data was collected at time of OGTT. Postpartum OGTT results were classified as normal [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or = 7 mmol/l +/- 2h glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l]. 6 (2.7%) with NGT in pregnancy had postpartum dysglycaemia compared to 57 (19%) with GDM in index pregnancy (p < 0.001). Non-European ethnicity (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.45-8.02, p = 0.005), family history of T2DM (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.06-4.32, p = 0.034) and gestational insulin use (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.17-5.87 p = 0.019) were associated with persistent dysglycaemia. The prevalence of persistent hyperglycaemia was significantly lower in women who breast-fed versus bottle-fed postpartum (8.2% v 18.4%, p < 0.001). Breast-feeding may confer beneficial metabolic effects after GDM and should be encouraged.

  12. Influence of past breast feeding on pattern and severity of presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrich, Kimme L; Baildam, Eileen; Pickford, Hannah; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce E; Foster, Helen; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    This analysis aimed to study the influence of breast feeding on the pattern and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) at presentation. The association between ever versus never breast feeding and disease severity at onset was compared in 923 children with JIA recruited to the UK Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study at first presentation to rheumatology. Fifty six per cent of children were ever breast fed (median 3.7 months). Breastfed children reported a lower median age at onset, a lower Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), a measure of disease severity, lower parent general evaluation scores and lower pain at presentation. There was a trend towards a higher proportion of breastfed children with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis, but lesser enthesitis-related and psoriatic arthritis. There was a statistically significant inverse association between breast feeding and high CHAQ, even after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic status (adjusted OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.95)). Further work to understand the reasons behind these associations is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. [Breast feeding and weaning: a survey in rural communities of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandale-Toney, S; Rivera-Pasquel, M E; Kageyama-Escobar M de la, L; Tirado-Gómez, L L; López-Cervantes, M

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5,409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N) 21.4%, in the center (C) 7.6% and in the south (S) 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N), 67.6% (C) and 77.5% (S); in the second trimester, 67.2% (N), 40.9% (C) and 51.6% (S) had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  14. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  15. Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the breast-feeding dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Perre, P

    1995-08-01

    Human milk has been considered only recently as a source of transmission for the human immunodeficiency virus. The estimated postnatal transmission rate from mothers who acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection while lactating is 26% (95% confidence interval 13% to 39%) and may be in the range of 8% to 18% from mothers who were infected before becoming pregnant. Risk factors for postnatal transmission include maternal immune deficiency and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in milk. Some milk factors may be protective against postnatal transmission such as specific immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M and a molecule able to inhibit the binding of human immunodeficiency virus to CD4. In addition to its safety and its birth-spacing properties, breast-feeding provides immunologic protection and an ideal nutritional content to the infant. In a poor hygienic environment artificial feeding dramatically increases morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Consequently, according to our current knowledge the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund reasonably recommend continuing breast-feeding promotion in women living in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the primary causes of infant deaths such as in many developing countries. In settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are not the primary causes of infant deaths, such as in most of the settings in the developed world, the advisory group recommends against breast-feeding for mothers with proved human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

  16. Human breast milk feeding induces stronger humoral immune response than formula feeding in neonatal porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies indicate stronger humoral immune responses in breast-fed than formula-fed infants. The key to the beneficial impact of breastmilk on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and immune system development is the interaction between diet and the gut microbiome. A more comprehensive, mechanistic...

  17. [Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and oral habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X X; Xia, B; Ge, L H; Yuan, J W

    2016-12-18

    To assess the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and oral habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3-6-year-old children in Beijing. This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior cross bite, posterior cross bite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing. Univariate analysis and multiple Logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations. It was found that a short duration of breast-feeding (never or ≤6 months) was directly associated with posterior cross bite (OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.11-8.82, P=0.031) and no maxillary space (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.23-2.98, P=0.038). In children breast-fed for ≤6 months, the probability of developing pacifier-sucking habits was 4 times that for those breast-fed for >6 months (OR=4.21, 95%CI=1.85-9.60, P=0.000 2). The children who were bottle-fed for over 18 months had a 1.45-fold higher risk of nonmesial step occlusion and a 1.43-fold higher risk of class II canine relationship compared with those who were bottle-fed for 6-18 months. Non-nutritive sucking habits were also found to affect occlusion: a prolonged digit-sucking habit increased the probability of an anterior open bite, while a pacifier-sucking habit was associated with excessive overjet and absence of lower arch developmental space. Tongue-thrust habit was associated with anterior open bite (OR=4.21, 95%CI=1.85-9.60, P=0.000 2) and posterior cross bite (OR=7.24, 95%CI=1.30-40.13, P=0.024). Lower lip sucking habit was associated with deep overjet and had a negative association with class III canine relationship. Unilateral chewing was associated

  18. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  19. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction breast-feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  20. An analysis of BMD changes with preopertive and postoperative premenopausal breast cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Su Jin; Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University, Incheon St.Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Sang Chull [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin han University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide basic data of comparing BMD (bone mineral density) value of preoperative breast cancer patient and postoperative breast cancer patient due to bone loss with radiation/chemical therapy. The participants consisted of 254 breast cancer patients with BMD after having surgery and treatment from March 2007 to September 2013. Except for 84 patients with menopause or hysterectomy and we have analysed 171 patients. The BMD value (lumbar spine and femur) of before and after treatment from PACS by dure-energy X-ray absorptiometry was analyzed. First, we found variation of entire BMD and BMD according to treatment type, and analyzed detailed correlation by using marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types as variable. Data was analyzed by using SPSS for Windows Program (version 18.0). BMD was decreased 7.1% in lumbar spine, 3.1% in femur respectively (p<.01). Also there is relatively high decrement (0.067 g/cm{sup 2}) in group who had just chemotherapy in femur (p<.05). There is decrement depend on marital status, number of children, presence of feeding, age of menarche, breast cancer therapy types but there was no statistical significance. The results show that BMD was decreased after treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patient, patient who had relatively high decrement need to be included high-risk group. As a result, aggressive prevention policy would be necessary.

  1. Validity of Guatemalan Mother's Self-Reported Breast-Feeding Practices of 3-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazariegos, Monica; Slater, Christine; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Breast-feeding practices (BFPs) can be assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall. It is crucial to establish the accuracy of these methods, which are commonly used by public health decision makers to design health policies aimed at increasing exclusive breast-feeding rates. We aimed to validate 2 self-report BFP instruments using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide turnover technique (DMDOT) as the reference method. Breast-feeding practices were assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall in 36 Guatemalan mother-infant pairs. The validity of these instruments was assessed using DMDOT as the reference method. Both self-report instruments overestimated exclusively breast-fed (EBF) infants. Infants classified as EBF were 50% by the reported current feeding practice, 61% by the 24-hour recall, and only 36% using DMDOT. Sensitivity to detect EBF infants from the mother's self-report was 92% (95% CI: 62%-99%) while from the 24-hour recall was 100% (95% CI: 72%-100%, P feeding practice and at 61% (95% CI: 39%-79%) for the 24-hour recall (P feeding practice and the 24-hour recall instruments overestimated exclusive breast-feeding. Nevertheless, the use of reported current feeding practice provided more accurate data to assess BFPs in a public health setting. Furthermore, population-based surveys should consider the overestimation of exclusive breast-feeding caused when using these BFP instruments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Early life factors associated with the exclusivity and duration of breast feeding in an Irish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast

  3. Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breast-feeding outcomes: a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, David K; Leeman, Lawrence; Sanders, Jessica N; Thaxton, Lauren; Eggebroten, Jennifer L; Yonke, Nicole; Bullock, Holly; Singh, Rameet; Gawron, Lori M; Espey, Eve

    2017-12-01

    Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion is increasing in frequency in the United States, but few studies have investigated the effect of early placement on breast-feeding outcomes. This study examined the effect of immediate vs delayed postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion on breast-feeding outcomes. We conducted this noninferiority randomized controlled trial at the University of Utah and the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Centers from February 2014 through March 2016. Eligible women were pregnant and planned to breast-feed, spoke English or Spanish, were aged 18-40 years, and desired a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Enrolled women were randomized 1:1 to immediate postpartum insertion or delayed insertion at 4-12 weeks' postpartum. Prespecified exclusion criteria included delivery lactogenesis, used a validated measure, and was analyzed by survival analysis and log rank test. We followed up participants for ongoing data collection for 6 months. Only the data analysis team was blinded to the intervention. We met the enrollment target with 319 participants, but lost 34 prior to randomization and excluded an additional 26 for medical complications prior to delivery. The final analytic sample included 132 in the immediate group and 127 in the delayed group. Report of any breast-feeding at 8 weeks in the immediate group (79%; 95% confidence interval, 70-86%) was noninferior to that of the delayed group (84%; 95% confidence interval, 76-91%). The 5% difference in breast-feeding continuation at 8 weeks between the groups fell within the noninferiority margin (95% confidence interval, -5.6 to 15%). Time to lactogenesis (mean ± SD) in the immediate group, 65.3 ± 25.7 hours, was noninferior to that of the delayed group, 63.6 ± 21.6 hours. The mean difference between groups was 1.7 hours (95% confidence interval, -4.8 to 8.2 hours), noninferior by log-rank test. A total of 24 intrauterine device expulsions

  4. Evaluating the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breast-feeding rates: a multi-state analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) on breast-feeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education. Quasi-experimental study using data from five states (Alaska, Maine, Nebraska, Ohio, Washington) that participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 1999 to 2009. Using differences-in-differences models that included year and hospital fixed effects, we compared rates of breast-feeding initiation and duration (any and exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks) before and after BFHI accreditation between mothers who gave birth in hospitals that were accredited or became accredited and mothers from matched non-BFHI facilities. We stratified analyses into lower and higher education groups. Thirteen BFHI hospitals and nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities across five states in the USA. Mothers (n 11 723) who gave birth in BFHI hospitals and mothers (n 13 604) from nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities. Although we did not find overall differences in breast-feeding initiation between birth facilities that received BFHI accreditation compared with non-Baby-Friendly facilities (adjusted coefficient = 0·024; 95 % CI -0·00, 0·51), breast-feeding initiation increased by 3·8 percentage points among mothers with lower education who delivered in Baby-Friendly facilities (P = 0·05), but not among mothers with higher education (adjusted coefficient = 0·002; 95 % CI -0·04, 0·05). BFHI accreditation also increased exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks by 4·5 percentage points (P = 0·02) among mothers with lower education who delivered in BFHI facilities. By increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration among mothers with lower education, the BFHI may reduce socio-economic disparities in breast-feeding.

  5. Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Zahra

    2005-09-01

    Atopy can be defined as the genetically determined risk to develop allergic disease. Avoidance of one specific allergen may decrease the risk for sensitization against this allergen, but it will not affect atopy. Our aim was to investigate if exclusive breast-feeding is associated with atopic dermatitis during the first 5 years of life. Data on 200 children were taken from parental-administered questionnaires from a case control study in Birjand - Iran (recruited 2003) comprised of a case (100 children with atopic dermatitis) and a control (100 normal children) subgroup. Outcomes were physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis (AD) and itchy rash. Data were analyzed by using SPSS package, Chi square and Exact Fisher tests.Thirty-four of the case and 50 of control group were exclusively breast-fed, whereas 6 of the case and 2 of control group were exclusively cow milk-fed. These differences were statistically significant. (P less than 0.05). Duration of breast-feeding in case and control group was different. These differences were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Duration of cow's milk formula feeding in case and control group was different, but these differences were not statistically significant. (P=0.6) Positive family history of allergy in case and control group was 63% and 23% respectively and this difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). These findings support the hypothesis that exclusive breast-feeding is a protective factor for development of atopic dermatitis if compared with conventional cow's milk formula.

  6. Effect of Breast-Feeding on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Ghaderi Zahra Makhmalbaf

    2005-01-01

    Atopy can be defined as the genetically determined risk to develop allergic disease. Avoidance of one specific allergen may decrease the risk for sensitization against this allergen, but it will not affect atopy. Our aim was to investigate if exclusive breast-feeding is associated with atopic dermatitis during the first 5 years of life. Data on 200 children were taken from parental-administered questionnaires from a case control study in Birjand - Iran (recruited 2003) comprised of a case...

  7. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  8. ANTENATAL MATERNAL EDUCATION: ITS OUTCOME AND EFFECT ON PATTERNS OF BREAST-FEEDING IN KUMAON REGION OF UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM To assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast-feeding and to assess the effectiveness of antenatal maternal breast-feeding education for increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration. STUDY DESIGN A prospective clinical observational study performed for six-month period at a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. METHODS 150 healthy pregnant women attending ANC Clinic and their newborns admitted in Department of Paediatrics and Obstetrics & Gynaecology were included in our study. These women and their newborns are followed up at birth, after one month, three and six months. RESULTS The study shows that 65.71% of mothers had initiated first breast-feed within 1 hour of normal vaginal delivery while none had initiated after caesarean section. Within first 4 hours, 34.28% initiated breast-feed after normal vaginal delivery and 20.0% after caesarean section. EBF for six months was continued in 48.33% babies in the counselled group while only in 28.0% in the non-counselled group and the association was found to be highly significant (p value<0.01. The practice of bottle feeding (1.33%, top feeding (6.67%, episodes of diarrhoea (6.67% and ARI (6.67% are much lower in the counselled group as compared to non-counselled group (14.67%, 18.67%, 18.67% and 9.33% respectively. CONCLUSION More effective community approaches are needed in Kumaon region’s antenatal clinics to prepare expectant mothers to make informed decisions regarding breast-feeding and lactation management and to ensure early initiation and continuation of exclusive breast-feeding.

  9. Socio-economic status and maternal BMI are associated with duration of breast-feeding of Norwegian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørset, Vilde K; Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Øverby, Nina C

    2018-01-23

    To explore whether there is an association between socio-economic status and maternal BMI and duration of any breast-feeding/exclusive breast-feeding among Norwegian infants at 4 and 5 months of age in 2016. Cross-sectional design. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Data concerning breast-feeding were collected by FFQ. Recruitment was done at child health-care centres and through Facebook in 2016. In total, 960 infants/parents registered for participating in the study Early Food for Future Health. A total of 715 infant/mother dyads completed the questionnaire when the child was between 5 and 6 months old. At 5 months of age, 81·0 % of infants were breast-fed and 16·4 % were exclusively breast-fed. Infants of highly educated mothers had higher odds of being breast-fed at 5 months compared with infants of mothers with less education. Infants of multiparous mothers had higher odds of being exclusively breast-fed for the first 5 months compared with infants of mothers with one child. Infants of mothers with overweight/obesity had reduced odds of both being breast-fed at all and being exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age compared with infants of mothers with normal BMI. Our results show that duration of breast-feeding varies with socio-economic status and maternal BMI in Norway. Targeting groups with low socio-economic status and mothers with overweight or obesity is important, as they are less likely to breast-feed according to recommendations.

  10. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  11. Active Duty Women's Perceptions of Breast-Feeding Support in the Military Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E; Drake, Emily; Yoder, Laura; Gibson, Mary; Litke, Carrie Ann

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current perceptions of breast-feeding support for active duty women serving in the U.S. Armed Forces. An online survey based on the Workplace Breastfeeding Support Scale (WBSS) was used to collect data from active duty military mothers. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software to evaluate active duty women's perceptions of breast-feeding support in the military. 318 active duty women participated in the online survey. The average WBSS scores for active duty women was 50.20 (SD = 15.75). Comparing WBSS scores and branch of service, women in the Army had significantly lower WBSS scores (M = 45.85) then women in the Air Force (M = 53.96, p < 0.001). Enlisted women had significantly lower scores (M = 47.12) than officers (M = 54.62, p < 0.001). Also noted were significantly lower scores of active duty women who were Hispanic (M = 44.30) and women who had lower levels of education (M = 46.90, p = 0.006). The Department of Defense may be able to improve breast-feeding rates for all active duty mothers by implementing and adhering to lactation policies and focusing support efforts for enlisted women in all branches of service. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Protocol for a feasibility trial for improving breast feeding initiation and continuation: assets-based infant feeding help before and after birth (ABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Jenny; Clarke, Joanne; Johnson, Debbie; Trickey, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sitch, Alice; Dykes, Fiona; Feltham, Max G; Darwent, Kirsty; MacArthur, Christine; Roberts, Tracy; Hoddinott, Pat

    2018-01-23

    Breast feeding improves the health of mothers and infants; the UK has low rates, with marked socioeconomic inequalities. While trials of peer support services have been effective in some settings, UK trials have not improved breast feeding rates. Qualitative research suggests that many women are alienated by the focus on breast feeding. We propose a change from breast feeding-focused interactions to respecting a woman's feeding choices, inclusion of behaviour change theory and an increased intensity of contacts in the 2 weeks after birth when many women cease to breast feed. This will take place alongside an assets-based approach that focuses on the positive capability of individuals, their social networks and communities.We propose a feasibility study for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the Assets feeding help Before and After birth (ABA) infant feeding service versus usual care. A two-arm, non-blinded randomised feasibility study will be conducted in two UK localities. Women expecting their first baby will be eligible, regardless of feeding intention. The ABA infant feeding intervention will apply a proactive, assets-based, woman-centred, non-judgemental approach, delivered antenatally and postnatally tailored through face-to-face contacts, telephone and SMS texts. Outcomes will test the feasibility of delivering the intervention with recommended intensity and duration to disadvantaged women; acceptability to women, feeding helpers and professionals; and feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing recruitment rates, willingness to be randomised, follow-up rates at 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months, and level of outcome completion. Outcomes of the proposed full trial will also be collected. Mixed methods will include qualitative interviews with women/partners, feeding helpers and health service staff; feeding helper logs; and review of audio-recorded helper-women interactions to assess intervention fidelity. Study results will

  13. Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer patients - a 12-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer patients - a 12-year experience. ... conservative breast surgery plus radiation with radical mastectomy in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. ... This was achieved irrespective of ductal carcinoma in situ alone or surrounding the cancer in 62% of cases. ... 43(2) 2005: 28-32 ...

  14. Feeding of patients, seniors in hospice

    OpenAIRE

    Škodová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    v AJ: The bachelor thesis deals with feeding of seniors in hospice. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the nutritional state of seniors in hospice, their dietary habits, and their satisfaction with feeding. The importance of nutrition, the main components of diet (proteins, saccharides, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements), examinational methods of nutritional state, and dietary system is emphasized in the theoretical part of the thesis. Further, the trophotherapy and the meth...

  15. Haemorheological Changes in African Breast Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    ABSTRACT. Several Studies have indicated the existence of thrombo-embolic complications in cancer patients and that this ... There were significant differences between the controls and breast cancer patients in all the parameters measured. (p<0.05). .... the previous work of Trosseau2 which suggested an evidence of ...

  16. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  17. Early infant feeding practice and childhood obesity: the relation of breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Yazıcı, Mebrure; Demir, Ayşegul Dogan; Turkmen, Serdar; Nursoy, Mustafa; Ozkaya, Emin

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the association of breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction with childhood obesity. The children were grouped according to the duration of breast-feeding (0-1, 2-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months) and the age at which solid foods were introduced (breastfeeding has been previously reported to protect against childhood obesity, we were unable to find a significant association between obesity and either longer duration of breastfeeding or later introduction to solid foods in our sample.

  18. Differences in Postprandial Lipid Response to Breast- or Formula-feeding in 8-Week-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teller, Inga C.; Schoen, Stefanie; van de Heijning, Bert; van der Beek, Eline M.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Objective:Lipids play important roles in infant growth and development. In this exploratory observational single-center study, we investigated postmeal responses of infants to dietary lipids and differences between breast-feeding (BF) and formula-feeding (FF). Methods:Two capillary blood samples

  19. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  20. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  1. Most Breast Cancer Patients Have Help Choosing Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167104.html Most Breast Cancer Patients Have Help Choosing Treatments Support system can be ... cancer don't go it alone. Many breast cancer patients depend on family and friends to help them ...

  2. Drug Xeloda Prolongs Survival for Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Xeloda Prolongs Survival for Some Breast Cancer Patients It cut risk of relapse, death by 30 ... tested the drug for a different group of patients. It focused on 910 women whose breast tumors ...

  3. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  4. Optimizing treatment of low risk breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, F.

    2017-01-01

    Standard of care for most women with early stage breast cancer is nowadays breast conserving therapy, which consists of a wide local excision of the tumor followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to the breast. This standard approach for the treatment of all breast cancer patients is under debate

  5. Early provision of oropharyngeal colostrum leads to sustained breast milk feedings in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Snyder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal colostrum (OC application strategies have been shown to be feasible and safe for very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Evidence to support the nutritional and clinical advantages of OC care remains somewhat theoretical. The objectives of this study were to a confirm the feasibility and safety of OC application in preterm infants and b determine if OC application is associated with improved nutritional and clinical outcomes from birth to discharge. We hypothesized that OC application in the first few days would promote sustained breast milk feedings through discharge. Methods: An observational longitudinal study was conducted in 133 VLBW infants during 2013–14, after an OC protocol was adopted. Maternal and infant characteristics, infant vital signs during administration, nutritional outcomes, and common neonatal morbidities were assessed and compared to 85 age- and weight-matched VLBW infants from a retrospective control cohort from 2012, prior to the implementation of the OC protocol. Results: There were no adverse events or changes in vital signs during the application of OC. VLBW infants who received OC continued to receive the majority of their enteral feeds from human breast milk at six 6 of age and through discharge (p < 0.01. There was no difference in maternal characteristics known to affect breast milk production, and rates of common neonatal morbidities were statistically similar between groups. Conclusion: OC application for VLBW infants is safe and practical in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and is associated with increased rates of breast milk feeding. Key Words: oropharyngeal colostrum, infant nutrition, prematurity, neonatology

  6. Early Postoperative 24-Hour Continuous Jejunostomy Feeding in Esophagectomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Ju, Dal Lae; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2014-01-01

    Esophagectomy can result in various postoperative nutrition-related complications that may impair the nutritional status of the patient. In our institution, we usually initiate 16-hour continuous jejunostomy feeding using an enteral feeding pump on postoperative day 2 as a routine protocol after esophagectomy. The target calorie intake was achieved in 6-7 days with this protocol, which is longer than that required with other recently reported feeding protocols. Accordingly, early jejunostomy feeding protocol, which starts on postoperative day 1 and continues for 24 hours was attempted. In the present report, we described 3 cases of early 24-hour continuous jejunostomy feeding after esophagectomy. The use of this new protocol reduced the duration required to achieve the target calorie intake as less than 5 days without any enteral feeding-related complications. PMID:24527423

  7. Breast-feeding Duration, Age of Starting Solids, and High BMI Risk and Adiposity in Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, pbreast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208

  8. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers’ indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. Methods The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. Results The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers’ perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the

  9. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akiko; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-05-30

    Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers' indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers' perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the mother or child would not be

  10. The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: a life table and hazards model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Singh, K K

    1994-04-01

    This paper investigates the effects of continued breast-feeding after resumption of menses on fertility, using data from two retrospective surveys in India and single decrement life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards analyses. Breast-feeding even after the return of menses is found to be associated with longer birth intervals. The interaction of breast-feeding duration after resumption of menses and postpartum amenorrhoea has a significant effect on the risk of conception after return of menses.

  11. The impact of prenatal education on behavioral changes toward breast feeding and smoking cessation in a healthy start population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Virginia A; Smith, Mark; Beasley, Yvonne; Brown, Haywood L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of prenatal education by case managers on 2 social determinants of health behaviors-breast feeding and smoking cessation-among participants enrolled in Indianapolis Healthy Start (IHS). Birth and death data up to 1 year for IHS clients were collected from Marion County vital records for births 20 weeks or greater. Case managers provide education on the health benefits for mothers and infants on breast feeding and smoking cessation to all clients. Data were analyzed for differences between the IHS participants and other Marion County births. Most participants (63%) were non-Hispanic blacks aged less than 25 years (56%), without a high school diploma or general education development (53%), and enrolled in Medicaid (91%). Program participants were more likely to initiate breast feeding than nonparticipants (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.61), and 22% continued to breast feed for 6 months. Hispanic women were more likely to breast feed for at least 6 months (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.32-9.58). Women with advanced education were more likely to have quit smoking, as were women who were breast feeding at hospital discharge. After controlling for education, IHS clients tended to be less likely to continue to smoke during the third trimester (OR, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.49-1.16), as were those with a first pregnancy (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.10, 0.98) and no other smokers in the home (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.74). Breast feeding and smoking cessation are modifiable risk factors that were impacted by behavioral interventions through case management education.

  12. Physicians' influence on breast cancer patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostev, Karel; Waehlert, Lilia; Jockwig, Achim; Jockwig, Barbara; Hadji, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates.

  13. Physicians’ influence on breast cancer patient compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostev, Karel; Waehlert, Lilia; Jockwig, Achim; Jockwig, Barbara; Hadji, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates. PMID:24454275

  14. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  15. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding.

  16. A multipronged approach is associated with improved breast milk feeding rates in very low birth weight infants of an inner-city hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereddy, Narendra R; Talati, Ajay J; Smith, Ashley; Kudumula, Ravi; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2015-02-01

    Breast milk feeding has advantages over formula feeding in premature infants, but its use in them is low. We initiated measures in our inner-city hospital such as starting a dedicated lactation service, counseling the mothers prenatally and postnatally, educating hospital staff, and advocating with our state's Medicaid insurance to provide free home breast pumps. These measures were associated with improvement in our breast milk feeding rates in very low birth weight infants from 22% to 88% over 5 years. This article describes our multipronged approach and can help encourage and guide other units with similar demographics to improve their breast milk feeding rates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  18. Hot flushes in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, CH; Buijs, C; Willemse, PHB; Mourits, MJE; de Vries, EGE

    Objective : A literature search was conducted to gather information concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to hot flushes, their prevelence and severity in breast cancer patients, their influence on quality of life, and the best therapeutic option. Methods: Relevant studies in English

  19. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  20. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  1. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  2. THYROID HORMONE PROFILE IN EARLY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renija Valiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women worldwide. The relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease is a controversy. Many of the studies showed hypothyroidism as the commonly found thyroid abnormality in breast cancer. [1] There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid and breast cancer in patients with iodine deficiency. This ability of iodine to reduce the risk of breast cancer is attributed to the ability of iodine and its compounds to induce apoptosis so that appropriate cell death occurs. Instead, in the absence of optimum level of iodine in the body the transformed cells continue to grow and divide resulting in cancer. AIMS 1. To find out the association of thyroid hormones and breast cancer in early breast cancer patients. 2. To find out the association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early breast cancer patients. Settings Cases: 82 breast cancer patients in early stage who attended the breast clinic. Controls: 82 age matched controls (Between 25-80 years. Design: Case control study. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this study, investigated for thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH and thyroid peroxide antibody level in 82 early breast cancer patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS 16. RESULTS Statistically significant low T4 and high TSH in breast cancer patients, along with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody. CONCLUSION Compared to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism was found to be clinically significant in breast cancer patients

  3. BREAST MASSES IN ADOLESCENT PATIENTS IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    REZA SHAMS FOROUZANDEH FEREIDOONI

    1987-01-01

    Breast maSses in adoles c ent are common. In ma l e s , almost all are g ynecomast i a . Surgical intervention may be required for cosmetic and psycologic reasons. There app e a r s to be little risk of malignancy in these patients."nIn females, fibroadenoma are the most common breast masse s . There are benign neoplasms that should be remove d if presistent."nFibroadenomas increase in frequen cy with age during adolescence.Careful observation and reassurance followed by surgical e ...

  4. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-12-18

    Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Prospective cohort study. Norway, years 1999-2006. 53,934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  5. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, years 1999–2006. Participants 53 934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. Main outcome measure ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Results Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Conclusions Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. PMID

  6. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential.

  7. Role of intestinal mucosal integrity in HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding: the BAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Athena P; Ibegbu, Chris C; Wiener, Jeffrey; King, Caroline C; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Kaur, Surinder P; Flax, Valerie; Ellington, Sascha; Kacheche, Zebrone; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J

    2013-08-15

    Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune activation markers in serial specimens from infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV and infants infected with HIV from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study. Plasma LPS levels increased after infants in the BAN study were weaned from the breast, at 24 weeks of age. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with higher plasma LPS levels (P = .004). Infants with HIV infection had higher LPS levels, compared with uninfected infants (P = .004). Higher preinfection plasma LPS levels were a significant predictor of infant HIV infection through breast-feeding (hazard ratio = 1.60 for every unit increase in plasma LPS level; P = .01) and of lower infant length-for-age z scores (P = .02). These findings suggest that disruption in intestinal integrity is a mechanism of HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding. Weaning from breast milk and use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased levels of microbial translocation, which could facilitate HIV entry through the intestine. Complementary approaches to enhance intestinal mucosal integrity in the infant may further reduce breast-feeding transmission of HIV.

  8. Role of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity in HIV Transmission to Infants Through Breast-feeding: The BAN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Athena P.; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Wiener, Jeffrey; King, Caroline C.; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Kaur, Surinder P.; Flax, Valerie; Ellington, Sascha; Kacheche, Zebrone; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles; van der Horst, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods. We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune activation markers in serial specimens from infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV and infants infected with HIV from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study. Results. Plasma LPS levels increased after infants in the BAN study were weaned from the breast, at 24 weeks of age. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with higher plasma LPS levels (P = .004). Infants with HIV infection had higher LPS levels, compared with uninfected infants (P = .004). Higher preinfection plasma LPS levels were a significant predictor of infant HIV infection through breast-feeding (hazard ratio = 1.60 for every unit increase in plasma LPS level; P = .01) and of lower infant length-for-age z scores (P = .02). Conclusions. These findings suggest that disruption in intestinal integrity is a mechanism of HIV transmission to infants through breast-feeding. Weaning from breast milk and use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased levels of microbial translocation, which could facilitate HIV entry through the intestine. Complementary approaches to enhance intestinal mucosal integrity in the infant may further reduce breast-feeding transmission of HIV. PMID:23687226

  9. The apparent breastfeeding paradox in very preterm infants: relationship between breast feeding, early weight gain and neurodevelopment based on results from two cohorts, EPIPAGE and LIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Flamant, Cyril; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Savagner, Christophe; Claris, Olivier; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mitanchez, Delphine; Branger, Bernard; Simeoni, Umberto; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Context Supplementation of breast milk is difficult once infants suckle the breast and is often discontinued at end of hospitalisation and after discharge. Thus, breastfed preterm infants are exposed to an increased risk of nutritional deficit with a possible consequence on neurodevelopmental outcome. Objective To assess the relationship between breast feeding at time of discharge, weight gain during hospitalisation and neurodevelopmental outcome. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Two large, independent population-based cohorts of very preterm infants: the Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) and the EPIPAGE cohorts. Patients 2925 very preterm infants alive at discharge. Main outcome measure Suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcome, defined as a score in the lower tercile, using Age and Stages Questionnaire at 2 years in LIFT and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Test at 5 years in EPIPAGE. Two propensity scores for breast feeding at discharge, one for each cohort, were used to reduce bias. Results Breast feeding at time of discharge concerned only 278/1733 (16%) infants in LIFT and 409/2163 (19%) infants in EPIPAGE cohort. Breast feeding is significantly associated with an increased risk of losing one weight Z-score during hospitalisation (LIFT: n=1463, adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=2.51 (95% CI 1.87 to 3.36); EPIPAGE: n=1417, aOR=1.55 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.12)) and with a decreased risk for a suboptimal neurodevelopmental assessment (LIFT: n=1463, aOR=0.63 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.87); EPIPAGE: n=1441, aOR=0.65 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.89) and an increased chance of having a head circumference Z-score higher than 0.5 at 2 years in LIFT cohort (n=1276, aOR=1.43 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.02)) and at 5 years in EPIPAGE cohort (n=1412, aOR=1.47 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.95)). Conclusions The observed better neurodevelopment in spite of suboptimal initial weight gain could be termed the ‘apparent breastfeeding paradox’ in very preterm infants. Regardless of the mechanisms involved

  10. [Breast asymmetry of the teenager and the young adult. Stability of the result in time. About 144 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellart, J; François, C; Calibre, C; Guerreschi, P; Duquennoy-Martinot, V

    2016-10-01

    Breast asymmetry is defined by a difference in breast shape and/or volume. The goal of this study was to assess the stability of the surgical results and to highlight predictive factors for deterioration in results. This retrospective and monocentric study included all patients presenting constitutional isolated asymmetry, Poland's syndrome, asymmetric tuberous breast or pectus excavatum treated between 1980 and 2015. The statistical analysis included 144 patients and contained two parts. The first analysis compared patients with or without breast implant. Results were significant only for symmetry of shape, with better outcomes without breast implant (P=0.0170). The second analysis compared the subgroups of patients with breast asymmetry, according to the etiology. Patients with tuberous breasts and constitutional isolated asymmetry have been compared. We found a significant difference only regarding the long-term results (P=0.0091). Patients with tuberous breasts had deteriorating in results over time. Patients with Poland's syndrome, compared to patients with constitutional isolated asymmetry, had significantly less good results for symmetry of volume, of shape, of areola, and for early results (Pbreast implant, weight variations, pregnancies and breast-feeding, the use of hormonal treatments, ageing and tuberous malformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. ADHD symptoms, breast-feeding and obesity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Serhat; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be related to overweight/obesity in children and adolescents, but it is a heterogeneous disorder, and the relationships between the dimensions of ADHD and overweight/obesity are not clear. The aim of this study was to explore which dimensions of the disorder are specifically associated with overweight/obesity. The study sample consisted of 300 treatment-naive children with ADHD and 75 healthy controls aged 7-17 years. The ADHD module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version was used to diagnose ADHD. The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed via Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). The weight, height, and breast-feeding duration of the study samples and controls were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to the national age/sex-specific reference values. The rate of overweight/obese children was higher in the ADHD group. The association between ADHD symptoms and BMI percentile scores was evaluated using structural equation modeling. In that model, it was observed that the Cognitive Problems/Inattentive and Oppositional subscores of the CPRS had a positive predictive effect on the BMI percentile scores, but breast-feeding duration had a negative predictive effect on the BMI percentile scores. Inattention, oppositionality and breast-feeding duration were associated with overweight/obesity in children and adolescents with ADHD. Longitudinal studies are needed to more fully understand this relationship and the mechanisms underlying the association between ADHD and overweight/obesity. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. [Breast feeding in different income classes in the Municipality of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigulem, D M; Tudisco, E S

    1980-09-01

    The relationship between breast feeding and socioeconomic factors in children below 2 from different social classes in Sao Paulo, Brazil is analyzed. Of a total 200 children, 46 were malnourished and 31 belonged to the lower socioeconomic classes. 39% of mothers from the lower income families breastfed for 6 months, as compared to 13% of mothers from families with higher incomes 18% and 36% of mothers from the 2 classes did not breastfeed; mothers from the middle class breastfed for an average 28 days. The problem of protein-calorie malnutrition in young children is a growing one in Brazil, even in a relatively rich city such as Sao Paulo; one of the factors responsible for this problem is undoubtedly early weaning. Reasons given for early weaning in a group of 351 mothers were deficient amount of milk (49.6%), medical advice (11.1%), "bad" milk (14.3%), and only 1.4% because of occupation outside of the home. When interviewed about their opinion on the best type of milk for infants, 45% out of a group of 500 mothers indicated artificial milk, 37% maternal milk, and 16.2% cow's milk. Out of 492 mothers, 77% had 4 prenatal visits at a public health center, 11% had no prenatal visits, and 12% had 1-3 visits. Prenatal care does not influence attitude in favor of breast feeding; 45.5% of mothers who had not had any prenatal care breastfed for 6 months or more, as compared to 20% of those with 1-3 visits, and 17.5% of those with 4 visits. Those who delivered in a hospital tended to breastfeed more than those who delivered at home. It is obvious that not only mothers but health workers as well must be educated on the importance of breast feeding to fight infant malnutrition in Brazil.

  13. [Breast-feeding during the first month of life in Cordoba city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrouni, L; Sabulsky, J; Reyna, S; Quiroga, D

    1996-03-01

    In the foregoing investigation breast-feeding during the first 30 days of life was studied in a representative sample of 620 babies born and settled down in the city of Cordoba Argentina. To analyse this information, the classification of breastfeeding suggested by the WHO/UNICEF was used. The results reveal that being a month old, 26% of the babies had complete breastfeeding 60% had partial breastfeeding and the remaining 14% did not have it at all. Among the children with complete breast-feeding, 21% was exclusive and 5% was prevailing. 18% of the babies were exposed to breastfeeding before an hour and a half after they were born, the average number of nursings a day was 7.3 (D.S. 1.9) taking less than 15 minutes to reach the 57%; and with a free-demanding timetable in 44%. The children with partial breast-feeding were classified into low, medium, and high being 20%, 54%, 22% respectively. The average age in which another milk was introduced was 3.7 days, and the main reasons were "insufficient mother milk", and "the child's hunger". Among the children with artificial lactation, 87% were once exposed to breastfeeding, the weaning took place during the 4 days in average (D.S. 5.6) and in an abrupt way in 55% of them. The Health personnel helped supporting the introduction of lacteal formula in 68% of the children with partial lactation and in 42% of the cases of complete abandon of natural breastfeeding.

  14. Effects of probiotics feeding on meat quality of chicken breast during postmortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Yan, F F; Hu, J Y; Cheng, H W; Kim, Y H B

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality of chicken breast during retail display. A total of 35 birds were randomly obtained from 3 feeding groups (control without probiotic supplement, 250 ppm Sporulin, and 500 ppm PoultryStar). The probiotic supplement had no influence on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain, as well as body weight at 29 and 44 d (P > 0.05). After slaughter, each side of the breast muscles (M. Pectoralis major) was assigned to either one d or 5 d of postmortem storage. Probiotic supplement had no influence on the rate of pH decline of chicken breast muscles during the initial 6 h postmortem (P > 0.05). No interactions between probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality were found (P > 0.05). Postmortem storage decreased drip loss from 25.30 to 18.05% (P Probiotics-fed chicken groups, particularly PoultryStar treatment, had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index than the control group (P probiotic treatments. Decreases in color and lipid stabilities of breast muscles were found during display (P probiotic supplement (P > 0.05). Our result suggests that probiotic supplement had no adverse impacts on proteolysis and oxidative changes during 5 d postmortem display storage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (pfeeding duration, but not number of deliveries, was significantly correlated to a low BMD (p=0.008). An effect was noted only in postmenopausal women. The spine was the most common site of BMD decrease. Prolonged breast-feeding may have a deleterious long-term effect on BMD and may contribute to increased risk of osteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Presentation and Frequency of Risk Factors in Patients with Breast Carcinoma in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zahid Ali; Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Ruba; Raza, Natasha; Noor, Tooba

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is known to be one of the most prevalent cancers among women in both developing and developed countries .The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan has increased dramatically within the last few years and is the second country after Israel in Asia to have highest proportional cases of breast cancer. However, there are limited data for breast cancer available in the literature from Pakistan. The study was conducted to bring to light the common clinical presentation of breast cancer and to evaluate the frequency of established risk factors in breast carcinoma patients and furthermore to compare the findings between premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Pakistan. A 6 months (from July 2012 to Dec 2012) cross sectional survey was conducted in Surgical and Oncology Units of Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data were collected though a well developed questionnaire from 105 female patients diagnosed with carcinoma of breast and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Institutional ethical approval was obtained prior to data collection. Out of 105 patients, 43 were premenopausal and 62 were postmenopausal, 99 being married. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.8 ± 12.4 years. A painless lump was the most frequent symptom, notived by 77.1%(n=81). Some 55.2% (n=58) patients had a lump in the right breast and 44.8%(n=47) in the left breast. In the majority of cases, the lump was present in upper outer quadrant 41.9% (n=44). Mean period of delay from appearance of symptoms to consulting a doctor was 5.13 ± 4.8 months, from the shortest 1 month to the longest 36 months. Long delay (> 3 months) was the most frequent figure 41.9%. Considering overall risk factors most frequent were first pregnancy after 20 years of age (41%), physical breast trauma (28.6%), lack of breast feeding(21.9%), and early menarche breast cancer or any other cancer in first degree relatives (9.5% and 13.3%, respectively). Some of the less common factors were late menopause >54 years (8.6%), use of oral

  17. Detectable Tenofovir Levels in Breast-Feeding Infants of Mothers Exposed to Topical Tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Lisa M; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Biggio, Joseph R; Hendrix, Craig W; Bogen, Debra L; Hillier, Sharon L; Dai, James Y; Piper, Jeanna M; Marzinke, Mark A; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Isaacs, S Karen; Schwartz, Jill L; Watts, D Heather; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-09-01

    Lactation studies are necessary evaluations of medications for reproductive-age women. We evaluated pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, safety, and adherence profiles associated with 7 days of 1% tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel use during lactation. Tenofovir levels (maternal/infant serum, milk) and anti-HIV activity (milk), adverse events (AEs), and adherence were measured for 17 HIV-1-seronegative breast-feeding mother-infant pairs. Tenofovir use was well-tolerated and detected at low levels in maternal serum, milk, and infant serum but demonstrated no anti-HIV activity in milk. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Exercise effects on mood in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and statistics reveal that the number of women diagnosed with breast cancer in South Africa is increasing. As such, medical practitioners will treat an increasing number of breast cancer patients. Although increasingly effective treatments improve patient survival ...

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Feeding Protects Liver Steatosis in Obese Breast Cancer Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkak, Reza; Bell, Andrea; Korourian, Soheila

    2017-03-20

    Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either a control diet or a control diet with DHEA supplementation for 155 days. Livers were collected for histological examination. Serum was collected to measure DHEA, DHEA-S, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. Our results show that DHEA-fed rats had significantly less liver steatosis (p DHEA feeding caused significant decreases (p DHEA and DHEA-S. Our results suggest that DHEA feeding can protect against liver steatosis by reducing body weight gain and modulating serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in an obese breast cancer rat model.

  20. [Breast cancer in young patient in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, K; Bennis, S; Abbass, F; Akasbi, Y; Chbani, L; Elfatemi, H; Harmouch, T; Amarti, A

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer occurring in young women is rare with epidemiological, diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of their own. It is more often linked to genetic predisposition and especially correlated with a lower survival and higher rates of recidivism. The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological, clinicopathological, biological and evolutionary characteristics. It is a retrospective study concerning 74 patients aged 35 and younger, in whom a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer was made between September 2004 and December 2009. Incidence of breast cancer in women aged under 35 in our series was 18.6%, mean age was 30.62years and five patients (6.75%) had a family history of breast cancer. The mean tumor size was 3.9±2.6cm; 45.4% of tumors were locally advanced. It was an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of grade III of Scarff-Bloom and Richardson (SBR) in 45.7% cases and half the time it was accompanied by an axillary lymph node involvement. Negative hormone receptor (HR-) was found in only 28.7% of cases and 13 cases overexpressed Her2. Eighteen percent of the tumors were classified as triple negative. The overall survival at 3years was 87.8%. The incidence of breast cancer in young Moroccan patients is high. In our context, it is distinguished by a delayed diagnosis explaining the advanced stage at diagnosis. Biological characteristics are often more aggressive, including high histological grade, lack of hormone receptors and the higher rate of triple negative tumours significantly reducing treatment options. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue from breast cancer patients: association with phenotypes that are common in hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, H Evin; Vanderwerf, Steve; Blair, Cindy; Sweeney, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Lobular inflammation (lobulitis) has been demonstrated in benign breast tissue adjacent to in situ and invasive breast cancers and, more recently, in nonneoplastic tissue from prophylactic mastectomy specimens for hereditary high-risk breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of lobulitis in benign breast tissue of patients with breast cancer and associated clinicopathologic features. We reviewed nonneoplastic breast tissue sections from 334 patients with invasive breast carcinoma to study lobulitis in normal breast tissue and to correlate its presence with clinicopathologic features of the associated tumor. Clinical information (age, menopausal status, and follow-up), tumor characteristics (type, grade, size, lymph node status, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2), and survival were recorded. Characteristics of women with and without lobulitis were cross-classified with categories of clinical, pathologic, and histologic characteristics, and differences in distributions were tested in univariate and multivariate analysis. Lobulitis was found in 26 (8%) of 334 patients. The lymphocytic infiltrate was predominantly T-cell type. In a multivariate model, lobulitis in patients with breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age, triple (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2)-negative cancers, and medullary phenotypes. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue, away from tumor, is associated with clinicopathologic features more commonly seen in hereditary breast cancer. © 2013.

  2. Does Breast-feeding Relate to Development of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Children?: Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Rha, Yeong-Ho; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Young-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose There have been conflicting reports concerning the relationship between breast-feeding and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between breast-feeding and the risk of AD in early childhood in Korea. Methods We combined the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 2007 to 2012 and analyzed 2,015 children at 1 to 3 years old. Regression analysis was used to determine the association of the following variables: AD, feeding types, duration of breast-feeding, and others. Results The annual prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding and AD decreased. Parents with allergic diseases preferred breast-feeding and extended duration of feeding compared with those without. In multiple logistic regression analyses, exclusive breast-feeding in feeding type I (P=0.070; adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.990), exclusive breast-feeding in feeding type II (P=0.095; adjusted OR=1.495) and breast-feeding duration (P=0.430; adjusted OR=1.013) were not significantly related to AD. Conclusions Breast-feeding was not found to be associated with an occurrence of AD in young children. Rather, parents with histories of allergic diseases tended to prefer breast-feeding and extend its duration. To clarify the role of breast-feeding in the development of AD, a nation-wide prospective study is needed. PMID:28497917

  3. Does Breast-feeding Relate to Development of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Children?: Based on the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Rha, Yeong Ho; Oh, In Hwan; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Sun Hee

    2017-07-01

    There have been conflicting reports concerning the relationship between breast-feeding and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between breast-feeding and the risk of AD in early childhood in Korea. We combined the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 2007 to 2012 and analyzed 2,015 children at 1 to 3 years old. Regression analysis was used to determine the association of the following variables: AD, feeding types, duration of breast-feeding, and others. The annual prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding and AD decreased. Parents with allergic diseases preferred breast-feeding and extended duration of feeding compared with those without. In multiple logistic regression analyses, exclusive breast-feeding in feeding type I (P=0.070; adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.990), exclusive breast-feeding in feeding type II (P=0.095; adjusted OR=1.495) and breast-feeding duration (P=0.430; adjusted OR=1.013) were not significantly related to AD. Breast-feeding was not found to be associated with an occurrence of AD in young children. Rather, parents with histories of allergic diseases tended to prefer breast-feeding and extend its duration. To clarify the role of breast-feeding in the development of AD, a nation-wide prospective study is needed.

  4. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast

  5. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Turti; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; I. A. Belyaeva; E. P. Zimina; S. B. Lazurenko; M. D. Mitish; E. A. Bakovich; M. S. Rtichsheva; N. Y. Savvateeva

    2014-01-01

    The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a...

  6. [Breast-feeding (part II): Lactation inhibition--Guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, L; Chantry, A A

    2015-12-01

    Provide guidelines for clinical use of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments of inhibition of lactation and the management of the weaning. Systematically review of the literature between 1972 and May 2015 from the databases Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and the international recommendations about inhibition of lactation with establishment of levels of evidence (LE) and grades of recommendation. The available data on the effectiveness of non-pharmacological measures are limited, with very low levels of evidence that fail to make recommendations (Professional consensus). Pharmacological treatments for inhibition of lactation should not be given routinely to women who do not wish to breast-feed (Professional consensus). For women aware of the risks of pharmacological treatments of inhibition of lactation, lisuride and cabergolin are the preferred drugs (Professional consensus). Because of potentially serious adverse effects, bromocriptin is contraindicated in inhibiting lactation (Professional consensus). Available data on management of lactation weaning fail to provide recommendation and no treatment is recommended (Professional consensus). Bromocriptin is contraindicated in the treatment of inhibiting lactation. Women who do not wish to breast-feed have to be informed of the benefits and disadvantages of the pharmacological treatment for inhibition of lactation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on Breast Feeding at the Time of NICU Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ershadmanesh, Mashallah; Gholamitabar Tabari, Maryam; Khazaee, Soheila

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the most important essential components of Kangaroo Mother Care. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of KMC on exclusive breastfeeding just at the time of discharge. In this cross sectional study, 251 consecutive premature newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between May 2008 and May 2009 in Alzahra University Hospital in Tabriz were evaluated. All of candidate mothers were educated for KMC method by scheduled program. Standard questionnaire was prepared by focus group discussion, and mothers filled it prior to infant hospital discharge. In this study 157(62.5%) mothers performed kangaroo mother care (KMC group) versus 94 (37.5%) in conventional method care (CMC group). In KMC group exclusive breast feeding was 98 (62.5%) vs. 34 (37.5%), and P =.00 in CMC group, at the time of hospital discharge. Receiving KMC, and gestational age were the only effective factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding. Our result indicated that there was a 4.1 time increase in exclusive breastfeeding by KMC, and also weekly increase in gestational age increased it 1.2 times, but maternal age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and 5 minute Apgar score had no influence on it. KMC is more effective, and increases exclusive breast feeding successfully. It can be a good substitution for CMC (conventional methods of care). It is a safe, effective, and feasible method of care for LBWI even in the NICU settings.

  8. Breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Meric, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K; Mirza, Attiqa N; Newman, Lisa A; Ames, Frederick C; Kuerer, Henry M; Ross, Merrick I; Feig, Barry; Babiera, Gildy; Buchholz, Thomas A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the role of breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a family history (FH) of breast cancer. Between 1970 and 1994, 1324 female patients with breast cancer were treated with breast-conservation therapy at our institution. From these, we identified 985 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer and who had available information on FH status. FH was considered positive in any patient who had a relative who had been previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Disease-specific survival was calculated from the date of initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stage distribution for the 985 patients was as follows: 0 in 65 (7%), I in 500 (51%), and II in 420 (43%). The median age was 50 years (range, 21-88), with a median follow-up time of 8.8 years (range,.25-29). The median tumor size was 1.5 cm. FH was positive in 31%. There were no significant differences in locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, disease-specific survival, or incidence of contralateral breast cancer in patients with a positive FH versus patients with a negative FH. Breast-conservation therapy is not contraindicated in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive FH.

  9. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  10. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...... to breast-feed are interrelated, and therefore, analyzing true causal effects presents a number of methodologic challenges....

  11. Does breast-feeding protect the child from Giardia lamblia infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent protozoa infections of the human small intestine. Although anyone can be infected by Giardia, women and children are more susceptible. Giardia infection can cause malnutrition, diarrhea and indigestion of fat. In this study, the effect of breast-feeding on the prevalence of Giardia among children is investigated. "nMethods: A total of 482 children, aged 6 to 24 months, from the urban areas of Semnan, Damghan and Garmsar in Iran, were enrolled in this survey. Each mother underwent an interview and filled out a questionnaire that included mother's age, family size, birth order of the child, age and sex of the child and type of milk consumed, among other variables. Then, each mother was given a sample container with 30cc of phenol alcohol formaldehyde (PAF and an applicator for sampling her child's stool. Each mother was trained to consecutively sample her child's stool for three days, to put the stool into the provided container using the applicator and to shake it until the sample and liquid appeared homogenous. The sample was examined using the direct method, using formalin-ether and thionine. Data was analyzed using the c2 test and

  12. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  13. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Taneja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral breast cancer in patients undergoing MRI mammography for the evaluation of a malignant breast lesion. Materials and Methods: A total of 294 patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer who underwent MRI of the breast were evaluated for lesions in the opposite breast. Results: The incidence of synchronous contralateral malignancy detected by preoperative MRI mammography done for evaluation of extent of disease was 4.1%. Conclusion: Preoperative breast MRI may detect clinically and mammographically occult synchronous contralateral cancer, and can help the patient avoid an additional second surgery or a second course of chemotherapy later; also, as theoretically these lesions are smaller, there may be a survival benefit as well.

  14. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  15. Breast cancer patients' presentation for oncological treatment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer patients are presenting at advanced stages for oncological treatment in Nigeria and World Health Organization predicted developing countries' breast cancer incidence and mortality to increase by year 2020. Methods: Prospective observational hospital based study that enrolled breast cancer ...

  16. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients: Two case reports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  17. Increase of Visible Veins After Breast Augmentation A Retrospective Analysis of 78 Consecutive Breast Augmentation Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonakis, Yuri; van der Lei, Berend

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine file pre- and postoperative presence of visible veins in the skin across the breast of patients seeking breast augmentation, and the impact of this phenomenon oil patient satisfaction. From a series of 97 consecutive patients who underwent cosmetic

  18. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  19. Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding: Effects of Health Promotion Intervention in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDOCHI M NWOSU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Low level of knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding have been reported in Nigeria especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study is to identify factors contributing to low knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding (E B F in rural communities of Abia State, Nigeria and apply health promotion intervention (H P I to address these factors in order to increase knowledge and practice of E B F. METHOD: A quasi-experimental study design was used. Four communities formed the unit of allocation to experimental and control groups for the purpose of introducing health promotion intervention. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting the study sample. A sample size of 400 households out of 1978 enumerated from the four communities was used for the survey, two as experimental and two as control. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire that was interviewer administered. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Chi-square statistic was used in determining statistical significance. Analysis of knowledge and practice of EBF was taken before and after H P I and compared in both experimental and control groups.\\ RESULT: The results indicated increase in knowledge of E B F from 28(14% to 200(98.5%. Correspondingly, practice of E B F increased from 21 (10% to 162(80% in the experimental group. No significant increase was made in the control group both in knowledge and practice of EBF. Factors contributing to low level of practice of EBF in the study area included low level of knowledge about ten steps to successful breast feeding, illusory fears about EBF, ignorance, resistance to change, cultural imperatives and medical reasons. Health promotion intervention directed at the rural women helped to scale up the practice of EBF to 70% within nine months. CONCLUSION: The study recommends health promotion intervention as a proven method for scaling up knowledge and practice of EBF in

  20. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (pBreast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; pbreast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women reported increased breast feeding rates, we identified important weaknesses that could be

  1. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  2. Breast Feeding Pattern and the Health of Children in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Dotun, Owoeye Olajumoke

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the different patterns of feeding infants and their corresponding effects on children's health. There are anti-effective properties present in human milk which help children to fight against many childhood diseases. The long-term effect of breast milk like intelligence, socialization and personality development of children…

  3. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    Background: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors-the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy-might partly explain the conflicting

  4. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  5. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  6. Other primary malignancies in breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Cormier, Janice N; Xing, Yan; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Chai, Christy; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Vlastos, Georges; Kuerer, Henry M; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Buchholz, Thomas A; Hunt, Kelly K

    2013-05-01

    Our purpose was to examine the incidence and impact on survival of other primary malignancies (OPM) outside of the breast in breast cancer patients and to identify risk factors associated with OPM. Patients with stage 0-III breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy at our center from 1979 to 2007 were included. Risk factors were compared between patients with/without OPM. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that were associated with OPM. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Among 4,198 patients in this study, 276 (6.6 %) developed an OPM after breast cancer treatment. Patients with OPM were older and had a higher proportion of stage 0/I disease and contralateral breast cancer compared with those without OPM. In a multivariate analysis, older patients, those with contralateral breast cancer, and those who did not receive chemotherapy or hormone therapy were more likely to develop OPM after breast cancer. Patients without OPM had better overall survival. The SIR for all OPM sites combined after a first primary breast cancer was 2.91 (95 % confidence interval: 2.57-3.24). Significantly elevated risks were seen for numerous cancer sites, with SIRs ranging from 1.84 for lung cancer to 5.69 for ovarian cancer. Our study shows that breast cancer patients have an increased risk of developing OPM over the general population. The use of systemic therapy was not associated with increased risk of OPM. In addition to screening for a contralateral breast cancer and recurrences, breast cancer survivors should undergo screening for other malignancies.

  7. Breast-feeding and early childhood caries: an assessment among Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Zarzar, P

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate early childhood caries among 12-36-month-old children from families living in poor socio-economic conditions in the city of Recife, Brazil, its association with the type and duration of feeding (e.g. natural, sugared, bottle and glass), as well as the relationship between a supplementary diet and the occurrence of this type of caries. The present study consisted of a visual clinical examination of teeth that had been previously cleaned with gauze. This was carried out under natural light in a waiting room. Four calibrated examiners performed the examination and the kappa test value was 8.0. The parents or guardians were interviewed for the following information: name, address, age, type of feeding, number of sugary meals, sugar intake and habitual diet. Some 468 children were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 12 to 36 months. The sample was comprised of 222 (47.4%) males and 246 females (52.6%). Of the 468 children included in this study, 133 (28.4%) had caries. Only 59 (12.6%) of the children examined had been breast-fed, 20 (33.9%) of whom presented with caries. Three hundred and twenty-seven (69.9%) subjects had been bottle-fed with sugared milk, 86 (26%) of whom had caries. Two hundred and eight children had five or more sugary meals per day, 70 (33.6%) of whom had caries. No statistically significant relationship was seen between breast-feeding and the prevalence of tooth decay. The results of the present study show that the prevalence of early childhood caries in 12-36-month-old children from poor backgrounds in Recife is in accordance with the rate found in other Brazilian cities and is extremely high compared with that of the world population as a whole. Early childhood caries was not clearly related to the type of feeding in this sample. The prevalence of early childhood caries increased with age, and the number of sugary snacks between meals and a cariogenic diet were strongly related to early

  8. Hypercalcaemia in patients with breast cancer: Patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the patterns of use of bisphosphonate therapies for hypercalcaemia in breast cancer patients, and their outcomes. Methods: A retrospective chart review study of breast cancer patients hospitalised between 2009 and. 2014 at Penang Hospital, a public tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Patients ...

  9. Hypercalcaemia in patients with breast cancer: Patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypercalcaemia in patients with breast cancer: Patterns and treatment outcomes among in-patients in a Malaysian tertiary healthcare facility. ... Methods: A retrospective chart review study of breast cancer patients hospitalised between 2009 and 2014 at Penang Hospital, a public tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted.

  10. Associations between breast milk feeding, introduction of solid foods, and weight gain in the first 12 months of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, Elizabeth A.; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were: describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Methods Data was analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011–2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. Results For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI: 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 grams (95% CI: 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Conclusions Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. PMID:25644649

  11. Evidence based breast-feeding promotion: the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2007-02-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is the translational tool developed by WHO and UNICEF to promote breast-feeding (BF) in maternity wards worldwide. BFHI was officially launched in the 1980s based on a "common sense" approach. Since then, research conducted in Latin America has shown that BFHI is highly cost-effective. BF trends over the past 2 decades strongly suggest that BFHI has had a global impact on BF outcomes. The 10th step of BFHI related to community-based BF promotion is one of the most challenging ones to address. Randomized controlled trials conducted in the Americas, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa indicate that peer counseling is a very efficacious tool for increasing EBF rates. Low-cost rapid-response monitoring systems are needed to monitor the proper implementation and administration of BFHI steps following an evidence-based approach. This approach is essential for reenergizing the BFHI worldwide.

  12. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  13. [Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Costa Júnior, Aderson Luiz; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2011-10-01

    To identify variables potentially related with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion. Data were collected by a longitudinal study with 111 mothers who breastfeed their children until six months of age. Univariate analyses were used to assess factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, and also multiple regression analyses. The mothers were divided in two groups: 57 mothers breastfeed, exclusively, their children until six months of age and 54 mothers introduced other kinds of food before this age. The following variables were found to be factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: pacifier use (OR 4,65; IC95% 1,66-12,99), social and economic high level (OR 11,46; IC95% 3,09-42,37) and mother's work (OR 2,44; IC95% 0,91-5,62). Pacifier use, social and economic high level and mother's work are associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment.

  14. Adjuvant treatment delay in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damila Cristina Trufelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background: to evaluate if time between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy in patients with breast cancer is a risk factor for lower overall survival (OS. Method: data from a five-year retrospective cohort study of all women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at an academic oncology service were collected and analyzed. Results: three hundred forty-eight consecutive women were included. Time between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment was a risk factor for shorter overall survival (HR=1.3, 95CI 1.06-1.71, p=0.015, along with negative estrogen receptor, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and greater tumor size. A delay longer than 4 months between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment was also associated with shorter overall survival (cumulative survival of 80.9% for delays ≤ 4 months vs. 72.6% for delays > 4 months; p=0.041, log rank test. Conclusion: each month of delay between surgery and the first adjuvant treatment in women with invasive breast cancer increases the risk of death in 1.3-fold, and this effect is independent of all other well-established risk factors. Based on these results, we recommend further public strategies to decrease this interval.

  15. A Review of Herbal and Pharmaceutical Galactagogues for Breast-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Hofer, Rebecca; Thibeau, Shelley; Gillispie, Veronica; Jacobs, Marni; Theall, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic approaches to addressing insufficient lactation are available but remain poorly understood. Current trends in maternal health, such as increasing rates of obesity, delayed age at childbearing, and high rates of cesarean section, may be associated with physiological challenges for lactation that cannot be managed by counseling alone. Women who have not had success with counseling alone, including adoptive mothers seeking to induce lactation, may use galactagogues (pharmaceutical and herbal compounds used to increase lactation). We present a review of selected studies of galactagogues and data indicating popular demand for such products. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for published studies on the use of galactagogues for breast-feeding. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (PubMed), EBSCO (Academic Search Complete), and EMBASE. The search was conducted between July 15, 2015, and August 18, 2015; only English language articles were included, and we imposed no restrictions on publication date. Two authors independently reviewed the studies and extracted data. Results: Blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2 pharmaceutical galactagogues (domperidone and metoclopramide) and 5 popular herbal galactagogues (shatavari, fenugreek, silymarin, garlic, and malunggay) were identified. All of the studies identified for domperidone showed a significant difference in milk production between the treatment and placebo groups. Of the 6 trials of metoclopramide, only 1 study showed a significant difference in milk production compared to placebo. Results of the clinical trials on herbal galactagogues were mixed. Our review of the evidence for the efficacy of popular pharmaceutical and herbal galactagogues revealed a dearth of high-quality clinical trials and mixed results. Conclusion: Health providers face the challenge of prescribing or recommending galactagogues without the benefit of robust evidence. Given the suboptimal rates of

  16. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Dewing, Michelle; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, radical breast cancer surgery has been largely replaced by breast conservation treatment, due to early diagnosis and more effective adjuvant treatment. While breast conservation is mostly preferred, the trend of bilateral mastectomy has risen in the United States. The aim of this study is to determine factors influencing patients' choice for having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). This is a retrospective study of 373 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who were treated by bilateral or unilateral mastectomy (BM or UM) at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between Jan. 2002 and Dec. 2010. In the BM group, only those with unilateral breast cancer who chose CPM were included in the analysis. When compared with the UM group, the following factors were found to be associated with BM: younger age, pre-menopausal, a family history of breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA mutation, more breast biopsies, history of breast augmentation, having MRI study within 6 months before the surgery, more likely to have reconstruction and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and fewer had neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy/radiation. When patients with bilateral breast cancer were excluded, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated younger patients with negative nodes, SLNB as the only nodal surgery and positive family history were significant factors predicting CPM and immediate reconstruction using tissue expanders or implants. Younger age, lower TN stage, requiring only SLNB and high risk family history predict contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Tissue expander/implant-based reconstructions were more frequently chosen by patients with BM.

  17. Breast-feeding practices in Mexico: results from the Second National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cossío Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess breast-feeding (BF practices and determinants of exclusive BF (EBF <4 and <6 months (mo among women and infants <23 mo in the NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BF practices from the day and night before the interview were ascertained, and median duration estimated. Determinants of EBF<4 and <6 mo were analysed by logistic regression models for complex surveys. RESULTS: Prevalence of EBF<4 mo was 25.7%, and of <6 mo 20.3%. The overall rate of continued BF (second year was 30.9%, median duration of BF 9 mo, and the national proportion of children ever breast-fed 92.3%. The probability (p of EBF<4 mo was determined by infant age and sex, by maternal socio-economic level (SEL and ethnicity, and by the interaction between infant sex and SEL. The pEBF<6 mo was determined by infant age and length, by maternal ethnicity, and employment. CONCLUSIONS: EBF rates and duration are low in Mexico and have improved only slightly in the last 20 y. Infant and maternal characteristics determine the pEBF. If improvements in infant health are a national priority, aggressive interventions to promote and protect BF are urgently needed in Mexico, as well as formal evaluation of current initiatives.

  18. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  19. Predicting feeding tube and tracheotomy dependence in laryngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavo, John Patrick; Ludlow, David; Morgan, Matt; Caldito, Gloria; Nathan, Cherie-Ann

    2017-03-01

    The two scales reliably measure laryngeal edema and dysfunction in laryngeal cancer patients. The eight categories from these scales, and abnormal pharyngeal squeeze, can be used to form a new rating scale intended to help clinicians identify and circumvent swallowing complications after chemo-irradiation. The objectives were to compare two laryngeal edema rating scales in laryngeal cancer patients and determine if post-radiation +/- chemotherapy edema predicts dependence on a feeding tube and/or tracheostomy. A retrospective chart review between 2005-2008 revealed 28 laryngeal cancer patients status post-radiation +/- chemotherapy, with video laryngoscopies performed within 6 months after treatment. Four raters evaluated videos based on the Laryngopharyngeal Edema Scale (LES) and the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Tracheostomy and feeding tube outcomes were then correlated with the two scales. Feeding tube and tracheostomy dependence were associated with pre-treatment vocal cord paralysis, advanced T stage, and chemoradiation. Eight categories from the LES and RFS scales were significantly associated with the need for a feeding tube.

  20. Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in older patients with early breast cancer and breast ductal carcinoma in situ: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xuan-zhang; Chen, You; Chen, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Cong-cong; Zhang, Chao-ying; Sun, Shuang-shuang; Wu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background There are no consistent agreements on whether radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) could provide local control and survival benefit for older patients with early breast cancer or breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy after BCS in older patients with early breast cancer or DCIS. Results Radiotherapy could reduce the risk of local relapse in older patients with early breast cancer. The 5-year AR of local...

  1. The interactive association of dietary diversity scores and breast-feeding status with weight and length in Filipino infants aged 6-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melecia J; Bentley, Margaret E; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    To assess how breast-feeding and dietary diversity relate to infant length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ). Breast-feeding, dietary and anthropometric data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey were analysed using sex-stratified fixed-effects longitudinal regression models. A dietary diversity score (DDS) based on seven food groups was classified as low (feeding patterns were: (i) non-breast-fed with low DDS (referent); (ii) breast-fed with low DDS; (iii) non-breast-fed with high DDS; and (iv) breast-fed with high DDS (optimal). Interactions between age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns were included. Philippines. Infants (n 2822) measured bimonthly from 6 to 24 months. Breast-feeding (regardless of DDS) was significantly associated with higher LAZ (until 24 months) and WAZ (until 20 months). For example, at 6 months, breast-fed boys with low DDS were 0.246 (95% CI 0.191, 0.302) sd longer and 0.523 (95% CI 0.451, 0.594) sd heavier than the referent group. There was no significant difference in size between breast-fed infants with high v. low DDS. Similarly, high DDS conferred no advantage in LAZ or WAZ among non-breast-fed infants. There were modest correlations between the 7-point DDS and nutrient intakes but these correlations were substantially attenuated after energy adjustment. We elucidated several interactions between sex, age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns. These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged breast-feeding up to 24 months. The DDS provided qualitative information on infant diets but did not confer a significant advantage in LAZ or WAZ.

  2. The interactive association of dietary diversity scores and breast-feeding status with weight and length in Filipino infants aged 6–24 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melecia J; Bentley, Margaret E; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess how breast-feeding and dietary diversity relate to infant length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ). Design Breast-feeding, dietary and anthropometric data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey were analysed using sex-stratified fixed-effects longitudinal regression models. A dietary diversity score (DDS) based on seven food groups was classified as low (feeding patterns were: (i) non-breast-fed with low DDS (referent); (ii) breast-fed with low DDS; (iii) non-breast-fed with high DDS; and (iv) breast-fed with high DDS (optimal). Interactions between age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns were included. Setting Philippines. Subjects Infants (n 2822) measured bimonthly from 6 to 24 months. Results Breast-feeding (regardless of DDS) was significantly associated with higher LAZ (until 24 months) and WAZ (until 20 months). For example, at 6 months, breast-fed boys with low DDS were 0·246 (95 % CI 0·191, 0·302) SD longer and 0·523 (95 % CI 0·451, 0·594) SD heavier than the referent group. There was no significant difference in size between breast-fed infants with high v. low DDS. Similarly, high DDS conferred no advantage in LAZ or WAZ among non-breast- fed infants. There were modest correlations between the 7-point DDS and nutrient intakes but these correlations were substantially attenuated after energy adjustment. We elucidated several interactions between sex, age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns. Conclusions These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged breast-feeding up to 24 months. The DDS provided qualitative information on infant diets but did not confer a significant advantage in LAZ or WAZ. PMID:25728248

  3. Principal component analysis of sensory properties of chicken breast muscle supplemented with different feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of different dietary supplements (bee pollen, propolis, and probiotic on sensory quality of chicken breast muscle. The experiment was performed with 180 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (C; 2. basal diet plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (E1; 3. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (E2; 4. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum added to drinking water (E3. Sensory properties of chicken breast muscle were assessed by a five-member panel that rated the meat for aroma, taste, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. The ANOVA results for each attribute showed that at least one mean score for any group differs significantly (p ≤0.05. Subsequent Tukey's HSD revealed that only C group had significantly higher mean score (p ≤0.05 for each attribute compared with E2 group. As regards the E1 and E3 groups, there were not significant differences (p >0.05 in aroma, taste and tenderness when compared to C group, with the significantly lowest juiciness value (p ≤0.05 found in E3 group and significantly lower values of overall acceptability in both groups (p ≤0.05. In addition, it is noteworthy that control group received the highest raking scores for each sensory attribute, i.e. the supplements did not influence positively the sensory quality of chicken breast meat. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sensory data showed that the first 3 principal components (PCs explained 69.82% of the total variation in 5 variables. Visualisation of extracted PCs has shown that groups were very well represented, with E2 group clearly distinguished from the others.  Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  5. The use of imaging in patients post breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Y.T. [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Litherland, J.C., E-mail: Janet.Litherland@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of mammographic surveillance for asymptomatic patients and as a problem-solving tool in symptomatic patients with reconstructed breasts. Materials and methods: The imaging records over 4 years identified 227 patients with a history of breast reconstruction post-mastectomy due to cancer. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed to evaluate the use of imaging in the follow-up management of these patients. Results: Records showed that 116 (51%) of the patients identified underwent surveillance mammography of the reconstructed breast, in which one recurrent cancer was detected in an autologous tissue flap reconstruction (0.86% detection rate of non-palpable recurrent cancer), with a recall rate of 4%. One other patient had interval recurrence diagnosed following presentation with pain. Mammography of the contralateral breast only was performed in 111 patients. Fifty-four patients (24%) presented on 78 occasions with symptoms relating to the breast reconstructions, most commonly lump or swelling. Half of these patient episodes subsequently found no significant abnormality, and a further 29% had fat necrosis revealed on imaging. Four recurrent cancers were diagnosed. Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence for recommending routine surveillance mammography for non-palpable recurrent cancer in the reconstructed breasts. Ultrasound and mammography are useful imaging techniques in the assessment of reconstructed breasts in the symptomatic setting. Fat necrosis is the most common benign finding on mammograms of reconstructed breasts, both in the surveillance and symptomatic groups.

  6. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P embarazo y la lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades

  7. The potential role of breast-feeding and other factors in helping to reduce early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Lee S; Erwin, Katherine; Lense, Elizabeth; Hicks, James

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in US children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is particularly virulent and can interfere with a child's ability to eat, grow, speak, and communicate. Studies on whether breast-feeding or bottle-feeding are more likely to reduce ECC have proven inconclusive. The study population included 175 children, aged 1 to 5, receiving dental care at the Hughes Spalding Children's Hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participation included a dental exam, chart data abstraction, and a personal interview with the mother. Too few exclusively breast-fed children prevented the adequate study of breast-feeding. However, children exclusively bottle-fed for at least 1.5 years had more decayed or filled tooth surfaces than children breast-fed part of that time but well short of a year. No bottle at night nor juice at irregular times, the mother's brushing of her child's teeth, and adequate dental care in the mother seemed to reduce ECC. Our results suggest measures that might reduce ECC risk. Medical providers must discuss oral health with new mothers and educate them on the important role they play in keeping their babies' teeth healthy

  8. Chest Radiography in Management of Breast Cancer Patients in a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the role of abdominal ultrasound and chest radiography in detection of liver and lung metastasis in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which 103 new breast cancer patients attending Ocean Road Cancer ...

  9. Clinical Factors of Enteral Tube Feeding in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible clinical factors associated with enteral tube feeding use and duration in acute ischemic stroke patients. The medical records of 410 acute ischemic stroke patients were reviewed. Brain lesions were classified into nine regions of interest according to the cerebral vascular system. Brain lesion volume, lesion side, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, type of feeding during admission, and demographic characteristics were compared between enteral tube feeding and non-enteral tube feeding groups. Of the 410 patients, 61 used enteral feeding tubes. The mean age, NIHSS score, and brain lesion volume were significantly higher in the tube group than the nontube group (P enteral tube feeding (P tube feeding (P tube feeding group than in the non-tube feeding group (P enteral tube feeding. Especially, the NIHSS consciousness subscore needs to be evaluated precisely because it was the factor most closely related to the implementation and duration of enteral tube feeding.

  10. Compared with feeding infants breast milk or cow-milk formula, soy formula feeding does not affect subsequent reproductive organ size at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Moore, Mary B; Linam, Leann E; Casey, Patrick H; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-05-01

    Literature reports suggest that phytochemicals, such as isoflavones found in soybeans, impair reproductive function in animals and raise the possibility that consuming soy infant formula could alter hormonally sensitive organ development in children. This study compared reproductive organs volumes and structural characteristics in children at age 5 y who were enrolled in the Beginnings study long-term cohort. Breast bud, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testes volumes and characteristics were assessed by ultrasonography in 101 children (50 boys and 51 girls) aged 5 y who were breastfed (n = 35) or fed cow-milk formula (n = 32) or soy formula (n = 34) as infants. Analyses were adjusted for race, gestational age, and birth weight. Among girls, no significant differences were found in breast bud, ovarian, or uterine volumes; counts of ovaries with cysts; ovarian cysts numbers; ovarian cyst size; and uterine shape between the diet groups. Among boys, no significant differences were found in breast bud, testes, or prostate volumes or structural characteristics between the diet groups. In this cohort, no early infant feeding effects were found on reproductive organs volumes and structural characteristics in children age 5 y. The follow-up of these children through puberty is planned and should help delineate potential early infant feeding effect on reproductive function later in life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Hair iron and other minerals' level in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Sang-Man; Jung, Yong-Sik; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about hair minerals in cancer patients, and serum iron level has been shown to be elevated in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate hair iron and hair minerals' level related to hair iron in breast cancer patients compared to controls. We compared hair mineral analysis data of 40 breast cancer subjects with age and body mass index-matched normal control data (n = 144) by cross-sectional analysis. All breast cancer patients were newly diagnosed at one Breast Cancer Center in Ajou University and had their hair cut before anti-cancer chemotherapy, and the normal controls (without breast cancer) also had their hair cut for various reasons in out-patient clinics of the Department of Family Practice and Community Health. Breast cancer patients had low calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, whereas they had high arsenic, sodium, and potassium compared with the normal control. The hair iron level was positively correlated with hair calcium (r = 0.761, P arsenic (r = -0.537, P breast cancer patients compared to normal controls. Especially, hair iron level was significantly reduced and associated with hair calcium and manganese levels.

  12. Breast-feeding duration for the prevention of excess body weight of mother-child pairs concurrently: a 2-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Czarnobay, Sandra Ana; Ekwaru, John Paul; Loehr, Sarah A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between breast-feeding duration and the risk of excess body weight (children >85th percentile, mothers BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) concurrently in mother-child pairs two years after delivery. Prospective cohort study in Joinville, Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent relationship between breast-feeding duration and risk of excess body weight. Brazilian public maternity hospital. Three hundred and five mother-child pairs. At 2-year follow-up, 23·6 % of mother-child pairs had excess body weight. Children breast-fed for breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). Breast-feeding for breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 8·1). There was a progressive increase in the likelihood of mother-child pairs having excess body weight as breast-feeding duration decreased. In addition to breast-feeding duration, other independent determinants of excess body weight were pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and number of pregnancies in mothers, and birth weight in children. Breast-feeding for a longer duration has a parallel protective effect on the risk of excess body weight in mother-child pairs two years after birth. Since members of the same family could be influenced by the same risk factors, continued promotion and support of breast-feeding may help to attenuate the rising prevalence of overweight in mother-child pairs.

  13. Genetic issues in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossland, Victoria Sahadevan; Stroop, Jennifer B; Schwartz, Robin C; Kurtzman, Scott H

    2009-01-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is a relatively complex task requiring detailed training and knowledge. Analysis of a person's genetic makeup has implications not only for that individual but also for their progenitors, offspring, siblings, and spouses. There are potential insurance, employment, and other risks regarding disclosure of this information. With proper training, surgeons or nurses with advanced skills can be qualified to conduct this type of initial analysis. Geneticists may be the ideal professionals to counsel patients. In this article, we explore these and other issues. The goal is to provide the surgeon with the information needed to identify patients at risk for carrying identifiable mutations that might lead to the development of breast cancer.

  14. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  15. [Quality of life and patient satisfaction after breast reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, N A; Kovacs, L; Baumann, A; Ali, S; Herschbach, P; Henrich, G; Biemer, E

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, the array of methods for reconstruction of the female breast following mastectomy is vast. In this study, we investigate and compare quality of life after breast reconstruction and satisfaction with the results of two commonly used techniques (autologous tissue vs. expander/implant). Ninety-one consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction at a German clinic between 1996 and 2001 were included in the study. Patient satisfaction and quality of life were assessed retrospectively using self-evaluation questionnaires. Patients were generally more satisfied with the outcome of the operation when autologous tissue was used. This was significant in the following areas: breast size, form, definition of the lower breast fold, softness of the breast, and symmetry of the breasts. In both groups the quality of life following breast reconstruction at least 2 years after the operation was equal to that of healthy women of the same age group. Although patients were more satisfied with the results of autologous breast reconstruction, procedure choice did not affect quality of life.

  16. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diarrhea in Critically Ill Patients: The Role of Enteral Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2016-09-01

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to the management of diarrhea in the critical care setting. Diarrhea is a common and prevalent problem in critically ill patients. Despite the high prevalence, its management is far from simple. Professionals are confronted with a myriad of definitions based on frequency, consistency, and volume. The causes are complex and multifactorial, yet enteral tube feeding formula is believed to be the perpetrator. Potential causes for diarrhea are discussed, and 3 case reports provide context to examine the treatment from a nutrition perspective. Each scenario is comprehensively addressed discussing potential causes and providing specific clinical strategies contributing to improved bowel function in this patient group. The approach used for diarrhea management is based on a complete understanding of enteral tube formula, their composition, and their impact in the presence of gut dysfunction. Choosing the right feeding formula may positively influence bowel function and contribute to improved nutrition. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Effect of Noni Leaves Extract (Morinda citrifolia L. Supplementation in Feed on Physical Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Sukoco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to know the effect of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. supplementation in feed on physical quality of broiler breast meat such as pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness. Ninety six 8-days old broiler chickens strain Lohmann and of undifferentiated sex (unsexed were used in this research. The broiler chickens will be reared until 35-days old. The research method was experimental using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments and four replications, each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. The treatments consisted of P0 (Basal Feed, P1 (Basal Feed + tetracycline 0.05%, P2 (Basal Feed + noni leaves extract 0.05%, P3 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.1%, P4 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.15%, P5 (Basal feed + noni leaves extract 0.2%. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD test if there was significantly different result. The results showed that noni leaves extract did not give significant effect (P>0.05 on meat pH, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and tenderness. However, these results were still acceptable normally such as pH between 5.38-5.57, water holding capacity 34.13-45.64%, cooking loss 33.05-36.97%, but tenderness 16.22-20.57N were less acceptable. The research concluded that supplementation of noni leaves extract (Morinda citrifolia L. in feed did not increase physical quality of broiler breast meat on pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, Cooking Loss (CL, and tenderness.

  19. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy is a standard therapy for early-stage breast cancer patients. In addition, recent developments in oncoplastic surgery have improved cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a breast surgeon’s current role in BCS is not only to perform a curative resection of cancerous lesions with adequate surgical margins, but also to preserve the shape and appearance of the treated breast. Endoscopy-assisted breast-conserving surgery (EBCS), which has the advantage of a less noticeable scar, was developed more than ten years ago. Recently, some clinical studies have reported the feasibility, oncological outcomes, aesthetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction of EBCS. Herein, we will review the EBCS clinical studies that have been conducted so far and discuss current issues regarding this operative method. PMID:25083503

  20. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Dewing, Michelle; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, radical breast cancer surgery has been largely replaced by breast conservation treatment, due to early diagnosis and more effective adjuvant treatment. While breast conservation is mostly preferred, the trend of bilateral mastectomy has risen in the United States. The aim of this study is to determine factors influencing patients’ choice for having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). Methods: This is a retrospective study of 373 patients diagnosed with pr...

  1. ZINC AND SELENIUM INTAKE BY SMALL-FOR-DATE INFANTS DURING BREAST FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Senkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition of small-for-date infants is a topical issues for neonatal nutrition. Breast milk is adapted for infant’s uptake, but its components both in quality and quantity sense depends on time of the delivery and differs essentially from normal findings in case of  low birth weight. To solve the problem of dietary intake for small-for-date babies it’s important to determine the components of breast milk. Background: To determine zinc and selenium concentration in the milk of women who gave birth to small-for-date babies, as well as to estimate an actual intake of these microcells, during infants’ breastfeeding. Patients and methods: In 10–14 days after delivery zinc and selenium rate in breast milk of 52 women who gave birth to small-for-date babies, and of 20 healthy, has been estimated by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ELAN DRC II, Perkin Elmer, USA. Results: Zinc and selenium concentration is essentially low in the milk of women who gave birth to small-for-date babies which results in baby low supply with microcells, who is breastfed. The analysis results confirm the statement about high risk of development of alimentary-dependent conditions in smallfor-date babies. Conclusion: Correction of microcells concentration in breast milk is possible in case of creating preventive measures system in pre- and postnatal period for their imbalance in pregnant and nursing women. This may favor the effective support of infants with biocells, which is essential for proper nutrition and keeping the children healthy.

  2. BREAST MASSES IN ADOLESCENT PATIENTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA SHAMS FOROUZANDEH FEREIDOONI

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast maSses in adoles c ent are common. In ma l e s , almost all are g ynecomast i a . Surgical intervention may be required for cosmetic and psycologic reasons. There app e a r s to be little risk of malignancy in these patients."nIn females, fibroadenoma are the most common breast masse s . There are benign neoplasms that should be remove d if presistent."nFibroadenomas increase in frequen cy with age during adolescence.Careful observation and reassurance followed by surgical e x c i s i o n if the mass persists is r e c ommended. Norris a nd Taylor in a s e r ies o f 24 c a s es of c y stosarcomas phyl lodes encountere d 3 cases b e i ng before 20 yea rs of age. This is in contrast to our f i ndi ng o f so high incidnece (8 cases between 12-20 years of age . (~

  3. "Who wants to eat in