WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast feeding mother

  1. Breast feeding's interruption following radiopharmaceutical administration to nursing mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceutical administration to lactating women for therapeutic or diagnostic purpose can achieve a radiological risk to the breast feeding child due to levels of radioactivity in the breast milk. International recommendations regarding safe assumption of nursing mother after radiopharmaceutical administration were analysed. We examined the formula proposed by Rommey et al. to establish objective guidelines in case of the administration of radiopharmaceutical to nursing mothers. The ICRP 54 metabolic model for iodine was modified in order to calculate the suppression breast feeding's period according to the radioactivity measured in the breast milk. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N Gadhavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  3. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MOTHERS REGARDING BREAST FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    CICY JOSEPH

    2012-01-01

    This research explores knowledge and practice of mother regarding breast feeding.Descriptive research approach was used in this study. The study population comprised of 60 mothers who have children between the age group of birth to one year in Jayanagar General Hospital, Bangalore. A structured questionnaire on knowledge and practice of mothers regarding breast feeding were prepared to study the sample. Descriptive and inferential statistics had been used to analyze the data. The...

  4. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005

  5. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  6. IMPACT OF BREAST-FEEDING EDUCATION ON NUTRITIONAL AWARENESS OF MOTHERS IN SOUTH TERRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Djazayery

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrition education on knowledge of mothers concerning breast-feeding in Giassi Charity Health Centre in the south of Tehran, Yaftabad. Breast-feeding and nutritional awareness of 104 randomly selected mothers was assessed before and after a one-month breast-feeding course (Three 90-minutes' sessions per week. The proportion of the mothers with high awareness before the course was 0.0% and increased to 83% after the course. In this study the effect of such independent variables as mothers’ age and age at the first pregnancy, their education, number of children and physiological status, as well as family income on their nutritional awareness was determined. Statistical analysis (of both total score and individual question score changes showed the nutrition education course to have had a positive impact on mothers’ nutritional knowledge and awareness (P<0.001, confidence limits 99.9%.

  7. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential. PMID:19748244

  8. A STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG POST- NA TAL MOTHERS ATTENDING GOVT MATERNITY HOSPITAL AT HYDE RABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Bhavani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  9. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  10. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

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    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NOURISHING MOTHERS ABOUT BREAST FEEDING, ATTENDING URBAN HEALTH CENTRE: A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  12. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  13. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  14. Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims to use isotopic techniques to measure energy expenditure and breast milk intake of children, and the energy expenditure and breast milk production of lactating mothers. Two separate methods are being used, both of which involve the use of doubly labelled water. The present report presents growth rate date on the children and data on how they spend their time; the isotopic analysis has not yet been performed. 5 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  17. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

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    MS Maputle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  18. "Why Aren't You Breastfeeding?": How Mothers Living With HIV Talk About Infant Feeding in a "Breast Is Best" World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Elston, Dawn; Kwaramba, Gladys; Smith, Stephanie; Carvalhal, Adriana; Loutfy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Infant feeding raises unique concerns for mothers living with HIV in Canada, where they are recommended to avoid breastfeeding yet live in a social context of "breast is best." In narrative interviews with HIV-positive mothers from Ontario, Canada, a range of feelings regarding not breastfeeding was expressed, balancing feelings of loss and self-blame with the view of responsibility and "good mothering" under the current Canadian guidelines. Acknowledging responsibility to put their child's health first, participants revealed that their choices were influenced by variations in social and cultural norms, messaging, and guidelines regarding breastfeeding across geographical contexts. This qualitative study raises key questions about the impact of breastfeeding messaging and guidelines for HIV-positive women in Canada. PMID:24527767

  19. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection through breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    MS Maputle

    2008-01-01

    The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-f...

  20. A good start in life: breast-feeding in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF introduced the Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992 to foster breast feeding in hospitals. The balanced composition of breast milk fulfills the 4-6 month old infant's nutrient requirements. Colostrum is rich in antibodies and immunoglobulins, which protect the newborn against infection. As economic development progresses, more mothers use infant formulas while fewer mothers breast feed. Between 1960 and 1985 in Japan, the proportion of mothers breast feeding 1-2 month old infants fell from 68% to 50%. Between 1975 and 1968 in Western Samoa, it fell from 69% to 48% in urban areas and 78% to 59% in rural areas. Hospital practices that discourage breast feeding include separation of mother and newborn, prelacteal feedings, and free samples of infant formula. These practices occur even in areas, such as the Western Pacific Region, where most mothers deliver at home. Hospital baby-friendly criteria include a written breast-feeding policy, training of all health care staff in skills needed to implement this policy, informing all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding, assisting mothers to begin breast feeding within 30 minutes of delivery, demonstrating to mothers how to breast feed and to maintain lactation, no prelacteal feeds, newborn rooming-in with mother, promoting breast feeding on demand, no artificial teats or pacifiers, and breast-feeding support groups. The Western Pacific Region supports the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Between March 1991 and March 1993, the number of baby-friendly hospitals in the Philippines rose from 4 to 103. Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila is a model baby-friendly hospital for other hospitals in the region. It does not release mothers until milk flow has been established. By late 1992, 21 Chinese hospitals were baby-friendly. The WHO Western Pacific Region distributes information about breast feeding and the Initiative and provides breast

  1. Examination of Mercury Concentration in the Hair of Breast-Feeding Mothers and Relation to Fish Diet, Number of Dental Amalgam Filling, Age and Place of Live

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    M Ghasempouri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Mercury is a heavy metal that is widespread in the environment and has many toxic effects. At present, MeHg exposure on women remain an important issues for researching, especially those of continuous uptake in high-fish consumption.MeHg can be transferred to infant through breast milk. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in mothers in south of the Caspian Sea."nMaterials and Methods: In this study mercury in hair of 70 breast-feeding women (17-36 years old and influencing factor on it, were assessed. Mothers lives in nur, nowshahr and chamestan cities and villages of Nur and Nowshahr. In order to researching on influencing factors, mothers fill questionnaires. Hair samples (about 1 gr were obtained from mothers. The mercury was measured by LECOAMA254AdvancedMercuryAnalyzer (USA according toASTM, standard NO.D-6722."nResults: Total mean mercury concentration in mothers hair obtained 0.19±0.09 ( μg gr-1. Tukey test show that the influence of the variables place of live (p=0.02, fish and sea food consumption of mother (P=0.00 were significantly affected on hair mercury concentration of mothers. The other factors (age and number of dental amalgam filling had no significant effect on mercury levels in hair of mothers."nConclusion: Total mean mercury concentration in mothers hair were lesser than normal dose recommended byWHO (2μg g-1 and EPA reference (5 μg g-1. Analysis of questionnaires showed that three kinds of fish including carp, golden mulle and kutum. Although were often used in this study, mercury concentration in fish was not determined, but in according to significate relation between fish consumption and mercury concentration in mother#s hair, pollution with mercury in the fish can be the main factor of mercury exposure in this study.

  2. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  3. Lactancia materna: impacto de la consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja Breast feeding: impact of the support consultation to the working mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Elgueta Noy

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, descriptiva exploratoria, retrospectiva y transversal, pretende responder el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿ Cuál es el impacto que la Consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja, del Centro de Diagnóstico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, tiene en la prolongación de la lactancia materna?. La población estudiada la constituyen 82 madres atendidas en la Consulta de apoyo, durante el período de marzo y septiembre de 1995, de las cuales se tomó una muestra de treinta madres. El impacto de esta consulta fue evaluado a través de un instrumento que se aplicó por entrevista dirigida a cada una de las madres. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente con el programa estadístico EPIINFO, el método de sobre vida de Kaplan-Meier y el test de Mantel-Haenszel para comparar curvas de sobre vida. Al analizar los datos se encontró que las madres estudiadas son en su mayoría adultas jóvenes, con pareja estable, primíparas, con un nivel de educación técnico y/o profesional y que se desempeñan mayoritariamente como empleadas de oficina. Tienen una jornada laboral completa, y existe una diferencia significativa entre el sueldo mínimo y el máximo que perciben. Los resultados de este estudio permiten concluir que las madres lograron una lactancia materna exclusiva y edad de destete ideal. El poder de resolución de la Consulta según las madres resultó satisfactorio. El factor reforzador más significativo en relación al aumento de la probabilidad de continuar amamantando, es el apoyo que recibe la madre después de su reincorporación laboral. Finalmente la Consulta tiene un buen impacto.This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother -Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile- has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been

  4. Energy needs in the Third World: Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was carried out as part of a larger project whose objective is to investigate the causes of linear growth retardation of the African child in the Sahelian ecozone. It has been carried out as a joint venture between the National Institute of Nutrition of Italy, the ORSTOM, Montpellier, France and the ORANA, Dakar, Senegal. The original purpose of the project was to establish the rates of energy turnover in normal and growth retarded children and their mothers by assessing the energy expenditure and breast milk intake of the children, and the maternal energy expenditure plus breast milk production. These objectives were to be met by the use of 2H218O to label total body water and measure energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water (DLW) method. However, due to technical and analytical difficulties, it is not possible to reproduce here the results of the 2H218O investigations. This report is therefore mainly concerned with describing the protocols that were developed and the anthropometric data. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Ritual and customary factors have much impact then mother's education on breast feeding practices of infants. Apart from education, breast feeding awareness programme should be increased including both literate and illiterate mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1642-1647

  6. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  7. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  8. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Hamadani, J; Amin, N J; Kabir, I; Malek, M A; Mahalanabis, D; Habte, D

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  9. Yes to breast feeding, but...how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savane, M A

    1980-01-01

    Although the health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding are recognized, social and economic constraints discourage the practice in developing countries. Outside employment of women, an image of breast feeding as representing a constraint on women's freedom, and the lack of facilities to aid working mothers are all factors. More affluent women are often pressured not to breast feed by stereotypes of feminine beauty, in order to maintain a certain lifestyle, and because of conflicts with their wifely duties. Many women holding good jobs are also practically unable to breast feed, but such women are usually able to provide adequate substitutes for their children. Women working in the service sector are often unable to breast feed because their place of work is too far away from their home, and they are often forced to leave their young children with inexpensive but unqualified caretakers. Women from the poorest sectors often most wean their children early because of employment, but are unable to afford a substitute formula in sufficient quantity. Undernourished women who breast feed are often pushed toward further depletion. Bottle feeding will remain a problem until societal structures are created which provide adequate support for women in their multiple roles. PMID:12233382

  10. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  11. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  12. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  13. Examination of Mercury Concentration in the Hair of Breast-Feeding Mothers and Relation to Fish Diet, Number of Dental Amalgam Filling, Age and Place of Live

    OpenAIRE

    M Ghasempouri; A Esmaili Sari; N Okati

    2010-01-01

    "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Mercury is a heavy metal that is widespread in the environment and has many toxic effects. At present, MeHg exposure on women remain an important issues for researching, especially those of continuous uptake in high-fish consumption.MeHg can be transferred to infant through breast milk. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in mothers in south of the Caspian Sea."nMaterials and Methods: In this study mercury in hair of 70 b...

  14. Perceptions and practices of mothers regarding child feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions and practices of mothers regarding child feeding vary depending upon their education, socioeconomic and cultural background. The objective of current study was to see the perceptions and practices of nutrition in mothers of malnourished children. It was also aimed to ascertain malnutrition due to poverty versus ignorance. It was a retrospective study. A total 200 malnourished children from children OPD, aged 6 months to 3 years were included in this study. History was taken regarding breast feeding, weaning, ORS preparation and care of children. Physical examination was carried out to assess the nutritional status and grade of malnutrition. Weaning age at enrollment of 18 (9%) children was 4 months, 9 (4.5%) children was 5 months, 105 (52.5%) children was 6 months, 34 (17%) children was 7 months while weaning age of 34 (17%) children was 8 months. Children being inadequately fed on food were 178 (89%). Hundred percent children had history of an illness in the past. One hundred and sixty three (81.5%) of the mothers had heard about ORS but did not know how to prepare it. Only 37 (18.5%) of the mothers had full knowledge about preparation of ORS. It was concluded that poverty alone is not the only factor in causing malnutrition. Ignorance is an important factor in child malnutrition. Nutritional education should be given to the mothers to eradicate malnutrition in the children. (author)

  15. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  16. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  17. 乙肝病毒携带者母亲母乳喂养安全性研究%Safety of Breast-Feeding by Hepatitis B-Positive Mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞娟; 李颖华; 冯杏金; 黄凯娴; 赵素清; 何兆群; 杨玉; 孔卫乾; 崔伟伦; 邵燕明; 郭玉智

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨乙肝病毒携带者母亲母乳喂养的安全性.方法 选取我院2008年10月-2010年12月住院分娩的180例母亲是乙肝病毒携带者的婴儿进行前瞻性随访研究.所选婴儿均在出生12 h内注射乙肝免疫球蛋白100 U,以及在出生后0、1、6个月注射乙肝疫苗5 μg.按自愿选择的原则,分别实行母乳喂养或奶粉喂养,婴儿7~9个月时抽血查"乙肝两对半",统计乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性率及乙肝表面抗体(HBsAb)阳性率.结果 大三阳母亲和血清HBsAg阳性母亲母乳喂养组和奶粉喂养组婴儿7~9个月大时HBsAg阳性率及HBsAb阳性率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 乙肝病毒携带者母亲所生的婴儿在接受被动和主动全程联合免疫的条件下母乳喂养是安全的,母乳喂养不会增加婴儿乙肝病毒感染率,而且不会降低婴儿乙肝免疫力的产生.%Objective To investigate the safety of breast - feeding by hepatitis B - positive mothers. Methods A prospective follow -up study was carried out among 180 infants who were born from October 2008 to December 2010 in our hospital with hepatitis B virus carrier mothers. All these infants were injected with 100 U HBIG within 12 hours after birth, and received 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 6 months old. Then the infants were divided into two groups according to the will of the mothers. Infants in the first group fed on breast milk, and those in the second group fed on powdered milk. The five routine immunolog-ical hepatitis B indicators were checked when the infants were 7 ~ 9 months old. We calculated the rates of positive HBsAg and HBsAb. Results No statistically significant differences in positive rates of HBsAg and HBsAb between the breast - feeding group and the powdered milk group were noted at 7 ~ 9 months old ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion With the medical treatment of combined passive immunity and full - term active immunity, breast - feeding from hepatitis B

  18. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  19. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  20. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  1. An intervention model for breast feeding in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaipat, V; Thanomsingh, P; Pudhapongsiriporn, S; Buranasin, P; Phanidanunt, M; Monkalasiri, R

    1992-09-01

    To promote breast feeding and/or prevent further decline of adverse infant feeding practices, we developed an integrated comprehensive breast feeding promotion program, and implemented it in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital in 1987. The program provided sound knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding to all mothers at the Antenatal Care Unit, delivery room, the Postnatal Care Unit, and the Outpatient Department. The program activities included early bonding, assistance with initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in, provision of a breast feeding corner in the special care unit, collecting breast milk for sick babies, a lactation clinic and home visits. The impact of the program was evaluated in 1992. Altogether 1,428 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The results were highly encouraging. A majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status, 60 percent of them worked outside the home, and 40 percent were housewives. Compared with baseline data reported in 1986, breast feeding in infants aged 0 to one month increased from 85 to 90 percent, and the practice in the nine- to 12-month old group increased from 39 to 47 percent. However, the acute drop of the practice from 90 percent at birth to 50 percent at the one- to two-month old stage observed was similar in the two studies. The main reasons given by mothers for prematurely stopping breast feeding were the mothers' working outside the home (46%), and insufficient milk (23%). Provision of breast feeding education, along with improved maternal nutrition, extension of maternity leave, and availability of nurseries at the work place, may sustain a longer period of breast feeding. PMID:1488699

  2. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  3. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  4. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  5. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  6. Breast feeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHO is undertaking a combined growth study in several countries, in order to establish adequate growth curves for breast-feeding infants. Present growth charts in use, were obtained in a sample of breast and artificial feeding infants, which have overestimated the growth needs. In our country during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breast-feed their infants has permanently grown, due to the implementation of health care programs that promote, mother-infant interaction tight after birth, in all Public Hospitals, and education programs for the mothers, during both antenatal and post natal control of mother and child. The last figures obtained in a country sample of 10000 mother-infant pair, shows that 45% of the mothers are exclusively breast-feeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants were evaluated by the adequate charts, because it is of common use that many health professionals suggest to stop breast-feeding because the infant is not growing according the charts in use. The anthropometric study proposed by WHO will benefit considerably by adding determination of breast-milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium, a standard procedure proposed by Coward et al and extensively used in our country. The proposed study will also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. (author)

  7. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J

    1993-08-01

    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  8. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  9. Breast Feeding: Practices and Determinants in Rural Area of West Tripura District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Bhattacharjya, Shampa Das, Chanda Mog, Sukanta Bhowmik

    2013-01-01

    Methodology: To assess the practice and determinants of breast feeding a community based cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire was conducted during 1st August to 31st August 2009 among 116 mothers from four sub-centre areas under Mohanpur CHC of West Tripura district chosen by multistage sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used. Result: Prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 25%. Median time of initiating breast feeding was one hour following delivery, median duration of breast feeding was four months and median age of starting weaning was two months. Colostrum was fed by 87.9% women and advice regarding this was mainly obtained from the healthcare providers. Prelacteal feeding was practiced by 56% mothers and honey was the commonest prelacteal feed. With the improvement in mother’s literacy, there was significant increase in colostrum feeding (p = 0.010 and decrease in prelacteal feeding (p = 0.007. Mother’s parity, age, literacy, place of delivery, antenatal checkup and gender of the child were found to be signifi-cant determinants of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Improving literacy status, promoting antenatal checkup and encouraging institutional birth will reduce harmful infant feeding practices. As the health workers were the major source of information, they can initiate behavior change communication for promoting exclusive breast feeding in this community.

  10. Factors Causing Exclusive Breast Feeding Failure in a Pakistani Urban Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the factors responsible for termination of exclusive breast feeding in our population. Location and Duration: A cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from February 2010 to June 2010. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Sample Size: A total of 620 mothers carrying healthy infants were interviewed.Inclusion Criteria: Mothers who failed to exclusively breast feed their infants within first six months of life and started supplemental feeds. Data Collection Procedure: A semi-structured, preformed questionnaire was filled containing information about mothers age, infant sex and reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Mean maternal age was 25.87 years. Early failure was seen in 41.9%$ and late failure in 58.1% infants. Difficulties in initiating and establishing breast feeding (84%), knowledge deficit about breast feeding benefits (78.8%) and milk insufficiency (69.2%) were the main reasons for early failure. Deficient knowledge about exclusive breast feeding which included its WHO definition of six months and its benefits (88.9%) was the most common reason of addition of weaning diets after 4 months of age. Other significant factors found for failure were working mothers (21.3%), premature delivery (13.5%), early second pregnancy (16.1%), and perception of poor weight gain by infant while exclusively breast fed (19.4%). Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding ensures the best possible health of an infant. Dedicated efforts are required at national level for dissemination and promotion of knowledge about exclusive breast feeding. (author)

  11. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease. PMID:22644123

  12. Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Asim; Shahid Mahmood; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Farkhanda Anjum; Farhat Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Beneficial effects of breast feeding both for the mother and child are well-known. However, there is evidence that breast feeding is on the decline in many developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to explore the different socio-cultural issues which were associated with breast feeding practices. The universe of the present study was Faisalabad District...

  13. Guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article examines some guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. Eighteen radiopharmaceuticals are separated crudely into three categories according to their physical properties and according to their magnitude and effective half-life of excretion in breast milk, i.e. 1) breast feeding must be discontinued, 2) breast feeding must be interrupted for a short period during which milk should be expressed at normal feeding times and discarded and 3) breast feeding need not be interrupted. (UK)

  14. "Breastfeeding" by feeding expressed mother's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Lee, Henry C

    2013-02-01

    This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs. PMID:23178067

  15. Clinical Trial to Comparison the Effect of Family- centered Educational-supportive Program on Mothers’ Empowerment in Breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Results: Thirty-five mothers were in the intervention group and 35 were in the control group. The mean of the total score of breast-feeding empowerment and its seven areas in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, exclusive breast-feeding was also significantly higher in the intervention group (P

  16. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  17. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  18. New research on breast-feeding as a method of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction's Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility promotes research on lactation to develop a better understanding of how breast feeding inhibits fertility. The knowledge gained will allow health workers and pregnant women to receive reliable advice on breast feeding as a birth spacing method. A multicenter study, begun in 1989, examined how different breast feeding practices influence the length of time lactating women go without menstruation. The 4100 mothers maintained detailed records of all feeding episodes and of supplementary foods as well as of vaginal bleeding. The not-yet-published findings should further development of guidelines on lactational amenorrhea. They should show how lactating mothers can use certain breast feedings to influence the length of infertility. Some findings already revealed are feeding patterns vary greatly worldwide. For example, the breast feeding episodes of Australian and Swedish infants are, on average, 3 times longer than those of Chinese infants (24 vs. 6 minutes/episode). The study's findings will contribute greatly to the second Bellagio Conference in December 1995 entitled The Lactational Amenorrhoea Method (LAM) of Family Planning: Efficacy and Modification of the Bellagio Guidelines. A study in Sri Lanka shows that a 50 g powdered skimmed milk supplement given to lactating mothers did not affect the duration of lactational amenorrhea, but these mothers did breast feed longer than those who did not receive the supplement. Demographic and Health Survey data from Indonesia and Peru suggest that postpartum abstinence is not associated with breast feeding status and that lactating women were more likely to use contraception than non-lactating women. Another multicenter study is examining the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of LAM as an interim method of birth spacing and as a way to

  19. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  20. The Effect of Education on Formula and Bottle-Feeding Behaviors of Nursing Mothers Based on PRECEDE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Although a lot of interventional studies may be found which have investigated the effects of education on nursing mothers regarding advantages of breast-feeding behavior, but very few studies in developing countries have examined whether mothers are conscious of the risks associated with formula and bottle-feeding on children. Knowing that Breast-feeding Index has decreased in Iran and feeding behaviors are not suitable and adequate in nursing mothers, we studied the effect of education based on PRECEDE Model on improving mothers breast-feeding behaviors in Yazd, Iran. Methods:Cluster stage sampling was employed to recruit 60 pregnant mothers who had one month to the time of their delivery. Before and 3 months after implementing the educational program through group discussion, lectures and pamphlets , a self-prepared questionnaire was completed by the respondents. Validity and reliability of the scales were approved. SPSS software was used for the purpose of data entry, manipulation, and analysis. Findings:Mean age was 25.9 (±5.8 years; 96.6% were housewives. After implementing the educational program, mothers knowledge (38% and attitude (12.3% were significantly increased (P=0.001. After implementing the program, 85% of the mothers fed their children exclusively with mother's milk and 15%, breast-fed together with formula. The children, who were formula-fed, were breast-fed 4-5 times daily as well. Moreover, none of them was formula-fed from the time of birth and formula-feeding was used as a result of improper weight getting in these children. Conclusion:In order to design effective educational programs, healthcare professionals should better understand the determinants of feeding behaviors in nursing mothers and develop stage-specific interventions, within which, promoting predisposing factors like knowledge and attitude are priorities of the program. The PRECEDE Model, as a basic model for programming, was found to be

  1. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-01

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  2. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Leandro; Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J.; Nankervis, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants ...

  3. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  4. Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Folster, Samantha; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids. Methods The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four intervent...

  5. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  6. Comparison Of Prevalence Of Postpartum Depression Symptoms Between Breastfeeding Mothers And Non-breastfeeding Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Tashakori; Azadeh Zamani Behbahani; Reza Davasaz Irani

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: There is a relationship between infant feeding method and maternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study was carried out in an Iranian population to compare the prevalence of PPD symptoms between breast feeding and non-breast feeding mothers for first time.Methods: Four health centers in Ahvas were selected by random sampling in 2009. At first 78 non-breast feeding mothers at two months postpartum were recruited in the study and then 78 breast feeding mothers were recruited thro...

  7. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  8. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. PMID:21969026

  9. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I

    2000-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities. PMID:10979148

  10. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  11. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  12. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  13. Maternal bodies, breast-feeding, and consumer desire in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschang, Suzanne Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that shaped their infant-feeding practices. These personal histories also illustrate the limitations of multilateral breast-feeding programs that emphasize breast-feeding as a natural interaction between mother and infant. The cases I present here demonstrate instead that the material, bodily manifestations of breast-feeding require nursing mothers to continually renegotiate relations with husbands, coworkers, and family. Chinese women's accounts also add insight to theoretical deliberations on gender and the body, for they demonstrate that cultural expectations and the demands of the lactating body must be considered to understand fully the process of women's decisions in a social and not strictly reproductive context. On a larger scale, the data also illustrate how global intervention, in the form of the WHO-UNICEF-sponsored Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, promotes breast-feeding as a woman's primary duty at the same time that market forces counter this message as women redefine their individual expectations and social relationships. PMID:17405698

  14. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  15. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and Duration,"…

  16. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed. PMID:665791

  17. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING BREAST FEEDING, A PICTURE IN EAST KHASI HILLS DISTRICT OF MEGHALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and deve lopment. A child who is breast fed has greater chances of survival than a child who is art ificially fed. The low prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding increase the risk of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide, suboptimal breastfeeding still accounts for deaths of 1.4 million children a ged less than five years . AIM OF THE STUDY : 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices reg arding breast feeding among women 2. To study the factors influencing breast feeding practic es among women residing in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross sectional study conduct ed within the field practice area of NEIGRIHMS, two of which were urban- Nongmynsong and Pynthorbah and one rural area-Tynring. The study per iod was conducted from October 2012- December 2012 (three months duration. A total of 1 35 women were interviewed during the period. In the respective areas the households were s elected using simple random sampling after obtaining a list of all the households in the respective area from the ANM. In the selected household all the females available who have a chil d between 1-2 year of age were interviewed. Data analysis was done by descriptive analysis and a nalytical statistics by using Chi Square test using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS & OBSERVATION: Out of 135 families visited, 70 (51.9% families were nuclear families. With respect to feed ing practices; 80 (59% mothers had given Exclusive Breast Feeding for a period of 6 months. 7 4 (55% of mothers had knowledge on colostrums and 109 (80.75% of mothers had given co lostrum to their babies . 42 (31.1% mothers had initiated BF within 1 hour . The variables which were found to be associated wit h breast feeding are the mother

  18. The Prevalence of Breast Feeding Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    A Gholozar; K Wares Isfahany; H Shajary; Sh Behjaty

    2004-01-01

    Background: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 13% of neonates between 2nd and 4th day of life. Method: A prospective study was performed between December 2002 and December 2003 in Childrens Medical Center, Tehran. Enrollment criteria included term neonates with no underlying organic illness causing poor feeding, hypernatremia (serum sodium level more than 150 mEq/L), weight loss greater than 5% and urinary specific gravity above 1012. Results: Out of 217 cases of neonatal jaundice, 37 were recog...

  19. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  20. Breast cancer risk in mothers of children with osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, A L; Birch, J M; Marsden, H B; Harris, M

    1986-01-01

    Mothers of a population-based series of 86 children with osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma were traced and their health status or cause of death ascertained. There were 6 cases of breast cancer among these mothers and 6 other cancers. Risk of breast cancer was approximately three times that expected, and appeared to be highest in mothers of boys and in mothers of children under the median age at diagnosis. The mothers who developed breast cancer were relatively young at diagnosis compared with p...

  1. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has mo...

  2. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  3. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  4. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  5. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  6. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission. PMID:17601001

  7. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  8. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices

  9. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning…

  10. Fluoride Levels of Mothers' Breast Milk in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada, Z A Soliman and Tamer M M Saad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride exists naturally in water sources and is derived from fluorine. It is well known that fluoride helps, prevent and even reverse the early stages of tooth decay. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride levels in plasma and breast milk of lactating mothers in Egypt (Cairo and Giza Governorate. Material and Methods: Two hundred healthy lactating mothers aged between 20-40 years old were asked to give plasma and milk samples voluntary. Breast milk samples were directly refrigerated until measurements. The fluoride concentrations of plasma, milk and drinking tap water were assessed using an ion-selective fluoride electrode combined with an ion analyzer. Results: The fluoride levels of plasma, breast milk and drinking tap water samples were 0.0207±0.012, 0.0111±0.0044 ppm, and 0.482±0.117 ppm, respectively. A significant direct correlation between fluoride content in breast milk and drinking tap water was found (r=0.858, p< 0.01.

  11. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  12. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  13. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  14. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women. PMID:20492888

  15. HIV: mother-to-child transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Volmink, Jimmy A; Marais, Ben J

    2008-01-01

    Without active intervention, the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 is high, especially in populations where prolonged breast feeding is the norm. Without antiviral treatment, the risk of transmission of HIV from infected mothers to their children is approximately 15-30% during pregnancy and labour, with an additional 10-20% transmission risk attributed to prolonged breast feeding.HIV-2 is rarely transmitted from mother to child.Transmission is more likely in mothers with...

  16. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  17. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Chuproski Saldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  18. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fahami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  19. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions. PMID:27352882

  20. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  1. Infant feeding practices among nursing personnel in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, D; Chon, F M; Arokiasamy, J

    1980-07-01

    Concerned by the alarming decline in breast feeding in the urban and rural areas of Malaysia, we conducted a critical review of infant feeding practices among nursing personnel from representative centres using questionnaires. It was found that although 75% of mothers breast-fed their babies at birth only 19% did so at 2 months and 5% at 6 months respectively. Chinese mothers initiated breast feeding less frequently compared with Indian or Malay mothers. The prevalence of breast feeding was higher among lower category nurses, lower income groups and those from health centres. Decision for breast feeding was based in most instances on conviction derived from reading, lectures or advice from relatives. The vast majority of mothers listed "work' as the main reason for termination of breast feeding followed by "insufficient breast milk' and satisfactory past experience with bottle feeding. The ramifications of these findings and measures to improve the prevalence and duration of breast feeding are discussed. PMID:7446101

  2. The fidelity of mutans streptococci transmission and caries status correlate with breast-feeding experience among Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, W; Caufield, P W

    2000-01-01

    Our previous study reported that the fidelity of mutans streptococci (MS) transmission from mother to infant was gender- and race-specific within a Birmingham, Ala., population. We hypothesized that fidelity might be a function of postnatal nurturing practices. The purpose of the present study was to investigate those factors that could be correlated with MS transmission among Chinese children whose nurturing histories were known. Forty-eight families with 2- to 3-year-old children were selected from two kindergartens of Beijing, China. A questionnaire concerning the childhood nursing practice was obtained from the parents. Dental caries status was examined, and bacterial samples were collected for all participants twice at 6-month intervals. An average of six isolates of MS was picked at random from selective medium from each individual at each visit. Chromosomal DNA fingerprints were performed for all MS isolates to determine the genomic similarity within each family and among individuals. The results showed that 66% of the children at 2-3 years of age harbored MS, and 46% were caries-active. Of those children, 70% were breast-fed. Among the children whose chromosomal DNA fingerprint genotypes of MS matched that of their mothers, 88% were breast-fed compared with only 12% who were not breast-fed (p = 0.03). We also found that children who were breast-fed for more than 9 months were likely to harbor strains of MS common to their mothers (p = 0.04) and experience more dental caries (dmft = 4.4) at 3 years of age compared with children who were breast-fed less than 9 months (dmft = 1.4, p = 0.04). The data suggest that breast-feeding, especially prolonged breast-feeding, may correlate with the fidelity of transmission and that prolonged breast-feeding may contribute to a higher caries rate. PMID:10773629

  3. Influences on infant feeding decisions of first-time mothers in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, H; Williams, P.; Von Rosen-Von Hoewel, J; Laitinen, K.; Jakobik, V; Martin-Bautista, E; Schmid, M.; Egan, B; Morgan, J.; Decsi, T.; Campoy, C.; Koletzko, B; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant feeding decisions made by new parents have significant health implications. The study aimed to investigate: influences on infant feeding decisions; characteristics of mothers reporting reliance on alternative information sources; associations between reliance on different sources and intentions to exclusively breastfeed and introduce complementary foods later; and subsequent breastfeeding and weaning behaviours. SUBJECTS/METHODS: First-time mothers in five Europe...

  4. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fighting infection because of the immunity offered in mother's milk," said Dr. William Muinos, a pediatric gastroenterologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami. Antibiotics kill the bacteria in the gut, he said. "If ...

  5. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  6. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  7. Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals

    OpenAIRE

    Raaijmakers, Lieke GM; Gevers, Dorus WM; Teuscher, Dorit; Kremers, Stef PJ; van Assema, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess how much of a public health problem emotional and instrumental feeding practices are, we explored the use of these feeding practices in a sample of Dutch mothers regarding their child’s food intake between main meals. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 359 mothers of primary school children aged 4–12 years. The questionnaires were completed online at home. Results Of the mothers, 29.5% reported using foods to reward, 18.1% to punish and 18.9...

  8. Mothers' beliefs and attitudes towards child weight, child feeding and related practices in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Tin-Maung; Kyi, Hla; Thwin, Aye

    2003-01-01

    The aim is to identify mother's attitude and concern regarding child weight and feeding practices and also to explore the importance of growth monitoring activity in preventing Protein, Energy. Malnutrition (PEM). Trained interviewers from the respective State/Division nutrition team interviewed ninety mothers from different areas and Divisions. Mothers were categorized into three groups of thirty: those with a well-nourished child, a malnourished child or a child who had died of infectious disease. 90% of well-nourished children were weighed at birth and 100% of them had received regular weighing. 89% of their mothers could identify their child birth weight as normal and all of them know the negative health consequences of Low Birth Weight. Regarding attitude towards feeding during illness, most mothers of a well-nourished child believe that feeding during illness is better for recovery. That proportion is high as twice as of the remaining groups. Data regarding child feeding practices show mothers of a well nourished child have timely and appropriate starting of these practices. It is inferred from the recent finding that mothers who had received growth monitoring program since delivery have better preventive behavior for PEM and the role of basic health staff in these activity is also acknowledged. PMID:14703156

  9. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  10. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. PMID:23795644

  11. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design: Prospective cohort study. Set...

  12. [A case of hypernatremic dehydration due to breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M; Neffati, F; Khelifa, H; Douki, W; Monastiri, K; Gueddiche, M N; Ben Amor, A; Najjar, M F

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an 11-day-old exclusively breast-fed female, with a birth weight of 3 300 g, who had suffered from dehydration stage I, with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis, with 170 mmol/L of serum sodium. Renal ultrasounds were normal but the rate of sodium in mother's milk was three times higher than controls (87 versus 21 mmol/L). Intravenous rehydration allowed the correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders. PMID:18725352

  13. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  14. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

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    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  15. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. METHODS: Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history of...... asthma. Skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels against 12 common inhalant and 10 food allergens were assessed longitudinally at ages ½ year, 1½ years, 4 years, and 6 years. Eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood...... clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization in...

  16. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  17. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  18. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status

    OpenAIRE

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6–24 months children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food sec...

  19. Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, A; Sabuncuoğlu, S Atasayar; Girgin, G; Sahin, G; Yiğit, S; Yurdakök, M; Tekinalp, G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M(1) and B(1) in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M(1) and B(1) levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M(1) were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B(1) were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M(1) and B(1), and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. PMID:19850097

  20. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children d...

  1. Maternal depression and attachment: the evaluation of mother-child interactions during feeding practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santona, Alessandra; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; De Carli, Pietro; Pace, Cecilia S; Parolin, Laura; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasizes parents' emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children's age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive conflicts and negative affective states, all of which can hinder the development of adequate interactive patterns during feeding. The results suggest that IWMs can constitute an indicator for the evaluation of the relational quality of the dyad and that evaluations of dyadic interactions should be considered when programming interventions. PMID:26379576

  2. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra eSantona; Angela eTagini; Diego eSarracino; Pietro eDe Carli; Cecilia Serena ePace; Laura eParolin; Grazia eTerrone

    2015-01-01

    Internal working models of attachment (IWM) can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between d...

  3. SURVIVAL MODELS AND RISK FACTORS OF BREAST FEEDING IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF TAKESTAN-INTRODUCING SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Eshraghian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the Survival models, survival functions for the time from birth to the event of using formula (i.e. the time that baby in fed by breast milk in urban and rural areas of Takestan (Iran, Winter 1998 are reported. Later the relation between the mentioned time and some factors are also discussed. The Kaplan-Meire Method and Cox Regression are used in this paper as well. 480 babies from urban areas and 720 from rural areas were chosen to be included in this research. It was shown that 7.7% of babies in urban and 6.5% in rural areas were fed by formula. The mean time of feeding by breast milk, before using formula, in urban and rural areas was 2.5 and 2 months, respectively. It was also shown that the survival functions of time that a baby fed by breast milk was not significantly different in urban and rural areas (P=0.50. The survival functions of the mentioned time in different sexes for both urban (P = 0.62 and rural (P = 0.62 areas were not significantly different. It was also shown that in urban areas the discussed survival functions were significantly different. In different mother's age groups (P = 0.03 and in groups of mothers with and without a job (P = 0.0001. Cox Regression showed that the hazard of a baby, belonged to a mother whit a job, being fed by formula was 6.31 times of a baby, belonged to a mother without a job. It also showed that the babies of older mothers were more at risk of being fed by formula. The mean time of using breast milk for mothers with and without a job was 17 and 23 months, respectively.

  4. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  5. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  6. Feeding guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  7. Mothers' Working Models of Caregiving in the Context of Infant Feeding: Change through the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, Karen; And Others

    This study examined the change in mothers' working models of infant feeding through the first post-term year of full-term infants and of prematurely born infants with a history of lung disease. It also examined the contribution of maternal resources such as education and mental well-being and infant attributes (maturity at birth and lung disease…

  8. Association of HIV-1 Envelope-Specific Breast Milk IgA Responses with Reduced Risk of Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollara, Justin; McGuire, Erin; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Rountree, Wes; Eudailey, Josh; Overman, R. Glenn; Seaton, Kelly E.; Deal, Aaron; Edwards, R. Whitney; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kumwenda, Jacob; Nelson, Julie A. E.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Ellington, Sascha; King, Caroline C.; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Kourtis, Athena P.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in resource-limited areas where replacement feeding is unsafe and impractical are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 throughout breastfeeding. Despite this, the majority of infants do not contract HIV-1 postnatally, even in the absence of maternal antiretroviral therapy. This suggests that immune factors in breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit vertical transmission. We compared the HIV-1 envelope-specific breast milk and plasma antibody responses of clade C HIV-1-infected postnatally transmitting and nontransmitting mothers in the control arm of the Malawi-based Breastfeeding Antiretrovirals and Nutrition Study using multivariable logistic regression modeling. We found no association between milk or plasma neutralization activity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, or HIV-1 envelope-specific IgG responses and postnatal transmission risk. While the envelope-specific breast milk and plasma IgA responses also did not reach significance in predicting postnatal transmission risk in the primary model after correction for multiple comparisons, subsequent exploratory analysis using two distinct assay methodologies demonstrated that the magnitudes of breast milk total and secretory IgA responses against a consensus HIV-1 envelope gp140 (B.con env03) were associated with reduced postnatal transmission risk. These results suggest a protective role for mucosal HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA responses in the context of postnatal virus transmission. This finding supports further investigations into the mechanisms by which mucosal IgA reduces risk of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk and into immune interventions aimed at enhancing this response. IMPORTANCE Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers are repeatedly exposed to the virus in breast milk. Remarkably, the transmission rate is low, suggesting that immune factors in the breast milk of HIV-1-infected mothers help to limit transmission. We compared the antibody

  9. A Study of Protein Energy Malnutrition with respect to Breast Feeding Practices in Less than Six Year Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji V Ukarande, Ajit S Nagaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Results: The Proportion of undernutrition was more in, who has not exclusively breast fed (72.92% and 44.07%, p<0.001, who did not received colostrum (91.74% and 27.64%, p<0.0001. Who received prelacteal feed (94.35% and 25.20%, p<0.05, Breast fed after 1hr of birth. (71.66% and 45.34% (p<0.0001. Who has un-hygienic feeding practices (63.33% and 50.57% p<0.05. Who weaned after 6 months of age (67.11% 43.60%. p<0.001. Conclusion: Adequate breastfeeding counseling and support are essential for mothers and families to initiate and maintain optimal breastfeeding practices. "

  10. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  11. [A study on the mother-infant interaction in teaching and feeding situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K J

    1990-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide the basic information for nursing intervention in infant teaching and feeding situation. The subjects were 30 pairs of mother and her infant (9 month) who were normally delivered at 3 university hospital in Seoul area. The data collection was conducted by observation using videotaperecord from September 27, 1989 to February 26, 1990 in their home. The measurement tools used by this researcher were Nursing child Assessment Teaching scale (NCATS) and Nursing child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) which was developed by Barnard. The higher sum of "yes" score means the higher mother-infant interaction level. Mother-Infant interaction behaviors in both situations were based on 6 subcategories;sensitivity to cue, response to distress, social-emotional growth fostering, cognitive growth fostering, clarity of + cues, and responsiveness to parent. The data collected through above method were analyzed by mean and t-test and the results were as follows. 1. The sum of maternal behavior score was 40.2 out of 50.0 in teaching situation and 37.9 out of 50.0 in feeding situation. Out of the 4 subcategories on maternal behavior in both situation, the highest subcategory was shown by response to infant's distress and the lowest subcategory by cognitive growth fostering. 2. The sum of infant behavior score was 14.7 out of 23 in teaching situation and 17.9 out of 26 in feeding situation. Out of the 2 categories on infant behavior in both situation, the highest sub category was shown by the clarity of infant's cue in both situation. 3. There was a statistical significance between father's educational level and mother-infant interaction in teaching situation; college group was higher than high school group, particularly in category of sensitivity to infant's cue and cognitive growth fostering. 4. There was a statistical significance in teaching situation between mother's educational level and mother-infant interaction; college group was higher than

  12. Feeding beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers. Validation of a modified version of the child feeding questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hong; Mallan, Kimberley M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-09-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) developed by Birch et al. (2001) is a widely used tool for measuring parental feeding beliefs, attitudes and practices. However, the appropriateness of the CFQ for use with Chinese populations is unknown. This study tested the construct validity of a novel Chinese version of the CFQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Participants included a convenience sample of 254 Chinese-Australian mothers of children aged 1-4 years. Prior to testing, the questionnaire was translated into Chinese using a translation-back-translation method, one item was reworded to be culturally appropriate, a new item was added (monitoring), and five items that were not age-appropriate for the sample were removed. Based on previous literature, both a seven-factor and an eight-factor model were assessed via CFA. Results showed that the eight-factor model, which separated restriction and use of food rewards, improved the conceptual clarity of the constructs and provided a good fit to the data. Internal consistency of all eight factors was acceptable (Cronbach's α: .60-.93). This modified eight-factor CFQ appears to be a linguistically and culturally appropriate instrument for assessing feeding beliefs and practices in Chinese-Australian mothers of young children. PMID:24816321

  13. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV

  14. Excess risk of breast cancer in the mothers of children with soft tissue sarcomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, J M; Hartley, A L; Marsden, H B; Harris, M; Swindell, R.

    1984-01-01

    Information was obtained on the health status or cause of death in the mothers of a population-based series of 143 children with soft tissue sarcomas. Among these mothers there were 6 cases of breast cancer. All 6 women were pre-menopausal and 2 had bilateral disease. This represents a significant 3-fold excess risk of breast cancer. Malignant disease had occurred in 6 other women whose ages at diagnosis ranged from 33 to 58 years. This was not significantly in excess of expectation. The inci...

  15. Uso do copinho no alojamento canguru Cup-feeding in kangaroo mother care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Passos Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o manejo das mães no uso do copinho e analisar os aspectos que interferem para administração dessa técnica. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de 30 binômios mãe/bebê. O estudo desenvolvido foi transversal de correlação. Foram realizadas coletas nos prontuários das mães e do bebê, executada uma observação das mães ofertando a dieta no copinho e aplicado um questionário com perguntas sobre o uso do copo. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio do programa software estatístico, SPSS 13.0. Aplicou-se testes de estatística descritiva, mais especificamente a distribuição das freqüências e das percentagens relativas de cada dado observado. Em relação à associação entre as variáveis estudadas foram utilizados os seguintes testes: teste Qui-Quadrado, com nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: to evaluate cup feeding manipulation by mothers of low weight preterm infants' and to analyze the aspects that interfere in the correct use of this technique. METHODS: a cross-section correlation study was conducted. The sample included 30 pairs of mothers and babies. Data collection was based on patient' charts; interviews with the newborn' mothers and observing a diet offered in a cup feeding by mothers. The analysis of the results was based on the Software Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0. We used descriptive statistical techniques through the distribution of the frequencies and the relatives percentages of each observed data. The Chi-square test and the Sperman Correlation Coeficient were used to analyze association between the variables (p<0.05. RESULTS: there is a significant relation between the babies' posture, the cup feeding, the volume given and the health professional guidance about cup feeding. CONCLUSION: mothers can manipulate the cup feeding, however, they need healthy professional guidance on this technique (cup feeding and the milk's volume; mainly in relation to the care with

  16. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  17. Evaluating a bilingual video to improve infant feeding knowledge and behavior among immigrant Latina mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinmann, Roberta; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hartel, Diana; Rosenberg, Terry J

    2010-10-01

    Childhood obesity is recognized as a major health problem in the United States and is occurring at ever younger ages. While most prevention efforts are aimed at school-age children, this project focuses on the caregivers of children from 0 to 24 months of age. This study is an evaluation of an educational English/Spanish infant feeding video, distributed for home viewing at one New York City Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) center (video group) but not at three others (comparison group). Baseline, 3 and 6 month infant feeding knowledge and behavior surveys were conducted. For this report, analyses are restricted to Latina immigrant mothers. The video and comparison group mothers were similar in age, education, and parity. The video group was more likely to speak Spanish at home, and had lower knowledge scores at baseline. At the 6 month follow-up, knowledge increased for both groups, but the video group showed a greater increase in knowledge between baseline and 6 months: in ordered logistic regression analyses the video group had a 1.7 times greater score increase at each outcome level. The video group also showed positive changes in behavior-later age at first solid feeding was observed in the video group. We found that an inexpensive, low-intensity video intervention can positively impact maternal knowledge and behavior related to infant feeding among immigrant Latinas. Attention should be given to intervening early with high-risk populations. PMID:20039195

  18. Communication by Mothers with Breast Cancer or Melanoma with Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication of familial risk of breast cancer and melanoma has the potential to educate relatives about their risk, and may also motivate them to engage in prevention and early detection practices. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA privacy laws, the patient often becomes the sole communicator of such risks to family members. This study surveys mothers diagnosed with either breast cancer or melanoma and their adult children about their family communication style, knowledge of increased risk, and early detection practices. In both cancer groups, most mothers alerted their children of the risk and need for early detection practices. Breast cancer mothers communicated risk and secondary prevention with early detection by breast self-examination and mammograms whereas the melanoma mothers communicated risk and primary prevention strategies like applying sunscreen and avoiding deliberate tanning. Open communication about health matters significantly increased the likelihood that children engaged in early detection and/or primary prevention behaviors. Examining the information conveyed to at-risk family members, and whether such information motivated them to engage in early detection/prevention behaviors, is key to guiding better cancer prevention communication between doctors and patients.

  19. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding. PMID:4041206

  20. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  1. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding at a tertiary care centre in the government medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Deshmukh; Ummehani Rasool; Bhakti Kalyankar; Rupali Gaikwad; Kanan Yelikar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mother's milk undoubtedly represents the best nourishment for the child during first months of life. The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) specially, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), are well established. No artificial feed can replace breast milk, its specific nutrients and protection against diseases. All women should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed their infants up to 6 months of age and thereafter to continue along with appropriate and adequate complementary foods, for up t...

  3. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  4. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. PMID:26767614

  5. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women with a......: Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate and...... carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  6. Transfer of Cs-137 from food into milk of breast-feeding women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between May 1987 and May 1988 a duplicate of the food taken in as well as a specimen of the milk of 8 nursing mothers was daily collected during 3-4 weeks and the Cs 137 activity was measured. Moreover the mothers' whole-body activity was measured once during the collection period. The measured values show that apart from the direct transfer of Cs 137 from the food taken in into the breast milk a transfer of cellular Cs 137 from the mother's body into the breast milk is also taking place. During this process about 12% of the mother's Cs 137 activity concentration and about 19% of the Cs 137 activity daily taken in with the food are transferred into one liter of breast milk. (orig.)

  7. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification. PMID:24337863

  8. Feeding demand conditions and plasma cortisol in socially-housed squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, M; Hwang, L; Lang, O; Levine, S

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand (LFD: 600% normal daily food intake provided) or variable demand (VFD: alternating two-week blocks of low demand and high demand) conditions for 12 weeks. During the 12-week experimental foraging phase, animals in the HFD group exhibited prolonged and consistent cortisol elevations. The cortisol levels in the VFD group reflected the ambient demand condition, with higher levels exhibited during the high demand phases of the study, and lower values when the low demand condition was in effect. Overall, mothers were more affected by the experimental manipulation than were infants. The experimental condition did not affect the infants' response to a 24-h separation from their mothers. A suppression of cortisol levels, particularly in the HFD group, was observed upon resumption of ad-libitum feeding. PMID:11337131

  9. Determinants of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk in a selected group of Egyptian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronaki, Nektaria; C Turner, Paul; Mykkänen, Hannu; Gong, Yunyun; Amra, Hassan; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad; El-Nezami, Hani

    2006-07-01

    In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk AFM1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM1 (median 13.5 pg ml-1, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43). Non-working status (p = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 2.87), obesity (p = 0.004, OR = 3.01), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.002, OR = 2.21), number of children (>1) (p = 0.025, OR = 1.99), and early lactation stage (effect. PMID:16751147

  10. Development and pilot of a group skills-and-support intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J; Bryant-Waugh, R

    2012-04-01

    Child feeding problems are often associated with parental factors which may influence and maintain difficulties. This paper reports the development, pilot and preliminary evaluation of a group intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems. Themes for the group were derived from a survey of parents and professionals. Three pilot interventions were conducted in order to make an assessment of the feasibility, acceptability and potential for achieving change in levels of maternal mood, parenting stress and concerns related to feeding. While single case analysis revealed little change in standardised measures of mood and parenting stress, participants valued the social and emotional support offered by the group and reported improvements in concerns and maladaptive behaviours related to feeding. An intervention which provides support and a sense of a shared experience appears to have beneficial effects for mothers of children with feeding problems and therefore, may offer a constructive means of supporting this population. PMID:22245132

  11. When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a board-certified lactation consultant and director of media relations for La Leche League International, a breast-feeding ... West, international board-certified lactation consultant and director, media relations, La Leche League International; Kate Dupont Phillips, M. ...

  12. Peer education is a feasible method of disseminating information related to child nutrition and feeding between new mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether peer education based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour is a feasible method to share and disseminate nutrition and feeding information between mothers of babies and toddlers. Methods The Peer Educator Nutrition Training (PeerENT) study was a feasibility study. Participants were recruited from an existing cohort of mothers of six month to two year olds. An online survey tool was used to collect and collate data, which was then analysed using STATA statis...

  13. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University...

  14. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  15. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamarina Shohaimi; Wong Yoke Wei; Zalilah Mohd Shariff

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modif...

  17. 'Breast is not always best': South Asian women's experiences of infant feeding in the UK within an acculturation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Kubra; Wallace, Louise M

    2012-01-01

    Acculturating to a host country has a negative impact on immigrant women's breastfeeding practices, particularly when coming from countries where breastfeeding rates are higher than Western countries. Whether this is true of those immigrating to the UK remains to be investigated. The study aimed to explore whether acculturating to the UK had detrimental effects on breastfeeding practices of South Asian women, and to provide explanations as to how acculturation may have exerted its influence. Twenty South Asian women completed semi-structured interviews exploring infant feeding experiences. Data were thematically analysed. A bidimensional measure assessed women's acculturation status. Women displaying low acculturation levels were aware of living in a formula-feeding culture but this had little influence on breastfeeding intentions/behaviours; drawing upon South Asian cultural teachings of the psychological benefits of breast milk. These women opted to formula-feed in response to their child's perceived demands or in a bid to resolve conflict; either when receiving information about the best feeding method or between their roles as a mother and daughter-in-law. Highly acculturated women also experienced such conflict; their awareness of the formula-feeding culture governed feeding choice. The findings provide a picture of how acculturation may affect South Asian women's breastfeeding intentions and behaviours; encouraging health service providers to meet the varying needs of an acculturating population. If breastfeeding is to be encouraged, it is necessary to understand factors influencing feeding choice; with particular attention to the acculturation pathways that may govern such decisions. This paper highlights ways to tailor information for South Asian women depending on levels of acculturation. PMID:22136221

  18. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Determinantes de la amamantación óptima en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Dearden; Mekibib Altaye; Irma de Maza; Maritza de Oliva; Maryanne Stone-Jimenez; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Barton R. Burkhalte

    2002-01-01

    Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey o...

  19. Lactational changes in concentration and distribution of ganglioside molecular species in human breast milk from Chinese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Xihong; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul; Fong, Bertram Y

    2015-11-01

    Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification. PMID:26404454

  20. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  1. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  2. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  3. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  4. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Osei Tutu; P.O. Yeboah, A.A. Golow, D. Denutsui and S. Blankson-Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14) different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, end...

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :μg/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :μg/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :μg/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

  6. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  7. Breast feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration: A preventable tragedy in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The innumerable and compelling benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to the infant, mother, family and society are well recognized. Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare, yet potentially preventable complication of exclusive breastfeeding; the etiology being inadequate lactation. We report 2 exclusively breastfed newborn infants with serum sodium levels of 166 and 159 mEq/L, respectively. Both babies presented with excessive weight loss, fever, dehydration, and irritability. Mothers had inadequate lactation. Corresponding breast milk sodium levels were elevated in both mothers (77 and 45 mEq/l; normal 7-21 mEq/L between 3-14 d postpartum. Appropriate parenteral fluids were administered to correct dehydration and hypernatremia. Serum sodium normalized within 72 hours. Following counseling, breastfeeding was resumed after 48 hours with both the mothers achieving good lactation. Infants were finally discharged on exclusive breastfeeding. Timely recognition and awareness of this potentially lethal, but preventable condition is essential to ensure a favorable outcome.

  8. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  9. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. PMID:23795678

  10. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necessary to remove more lymph nodes. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ... nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve the mother's prognosis . ...

  11. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necessary to remove more lymph nodes. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ... nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve the mother's prognosis . ...

  12. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  13. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rothfus

    2012-04-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  14. Successful induced non-puerperal lactation in surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banapurmath, C R; Banapurmath, S; Kesaree, N

    1993-01-01

    Ten surrogate mothers seen between 1986-91 were encouraged to breast-feed their babies varying in age between 8 days to 5 months. All the 10 surrogate mothers had experienced pregnancy and child birth in the past. The lactational gap varied from 1 year to 16 years. Presence of milk was noted on 3rd to 8th day after attempting induced lactation in 5 mothers. No milk was seen on manual expression of the nipple even after 2 weeks in the other 5 surrogate mothers. Two mothers achieved complete breast-feeding and they fed their babies for 2 years. Three mothers could achieve partial lactation and these mothers fed for 1 year or more. All these 5 babies registered satisfactory growth. PMID:8157333

  15. Breast Milk and Gut Microbiota in African Mothers and Infants from an Area of High HIV Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    González, Raquel; Maldonado, Antonio; Martín, Virginia; Mandomando, Inácio; Fumadó, Victoria; Metzner, Karin J.; Sacoor, Charfudin; Fernández, Leónides; Macete, Eusébio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Juan M. Rodríguez; Menendez, Clara

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human milk and infant gut microbiota are essential for the immune system maturation and protection against infections. There is scarce information on the microbiological composition of breast milk in general, and none from developing countries. The objective of the study was to characterize the breast milk and gut microbiota from mothers and infants from southern Mozambique, where infections and breastfeeding are prevalent. METHODS: A community-based study was undertaken among ...

  16. Determining the breast-feeding interruption schedule after administration of 123I-iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity after administration of 123I-sodium iodide was measured in breast milk samples obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis. The breast milk was collected over 93 h during the infant's regular feeding times. The radioactivity in the breast milk was calculated with a 123I capsule of the same lot number as the standard source. 123I was excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.5 h; 2.5% of the total radioactivity administered was excreted in the breast milk over the 93 h, 95% of which was excreted within the first 24 h, and 98.2% within 36 h. The first milk sample collected at 7 h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical contained 48.5% of the total radioactivity excreted. We estimated the potential absorption of radioactivity to an infant's thyroid in uninterrupted breast-feeding to be 30.3 mGy. With a 24-hour interruption, the absorbed radioactivity would be 1.25 mGy; with a 36-hour interruption, it would be 0.24 mGy. According to our calculations, breast feeding should be curtailed for 36 h to reduce the infant's exposure to 123I radioactivity. By using a correction factor based on maximum radioactivity from another 123I capsule of the same lot, we were able to ascertain the appropriate protocol for our patient and establish a measurement method that can be applied in similar clinical situations. (author)

  17. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had recei...

  18. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  19. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  20. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  1. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are consi...

  2. BREASTFEEDING AND CONTRACEPTIVE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING UNDER 5 CLINIC OF A GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding and contraception are important determinants of child mortality and morbidity. These practices vary in different communities due to different socio-cultural factors. Breast feeding practices influences health of the child and incidence of infections. OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the socio demographic characteristics among mothers attending under 5 clinic. 2. To determine the breast feeding practices among mothers. 3. To determine the association between ARI and ADD with breastfeeding. 4. To determine the contraceptive practices among the mother. METHODOLOGY: This Cross-sectional study was conducted at a government tertiary care teaching hospital, Karnataka for a period of 6 months. The data was collected from the mothers by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire in the local language (Kannada. RESULTS: Of the total 2932 mothers, 46.1% mothers had breast-fed their babies within one hour of delivery, 9.2% had given pre-lacteal feeds and colostrum was not fed to 7.9% of the babies. The difference in the incidence of ARI and ADD between the children who were exclusively breastfeed and the children who were not exclusively breastfed was significant. Contraception was practices by 10.8% of the mothers. CONCLUSION: The immunization clinic offers an opportunity to enquire the mother about the breast feeding practices and advise about the importance of exclusive breast feeding. It also provides an opportunity for questioning and offering advice about contraception.

  3. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  4. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  5. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  6. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  7. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity. PMID:25538958

  9. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddie, S.; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M.

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant...

  10. Influence of Cultural Beliefs on Infant Feeding, Postpartum and Childcare Practices among Chinese-American Mothers in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adele; Brann, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    As one of the fastest growing communities in the United States, Chinese-Americans receive relatively little research attention on their rates of breastfeeding versus formula feeding, and what factors influence that choice. This research aims to examine the influence of elders and cultural beliefs on postpartum, infant feeding, and childcare practices. Semi-structured interviews with 22 recently postpartum mothers who met the recruiting criteria were conducted between July 2012 and February 2013. The traditional postpartum practice, zuo yuezi, presented negative physical and emotional outcomes and maternal reporting of delay in lactation. Early introduction of solids for traditional reasons was reported. The support from husbands and elders were necessary for breastfeeding success, while some mothers had to first negotiate with elders for breastfeeding. The practice of sending infants back to China to be taken care of by extended families presented cultural implications related to grandparents' involvement in raising grandchildren. With the respect and appreciation for elders and traditions, it is likely that Chinese mothers negotiate between cultural traditions and societal expectation in the western home. PMID:25331609

  11. Influence of past breast feeding on pattern and severity of presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrich, Kimme L; Baildam, Eileen; Pickford, Hannah; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce E; Foster, Helen; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    This analysis aimed to study the influence of breast feeding on the pattern and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) at presentation. The association between ever versus never breast feeding and disease severity at onset was compared in 923 children with JIA recruited to the UK Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study at first presentation to rheumatology. Fifty six per cent of children were ever breast fed (median 3.7 months). Breastfed children reported a lower median age at onset, a lower Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), a measure of disease severity, lower parent general evaluation scores and lower pain at presentation. There was a trend towards a higher proportion of breastfed children with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis, but lesser enthesitis-related and psoriatic arthritis. There was a statistically significant inverse association between breast feeding and high CHAQ, even after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic status (adjusted OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.95)). Further work to understand the reasons behind these associations is required. PMID:26369575

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamarina Shohaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397 in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P<0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058. The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  13. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who attended antenatal clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Malata, Address; Chirwa, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Childbirth information received by mothers during antenatal period influences their satisfaction with the care during perinatal period. It is important for the midwives to know the type of information that satisfies their clients. This study found that the childbirth information that mothers received during antenatal period did not satisfy them. On the other hand, although some of the information received at home was useful, some information had potential to cause fear, anxiety and ill health...

  14. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    1992-01-01

    for their post-natal health visitor records. These include data on birth weight, birth length, immunizations, and feeding habits. A total of 77 cases were re-identified. No differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics between these cases and those not identified. For each diabetic...... subject, two control children with date of birth identical to the diabetic cases were drawn from health visitor records. Cases and controls did not differ with respect to maternal age, or birth weight or length. Overall, the statistical analysis failed to confirm the hypothesis of an association between...

  15. Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting : the Kesho Bora Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cournil, Amandine; de Vincenzi, I.; Gaillard, P.; Cames, Cécile; Fao, P.; Luchters, S; Rollins, N; Newell, M. L.; BORK, Kirsten; Read, J. S.; Kesho Bora Study Grp,

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).Methods:Enrolled HIV-infected women were counseled to choose between breastfeeding up to 6 months or replacement feeding from delivery. Multivariable Cox models were used to compare the infant mortality risks according to feeding practices over time defined as never breastfed, weaned o...

  16. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  17. Assessment of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices Among Mothers in Rural Madhya Pradesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Jain, Amod Borle, Sanjay S Agrawal, Mahesh Kumar Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vishal Bathma

    2014-01-01

    "Introduction: Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. In India, poor feeding practices in early childhood contribute to the burden of malnutrition and infant and child mortality. Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the Infant and young child feeding practices among the children less than two year of age. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 300 children ...

  18. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding -a clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians....

  19. Breast feeding and oral rehydration at home during diarrhoea to prevent dehydration.

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D.; Islam, A.; Hoque, S. S.; A. Hasnat

    1992-01-01

    In a case-control study we evaluated the role of maternal behaviour, as reflected in maintenance of breast feeding and the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home during acute diarrhoea, in preventing dehydration in infants and young children. A systematic 5% sample was taken of all children aged 1-35 months attending the treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute watery diarrhoea of six days or less between August 1988 and Septe...

  20. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671

  1. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Choi

    Full Text Available For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer, 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93 were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696, the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically

  2. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  3. Assessment of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices Among Mothers in Rural Madhya Pradesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Jain, Amod Borle, Sanjay S Agrawal, Mahesh Kumar Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Vishal Bathma

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that although the exclusive breastfeeding rate is satisfactory but there are many inappropriate feeding practices during early childhood. These findings highlight the need for effective national level nutrition programmes to enhance breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices with a focus on the target groups."

  4. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  5. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 17 parents through 45 individual interviews with both mothers and fathers, from birth to 12 months of age. This data was then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results The analysis identified six primary themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breast milk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. This paper reports on the theme of 'breast milk as connection'. Providing expressed breast milk offered one way the mothers could be physiologically and emotionally connected to their preterm infant while they were in the constant care of hospital staff. Indeed, breast milk was considered the only way the new mother could connect her body (or part there of to her preterm baby in hospital. This sense of connection however, comes at a cost. On the one hand, the breast milk offers a feeling of connection to the baby, but, on the other, this connection comes only after disconnection of the mother and baby and – through breast expression – mother and her milk. This ability of breast milk to connect mother and baby makes the expressed breast milk highly valued, and places unexpected pressure on the mother to produce milk as integral to her sense of motherhood. Conclusion The findings of

  6. Drinking Water Quality, Feeding Practices, and Diarrhea among Children under 2 Years of HIV-Positive Mothers in Peri-Urban Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In low-income settings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers must choose between breastfeeding their infants and risking transmission of HIV or replacement feeding their infants and risking diarrheal disease from contaminated water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children < 2 years of age of 254 HIV-positive mothers in peri-urban Zambia to assess their exposure to waterborne fecal contamination. Fecal indicators were found in 70% of household drinking water samples. In...

  7. A study on feeding practice of under 6 months infants attending the Nutrition Clinic of a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Shrivastava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: while breast feeding is a natural act, it is also a learned behavior. The right technique of feeding in the right position is the key to success of breastfeeding.Methods: to assess the feeding practice including positioning, attachment and suckling of under 6 months’ infants, a cross-sectional study was undertaken at R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, India, among 99 mothers in 2010.Results: 59.8% mothers completed feeding from one breast before going to the next breast. 77.3% mothers alternated their breasts during subsequent feeds. 41.2% babies were well attached, 47.4% babies were correctly positioned.Conclusions: there is a need to teach the mothers  the techniques of correct positioning and attachment, especially, in the post natal period before discharge from the hospital after delivery. 

  8. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P;

    1994-01-01

    were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea was......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival...... higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...

  9. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore assoc...

  10. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  11. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  12. The advantages of breast-feeding: a developing country point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, P E

    1981-02-01

    One of the traditional practices related to child care which is undergoing the most rapid change in the 3rd world is breastfeeding. Concerned about the repercussions of this trend, the author reviews some important results of research carried out in developing countries on the advantages of breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and notes some of the factors influencing 3rd World women in their choice of mode of infant feeding and the cost of bottle feeding to both national and family budgets. The importance of taking stock of the present situation and preventing its deterioration is underscored. Increased home and community support for women to breastfeed even when working outside the home, is especially needed. PMID:12264014

  13. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding. PMID:27181767

  14. Feeding practices of mothers and/or caregivers of infants below the age of 6 months in South Africa / Linda Precious Siziba

    OpenAIRE

    Siziba, Linda Precious

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is widely recognised as the ideal approach for improving child survival and feeding new-born babies and young infants. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life with timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 months and continued breastfeeding for up to two years and beyond. The feeding practices of mothers are widely influenced by different factors which may be embedded within different contexts ...

  15. Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda. : Prevention of postnatal HIV transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, Cécile-Alexandra; Ndayisaba, Gilles-François; Lepage, Philippe; VAN GRIENSVEN, Johan; Leroy, Valériane; Omes, Christine; Ndimubanzi, Patrick-C; Courteille, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To assess the 9-month HIV-free survival of children with two strategies to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN: Nonrandomized interventional cohort study. SETTING: Four public health centres in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: Between May 2005 and January 2007, all consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were included. INTERVENTION: Women could choose the mode of feeding for their infant: breastfeeding with maternal HAART for 6 months or formula feeding. ...

  16. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajas...

  17. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., ...

  18. 北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养率及影响因素分析%Breast feeding rate and its influencing factors in Haidian District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the breast feeding status in Haidian District and explore its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for improvement of infant nutrition .Methods A self-designed questionnaire survey was carried out among 580 mothers or caregivers , who took their babies aged 0-4 months for health care in child early department center of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital in the period of January to December in 2012.Results The pure breast feeding rate of mothers with senior middle school education or lower was significantly higher than that of the mothers with vocational high school education or higher (χ2 =4.192,P<0.05).The rate of breast feeding was different among mothers with different occupation , and that was highest among unemployed women (χ2 =9.631,P<0.05). The rate of pure breast feeding of eutocia was higher than that of dystocia (χ2 =5.631,P<0.05).The rate of pure breast feeding of women with normal breast development was higher than that of women with abnormal breast development (χ2 =48.275, P<0.05).Conclusion Education , occupation , obstetrical way as well as breast development are the major influencing factors of breast feeding .Intervention program should be implemented by maternal and child health care workers .%目的:了解北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养情况,探讨影响母乳喂养的相关因素,为改善婴儿营养提供依据。方法采用随机抽样的方法,抽取在北京市海淀妇幼保健医院儿童早期发展中心进行健康检查的0~4个月龄婴儿580例,用自行设计的母乳喂养状况调查表,了解2012年1月至12月产妇母乳喂养情况。结果母亲高中文化程度以下较中专文化程度以上纯母乳喂养率高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.192,P<0.05)。不同职业的母乳喂养率差异有统计学意义,其中全职妈妈的母乳喂养率最高(χ2=9.631,P<0.05)。顺产组的纯母乳喂养率高于剖宫产组

  19. Interactions During Feeding with Mothers and Their Infants with Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, Madalynn; Schmiege, Sarah J; Pan, Zhaoxing; Fehringer, Karen; Workman, Rachel; Marcheggianni-Howard, Cassandra; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether maternal–child interaction during feedings was suboptimal in dyads in which the infant had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to compare massage therapy to a nonmassage therapy sham treatment in improving the mother–child interaction in these dyads.

  20. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-10-28

    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period. PMID:26330132

  1. Survey on the effects of breast feeding on blood sugar in highbirth weight neonates

    OpenAIRE

    S. Behzadnia; V. Ghaffari; K. Vahidshahi

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : The low amount of blood sugar in neonates is an important and prevalent problem which needs serious attention because of its cerebral complications. High birth weight is one of the risk factors for hypoglycemia.There is no general agreement about how to approach the high birth weight neonates who do not have the symptoms of hypoglycemia but are at a high risk of it.In some centers the neonates blood sugar is checked before beginning the breast feeding and treatment bu...

  2. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  3. Using Positive Deviance to Understand the Uptake of Optimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices by Mothers in an Urban Slum of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, M R; Deshmukh, D; Jayaraman, A; Chanani, S; Humphries, D L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Positive deviance research seeks out well-nourished children living in disadvantaged contexts to understand local growth-promoting behaviors. This study explored the factors that influence the uptake of infant and young child feeding behaviors among mothers. Methods Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ) > 0 (n = 10) or a HAZ  0) largely exhibited optimal infant and young child feeding practices explained by maternal information seeking behaviors; mothers acknowledging the importance of maternal health; and social support. The relationship between mother and health worker seemed to influence how well they listened to the health workers' recommendations. Across all households, the daily consumption of high-energy, processed foods was apparent. Conclusions Practical considerations include exploring how to tailor CMAM programs to include social support and counseling training for health workers to engage more closely with mothers; exploring the feasibility of a women's social group for mothers to share information on child rearing; and teaching mothers about healthy eating and the link between nutrition and health. PMID:26694045

  4. Study of complementary feeding practices among mothers of children aged six months to two years – A study from coastal south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInfants and young children are at an increased risk ofmalnutrition from six months of age onwards, when breastmilk alone is no longer sufficient to meet all their nutritionalrequirements and complementary feeding should bestarted. Hence this study was undertaken to assess thepractices of complementary feeding.MethodThis hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted attwo private hospitals – Dr TMA Pai Hospital Udupi and DrTMA Pai Hospital Karkala and a public hospital, RegionalAdvanced Paediatric Care Centre, Mangalore, of coastalsouth India for a two-month period from August 2010 toOctober 2010. Two-hundred mothers of children betweensix months and two years attending the paediatricoutpatient departments of the above-mentioned hospitalsfor growth monitoring, immunisation and minor illnessessuch as upper respiratory tract infections were selected forthe study. The subjects were selected for the study by theorder of their arrival to the outpatient department duringthe study period.ResultsIn the present study 77.5% mothers had startedcomplementary feeding at the recommended time of sixmonths. Only 32% of mothers were giving an adequatequantity of complementary feeds. The association ofinitiation of complementary feeding with socio-economicstatus, birth order, place of delivery and maternal educationwas found to be statistically significant. However thepractice of giving an adequate quantity of complementaryfeeds was significantly associated only with the place ofdelivery.ConclusionIn the present study, initiation of complementary feeding atthe recommended time of six months was seen in themajority of children. However the quantity ofcomplementary feeding was insufficient. Advice aboutbreast feeding and complementary feeding during antenatalcheck-ups and postnatal visits might improve feedingpractices.

  5. The use of stable isotope dilution technique to determine the amount of breast milk consumed by infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exclusive breast feeding for six months to an infant, followed by the introduction of complementary food and continued with breast feeding is believed to be an optimal way of infants nutrition. There is a shortage in information about the amount of milk obtained from the infant's mother at least partially due to the difficulties associated with quantification of breast milk intake. The old technique, which depends on how the weight of the baby before and after breast feeding from mother, takes time and may be disturbing to the natural feeding pattern. It was possible to overcome these difficulties by using stable isotopes consumed by mother as Dose of deuterium oxide to motherin particular dilution dose to mother and then move the dose from mother to baby through breast milk and this can calculate the total volume of breast milk consumed by the infant within 14 days since the dose oxide of deuterium consumed at first day. Dose of deuterium oxide to mother can also help to find out if there were any further quantity of water entering the child's body except breast milk, determine body composition for mother and infant, monitor the effects of programs strengthening food for pregnant mothers and lactating women in terms of quantity and quality of milk overnight, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of programs to strengthen children's food. (author)

  6. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Wu Yongning, E-mail: wuyncdc@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu Yinping [Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 97 Huaian East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050021 (China); Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent. Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT. Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk. The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  7. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: →Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent.→ Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT.→ Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk.→ The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R

    1994-11-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%. PMID:7859655

  9. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  10. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 331-335

  11. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 331-335

  12. Safety of breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk%HBV-DNA阳性乳汁喂养的安全性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬生; 林秋香; 蒋就喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of breast-feeding by puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk.Methods 117 puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk (2 cases with twins) were studied.119 infants were given with HBV active and passive immunization.34 infants were provided with breast feeding and 85 infants were provided with artificial-feeding.Results 34 out of 119 infants (28.57%) were found to have chronic HBV infection.The rate of HBV infection in the breast-feeding group (32.35%,11/34) was similar to artificial-feeding froup (27.06%,23/85) (P>0.05).However,it has statistical significant difference that the amount of breast milk HBV-DNA loads between the group of chronic HBV infection in infants and the group of no infection(P<0.05).Conclusions Chronic HBV infection in infants is correlated with the amount of HBV-DNA in maternal milk.Breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk may not increase the risk of chronic HBV infection in infants.%目的 探讨乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇117例(双胞2例),119例幼儿出生时均接受HBV主动+被动免疫,自由选择喂养方式,其中母乳喂养34例(母乳喂养组),人工喂养85例(人工喂养组),观察两组幼儿慢性感染HBV情况.结果 119例幼儿慢性感染HBV 34例,慢性感染率为28.57%;其中母乳喂养组幼儿慢性感染率为32.35%(11/34),人工喂养组为27.06%(23/85),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但幼儿HBV慢性感染组与未感染组母亲乳汁HBV-DNA水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 幼儿慢性感染HBV与产妇乳汁HBV-DNA载量有关,但母乳喂养并未增加感染HBV的风险.

  13. The challenges of adherence to infant feeding choices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infections in South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani LO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucky O Lawani,1 Azubuike K Onyebuchi,2 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,3 Robinson C Onoh,2 Peter O Nkwo31School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Global and national efforts in the 21st century are directed toward the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections through evidence-based infant feeding interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, with patient preference, motivation, and adherence identified as key factors for success.Objectives: This study assessed the challenges faced by HIV-infected parturients in adhering to the national infant feeding recommendations and their infant feeding preference for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in South East Nigeria.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based study of 556 parturients infected with HIV/AIDS.Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.0±5.3 years. The infant feeding choices were made jointly by both partners (61.1% in the antepartum period. The HIV status disclosure rate was 89.2%. A large proportion (91.7% practiced exclusive breastfeeding with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 7.6% practiced mixed feeding because of nonadherence to their choice and national/international recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV/AIDS. This was mainly a result of pressure from family members (42.8% and cultural practices (28.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that adherence was strongly associated with age, marital status, and employment status, but not with residence, educational status, or parity.Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding is predominately the infant feeding choice among HIV

  14. [From tube to breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzati, F

    2010-06-01

    WHO suggests exclusive maternal milk up to six months of life. This clue is much more important refer to premature newborn. Everybody knows the several advantages of human milk versus formula milk. We can also say that supporting maternal feeding in NICU helps woman that probably lives a complicated relationship with her "being mother" and with her baby. We can help the couple mother-newborn and their family to build strong basement for their future relationship, whatever it will be. The main aspects are: precocious and frequent stimulation of the breast; counseling; NIDCAP; kangaroo mother care; 24 hours open NICU; feeding consultant; teamwork In presence of these elements in NICU will be easier involve the mother and propose her some practices that could help her and her baby in breastfeeding. PMID:21090095

  15. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  16. Characteristics of breast milk and serology of women donating breast milk to a milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, P.; Foshaugen, I; Lindemann, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, a faster tolerance of enteral feeding, and a reduced need of parenteral nutrition. It is important to have milk from a CMV-IgG negative donor to VLBW infan...

  17. Haloperidol secreted in breast milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Whalley, L.J.; Blain, P G; Prime, J K

    1981-01-01

    A nursing mother was given haloperidol 5 mg twice daily for puerperal psychosis and continued to breast feed under hospital supervision. Despite considerable amounts of haloperidol being secreted in the breast milk (up to 23.5 micrograms/l), the infant was apparently not sedated, fed well, and continued to thrive. The findings suggest that maternal ingestion of haloperidol for short periods has no deleterious effect on the infant's development.

  18. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  19. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

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    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  20. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Mohammad Hassan Entezari; Zamzam Paknahad; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Saeid Doaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother′s life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child′s diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother′s weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary ...

  1. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-like DNA sequences in the breast tumors of father, mother, and daughter

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    Wiernik Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of late onset breast cancer in a father, mother, and daughter living in the same house for decades suggested the possibility of an environmental agent as a common etiological factor. Both molecular and epidemiological data have indicated a possible role for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, the etiological agent of breast cancer in mice, in a certain percentage of human breast tumors. The aim of this study was to determine if MMTV might be involved in the breast cancer of this cluster of three family members. Results MMTV-like envelope (env and long terminal repeat (LTR sequences containing the MMTV superantigen gene (sag were detected in the malignant tissues of all three family members. The amplified env gene sequences were 98.0%–99.6% homologous to the MMTV env sequences found in the GR, C3H, and BR6 mouse strains. The amplified LTR sequences containing sag sequences segregated to specific branches of the MMTV phylogenetic tree and did not form a distinct branch of their own. Conclusion The presence of MMTV-like DNA sequences in the malignant tissues of all three family members suggests the possibility of MMTV as an etiological agent. Phylogenetic data suggest that the MMTV-like DNA sequences are mouse and not human derived and that the ultimate reservoir of MMTV is most likely the mouse. Although the route by which these family members came to be infected with MMTV is unknown, the possibility exists that such infection may have resulted from a shared exposure to mice.

  2. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  3. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Payatas and Malate, the Philippines: Levels, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human breast milk samples (n = 33) from primipara and multipara mothers from Payatas a waste dump site, and Malate a reference site in the Phillipines were collected in 2004 and analyzed for eight organohalogen compounds, viz., PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, TCPMe, PBDEs and HBCDs. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the samples. Overall mean concentrations of PBDEs found in our study were higher (7.5 ng/g lipid wt.) than those reported for Japan and many other Asian countries. Primipara mothers had significantly higher levels of DDTs, CHLs and HCHs than multipara mothers, but not PBDEs and HBCDs. A few individuals accumulated CHLs close to or even higher than the tolerable daily intake guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - First comprehensive study on organohalogen contaminants in human breast milk from the Philippines.

  4. Aleitamento materno e condições socioeconômico-culturais: fatores que levam ao desmame precoce Breast-feeding and socioeconomic cultural status: factors that lead to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar

    2002-12-01

    human milk was used. RESULTS: 86,1% of the mothers nursed their children and 92% claimed to be aware of the value of breast-feeding. The average weaning age was of 3,3 months; 75,9% of the mothers weaned their children without medical advice. The reasons stated by 38,9% of the mothers was that their milk was "thin", or "it dried" or that the child rejected the breast. Higher education of the mother and sewage availability depicted a relationship to longer breastfeeding periods (p = 0,016 and p = 0,011 respectively. There was not relationship between medical follow-up in the healthcare clinic and longer breast-feeding periods. CONCLUSIONS: although the majority of mothers were aware of the value of maternal milk and breastfed their babies, the average length of exclusive breast-feeding is lower than the nursing length advised by the World Health Organization, and that low education levels is a factor for early weaning.

  5. 不同喂养方式对乙型肝炎病毒母婴传播的影响%Impact of different feeding patterns on mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雪玲; 李春梅; 刘敏; 易为; 王士俊; 刘雪净; 刘建云; 姜秀娟; 孙继云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of different feeding patterns on mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV).Methods Chronic HBV-infected puerperae,who gave birth to a single baby at term in Beijing DiTan Hospital from December 18,2010 to June 26,2012,were recruited and separated into breast-feeding group and formula-feeding group according to the mother's will.Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on matemal serum HBV-DNA load before delivery:HBV-DNA negative subgroup (< 5 × 102 copies/ml),low viral load subgroup (≥ 5 × 102-< 1.0 × 106 copies/ml) and high viral load subgroup (≥ 1.0 × 106 copies/ml).A total of 199 patients in breast-feeding group were divided into three subgroups,separately including 73,62 and 64 patients,while a total of 210 patients in formula-feeding group into three subgroups,including 74,62 and 74 patients.Newborns were injected with Hepatitis B hyper-immune globulin (HBIG) within 2 h after birth and at 15 to 30 days,followed by the routine injection of recombinant yeast derived Hepatitis B vaccine in accordance with the scheme of "0,1,6 months".HBV-DNA was determined by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,while serological markers of HBV by microsome chemiluminescence method.Comparisons were made between the breast-feeding and formula-feeding group on maternal background information,immune responses of the infants at one-month and seven-month old,the infectious status when they were between seven-month to two-year old.Statistical analysis was made with independent sample t-test,rank-sum test,x2 test and Fisher's exact test.Results The HBeAg positive rates of puerperae in the three subgroups (HBV-DNA negative,low viral load and high viral load) among women of the breast-feeding group were 12.3% (9/73),37.1% (23/62) and 96.9%(62/64),respectively,while 5.4% (4/74),51.6% (32/62) and 95.9% (71/74) among the formula-feeding group.There was no significant difference between breast-feeding

  6. Management of Lactational Mastitis and Breast Abscesses: Review of Current Knowledge and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria, Kamal; Srivastava, Anurag; Dhar, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Most breast abscesses develops as a complication of lactational mastitis. The incidence of breast abscess ranges from 0.4 to 11 % of all lactating mothers. The traditional management of breast abscesses involves incision and drainage of pus along with antistaphylococcal antibiotics, but this is associated with prolonged healing time, regular dressings, difficulty in breast feeding, and the possibility of milk fistula with unsatisfactory cosmetic outcome. It has recently been reported that bre...

  7. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  8. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  9. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D2O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D2O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D2O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D2O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D2O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author)

  10. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.; Favre, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. PMID:27548208

  11. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Affolter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG and transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  12. Day-to-Day Variations in Iron, Zinc and Copper in Breast Milk of Guatemalan Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; West, C.E.; Schümann, K.; Bulux-Hernandes, J.; Solomons, N.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two lo

  13. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    support, and (3) at ease with choice of feeding, characterised by a thriving baby, trust in breastfeeding capability, and approval of feeding preference. Together these themes and subthemes constituted the overall theme: being on a breastfeeding–bonding trajectory. Conclusion Supporting the new...... breastfeeding mother should include facilitation of the transition to motherhood, learning to read the baby's cues, developing a sense of the right attachment at the breast, and building up the mother's confidence in her capability to care for the baby and produce a sufficient milk supply....

  14. 慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带产妇母乳喂养安全性研究%Safety of Breast-Feeding Carried out by Chronic HBV Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 谭布珍; 丰颖; 唐丽娟; 胡辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the safety of breast-feeding carried out by chronic HBV carriers. Methods HBV infectious markers were detected in umbilical cord blood and colostrum of 145 chronic HBV carrier mothers. Meanwhile, HBV DNA in 52 newborns with HBsAg (+) mothers. either breast-fed or formula-fed, was detected at 0, 7, and 12 months after born. Results HBV infectious markers were found to be positive in the umbilical cord blood in 136 out of the 145 HBV infectious marker - positive cases. The intrauterine HBV - infectious rate was 94% . HBV infectious markers were found to be positive in the colostrum in 32 out of the 145 cases with HBV infectious markers ( HBV - infectious rate : 22% ), 12 with HBsAg +) mothers ( positive rate: 23% ) and 20 with HBeAg ( + ) mothers ( positive rate: 83% ). No statistical differences between the breast - fed group and the formula - fed group of newborns with HBsAg + mothers were noted with respect to HBV -DNA positive rate of newborns at 0,7, and 12 months after born. Conclusion Breast feeding could he carried out hy HBsAg +) chronic HBV carriers and comhined immunization should be performed in the infants at the same time. The colostrum of HBeAg ( + ) mothers is highly infectious and is not suitable for breast - feeding.%目的 探讨乙型肝炎(乙肝)病毒携带产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 对145例静脉血乙肝病毒血清标志物阳性的孕产妇进行脐血及母乳乙肝病毒血清标志物检测,同时对52例单纯乙肝病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性产妇母乳喂养组及人工喂养组的新生儿出生时、出生7个月及12个月时进行静脉血乙肝病毒DNA(HBV-DNA)检测.结果 145例静脉血乙肝病毒标志物阳性产妇中136例新生儿脐血乙肝病毒标志物阳性,乙肝宫内感染率为94%;有32例母乳中乙肝病毒标志物阳性[其中母血HBsAg阳性者12例,阳性检出率为23%;母血乙肝病毒e抗原(HBeAg)阳性者或HBsAg和HBeAg同时阳性者20

  15. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Transfer of Azithromycin into the Breast Milk of African Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sam; Davis, Timothy M E; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Camara, Bully; Oluwalana, Claire; Bojang, Abdoulie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Roca, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Azithromycin (AZI) is used for its antibiotic and antimalarial properties in pregnancy. Reported estimates of AZI breast milk transfer, based on concentrations in mostly single samples from small numbers of women, have suggested that infant intake is safe. To better characterize infant intake and the associated potential benefits and risks, AZI was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in four breast milk samples taken over 28 days postpartum from each of 20 Gambian women given 2 g AZI during labor. A population pharmacokinetic model utilizing published parameters for AZI disposition in pregnancy, the present breast milk concentrations, and increasing/decreasing sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) functions adequately described temporal changes in the milk/plasma ratio. The median estimated absolute and relative cumulative infant doses were 4.5 mg/kg of body weight (95% prediction interval, 0.6 to 7.0 mg/kg) and 15.7% (95% prediction interval, 2.0 to 27.8%) of the maternal dose, respectively; the latter exceeded the recommended 10% safety limit. Although some infants with bacterial infections may benefit from AZI in breast milk, there is a risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with a worst-case number needed to harm of 60 based on the present and available epidemiologic data. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01800942.). PMID:26711756

  17. Mother knows best: occurrence and associations of resighted humpback whales suggest maternally derived fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere coastal feeding ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barendse

    Full Text Available Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae. In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales.

  18. Nuclear medicine and the nursing mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radiopharmaceuticals may be detected in breast milk, but differ from other drugs in that for diagnostic purposes they are used in tracer quantities and do not produce demonstrable pharmacological changes in mother or infant. Patients may also be given non-radioactive drugs to induce changes in the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals and some of these, too, appear in milk (e.g. frusemide, potassium perchlorate, iodides, and cholecystokinin). Iodides are selectively concentrated in breast milk, and some consider them contra-indicated during lactation. A period of interruption of breast feeding, expression of milk, and reduction of close contact with the infant is usually recommended for mothers who have a nuclear medicine investigation. The inconvenience and disadvantages of interrupting breast feeding have to be balanced against the potential risk to the infant: the prolonged interruption of feeding advocated for some agents is often impracticable. Interruption for 24 hours for sup(99m)Tc compounds is excessive for doses used in Britain. Twelve hours leaves a wide range of safety for pertechnetate. No interruption is needed for sup(99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin and sup(99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine-penta-acetic acid in order to remain below one tenth of the annual limit of intake. (U.K.)

  19. Relationship of dietary intake to DDE residues in breast milk of nursing mothers in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, S M; Talhouk, R S; Nasrallah, S S; Tannous, R I; Mroueh, S M

    1999-07-01

    Milk samples were collected from 32 nursing mothers living in the Beirut area, Lebanon. Dietary intakes of participating mothers were obtained from data of their diet histories, 24 h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Milk samples were screened for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues and DDE levels were estimated using gas chromatographic techniques. The relationship between consumption of various food groups and DDE content of milk was investigated. A positive correlation was found between the consumption of either/or high fat meat, tuna fish and DDE levels in milk. Consumption of poultry products showed a weak correlation with DDE content of milk, whereas consumption of vegetable oils showed a negative correlation. PMID:10656056

  20. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN VANDALE-TONEY

    1997-09-01

    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  1. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth. PMID:19664551

  2. Problemas com a mama puerperal revelados por mães soropositivas Problemas puerperales en las mamas de madres seropositivas Problems with the puerperal breast revealed by HIV-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2010-03-01

    ampliar estrategias para minimizar los problemas emocionales derivados del no amamantar, así como para la incomodidad de la mama puerperal.Given the recommendation not to breastfeed their infants, HIV-positive women may experience breast problems. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge regarding breast health as revealed by HIV+ women before the non-breast-feeding. This qualitative study was performed with 15 mothers with HIV/ AIDS in Fortaleza, Brazil. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The mothers revealed problems with their breasts following childbirth, such as engorgement and pain in the breasts. They revealed that they received instruction in the course of prenatal care not to breastfeed; however, there was no further instruction or care in the postpartum period. The use of lactation inhibitors and bandaging (binding of the breast were reduced. Health professionals should adopt appropriate measures to guide HIV- positive parturient women. Health services need to broaden strategies to minimize the current emotional problems resulting from non-breast-feeding, as well as the discomfort in the puerperal breast.

  3. Breastfeeding practices among mothers in an urban polyclinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah H Yadav, C K; Yadav, H

    2002-06-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study on breast feeding practices in an urban clinic was conducted among 136 mothers aged between 21-49 years who were interviewed using a questionnaire. Malays constituted 61% of the respondents, Chinese 22.8% and Indians 16.2%. Mojority of these were working mothers and although the initiation of breastfeeding was high (99.3%), exclusive breastfeeding was only 12.5%. A large proportion (33.8%) dtopped prior to 3 months. Majority of the Chinese mothers (61.3%) stipped before 3 months as compared to the Indian (40.9%) and Malay (21.7%) mothers (pbreast feeding rate is high in this urban setting but more efforts are needed to effect a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding and longer duration of breastfeeding. PMID:24326649

  4. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  5. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  6. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  7. Cabergoline for suppression of puerperal lactation in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-transmission programme in rural Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Buhendwa, L.; Zachariah, R.; Teck, R; Massaquoi, M; Kazima, J.; Firmenich, Peter; Harries, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    This study shows that cabergoline (single oral-dose) is an acceptable, safe and effective drug for suppressing puerperal lactation. It could be of operational benefit not only for artificial feeding, but also for weaning in those that breast-feed within preventive mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes in resource-limited settings.

  8. [Detection of bactericidal antibody in the breast milk of a mother infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, E; Tanaka, H; Toyoda, N; Takeda, T

    1999-05-01

    A 21 years-old pregnant woman developed diarrhea, fresh bloody stools and abdominal pain on April 6th 1997 at 32 weeks of gestation, and was admitted to the hospital on April 11th. The stool culture on admission was positive for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (Stx1 and 2). Clinical laboratory data during admission showed only slight elevation of beta-microglobulin and N-acetyl glucosaminidase in the urine, and no neurological or hemolytic symptoms were seen. After the antibiotic and lactobacillus administration, all her symptoms were relieved and no abnormal findings in pregnancy were observed. She delivered a baby girl normally on May 30th. Serum (between 41 and 120 days from the onset) and milk (between 4 and 64 days post partum) samples from the mother, and serum (64 days of age) from a baby and cord blood were obtained to monitor the immune status against EHEC O157:H7 and against Shiga toxins (Stx). Anti-E. coli O157 LPS antibodies (IgA, G and M) were assayed by the ELISA method. Neutralizing anti-Stx antibodies were measured by using ACHN cell cytotoxicity assay. In the colostrum and mature milk, high levels of IgA and IgM, and no IgG antibodies against EHEC O157 LPS were detected. In one of the control colostrum samples obtained from 4 healthy mothers IgA antibody against EHEC O157 LPS was detected. To assess the potency of protection against EHEC O157:H7 by the breast milk, we monitored it by the bactericidal activity for the organism under complement-coincubation experiment, and by the neutralization test for the Stx cytotoxicity. As a result, breast milk samples (both colostrum and mature milk) from a patient were demonstrated to kill the organisms. One of 4 healthy milk samples, showed bactericidal activity though it was negative in O157-LPS antibody. This bactericidal activity seen in one healthy colostrum is possibly due to a nonspecific reaction caused by non-O157 E. coli infection. From these observations, it was suggested that the

  9. Total antioxidant potential and essential trace metals in the breast milk and plasma of Nigerian human immunodeficiency virus-infected lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu K Rahamon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV on the immune system is well documented however; its impact on the nutritional and immunological qualities of the breast milk is scarce. Aim: Levels of some essential trace metals, albumin and antioxidant status in the plasma and breast milk of Nigerian HIV-infected lactating mothers were determined. Materials and Methods: Essential trace metals and total antioxidant potential were measured using spectrophotometric method while albumin was measured using single radial immunodiffusion technique. Results: Only the mean plasma level of albumin in HIV infected lactating mothers (HIM was significantly reduced when compared with HIV free lactating mothers (HFM [9.39 (4.46 g/L vs 26.18 (18.43 g/L, P=0.000], others had no significant difference. The mean breast milk levels of total antioxidant potential (1776.82(564.26 μmolTE/L vs. 2384.67 (679.00 μmolTE/L, P = 0.0000, Cu [67.68 (5.04 μg/dL vs. 71.10 (5.45 μg/dL, P = 0.033] and Fe [66.21 (6.31 μg/dL vs. 71.20 (6.48 μg/dL, P = 0.011] were significantly reduced in HIM compared with HFM. No significant differences were observed in other parameters. Conclusion: It could be concluded from this study that hypoalbuminemia is a feature of HIV-infected lactating mothers and that breast milk of HIM has low antioxidant capacity.

  10. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet Linda

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Met...

  11. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    OpenAIRE

    J Ghaemmaghami; B Pourghassem Gargari; L Nikniaz; R Mahdavi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed thei...

  12. Iodine Concentrations in Breast Milk and Urine in Mothers and Infants During the Period of 16 Weeks Postpartum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng ZHANG; Wen CHEN; Jun SHEN; Zhuo ZHAO; Jan HUO; Shu-hai LAN; Wan-qi ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the iodine status of lactating women and their infants during the first 4 month postpartum in the regions with optimal iodine nutrition.Methods Thirty pairs of lactating women and infants were followed up for 16 weeks after delivery. Urine samples were collected from mothers and infants at weeks 4, 8 and 12 and maternal breast-milk samples were collected at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16. The contents of iodine were measured accordingly.Results Over the period of 12 weeks, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of lactating women was 110.1µg/L (from 78.3µg/L to 138.8µg/L). Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was 171.8µg/L (from 125.4µg/L to 261.1µg/L) over the period of 16 weeks. There was significant difference between BMIC and UIC in lactating women (P<0.001). There was no correlation between UIC and the BMIC in lactating women. The median UIC in infants was 211.8µg/L (from 141.5µg/L to 283.1µg/L). No differences were observed among UICs of infants over the three sampling times. Infant UIC was correlated with BMIC, but not maternal UIC. A significant difference was observed among BMICs over the four sampling times (P<0.001). A decline tendency was found in BMIC with time after delivery (R2=-0.545,P<0.001). Conclusion: BMIC was decreased in the first 16 weeks in the lactating women with an optimal iodine status. So adequate supplementation of iodine is recommended for lactating women.

  13. The Investigation of Pregnant women' Cognition about Breast Feeding%孕妇对母乳喂养认知情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳秋; 孙美农

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims at knowing about the pregnant women's cognition about breast feeding , the feeding plan for infant and the requirements of breast feeding knowledge , in order to provide basis for clinical to have breast feeding health education . Methods We had an investigar~ tion on 190 pregnant women from obstetrical department outpatient service using a self-designed questionnaire . The main contents of the questionnaire include general materials , breast feeding plan postpartum , breast feeding cognition , knowledge source and the ways and timing of hoping to get breast feeding knowledge . Results There are 159 pregnant women planning to choose pure breast feeding; the average score of breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women is 8 .34+6 .42 , which is quite low; the score and the age and gestational age appears low positive correlation; the situation of taking the initiative for getting breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women from different gestational age and different culture degree has statistical difference ( P<0 .05 ); pregnant women's initiative of getting breast feeding knowledge are different , whose knowledge score has statistical difference ( P<0.05); 70% pregnant women hope to get propaganda and education from medical staffs; 66 .3% of them hope to learn certain knowledge about breast feeding during second trimester . Conclusions The cognition situation about breast feeding of pregnant women is not optimistic . The requirements of propaganda and education from medical staffs are amount . Medical staffs should develop effective breast feeding health education for pregnant women , for laying a foundation to improve the rate of pure breast feeding postpartum .%目的 了解孕妇母乳喂养知识的认知情况,对婴儿的喂养计划及对母乳喂养知识的需求情况,为临床进行母乳喂养方面的健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对产科门诊就诊的190名孕妇进行调查.问卷的主要内容

  14. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. PMID:21342457

  15. [Breast cancer and pregnancy: decision making and the point of view of the mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Noizet, Agnès

    2002-09-01

    For the treatment of breast cancer, modifications of decision making related to pregnancy could be assessed through three questions. Why a decision had been chosen? In that case, the hypothesis is that decisions are based on the expected utility. The theory assumes weighting and computation of complete possibilities with their associated probabilities and values. However values exhibits a wide inter-individual variation range. Therefore the predictability of choice based on this model is indeed very low. Furthermore it is likely that the willingness of pregnancy after breast cancer contains besides classic constituents of appeals of motherhood, a specific meaning of recovery both of health and femininity. The second question: who is in charge of the decision? And under the paradigm of autonomy, women' decision is, merely by itself, the right decision. The last question is how? For some situations for which foreseeing is quiet complex, the value of the process in itself is increased and could help the end-oriented or self-determined decision. Casuistic analysis could therefore improve women' decisions. The issue is not only about decision but also related to patient-physician relationship, about an issue that is not only a biomedical problem. PMID:12368126

  16. Relação clínica entre hábitos de sucção, má oclusão, aleitamento e grau de informação prévia das mães Clinical relationship among suction oral habits, malocclusion, infant feeding and mother's previous knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feu Rosa Kroeff de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo avaliou a relação clínica entre a forma de aleitamento da criança, orientação prévia das mães sobre amamentação natural, instalação de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos e a presença de más oclusões. METODOLOGIA: foram examinadas 79 crianças (39 com hábitos de sucção e 40 sem hábitos de sucção, de ambos os gêneros, entre 2 e 5 anos, com a dentadura decídua completa e sem perda de tecido dentário interproximal, selecionadas de maneira randomizada, que participavam do Projeto de Bebês da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Apenas um examinador (Kappa intra-examinador: 0,96 avaliou as características faciais e oclusais das crianças, no sentido ântero-posterior, transversal e vertical. As mães foram instruídas a responderem um questionário sobre o desenvolvimento da criança e o grau de orientação prévia que receberam sobre amamentação natural, hábitos, más oclusões e respiração bucal. Foram empregados os testes estatísticos qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fischer, t de Student e Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que: 1 existe uma relação estatisticamente significante entre o prolongamento do aleitamento materno e a redução da instalação de hábitos de sucção (pAIM: the proposal of this study was to associate infant feeding methods, mother’s previous knowledge about breast-feeding, installation of oral habits and presence of malocclusions. METHODS: 79 children (39 with suction habits and 40 without habits, both genres, from ages between 2 and 5 years old, with complete health deciduous dentition were randomizedly selected from the ones attended at Baby’s Clinic, in Federal University of Espírito Santo. Only one examiner (Kappa intra-examiner= 0.96 evaluated facial characteristics and the occlusion at transversal, antero-posterior and vertical relation. Each mother was oriented to answer a questionnaire concerning child’s development and the degree of

  17. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  18. Appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breast-fed infant. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B A; Hofvander, Y

    1982-01-01

    The initiative for this review of appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breastfed infant came from the Consultative Group on Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, an expert supportive group to the UN/ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition. Evidence assessing the duration of breastfeeding adequacy and the advantages and disadvantages of early versus later introduction of complementary foods is reviewed. Several years ago the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) recommended that complementary foods be provided between 4-6 months of age. In later studies, the variability of circumstances in different ecologies were reported to have a significant impact on the ability and desire of a woman to breastfeed and for how long. Hence the appropriate time to provide a breast milk complement is again under examination. Nutritionists, health professionals, and the baby food industry (their pro and antagonists) have renewed their interest in this issue, but differences in opinion and distorted claims among the interested groups have left many people confused. The appropriate time for the introduction of complementary feeding varies considerably in different sociocultural settings and among different socioeconomic groups. In developed countries very early complementation is usual not because of nutritional need, but because of social pressures, availability of convenient alternatives, and other considerations. In developing countries, early complementation may be needed in circumstances with a high prevalence of maternal malnutrition that may contribute to low milk output. Hazards accompany both too early and too late complementation. If a complement is introduced too early, there is the danger of diarrheal disease and food allergies. There is also an economic burden on poor families to purchase complementary food. In some underprivileged areas, cultural patterns in which the introduction of complementary food is too much delayed is the primary cause of faltering growth and

  19. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  20. Infant-feeding practices among immigrants in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K M; House, F; Shanks, R A

    1978-10-28

    Two hundred and six Asian, 99 African, 99 Chinese, and 102 Scottish children from 172 families were studied to ascertain infant-feeding practices. After arriving in the United Kingdom most of the immigrant mothers had not wished to breast-feed their babies because of wrong information or misconceptions about British infant-feeding practices. The Asians had largely adopted British habits of introducing solid foods to their babies' diets, but the habits of the African and Chinese mothers in this respect had changed little. Furthermore, many of the African and Chinese children had received no vitamin preparation. The survey showed that all mothers resident in Britain urgently need advice on some aspects of infant feeding. PMID:719341

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parental control in child feeding has focused primarily on directive types of control, such as pressure to eat and food restriction. This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess other types of directive control and two additional aspects of parental child feeding, non-directive and food envir...

  2. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Choi; Gerhard Fusch; Niels Rochow; Christoph Fusch

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce suc...

  3. Custo e economia da prática do aleitamento materno para a família Costs and savings for the family as the result of breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Moura de Araújo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar o custo da alimentação complementar da nutriz em relação à alimentação do bebê com substitutos do leite materno. MÉTODOS: o custo do gasto energético da lactação foi calculado com a adição de um ou dois alimentos da dieta habitual para suprir a demanda extra da lactante. Foram elaborados e calculados cardápios adicionais para a nutriz, e estimado o custo da alimentação com fórmula infantil e com leite de vaca tipo C para lactentes menores de seis meses, segundo recomendações nutricionais para essas fases da vida, para um consumo de seis meses. Determinou-se a porcentagem de salário mínimo gasto com cada tipo de alimentação. RESULTADOS: observou-se que a alimentação complementar da nutriz custa em média 8,7% do salário mínimo. Gasta-se aproximadamente 35% do salário mínimo na alimentação do bebê com fórmula infantil e 11% com leite de vaca tipo C. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados apontam que é mais barato e eficaz garantir a complementação alimentar de nutrizes carentes, para se promover a amamentação, que distribuir fórmulas ou leites, e favorecer o desmame precoce.OBJECTIVES: to compare supplementary food cost of nursing mothers related to breast feeding with breast milk substitutes. METHODS: the cost of energy spent during lactation was calculated with the addition of one or two types of food of the usual diet to supply the extra demand of a nursing baby. Menus were designed and calculated for the mothers and food cost estimated as well as the cost of baby formulas and type C cow milk for children under six months of age according to nutritional recommendations for this phase of life considering a six month consumption period. Percentage of minimum wage spent with each type of food was determined. RESULTS: supplementary food offered to mothers has an average cost of 8.7% of the minimum wage. Approximately 35% of the minimum wage is spent in feeding the baby with formulas and 11% with type

  4. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  5. Breast Milk Iodine and Iodine Status of Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Morshed Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Iodine status of breast-fed infants depends on iodine in breast milk and also number of feeding in 24 hours. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess both have bad impact on infant’s health. Objective: To measure the iodine in breast milk and to evaluate iodine status of their breast-fed infants. Materials and method: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. Urinary iodine was used as indicator for assessing iodine status. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (statistical programme for social science 12 version software package for Windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.00 respectively. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Only 2 (4% lactating mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE, 50-99 μg/L. There was no biochemical iodine deficiency of breast-fed infants. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers was positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (p<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine was positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (p<0.01 and with urinary iodine of lactating mothers (p<0.01. Conclusion: Lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants in this study were iodine sufficient. If iodine content of breast-milk is within normal range, 10-12 numbers of

  6. 城区母亲职业稳定性与婴儿喂养方式及儿童营养知识知晓状况调查%Investigation on the Impact of Mother's Job Stability on the Feeding Patterns and Nutritional Knowledge Understanding of Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淦玲; 梁丽萍; 陈嘉

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the impact of mother's job stability on the feeding patterns and nutritional status of infants,provide scientific basis for targeted health education in child health clinics, [Methods]Investigation was conducted for 720 infant's mothers,whose child aged 42 d had physical examined in the hospital from 2007 to 2008. [Results]Of the 720 mothers investigated,the rate of breast feeding was 61.83 %, there was no difference of the stability of job and different feeding patterns(P>0. 05). The knowledge understanding rate of the benefit of breast feeding and sun exposure,the symptoms of child rickets was higher among the mothers with stable job than that among the mother without stable job (P <0.01). The understanding rate of nutritional knowledge from public media and the last generation was higher among the mothers with stable job than that among the mother without stable job (P <0.01, P <0.05). There was no differenee in the 2 groups (P>0.05). [Conclusion]The nutritional knowledge understanding rate was higher among mothers with stable job than that without stable job.%[目的]探讨母亲职业稳定与否对婴儿喂养方式及营养知识的知晓状况,为儿童保健门诊有针对性地开展健康教育提供依据.[方法]对2007~2008年婴儿42 d时到我院儿童保健门诊体检的740名婴儿母亲进行调查.[结果]调查740人,婴儿纯母乳喂养率为61.83%,有稳定职业与职业不稳定者比较,纯母乳喂养率、部分喂养率的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);知道母乳喂养好处、知道晒太阳好处、知道小儿佝偻病表现者所占比例均为职业稳定者高于职业不稳定者(P<0.01);儿童营养知识来自大众传媒、来自父母上辈传授者所占比例均为职业稳定者高于职业不稳定者(P<0.01、P<0.05),来自产后访视者所占比例2组的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).[结论]职业稳定的母亲婴儿营养知识水平高于职业不稳定者.

  7. Influence of Feeding Modes on Risk of Mother-to-child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus%不同喂养方式对HBV母婴传播的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅; 陈洁; 张姝; 刘启兰; 周乙华; 胡娅莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify whether breastfeeding of infants adds risk for the mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods Totally 281 HBsAg-positive pregnant women, in whom 30.2% were also HBeAg-positive, and their 281 infants born from 2002 to 2004, were investigated from October 2009 to March 2010. HBV serologic markers were tested by ELISA and HBV DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Of the 281 children, 222 were breastfed and 59 formula-fed. All children had been vaccinated against hepatitis B and 37.0%received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG). Results The pregnant women’s age, delivery mode, children’s age, gender ratio, and administration of HBIG in infants were comparable between breast- and formula-feeding groups (P>0.05). The overall prevalence of HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs in the children was 3.2% and 58.0% respectively. In formula- and breast-fed children, the HBsAg-positive rates were 5.1% and 2.7% respectively (P>0.05). Further comparison of HBV infection in children of the 85 HBeAg-positive mothers showed that formula-and breast-fed children (27 and 58 respectively) had comparable HBsAg-positive rate (11.1% Vs 10.3%, P>0.05), while their mothers had similar HBV DNA levels (2.285×106 Vs 2.350×106, P>0.05). Conclusion With the currently available immunoprophylaxis, breast-feeding of infants born to chronic HBV carriers, add no risk for the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Therefore, with administration of HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine, HBV-infected mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed their infants.%  目的探讨母乳喂养对HBV母婴传播的影响.方法2002年1月—2004年12月江苏地区HBsAg阳性的281例孕妇及其子女,其中30.2%孕妇乙肝病毒e抗原阳性.婴儿母乳喂养222例,人工喂养59例.所有儿童均接种过乙肝疫苗,37.0%同时注射HBIG.2009年10月—2010年3月随访采血,检测HBV血清学标志.结果母乳喂养组和人工喂养组孕妇年龄、分娩方式,儿童年

  8. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of nuclear medicine physician's attitudes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The present survey was undertaken to approach the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire (see infra) was sent to all (201) Belgian Nuclear Physicians. Results: 78 answers (39 %) were received. During pregnancy, do you accept to perform Tc-99m lung perfusion scan ? First 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 16%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 51%; No: 33%. After 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 24% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 52% ; No: 24%. Tc-99m ventilation scan? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 10%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 11%; No: 79%. After 3 months : Yes, using standard protocol: 15%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 19%; No: 66%. Other diagnostic tests using Tc-99m? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 12%; No: 84%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 17%; No: 79%. Other diagnostic tests using other radioisotopes? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. In breast-feeding women do you accept to perform Tc-99m diagnostic tests? No: 11%. Yes, using standard protocol: 0%. Yes, provided a breast-feeding break: 89%. In those situations is an informed consent necessary? Yes: 42% ; No: 58%. Conclusion: These results are quite similar to those obtained in other countries; given the diversity of the opinions expressed, practical guidelines defining a standardized attitude would be helpful

  9. Effect of student's teaching about weaning on rural mother's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nour, N M

    1992-04-01

    Teaching women the merits of breast feeding, how to use locally available and suitable solid foods to feed infants, and proper methods of weaning can have a considerable and direct positive impact upon infants' nutritional status. 50 mothers aged 15-40 of mean age 24 years from Shoubramant village participated in a study to assess the effect of teaching about weaning. 76% of mothers and 54% of fathers were illiterate. The mothers were interviewed at baseline on their weaning knowledge and practice, then re-interviewed after having been taught relevant information by community nursing students. Mothers' weaning-related knowledge, attitude, and practice were significantly improved by the nutrition education intervention. Mothers' level of education was found to be an important factor affecting knowledge, attitude, and practice. PMID:12320844

  10. Evaluation of Zinc, Copper and Iron Concentrations in Breast Milk of Mothers Belonging to Different Economic Classes and their Correlations with Infants Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghaemmaghami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taking into account the importance of micronutrients in health and growth of the infants, the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in breast milk of mothers belonging to different economic classes and their effects on infants’ growth were investigated. Methods: Milk samples and information on personal characteristics, anthropometric and 24-hour food recall were collected from 90 lactating women belonging to 3 different socioeconomic classes who had exclusively breastfed their 90-120 day old infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dietary information of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. Statistical tests included Multiple Regression, ANOVA test and Independent t-test. Results: The mean zinc concentrations in mothers’ breast milk belonging to high, moderate and low socioeconomic groups were 1.6, 1.9 and 2.3 mg/l, respectively. Copper levels were 0.41, 0.47 and 0.85 mg/l, respectively and iron levels were 0.75, 0.8 and 0.9 mg/l, respectively. Group comparisons showed significant differences (P<0.05. Although association between mineral concentrations and WAZ or HAZ of infants was not significant, the WAZ of infants whose mothers' milk zinc concentration was more than 2 mg/l was significantly higher than WAZ of other infants (P<0.03. Despite no significant correlation between trace element intake and trace elements in milk, negative and significant correlations between maternal age and milk minerals concentrations were observed. Conclusion: The concentration of studied trace elements in milk of mothers with low economic status was higher but was not related to intakes and it was probably related to mothers' age. So, dietary consultations for older lactating mothers are needed.

  11. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  12. Maternal knowledge of infant feeding guidelines and label reading behaviours in a population of new mothers in San Francisco, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Gugig, Roberto; Kathiravan, Suganya; Holbrook, Kate; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal socio-demographics including participation in the Special Supplemental Women, Infants and Children’s (WIC) Program. A cross-sectional study of new mothers at two San Francisco hospitals was conducted using some of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ guidelines in a structured questionnaire to assess maternal nutritional knowledge. Maternal nutritional attitudes towards product nutrie...

  13. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breast-fed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and in formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenperä, L; Perheentupa, J; Siimes, M A

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of folate were studied in a group of exclusively breast-fed infants and their mothers (their numbers gradually decreased from 200 at birth to 7 at 12 months) and in infants completely weaned to a cow's milk formula (containing 35 micrograms of folate/L) and solid foods. The exclusively breast-fed infants were in no danger of folate deficiency; their plasma levels were elevated after the age of 2 months and, on average, were 2.0-3.3-fold higher than maternal levels throughout the study. None of these infants had an inadequate plasma concentration, whereas up to 5% of the mothers had values less than or equal to 3 micrograms/L, despite supplementation during lactation with 0.1 mg folate/day. In the formula-fed infants, 69-94% of the plasma folate concentrations lay below the lowest concentration for the breast-fed infants. Although no infant had signs of anemia or macrocytosis in red cell indices, the infants weaned earliest had the lowest hemoglobin concentrations (p = 0.09) and the highest mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (p = 0.06) at 9 months of age. Thus, an infant fed a formula containing the recommended amount of folate runs a risk of folate deficiency. PMID:3958855

  14. Crescimento de crianças até seis meses de idade, segundo categorias de aleitamento Growth of children up to six months of age and breast feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2005-03-01

    with factors such as age, weight and length at birth, gender and mother's education level. CONCLUSIONS: breast feeding regime, particularly in the first months has a positive impact in adequate growth together with factors such as mothers' education level in the group of children over five years old and weight at birth.

  15. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz;

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with an advantage to infant neurobehavioral development, possibly in part due to essential nutrients in breast milk. However, breast milk may be contaminated by environmental neurotoxicants, such as methylmercury. In the Faroe Islands, where maternal consumption of...... pilot whale may cause transfer of marine toxicants into breast milk, a cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1986-87. Methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and in the hair of the child at age 12 months, and the duration of breastfeeding...

  16. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Elizabeth Ashton; Hardwick, Catherine M.; Marnie K. Rowan; Chia, Elisa S.; Fairclough, Kyle A.; Lalitha L. Menon; Courtney Scott; Georgia Mather-McCaw; Katherine Navarro; Donna T. Geddes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, ...

  17. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  18. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

  19. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Yang, G.; Li, H. L.; Elasy, T; Zheng, W; Shu, X.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between lifetime breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large population-based cohort study of middle-aged women. Methods This was a prospective study of 62,095 middle-aged parous women in Shanghai, China, who had no prior history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment. Breast-feeding history, dietary intake, physical activity and anthropometric measureme...

  20. A STUDY ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL FEEDING FORMULA AMONGST URBAN CHILDREN: A STUDY FROM KATIHAR DISTRICT OF BIHAR

    OpenAIRE

    Prawin; Kashif

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the best way to feed infant and therefore, every effort should be made to promote and protect this salutary traditional practice everywhere. Commercial Feeding Formula (CFF) is liquid or reco nstituted powder fed to infants and growing children. They sometimes serve as substitute for human milk. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our study are to assess the prevalence of the use of CFF among mothers having 6 weeks to 6 months aged ch...

  1. Effect of non-suckling on the pH of breast milk and its possible relationship with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The pH of breast milk was determined in 10 lactating mothers after interrupting suckling from one of the breasts, alternately for 120 hr during the 1st, 12th and the 16th postpartum weeks. The milk from the unsuckled breasts had a slightly higher pH at all three times, being slightly alkaline as compared with the suckled breasts from which the milk was slightly acidic. There were differences also between the three diurnal feeds, the pH being higher in the last diurnal samples. If this tempora...

  2. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em crianças até o sexto mês de idade na cidade de Maringá, estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222 Prevalence of breast-feeding in infants up to six months old, in Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cunha Vituri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O leite materno é o alimento completo para o crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança até o 6 mês de vida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do aleitamento materno na cidade de Maringá (PR até o 6° mês de idade e caracterizar as mães quanto a variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, à assistência pré-natal e natal, às características dos recém-nascidos; verificar a associação do AM exclusivo até o 4° mês com as variáveis e analisar a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, completo e aleitamento materno até o 6° mês. Foi realizado um estudo transversal por meio de inquérito domiciliar, com uma amostra de 373 crianças, através de questionário, para caracterizá-las de acordo com as variáveis e analisar o tipo e a duração do AM até o 6° mês de idade. Também foram estudadas as variáveis associadas ao AM exclusivo até o 4° mês. Na análise da duração do AM, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. A prevalência do AM ao 4 e 6 meses foi respectivamente de 60,3% e 54,9%. Quanto ao AM exclusivo, a prevalência foi de 14,2% e 9,5% aos 4 e 6 meses. Encontramos associação positiva com AM exclusivo no 4° mês às variáveis: situação conjugal com vínculo, recém-nascidos com idade gestacional abaixo de 37 semanas e mães com experiência anterior em amamentação.The maternal milk is the complete food for child's growth and development until the sixth month of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of breast-feeding in Maringá city, state of Paraná (PR until the 6th month and to characterize the mothers regarding social, economical and demographic variables, prenatal and natal assistance, newly born children characteristics. Also, to verify the association of exclusive breast-feeding until the 4th month with the variables and to analyze the duration of the exclusive complete breast-feeding as well as the breast-feeding until the 6th month. A traverse study was

  3. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Monal R.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3 to 5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questio...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG UNDER-3 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN SLUMS OF HUBBALLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.

  5. A study on infant and young child feeding practices among mothers attending an urban health center in East Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Maroof Khan; Priscilla Kayina; Paras Agrawal; Anita Gupta; Anjur Tupil Kannan

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to study the diet pattern of children less than 2 years with regard to certain infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators. A total of 374 children less than 24 months of age coming to the immunization clinic were studied using a standard pretested and prevalidated questionnaire. Exclusive breastfeeding was followed by 57.1% of children under 6 months of age. Minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and minimum acceptable diet were seen ade...

  6. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  7. “It pains me because as a woman you have to breastfeed your baby”: decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Shema; Elford, Jonathan; Tookey, Pat; Anderson, Jane; de Ruiter, Annemiek; O'Connell, Rebecca; Pillen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives UK guidance advises HIV-positive women to abstain from breast feeding. Although this eliminates the risk of postnatal vertical transmission of HIV, the impact of replacement feeding on mothers is often overlooked. This qualitative study examines, for the first time in the UK, decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV. Methods Between 2010 and 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with 23 HIV-positive African women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. We recruited participants from three HIV antenatal clinics in London. Results Women highlighted the cultural importance of breast feeding in African communities and the social pressure to breast feed, also describing fears that replacement feeding would signify their HIV status. Participants had significant concerns about physical and psychological effects of replacement feeding on their child and felt their identity as good mothers was compromised by not breast feeding. However, almost all chose to refrain from breast feeding, driven by the desire to minimise vertical transmission risk. Participants’ resilience was strengthened by financial assistance with replacement feeding, examples of healthy formula-fed children and support from partners, family, peers and professionals. Conclusions The decision to avoid breast feeding came at considerable emotional cost to participants. Professionals should be aware of the difficulties encountered by HIV-positive women in refraining from breast feeding, especially those from migrant African communities where breast feeding is culturally normative. Appropriate financial and emotional support increases women's capacity to adhere to their infant-feeding decisions and may reduce the emotional impact. PMID:26757986

  8. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rwanda's National PMTCT program aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. In November 2010, Rwanda adopted the WHO 2010 ARV guidelines for PMTCT recommending Option B (HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women extended throughout breastfeeding and discontinued (short course-HAART only for those not eligible for life treatment. The current study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of this policy choice. METHODS: Based on a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Rwanda, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of six regimens: dual ARV prophylaxis with either 12 months breastfeeding or replacement feeding; short course HAART (Sc-HAART prophylaxis with either 6 months breastfeeding, 12 months breastfeeding, or 18 months breastfeeding; and Sc-HAART prophylaxis with replacement feeding. Direct costs were modelled based on all inputs in each scenario and related unit costs. Effectiveness was evaluated by measuring HIV-free survival at 18 months. Savings correspond to the lifetime costs of HIV treatment and care avoided as a result of all vertical HIV infections averted. RESULTS: All PMTCT scenarios considered are cost saving compared to "no intervention." Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding or 6 months breastfeeding dominate all other scenarios. Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding allows for more children to be alive and HIV-uninfected by 18 months than Sc-HAART with 6 months breastfeeding for an incremental cost per child alive and uninfected of 11,882 USD. This conclusion is sensitive to changes in the relative risk of mortality by 18 months for exposed HIV-uninfected children on replacement feeding from birth and those who were breastfed for only 6 months compared to those breastfeeding for 12 months or more. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the earlier decision by Rwanda to adopt WHO Option B and could inform alternatives for breastfeeding duration. Local contexts and existing care delivery models should

  9. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice to...

  10. A study on infant and young child feeding practices among mothers attending an urban health center in East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Maroof Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to study the diet pattern of children less than 2 years with regard to certain infant and young child feeding (IYCF indicators. A total of 374 children less than 24 months of age coming to the immunization clinic were studied using a standard pretested and prevalidated questionnaire. Exclusive breastfeeding was followed by 57.1% of children under 6 months of age. Minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and minimum acceptable diet were seen adequate in 32.6%, 48.6%, and 19.7% of children between 6 months and 2 years of age, respectively.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  12. Demographic Factors and Determinants of Physical Activity and Breast Feeding Practices During Puerperium in Saudi Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia, Zaheera

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This cross-sectional study describes the practice of different myths regarding newborns and maternal physical activity among Saudi women during puerperium. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at Mother and Child Hospital, Buraidah from January to December 2011. Results: The multinomial logistic regression (MRA) on age, education, occupation, parity and mode of delivery was statistically significant (χ2 (60) = 487.656, p < .001). Individuals who were between 25 and 30, had educa...

  13. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  14. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  15. Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman Bernice L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay considers how "choice" operates in the history of reproductive rights, shifting the discourse from a rights-based set of arguments to...

  16. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Camilia R.; Pei-Ra Ling; Blackburn, George L

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritio...

  17. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    H Boskabadi; Godarzi, M; M Zakerihamidi; F. Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional...

  18. Perfil e fatores asssociados ao aleitamentamento materno em crianças menores de 25 meses da Região Nordeste do Brasil Breast-feeding: profile and associated factors in children under 25 months of age in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciana Maria de Lima

    2003-09-01

    percentages were respectively 64,7% and 54,4%. Median length of breast-feeding was higher in children from rural areas, older mothers and in children who were not on bottles. CONCLUSIONS: breast-feeding is still far from the World Health Organization recommendations; therefore, encouragement and support to breast-feeding need to be intensified. Factors influencing breast-feeding should be considered in the attempt to increase breast-feeding.

  19. Calculation of radiation dose to infants from radioactive breast milk and suspensions necessary to constrain dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For nuclear medicine patients who are breast feeding an infant, special radiation safety precautions may need to be taken. An estimate of the potential radiation dose to the child from ingested milk must be made, and breast-feeding may need to be suspended until levels of radioactivity in the breast-milk have fallen to acceptable levels. The risk of radiation to the child must be weighed against the benefits of breast-feeding and the possible trauma to both mother and child arising from interruption or cessation of the milk supply. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has already published regulations which will necessitate an estimate of the infant's dose from breast milk to be made, in principle, for every breast-feeding patient. There is obviously, therefore, a need to provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating such doses. A spreadsheet template which automatically calculates the cumulative dose to breast feeding infants based on any multi-exponential clearance of activity from the breast milk, and any pattern of feeding, has been developed by the authors. The time (post administration) for which breast-feeding should be interrupted in order to constrain the radiation dose to a selected limit is also calculated along with the concentration of activity in breast milk at which feeding can resume. The effect of changing dose limits, feeding patterns and using individually derived breast milk clearance rates may be readily modelled using this spreadsheet template. Data has been included for many of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals and new data can readily be incorporated as it becomes available. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Aspectos históricos, científicos, socioeconômicos e institucionais do aleitamento materno Historical, scientific, sócio-economic and institutional aspects of maternal breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Costa Caminha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As fontes bibliográficas pesquisadas para esta revisão foram artigos publicados em revistas científicas indexadas, livros, documentos da Organização Mundial da Saúde, Ministério da Saúde e relatórios estaduais e nacionais relacionados à prevalência e medidas de promoção do aleitamento materno. Foi utilizada a base de dados PubMed abrangendo o período de 1952 a 2008. Outros artigos foram identificados em decorrência de citações bibliográficas nas fontes de informações previamente consultadas. Esta pesquisa abrangeu os aspectos históricos relacionados ao aleitamento materno, as evidências científicas de efeitos a curto e longo prazos, fatores associados, modalidades, duração e prevalência do aleitamento materno. Concluiu-se que, apesar da importância amplamente reconhecida dessa prática para mãe, filho, família, comunidade e Estado, e de todas as ações realizadas para promoção, proteção e apoio ao aleitamento materno, os resultados demonstraram que o cumprimento das metas e recomendações internacionais ainda denotam situações insatisfatórias.The bibliographical sources consulted were articles published in indexed scientific reviews, books, documents from the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Ministry of Health and national and State reports on the prevalence of and measures taken to promote maternal breast feeding. The data base used was PubMed and the period covered was 1952 - 2008. Other articles were identified from bibliographical references in the aforementioned sources of information. The present study deals with historical aspects of maternal breast feeding, scientific evidence of the short-and long-term effects, the factors associated with breastfeeding, the various methods employed, its duration and prevalence. It is concluded that, although the importance of this practice for the mother, child, family, community and the state is already well-known and despite the many efforts to promote

  1. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  2. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Hunter; Georg’ann Cattelona

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Chil...

  3. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  4. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  5. Determining the Efficient Structure of Feed-Forward Neural Network to Classify Breast Cancer Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khalid; Noureldien A. Noureldien

    2014-01-01

    Classification is one of the most frequently encountered problems in data mining. A classification problem occurs when an object needs to be assigned in predefined classes based on a number of observed attributes related to that object. Neural networks have emerged as one of the tools that can handle the classification problem. Feed-forward Neural Networks (FNN's) have been widely applied in many different fields as a classification tool. Designing an efficient FNN structure with optimum numb...

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  7. Risk of developing atopic disease after early feeding with cows' milk based formula.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Gustafsson; Löwhagen, T; Andersson, K.

    1992-01-01

    A follow up of a cohort of 736 healthy full term children with exposure to cows' milk based formula and breast milk from donors on the maternity ward was performed. The children were divided into three exposure groups according to the feeding patterns on the maternity ward. Group 1 received only mother's milk, group 2 mother's milk and human donors' milk, and group 3 received mother's milk, donors' milk and cows' milk based formula. The children were investigated at 7 years of age, by examini...

  8. HBV携带产妇的血清及乳汁HBV-DNA载量的差异与母乳喂养安全性的研究%Load of HBV DNA in serum and breast milk of HBV carried mother and safety of breast-fed infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 王兆荃; 赵桂珍; 梁争论; 王心竹

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨HBV携带产妇的血清、乳汁中HBV-DNA不同裁量与实施母乳喂养安全性的关系及对母婴传播阻断效果的影响.方法 应用荧光定量聚合酶链反应和酶免疫测定(EIA)技术对91例HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇血清、乳汁及婴儿24月龄血标本进行HBV-DNA定量和HBVM检测.32例婴儿采用母乳喂养,59例采用人工喂养.对两种喂养方式的婴儿做3(T3)、9(T9)、12(T12)、24(T24)个月追踪检测观察.结果 HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇的血清、乳汁中HBV-DNA阳性率为100%、49.45%(P<0.005),HBV-DNA平均含量(拷贝数/毫升的对数,(-x)±s)为(7.43±1.81)、(4.02±1.01);初乳HBV-DNA的检出率随母血HBV-DNA载量的增加而增加,两者呈正相关.母乳和人工两种方式喂养的婴儿HBV感染率为15.63%和13.56%,统计学处理X2=0.022,P>0.05差异无显著性;母乳喂养组抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)明显高于人工喂养组;发生HBV-DNA感染的13例婴儿T24血标本HBV-DNA载量为(3.24±0.23).结论 HBsAg、HBeAg双阳性产妇血清HBV-DNA载量大于109cps/mL的婴儿是母婴传播的高危易感人群.HBV感染的婴儿HBV-DNA水平较低,病毒载量<104cps/mL.乳汁HBV-DNA阳性率和病毒载量明显低于血清,HBV携带产妇的婴儿接受正规乙肝基因工程疫苗(Hbice)全程免疫或Hbice和HBIG(乙肝免疫球蛋白)的主、被动联合免疫后,母乳喂养不影响母婴传播阻断效果,母乳喂养有助于提高婴儿抗-HBs的GMT水平.%[Objective]To investigate the relationship between the load of HBV-DNA in serum and breast milk of pregnant women carrying HBV and the safety of breast-feeding and to explore the blocking effect on the mother-infant transmission of HBV.[Methods]Content of HBV-DNA and/or HBVM in serum and breast milk specimens of 91 pregnant women with positive HBsAg and HBeAg and in serum specimens of their 24 month old infants were detected by Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RQ-PCR)and/or EIA at

  9. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  10. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013–01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  11. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours. PMID:21699714

  12. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  13. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  14. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  15. Post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevalence among breast-fed infants in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is an established mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection resulting in clash between socio-cultural values and medical practice. Aims: This study aims to determine the effect of post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy on transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Patients and Methods: A total of 318 pregnant women were followed from pregnancy to 6 months post- partum. The women were divided into breast-fed and those who did not breast-feed, while the breast-fed were further divided into those on antiretroviral (ARV and those not on ARV. After 6 months post-partum, dried blood spots were collected from infants born to these women and tested for HIV using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Generally, breast-feeding had 4 to 13 fold increase risk of transmission of HIV to infants (OR =7.079 95% CI = 3.768, 13.300; P <0.0001. However, among breast-fed infants, post-natal maternal ARV resulted in reduced prevalence of HIV compared to mothers who did not use ARV during breast-feeding (17.31% VS 92.00%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of post-natal maternal ARV. However, research into better feeding options to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV via breast-feeding is advocated.

  16. Post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevalence among breast-fed infants in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Imade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is an established mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection resulting in clash between socio-cultural values and medical practice. Aims: This study aims to determine the effect of post-natal maternal antiretroviral therapy on transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Patients and Methods: A total of 318 pregnant women were followed from pregnancy to 6 months post- partum. The women were divided into breast-fed and those who did not breast-feed, while the breast-fed were further divided into those on antiretroviral (ARV and those not on ARV. After 6 months post-partum, dried blood spots were collected from infants born to these women and tested for HIV using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Generally, breast-feeding had 4 to 13 fold increase risk of transmission of HIV to infants (OR =7.079 95% CI = 3.768, 13.300; P <0.0001. However, among breast-fed infants, post-natal maternal ARV resulted in reduced prevalence of HIV compared to mothers who did not use ARV during breast-feeding (17.31% v.s 92.00%; P<0.0001. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of post–natal maternal ARV. However, research into better feeding options to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV via breast-feeding is advocated.

  17. [Antibiotics during pregnancy and breast feeding: consequences for the treatment of respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léophonte, P

    1988-01-01

    Respiratory infections are the second most frequent cause for antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy, after genito-urinary infections. Overall, antibiotics are relatively innocuous. The following should be avoided: the tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, metronidazole and the quinolones. Aminoglycosides should be administered controlling the plasma level. The beta-lactones (principally the penicillins) and the macrolides sold in France, are without any danger. Nevertheless, the rise in distribution volume and the overall physiological changes which accompany the developing pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester lead to a diminution in the serum concentration of these antibiotics and imply an adaptation, often a doubling, of the therapeutic dose administered. From the epidemiological data concerning the organisms involved in the respiratory infections, nearly the totality of extra-hospital infections may be cured by macrolides or penicillins (ampicillin). During more serious infections (nosocomial, or the immuno-depressed) the maternal prognosis should take precedence, adjusting the antibiotic to the organism, before the toxic risk to the child. All the antibiotics are excreted in the mother milk, but in very small quantities; they are generally destroyed in the digestive tract of the child so that the risk of any secondary effect during lactation is minimal. PMID:3041503

  18. Preliminary Observations on Safety of Children Whose Mother Use Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate During Lactation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小菲; 雷贞武; 袁晓蓉; 杜桂来; 李梅; 赵玉琼; 刘光海; 吴尚纯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of the children breast-fed by the mothers receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) during lactation Methods A total of 180 children were divided into two groups. The children in the experimental group (n= 90) included those whose mothers were given DMPA injection during lactation while mothers of the children in the control group (n = 90), at the same time, did not use DMPA. The body weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral adaptation of children in the two groups were measured and compared.Results There were no significant differences (P> 0. 05) in the body weight, height,head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral in two groups.Conclusion DMPA can be safely used in breast-feeding women without harmful effects on physical and intellectual developments and behavioral adaptation of their offspring.

  19. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  20. Analysis of factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior%产妇哺乳行为的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 周晓梅; 侯桂芝; 齐建林; 董燕; 吴程曦

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨产妇哺乳行为的影响因素,以便有针对性地解决临床母乳喂养存在的问题.方法 2003-2008年来我院接受产后常规检查的妇女99名,接受检测时间为产后42 d,采用SCL-90评价孕妇的情绪.按中国常模划分,总分>160分或阳性项目数>43项,或任一因子分>2分为阳性,按SCL-90检测结果分成阳性组与阴性组,比较两组间哺乳行为的差异.同时填写产妇产后情况调查表.结果 受访的99例产妇中,共有26例(26.3%)采用母乳喂养;心理检测阳性组的母乳喂养率低于心理检测阴性组(x2=6.41,P<0.01);产妇哺乳行为与产妇的生产方式、婴儿排便和产妇对待婴儿哭闹的方式因素进入了回归方程,说明不同的生产方式、产妇对待哭闹婴儿的方式、婴儿排便情况与产妇的哺乳行为相互影响.结论 哺乳行为和产妇心理以及情绪状态存在联系.对长期有负性情绪体验的产妇给予必要的心理支持,建立良好的哺乳行为可降低心理应激、促进婴儿发育,增进亲子关系,有效的提高母乳喂养率.%Objective To analyze the factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior and to solve the problems existing in clinical maternal breast-feeding. Methods A total of 99 postpartum women were psychologically tested during routine examination on their postpartum 42nd day in 2003 through 2008. Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to evaluate the mood of the women. According to Chinese norm, total score > 60, or positive item number > 43, or any item score > 2, was defined as positive and divided into positive group and negative group according to the SCL-90 results, the difference of breast-feeding behavior was compared between two groups. Results As for breast-feeding, 26 of the 99 ones (26. 3% ) experienced breast-feeding. The breastfeeding rate was lower in SCL-90 positive group than in SCL-90 negative group (χ2 =6.41, P < 0. 01 ) . Such factors as maternal

  1. Effects of feeding metabolite combinations from lactobacillus plantarum on plasma and breast meat lipids in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Loh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456 on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control; (ii standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control; (iii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456; (iv standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria.

  2. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples

  3. Infant-feeding practices in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, N A; el-Sabban, F F

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted to study the practices of infant-feeding and the influencing factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. It involved 375 mothers of different nationalities and backgrounds and 300 healthy infants. The mothers were interviewed at four primary health care clinics in Al-Ain. Results showed that 46% of infants were breastfed for 4-6 months. The mother's nationality and her educational status were significant influences on the mother's decision to exclusively breast-feed the infant, for how long and when to introduce supplementary food. Fresh cow and goat milk were the most common supplements. Inclusion of baby formula as a supplement generally occurred early, perhaps because of advertising and the affluence in Al-Ain. PMID:10793786

  4. Anemia no primeiro ano de vida em relação ao aleitamento materno Anemia in the first year of life and its relation to the breast-feeding

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    Sonia Buongermino de Souza

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Resultados de vários estudos permitem levantar a hipótese de que a existência de anemia no primeiro ano de vida tenha como causa, entre outras, o desmame precoce. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a prevalência da anemia e sua relação com o tempo de aleitamento materno, em crianças de até um ano de idade. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudou-se uma amostra de 317 crianças a partir da demanda de quatro Centros de Saúde Escola do Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As informações sobre alimentação foram obtidas em entrevista com as mães. A presença de anemia foi verificada pela concentração de hemoglobina, usando-se o método da cianometa-hemoglobina e o critério recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS para seu diagnóstico. Para determinar a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo utilizou-se a técnica da tábua de vida para dados censurados. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se a prevalência de anemia de 14,5% entre toda a população e 22,6% entre as crianças maiores de 180 dias. Não foi encontrada associação entre anemia e duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, cujo tempo mediano foi o mesmo para anêmicos e não anêmicos. COMENTÁRIOS: O resultado verificado deve-se, provavelmente, às características da população estudada e não invalida a importância do aleitamento materno exclusivo na prevenção da anemia.INTRODUCTION: Many studies in this field justify the hypothesis that early weaning is one of the causes of anemia in the first year of life. This study seeks to discover the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and its relation to the duration of breast-feeding among infants aged 0-12 months. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A sample of 317 infants of four school health centers in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil was studied. The information about diet was obtained by interviewing the mothers. The presence of anemia was verified by hemoglobin concentration, using the cianometahemoglobin method

  5. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the knowledge , attitude and practices of infant feeding and , to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among women in rural area of West Bengal , India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted on mothers of childr en less than two year of age attending the outpatient department of Malda Medical College and Hospital , a rural medical college in Eastern India. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed who were randomly selected. A structured , pretested and predesigned qu estionnaire was used to collect information on the socio - demographic profile and infant feeding practice. RESULTS : Mothers of male children were 65% and female children were 35%. 44% were literate upto middle school and 28% with primary education. 14% mothe rs were illiterate. 52% of mothers had the knowledge about initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour of birth whereas only 28% practiced it. 80% mothers had the knowledge of exclusive breast feeding but only 60% practiced it. 24% of infants had received p relacteal feeds and only 2% breast fed upto 24 months. CONCLUSIONS : Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding , awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. Creating an awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding will strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid early introduction of complementary foods for socio - cultural

  6. Infant feeding practices: the case of Hmong women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2002-01-01

    I discuss infant feeding beliefs and practices among Hmong women in Melbourne, focusing particularly on changed patterns that have occurred since their settlement in Australia. Traditionally, Hmong women breastfeed their newborn infants. Most women can breastfeed successfully in their homeland. However, since their settlement in a new country, some women have changed to bottlefeeding. Reasons given include the need to study English and seek employment, the availability of infant formula, insufficient milk, and their concern about the health and well-being of the infants. Hmong women either choose breast- or bottlefeeding based on what they think is best for their babies; their clear intention is to have children who will be healthy and thrive. Understanding of women's beliefs and practices relating to feeding is essential in creating a breastfeeding campaign. More importantly, the information will assist health professionals to support mothers in their choice of a feeding method, whether it be breast or bottle. PMID:11822558

  7. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Churl Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  8. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P Analysis (IPA) program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE) in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules) predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit), progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen activated protein kinase 4, and serum response factor would be inhibited in the high FE phenotype. The results provide additional insight into the fundamental molecular landscape of feed efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013-01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  9. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  10. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  11. Mother-infant interactions and hospital conditions related to the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to optimize the clinical practice of phototherapy, the effect of phototherapy on the contact between mother and child was investigated. 88 mothers were interviewed and asked questions related to the hospital conditions after delivery and the development of contact between mother and child. About 10% of the children had received phototherapy, while 34% had variable degrees of hyperbilirubinemia the first week after birth. In this limited study, few significant effects on factors as the duration and frequency of breast feeding were found. Apparently there is a tendency of lower score on the latter in groups reporting a feeling of unwanted separation after birth. Phototherapy leads in some cases to a feeling of less than optimal contact between mother and child. 6 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Coupled mother-child model for bioaccumulation of POPs in nursing infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) leads to high levels in human milk and high doses of POPs for nursing infants. This is currently not considered in chemical risk assessment. A coupled model for bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in breast-feeding mother and nursing infant was developed and tested for a series of organic compounds. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mother, breast milk and child were predicted to vary with log KOW and, for volatile compounds, with KAW and concentration in air. The concentrations of POPs in the infant body increase the first half year to about factor 3 above mother and decline thereafter to lower levels. The predicted results are close to empirical data and to an empirical regression. The new mother-child model is compact due to its easy structure and the analytical matrix solution. It could be added to existing exposure and risk assessment systems, such as EUSES. - This paper addresses a model for accumulation of organic compounds by mother and breast-fed infant, applicable for exposure assessment within larger frameworks

  13. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

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    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  14. Lactancia materna en bebés pretérminos: cuidados centrados en el desarrollo en el contexto palestino Breast feeding in premature babies: development-centered care in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Aguilar Cordero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El contacto precoz piel a piel provee beneficios para la madre y para el bebé, además de tener un papel importante en el establecimiento de la lactancia materna. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue informar a las madres de bebés pretérmino sobre la importancia del contacto piel con piel para la implantación de la lactancia materna y para un mejor vínculo entre ellos (cuidados centrados en el desarrollo CCD. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte, prospectivo, en varios Hospitales de Cisjordania en Palestina, en el período de tiempo comprendido entre 2008 y 2011. El universo lo constituyó una estimación de un promedio de 2.500 partos anuales en cada hospital. Se determinó una población muestral de n = 252. Todos los recién nacidos tenían una edad gestacional inferior a 37 semanas y un peso inferior a 2.500 gramos y, por problemas de salud, fueron ingresados en unidades de encamación neonatal. Resultados: Este estudio ha puesto de manifiesto que en Palestina las mujeres jóvenes practican el contacto piel con piel y la lactancia materna con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres mayores; una vez informada de sus ventajas, muestran mayor interés en aprender los cuidados de sus bebés en las propias unidades de encamación neonatal. Conclusiones: La aplicación del contacto piel a piel (CCD y la lactancia en bebés pretérmino ha sido posible mediante información e instrucción a las madres. Este estudio ha tenido una gran repercusión y ha sido muy bien aceptado por la población femenina. No existían estudios similares en ningún hospital de Palestina.In addition to its important role in the initiation of breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact benefits both mothers and their babies. Objective: To inform all mothers of premature babies about the importance of skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding in order to foment a closer bond between mother and child (development-centered care. Materials and method: A

  15. Aleitamento materno ou artificial: práticas ao sabor do contexto. Brasil (1960-1988 The artificial milk feeding or breast feeding: context dependant practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo a análise do discurso sobre o aleitamento, no período de 1960-1988, no Brasil, em reportagens veiculadas em revistas femininas de grande circulação no País. O estudo é centrado na área de História, especialmente na história da alimentação, com uma abordagem interdisciplinar. O período inicial - 1960 - está vinculado com o final do governo de Juscelino Kubitschek, em que a economia, liderada pelo setor industrial, cresceu em termos relativos e absolutos. O período final - 1988 - caracteriza a aprovação da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes (NBCAL, que restringiu a ação do marketing do leite em pó. A mudança nos enunciados dos discursos foi uma característica evidenciada. No período em que se apregoava o aleitamento artificial, o enunciado principal dos discursos foi a condição feminina, a valorização da mulher e o seu direito à liberdade. Com o retorno do incentivo ao aleitamento materno, os discursos foram radicais na defesa dessa prática, minimizando as dificuldades enfrentadas pela mulher em seu cotidiano.The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period - 1960 - is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek's Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period - 1988 - characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women's condition, women's valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the

  16. A STUDY ON FEEDING PRACTICES OF INFANTS IN THE FIELD PRACTICING AREA OF RURAL HEALTH TRAINING CENTER, SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : BACK GROUND: Good nutrition is essential for growth, development and survival of infants. Objective: To study knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among rural mothers. To identify factors associated with growth and morbidity among infants. METHODOLOGY: Community based cross sectional study which was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012.Rural mothers were selected by simple random sampling method and interviewed using pretested questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data was analyzed by means, proportions, percentages and chi-square test. Pbreast fed. In 41% of infants weaning was started at 9 to 12 months. Only 20% infants were normal and 52.7% were with grade-1 malnutrition. 20.7% mothers were boiling utensils which were used for infant feeding.96.7% mothers told breast feeding was best for babies.38.7% mothers were not aware that colostrum given in first hour would reduce infant mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Awareness must be generated among mothers regarding infant feeding and better living conditions through health education. Health workers should provide it at grass root levels

  17. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  18. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Muhammad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.

  19. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

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    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  20. Impact of media health campaign for primary health care among mothers in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care (i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices, modes of spread of hepatitis B, C, and HIV) among mothers with children under five years of age in an urban and a rural area of Karachi and changes in the same after community-based health education The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase 600 mothers with children under five years of age were selected at random (300 urban and 300 rural) for the evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices and modes of spread of Hepatitis B, C and HIV. In the second phase, health education on the same components of primary health care was given by lady health workers of the area to the same community for one month. Data of 200 mothers (100 urban and 100 rural) was re-evaluated after three months, to find out if there was any change, in the same. All the three areas were given scores and grade. In this study, 58% were Sindhi speaking. The mean age of mothers was 29 years. Majority (91% urban and 45% rural mothers) had access to one or more media channels. The knowledge of media-based primary health care was poor (score=10.09) among all mothers but attitude (score=8.07) and practice (score=11.09) was good for the same in more than 70% mothers in both communities. In the second phase of the study, it was found that the knowledge of primary health care had not improved but attitude and practice was good as observed earlier in both communities. Despite the national media based health education of Primary Health Care for decades, knowledge of primary health care was poor among mothers (urban and rural) but attitude and practice was good. Age and exposure to one or more media channels was found

  1. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

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    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  2. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in one breast only) diagnosed after age 50 Grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 75 Get ... breast cancer diagnosed at age 45 and paternal grandmother (father’s mother) with breast cancer diagnosed at age ...

  3. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  4. Infant-feeding practices in urban and rural communities of the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bushra, H M; Salih, M A; Satti, S A; Ahmed, M el F; Kamil, I A

    1994-01-01

    Infant-feeding and weaning practices were investigated in a multistage randomly selected sample of 1,039 Sudanese mothers who represented six of the nine States of the Sudan. The majority (77.9%) believed that breast milk was best for their babies, emphasizing the previously reported high breast-feeding rate in Sudanese mothers. Food supplementation started by 6 months in 82.5% mainly in urban middle and high classes (UMC and UHC) compared to urban poor class (UPC) and the rural group (RG; p fresh goat's or cow's milk (77.6%), followed by powdered or formula milk (16.1%). The commonest second preferred food was a starch gruel (39.1%) made either of rice (24.5%) or fermented sorghum. PMID:7855919

  5. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  6. Micronutrient status in lactating mothers before and after introduction of fortified flour: cross-sectional surveys in Maela refugee camp

    OpenAIRE

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena Ilona; McGready, Rose; Lee, Sue Jean; Erhardt, Juergen Georg; Breuer, Joern; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Nosten, François Henry

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficiency of micronutrients is common in refugee populations. Objectives Identify deficiencies and whether provided supplements and wheat flour fortified with 10 micronutrients impacts upon status among breast-feeding women from Maela refugee camp. Methods Two sequential cross-sectional studies were conducted in different groups of lactating mothers at 12 weeks postpartum. The first survey was before and the second 4–5 months after micronutrient fortified flour (MFF) had been prov...

  7. Whose Breasts are They Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Spencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available I have been conducting qualitative breastfeeding research regarding the experiences of African American families who have parented breastfed children. One comment has been stated over and over again in response to questions regarding perceived challenges with breastfeeding, “My breasts belong to my baby now and my husband will get them back after weaning,” or fathers have said, “It is an adjustment to have to share her breasts with my child.” I also frequently hear these comments in clinical practice as well, and not just from African American parents. As a lactation consultant and breastfeeding advocate I find these comments frustrating. In fact, the more I hear them the more bothered I become. My emotional response and the increasing frequency with which I hear these statements warrant discussion and inquiry. Why are women so disassociated from their breasts? Why do men claim ownership of women’s breasts? When women and men make comments about the ownership of lactating breasts the comments are usually followed by nervous or uncomfortable laughter. As clinicians how should we respond? Let me clarify that by clinicians I am referring to nurses, physicians, dieticians, public health professionals, or anyone who provides professional support to breastfeeding families. The medical community has centrally situated breastfeeding in a medical context. We encourage women to breastfeed their children because of the numerous health benefits of breastmilk; but breastfeeding is experienced in a social and cultural context[1]. Incidents of breastfeeding mothers who are scorned for feeding their children in public places are reported frequently on local and national news outlets. This public outcry is a testament of American cultural views that breastfeeding is an unacceptable practice that should occur only in private spaces. As clinicians I would argue that some of us are very skilled at teaching women about the mechanics of breastfeeding, but

  8. Anthropological and psychoanalytical observation: theoretical and methodological dialogues in a doctorate programme in mother and child health Observação antropológica e psicanalítica: diálogos teórico-metodológicos num programa de doutorado em saúde materno infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Amorim Sampaio; Ana Rodrigues Falbo; Katia Virginia de O. Feliciano; Maria do Carmo Camarotti; Michael Rustin; Lisa Miller

    2012-01-01

    Participant observation can vary considerably depending on the theoretical inspiration, nature/design of the research and relationship researcher-subjects. In the ethnographic study developed in Brazil (July 2009 - August 2010), among other techniques used, Bick's observation (rooted in psychoanalysis) was introduced and adapted. The aim was to understand processes involved in the communication between professionals at a Family Health Strategy and mothers/dyads (mother-baby) about breast feed...

  9. [Breast is best--human milk for premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Bader, David

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition for preterm babies is aimed at achieving expected intrauterine growth and accretion of nutrients. Early trophic feedings should be started as soon as possible for gastrointestinal priming. Mother's (breast) milk is the best food for preterm babies. Its advantages are in host defence, nutritional components and suitability for gut absorption, as well as its psychological and developmental value. The limitations of human milk for preterm babies, mainly in protein and minerals, can be compensated for by using powdered human milk fortifier. Sucking skills usually mature around 34 weeks, corrected gestational age. Thus, small preemies are initially fed by orogastric tubes, meaning that expressed breast milk is used. Support of lactation in mothers of preemies mandates protection of the mother and child bonding process and early skin to skin contact ("kangeroo care"). Methods for storage of expressed breast milk and the recommended length of storage are discussed. Milk bank mandates pasteurization and freezing of the donors' milk. Most of the nutritional and immunological advantages of human milk are preserved after such treatments. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants, that were acquired from mother's expressed breast milk, are not uncommon, and require further attention. PMID:12696478

  10. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  11. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  12. Poisonous milk and sinful mothers: the changing meaning of breastfeeding in the wake of the HIV epidemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international guidelines. This study aimed at exploring infant feeding choices and how breastfeeding and the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding was interpreted among HIV positive mothers and their counselors in PMTCT programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the PMTCT clinics in two governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using qualitative interviews and participant observation. Twenty two HIV positive mothers and ten health professionals working in PMTCT clinics were interviewed. Results The study revealed that HIV positive mothers have developed an immense fear of breast milk which is out of proportion compared to the evidence of risk of transmission documented. The fear is expressed through avoidance of breastfeeding or, if no other choice is available, through an intense unease with the breastfeeding situation, and through expressions of sin, guilt, blame and regret. Health professionals working in the PMTCT programs seemed to largely share the fear of HIV positive mother's breast milk, and their anxiety was reflected in the counseling services they provided. Formula feeding was the preferred infant feeding method, and was chosen also by HIV positive women who had to beg in the streets for survival. Conclusions The fear of breast milk that seems to have developed among counselors and HIV positive mothers in the wake of the HIV epidemic may challenge a well established breastfeeding culture and calls for public health

  13. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  14. The study of association between mother weight efficacy life-style with feeding practices, food groups intake and body mass index in children aged 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child′s intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.

  15. Mother Knows Best: Occurrence and Associations of Resighted Humpback Whales Suggest Maternally Derived Fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere Coastal Feeding Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Barendse, Jaco; Best, Peter B.; Carvalho, Inês; Pomilla, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins) and/or molecul...

  16. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children . 1 This study is being done to know about the feeding practices, nutritional sta tus, anaemia prevalence in children residing in rural areas of Puducherry. OBJECTIVES : 1. To study feeding practices, nutritional status, prevalence of anemia in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. 2. Influence of feeding practices on nutritional stat us and hemoglobin levels. METHODS : This is a hospital based prospective study done for a period of 1yr. The study included 200 children from 1 month to 2 years of age. Patients from rural areas of Puducherry nearing Tamil Nadu border and people from adjoi ning rural areas of Tamil Nadu come to our hospital. A questionnaire is provided to parents/guardians of children asking about feeding practices . Participants weight in kilograms and length in centimeters are measured. Blood samples are drawn from participants for the estimation of hemoglobin levels. Peripheral smear study will be done if hemoglobin level is less than 11 gram/dl. Observations are tabulated. RESULTS : 85 % children under study were initiated feed according to guidelines and 15 % were not initiated. 54% children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 46% children were not exclusively breast fed. 54% children were given complementary feeds after the age of 6 months. 70% had normal weight for length, 12% were moderately wasted, 18% children were severely wasted, 86% children were anemic and 14% children were not anemic. CONCLUSION : 1 . The study shows the effect of feeding practices on the

  17. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  18. Women Literacy and Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS Block of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Sanjeev , Davey Anuradha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding practices have significant effect on the child nutrition, which largely dependent upon the mothers correct knowledge and awareness for the same. Objective: To find out effect of rural women empowerment through literacy on infant feeding practices in an ICDS block. Material and Methodology: Interview of the mothers of registered children up to 6 years in the rural ICDS block for the feeding practices and recording of the weight of those registered children by the salter weighing scale for their nutritional status. Results: Three fourth of the children had received ceremonial feed in the form of honey or gutti and 40 percent of the mothers in our study has discarded colostrums, considering it as ‘bad milk’. Exclusive breast feeding was received by 34.6% children. As literacy level of mothers increased the nutritional status of children was better. This could be because most of the women who are middle school passed or above are non working, so are able to give more time for care and feeding practices. The Severe malnutrition (grade III and IV was evident only in illiterate category of mothers, where 58.7% women were working in unskilled or semiskilled job outside home. Conclusion: Women living in chronic hunger are forced to unskilled jobs for income generation for the family, thereby influencing the feeding practices of their children. In such scenario AWCs and AWWs can be a unique opportunity with their focused approach to take care of severe and moderate malnutrition.

  19. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  20. Aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios em respiradores orais e nasais Breast-feeding and deleterious oral habits in mouth and nose breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Vitaliano Voi Trawitzki

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A amamentação promove vários benefícios na criança, entre eles o favorecimento da respiração nasal. Neste estudo verificou-se a relação do padrão respiratório com o histórico de aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A população foi constituída por 62 crianças, de 3 anos e 3 meses a 6 anos e 11 meses, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação otorrinolaringológica, para definição dos grupos respiradores nasais e orais e entrevista fonoaudiológica. A avaliação otorrinolaringológica constituiu-se dos seguintes exames: rinoscopia anterior, oroscopia e exame radiológico. Os pais das crianças foram questionados em relação à forma (natural e/ou artificial, e ao período de aleitamento, além da presença de hábitos orais deletérios (sucção e mordida. O teste Exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparar os grupos em relação à presença ou ausência de hábitos e diferentes períodos de aleitamento. RESULTADOS: O período de aleitamento materno foi maior nos respiradores nasais concentrando-se no período de 3 a 6 meses de idade. Quanto ao uso de mamadeira, os resultados mostraram que a maioria das crianças de ambos os grupos utilizou-se deste tipo de aleitamento nos primeiros anos de vida, não apresentando diferença estatística entre os grupos (p=0.58. A presença de hábitos orais deletérios ocorreu de maneira marcante nos respiradores orais, evidenciando diferença estatisticamente significativa, entre os grupos, para os hábitos de sucção (p=0.004 e hábitos de mordida (p=0.0002. CONCLUSÃO: As crianças respiradoras orais apresentaram um menor período de aleitamento materno e um histórico de hábitos orais presentes comparadas às crianças respiradoras nasais.AIM: Breast-feeding promotes several benefits in childhood, among them favoring the nasal breathing. In the present study, the relationship between breathing pattern

  1. A Study on the Anthropometric Measures, Breast feeding and Nutrition Status of Children of 0 36 Months Living in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    ŞANLIER, Nevin; AYTEKİN, Fulya

    2004-01-01

    Various diseases can be prevented at an early period by using anthropometric measures to determine undernourishment and malnutrition and to follow growth in children. This study was planned and implemented to examine the physical development of children of 0-3 ages. 679 children applying to 15 Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Centers and District Health Centers in different quarters of Ankara were studied. Midwives and nurses working in these centers properly measured heights ...

  2. IAEA initiatives in body composition and breast milk determination: Examples from Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labeled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed to estimate breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers beneficiary of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which use a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR).In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired-women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. The results that came out from the both studies have shown that after three months of the supplementary feeding programme: 1. There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg ± 4) vs (37Kg ± 4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal. 2. Breast Milk volume increases significantly in Ghana's study (1050ml ± 280) vs (850ml ± 150). In However, in Senegal, milk output was not significantly improved by the

  3. Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausman Bernice L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay considers how "choice" operates in the history of reproductive rights, shifting the discourse from a rights-based set of arguments to one based on a consumerist mentality. Utilizing the work of historian Rickie Solinger and a 2007 paper for the National Bureau of Labor Statistics, I argue that the structure of market work, and not abstract maternal decision making, determine mothers' choices and practices concerning infant feeding. For true freedoms for mothers to be achieved, freedoms that would include greater social provisions for mothers, our culture will have to confront how structural constraints make breastfeeding difficult, as well as how the concept of choice divides mothers into those who make good choices and those who do not.

  4. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-05-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs. PMID:26940746

  5. The influence of infant feeding attitudes on breastfeeding duration: evidence from a cohort study in rural Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Kylee N.; Giglia, Roslyn C.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for infants in the first six months of life. Promoting and protecting breastfeeding is reflected in public health policy across the globe, but breastfeeding rates in both developing and industrialised countries continue to demonstrate that few mothers meet these recommendations. In addition to sociodemographic factors such as age, education and income, modifiable factors such as maternal infant feeding attitudes have been shown to infl...

  6. Management of lactational mastitis and breast abscesses: review of current knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Srivastava, Anurag; Dhar, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Most breast abscesses develops as a complication of lactational mastitis. The incidence of breast abscess ranges from 0.4 to 11 % of all lactating mothers. The traditional management of breast abscesses involves incision and drainage of pus along with antistaphylococcal antibiotics, but this is associated with prolonged healing time, regular dressings, difficulty in breast feeding, and the possibility of milk fistula with unsatisfactory cosmetic outcome. It has recently been reported that breast abscesses can be treated by repeated needle aspirations and suction drainage. The predominance of Staphylococcus aureus allows a rational choice of antibiotic without having to wait for the results of bacteriological culture. Many antibiotics are secreted in milk, but penicillin, cephalosporins, and erythromycin, however, are considered safe. Where an abscess has formed, aspiration of the pus, preferably under ultrasound control, has now supplanted open surgery as the first line of treatment. PMID:24465097

  7. Study of the nutritional status of maternal breast milk in preterm infants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis were used to determine the concentration of 13 elements in the breast milk collected within the first week of lactation and after morning feed from 16 pre-term mothers and 20 term mothers. The results of the study show that pre-term milk has a significantly higher concentration of Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn while term mothers have a significantly higher concentration of P and Br. No significant differences were, however, found in the mean concentration of AL, Ca, I and Rb. Furthermore, the mean concentration for most of the elements found in the breast milk fall within the range of the concentrations obtained for the commercial infant milk formulae. (author)

  8. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  9. Relationship between children's obesity and mothers'weight gain during pregnancy, infants's feeding mode.%儿童肥胖与母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张暹; 朱美红; 花静; 张巧妹; 潘建盈; 吴擢春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the association of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy and infants' early feeding mode on children' obesity so as to provide the clues for preventing the children's obesity. [Methods] A total of 949 children from four second-level kindergartens were selected randomly from two communities in Hongkou district in Shanghai. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the children's weight, height, family conditions, the mothers'weight gain during pregnancy and infants' feeding mode,and so on. The relationship between the mothers' weihgt during the pregnancy, infants's feeding mode and children's obesity were analyzed with x2 test and binary logistic regression. (Results] Resulst of the study showed that the rates of obesity and over-weight was 10. 1% and 13. 2% respectively. Pregnancy weight gain ≥15 kg, children exclusively breastfed within 6 months were associated with obesity when age, gender, the characteristic of registered residence,family structure and family income were considered. [Conclusions] Mother's weight gain more than 15 kg during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood obesity; And exclusive breastfeeding within 6 months may be a protective factor on children's obesity which may reduce the incidence of obesity in children.%[目的]研究母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式对儿童肥胖的影响,为制定预防儿童肥胖措施提供依据.[方法]利用整群抽样的方法,随机抽取上海市虹口区2个社区的4所二级幼儿园共计儿童949名.自行设计问卷调查儿童的身高、体重、家庭基本状况、母亲孕期、喂养早期状况等.使用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归模型分析母亲孕期及喂养早期状况与儿童肥胖的关系. [结果]研究结果显示,调查到的949名儿童中,超重及肥胖检出率分别为13.2%和10.1%;在控制儿童年龄、性别、户口属性、家庭结构、家庭收入后,孕期增重≥15 kg、6月龄内纯母乳喂养2

  10. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition. PMID:25500760

  11. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  12. Risk of HBV transmission between breast-fed and artificial fed infants with HBV mothers after immunoprophylaxis: A Meta-analysis%乙肝病毒携带母亲喂养方式对阻断免疫后婴儿母婴传播影响Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪娟; 李筱青; 冯晨晨; 马岩; 黄芬; 陈红; 叶冬青

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨对婴儿采取免疫措施后,乙肝病毒(HBV)携带母亲采用不同的喂养方式对母婴HBV传播的影响.方法 检索PubMed、Medline、Embase、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库、维普中文科技期刊数据库和万方数据库等,对免疫干预后比较母乳喂养和人工喂养婴儿HBV感染率的前瞻性研究进行Meta分析.结果 10篇随机对照试验满足纳入条件进入Meta分析,其中母乳喂养组婴儿873例,人工喂养组751例.在对婴儿进行免疫于预后,母乳喂养组与人工喂养组的6~ 12月龄婴儿乙肝表面抗原或HBV DNA阳性率差异无统计学意义(7个研究:OR=0.86,95%CI=0.51 ~1.45,P=0.56;I2 =0,P=0.99);母乳喂养组与人工喂养组6~12月龄婴儿的乙肝表面抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义(8个研究:OR=0.98,95% CI=0.69~1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P=0.99).结论 HBV携带者母亲采用不同的喂养方式对免疫于预措施阻断母婴HBV传播没有影响,HBV携带产妇母乳喂养并不增加HBV母婴传播的风险.%Objective To compare the risk of hepatitis B vims (HBV) transmission between breastfeeding group and artificial feeding group in infants with HBV mothers after combination immunoprophylaxis. Methods Comprehensive computerized literature search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, National Science Digital Library, and China Biological Medicine Database were conducted. A meta-analysis of prospective studies exploring the role of breastfeeding in mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBV in infants who had HBV mothers was performed. Results Ten Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included, involving 751 infants in the breastfeeding group and 873 infants in the artificial feeding group. There was no significant differences of positive rates of HBsAg/HBV DNA(OR=0.86,95%Cl=0.51-1. 45,P=0.56;l2 =0,P=0.99) and surface antibodies(OR=0.98,95%Cl=0.69-1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P = 0.99) among the infants by different feeding patterns

  13. Secretion of radioactivity in breast milk following administration of 99Tcm-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made of the fraction of injected radioactivity which was secreted in breast milk following 99Tcm-MAG3 dynamic renal scans of two nursing mothers. The activity concentration in the milk expressed at different times after injection was found to decrease monoexponentially, with effective half-lives of 3.2 and 4.0 h. Two models were applied to each set of data and predicted an overall mean infant effective dose equivalent per unit administered activity of 2.9 μSv MBq-1 and a maximum of 4.5 μSv MBq-1. The results demonstrated that it was not essential to interrupt breast feeding following administration of 100 MBq 99Tcm-MAG3 for a dynamic renal scan. If a renal perfusion scan is performed using greater activities of 99Tcm-MAG3, the mother should interrupt feeding and not resume until measurements on her expressed milk samples indicate that the effective dose equivalent to the infant will be less than 1 mSv. However, it was noted that a considerably lower radiation dose to the infant could be achieved by using 99Tcm-DTPA. Therefore, it was concluded that whenever clinically appropriate 99Tcm-DTPA should be used for both types of renal investigations of breast-feeding mothers. (author)

  14. The Effect of Giving Information to Baby’s Mother about Breastfeeding in Kendari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk contains a variety of nutrients needed in the process of growth and development of infants. The nutritional value contained in breast milk is very high so it does not require any composition again from outside. Breast milk should be given in accordance with the will of the baby and mother. This study aimed to determine the effect of the information on the baby's mother to knowledge, attitudes, norms / culture, beliefs and actions of breastfeeding in Kendari. This study uses "quasy Experiment", ie pre-test and post-test with control group design. A sample of 80 women who were divided into four groups with the class of modification module while control class with KIA books, the group uses only modification module and the control group with KIA book. Questionnaire data collection of interviews and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test and Kruskal. The results showed that the change in practice breastfeeding and complementary feeding into a good deal on one group than the other group. Improvement score of knowledge, attitudes, norms, beliefs, breastfeeding, and solids in group 1 was higher than group 2, group 3 and group 4. The study concluded there are influence of giving information about breast milk against changes in knowledge (p = 0.000, attitude (p = 0.000, the norm (p = 0.000, confidence (p = 0.000, breastfeeding (p = 0.000. There is a difference of knowledge (p = 0.000, attitude (p = 0.001, confidence (p = 0.001, breastfeeding (p = 0.027 between groups, where the effectiveness of class baby`s mothers with a module modification is higher than the class of baby`s mothers with KIA book in changing the practice of breastfeeding.

  15. A History of Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Emily E.; Patrick, Thelma E.; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...

  16. Infant formula companies battle for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465

  17. A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, Marion; Schwartz, Camille; Madrelle, Jérôme; Croden, F.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Vereijken, Carel M.J.L.; Weenen, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Infancy is considered a critical period for establishing food preferences which then track into later life. Breastfeeding (BF) experience is associated with eating a larger variety of foods such as vegetables later, possibly due to the variety of flavours delivered to the baby via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk just before introducing solid foods to facilitate acceptance of vegetables during complementary feeding (CF). Therefore the present study was conducted to test a step...

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site. PMID:19854513

  19. My mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2007-01-01

    @@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.

  20. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  1. South Vietnamese Rural Mothers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Child Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thac, Dinh; Pedersen, Freddy Karup; Thuong, Tang Chi; Lien, Le Bich; Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thi; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    A study of 600 rural under-five mothers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in child care was performed in 4 southern provinces of Vietnam. The mothers were randomly selected and interviewed about sociodemographic factors, health seeking behaviour, and practice of home care of children and neonates. 93.2% of the mothers were literate and well-educated, which has been shown to be important for child health care. 98.5% were married suggesting a stable family, which is also of importance for child health. Only 17.3% had more than 2 children in their family. The mother was the main caretaker in 77.7% of the families. Only 1% would use quacks as their first health contact, but 25.2% would use a private clinic, which therefore eases the burden on the government system. Nearly 69% had given birth in a hospital, 27% in a commune health station, and only 2.7% at home without qualified assistance. 89% were giving exclusive breast feeding at 6 months, much more frequent than in the cities. The majority of the mothers could follow IMCI guideline for home care, although 25.2% did not deal correctly with cough and 38.7% did not deal correctly with diarrhoea. Standard information about Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) based home care is still needed. PMID:26881233

  2. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  3. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age. PMID:27356464

  4. Associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To explore the developmental origins of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: We examined the associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at the 9 year follow-up examination in 3612 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170) as our assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. This was estimated using standard regression methods from parameters measured using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Results: Birth weight, length and ponderal index were all positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in both sexes, with no strong evidence of a difference in effect between girls and boys. Work capacity increased by 1.12 W (95% CI: 0.83, 1.40) on average per 1 standard deviation (SD) greater birth weight. This association was not affected by adjustment for socioeconomic position and maternal smoking during pregnancy; there was some attenuation with adjustment for both maternal and paternal height and body mass index and more marked attenuation with adjustment for the child's height and body mass index. In the fully adjusted model work capacity increased by 0.51 W (95% CI: 0.21, 0.81) per SD birth weight. Whether an individual had been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding were not associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in any models. Conclusion: Our results provide some support for a role of intrauterine factors in determining cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood

  5. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  6. A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, A

    2001-09-01

    A baby milk market was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was conceived through the mutual attraction of the manufacturers and doctors. This has partly attributed to the change from breast to artificial feeding. This study was conducted to determine whether marketing had any effect on infant feeding practices. Fifty Malay mothers whose last child was aged less than five years were asked, by questionnaire and by interview, to identify whether several marketing methods influenced their decision on the selection of infant feeding practice. It was found that these mothers felt milk advertisements on television were attractive (72%), were influenced by others to buy a particular brand of formula (38.4%), were influenced by free milk samples to buy a particular brand of milk formula (65.2%) and were not influenced by their doctors on the chosen method of feeding (68%). More studies should be conducted on a bigger sample in other settings and targeting other methods of marketing to substantiate the above results. Further, similar studies among Chinese and Indian mothers are also required. PMID:11732077

  7. The excretion of radiopharmaceuticals in human breast milk: additional data and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following administration of 11 different radiopharmaceuticals, has been measured. This report summarises the data collected from 60 patients. An effective decay constant for the series of samples from each patient was calculated. In order to formulate reliable guidelines, we calculated the total activity theoretically excreted in milk until complete decay of the radionuclide. Of the various 99mTc compounds, pertechnetate clearly reaches the highest concentrations in breast milk. The wide variability of data from different patients who received the same radiopharmaceutical despite identical methods of sample collection and data processing confirms the impression gained from literature that transfer of radionuclides into milk varies greatly between individuals. We believe that for radiation protection purposes, a ''worst case'' approach is the most appropriate. With new data available and the revision of ICRP recommendations, the guidelines applicable when radiopharmaceuticals are administered to breast-feeding mothers are reviewed. The effective dose resulting from close contact between patient and infant was included in these calculations. Breast feeding need not be interrupted after administration of 99mTc-DISIDA, -sulphur colloid, -gluconate and -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). However, after administration of 99mTc-MIBI, close contact should be restricted. 99mTc-pyrophosphate and -microspheres require interruption periods of several hours. High activities of 99mTc-pertechnetate may require interruption longer than 2 days. For pertechnetate and 99mTc-labelled red blood cells, interruption of breast feeding with measurement of activity in expressed milk samples is recommended. Breast feeding is contra-indicated after administration of 67Ga and 131I. General guidelines regarding breast feeding after administration of radiopharmaceuticals are summarised. (orig./MG)

  8. Análise da efetividade de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em comunidade carente na cidade de São Paulo Effectiveness analysis of an exclusive breast feeding program in a poor community in the city of São Paulo

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    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2005-03-01

    % of the women were unemployed, 39.3% were adolescents, 48.2% were primiparous, 67.9% had normal delivery, 78.6% were roomed in with their babies and 68.6% did not refer to early contact with the baby following birth, 51.8% adhered to the program and 48.2% abandoned the program for unknown reasons. When discharged, 17.3% of the mothers claimed to exclusive breast feeding for six months, 58.6% mixed and 24.1% used formulas. Early weaning occurred at an average of 96 days following birth. CONCLUSIONS: the Program, notwithstanding an apparent low effectiveness needs to be continued because it benefits both mother and child especially in the social and economic conditions of that community although new strategies are required to improve adhesion and exclusive breast feeding averages.

  9. Postpartum dietary guidance on the success rate of breast feeding effect analysis%产后饮食指导对母乳喂养成功率影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉花; 李玉磊; 聂红梅; 李继红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of diet guidance on and analysis of postpartum breastfeeding success rate. Methods from 2012 July to 2013 May in 120 cases of maternal hospital childbirth, it will be randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group had 60 cases. Control group mothers only routine postpartum nursing and instruction, the observation group of women in addition to routine postpartum nursing guidance outside, but also accept the post natal diet guidance system, science education. 30 days postpartum, statistics and analysis of two groups of maternal feeding, milk secretion and neonatal weight loss were the results. The corresponding Results in the observation group, maternal feeding, the success rate of breastfeeding and breast milk secretion of parturient were signiifcantly better than the control group, the observation group neonatal weight loss was signiifcantly lower than the control group, with signiifcant difference between the two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions through systematic, scientiifc puerperal dietary guidance on maternal education, can promote the maternal and child health, improve the success rate of breastfeeding.%目的:探讨及分析产后饮食指导对母乳喂养成功率的影响。方法选择2012年7月至2013年5月期间在院自然分娩的120例产妇,将其随机分成观察组和对照组,每组各60例。对照组产妇只进行常规产后护理与指导,观察组产妇除接受常规产后护理指导外,还要接受系统、科学的产后饮食教育指导。产后30天,对两组产妇的喂养情况、乳汁分泌情况以及新生儿体重下降幅度等情况进行结果统计与分析。结果观察组产妇的喂养情况、母乳喂养成功率及乳汁分泌情况等均显著优于对照组产妇的相应情况,观察组新生儿的体重下降幅度也明显低于对照组,且两组之间具有显著性差异(P<0.05、P<0.01)。结论通过对产妇进行系

  10. [Effects of mother-infant interaction on maternal milk secretion and dynamics of maternal serum prolactin levels in puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisaka, K; Mori, H; Ogawa, T; Kigawa, T

    1985-05-01

    Effects of maternal-infant interaction on maternal milk secretion and the dynamics of maternal serum prolactin levels in puerperium were examined in 183 normally delivered mothers without any complications. No significant change was observed in the amount of maternal milk secretion between the primiparas and the multiparas. However, there was a significant increase in the amount of maternal milk secretion in the breast feeding group compared to the supplementary feeding group from the second to the sixth day of the puerperium (p less than 0.005). Moreover, the amount of maternal milk secretion increased significantly in the group that adopted the rooming-in system compared to the non rooming-in group (p less than 0.005). And also the significant increase occurred in the encouragement of breast feeding following the adoption of the rooming-in system (x2 = 7.244, p less than 0.01). There was no significant correlation between the amount of maternal milk secretion and the puerperal maternal prolactin levels, but the maternal serum prolactin level at 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the breast feeding group than in the supplementary feeding group (p less than 0.01). Also, the maternal serum prolactin was increased by the stimulation of the baby crying the same as by suckling or manual expression. These facts suggest that the maternal-infant bonding plays the important role in the encouragement of the breast feeding and the maternal serum prolactin may have some actions on the mechanism of maternal milk secretion. PMID:3839008

  11. Stable isotopes for body composition and breast milk intake assessments: IAEA initiatives in Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labelled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed at estimating breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers, who were the beneficiaries of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which uses a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. Following results were obtained after a 3 months supplementary feeding: There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg±4) vs (37Kg±4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal; Breast Milk volume increased significantly in Ghana's study (1050 ml ±280) vs (850 ml± 150). However, in Senegal, the intervention did not significantly improved the milk output (992 ml±186) vs (943 ml ±207); The nutrition

  12. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

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    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  13. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

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    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  14. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

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    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  15. Feeding and care of low-birthweight babies in two rural communities in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A; Odebiyi, Adetanwa I; Aina, Olabisi; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to highlight the sociocultural beliefs and practices relating to the care and feeding of low-birthweight (LBW) babies in two rural communities in the south-west of Nigeria. Data from 60 mothers and their newborns and community care providers were collected using qualitative instruments. The 60 mothers [30 mothers of LBW and 30 of normal-birthweight (NBW) infants] were identified through key informants, snowball approach and information obtained from community healthcare providers. The mean weight at recruitment of the LBW and NBW babies studied was 1680 +/- 440 and 2990 +/- 450 g respectively. Only two of the 60 mothers in the study delivered in orthodox health facilities, because in most cases these facilities were unaffordable, inaccessible and incompatible with rural lifestyles/beliefs. Most of the mothers believed that exclusive breastfeeding was not adequate for the LBW babies, and so herbal mixtures believed to accelerate growth were given in addition to breast milk. The use of forced hand-feeding and feeding bottles was universal among the mothers of LBW babies in order to 'increase the volume of feeds the baby gets'. Herbal dressing was used for cord and anterior fontanel care, while the babies were kept warm by using extra clothing, lighted lanterns and shutting of the windows. Five (16.7%) LBW infants and 1 (3.3%) NBW baby died, while 12 (40%) LBW, compared with 4 (13.3%) NBW infants, were hospitalized during the study. The findings of this study serve to identify the cultural beliefs and values around the care of LBW infants. Interventions designed to improve neonatal survival must therefore, take cognizance of these beliefs, customs and practices, in order to ensure effective and proper care of the LBW infants. PMID:18171407

  16. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艺海; 胡宝兰

    2002-01-01

    My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.

  17. An analysis of infant feeding content found within the Hong Kong print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie; Thompson, Jackie T; Young, Branda

    2008-08-01

    Worldwide public media greatly affect women's decisions about infant feeding and may not reflect evidence-based practices. The aims of this research were to (1) describe the characteristics of printed articles having infant-feeding content, (2) describe this thematic content, and (3) compare the thematic content found in groupings based on media type and language (English and Chinese). Four Chinese-language newspapers, the English-language newspaper, and 3 bilingual parenting magazines were analyzed. A multiphase qualitative and quantitative content analysis found 5 themes (social context, mothers' information, effects on baby, the value of breast milk, and the utility of formula). Significant differences were found based on media type and language. Although breastfeeding was usually positively framed in all the media, Chinese media had more inaccurate information. Through this analysis, areas where actions could be taken to improve the quality of information about infant feeding received by the public have been identified. PMID:18689719

  18. A situação de aleitamento materno de crianças atendidas em creches da Secretaria da Assistência Social do município de São Paulo: região Freguesia do Ó Breast-feeding in children in day care centers of the Social Welfare Department of the Municipality of São Paulo: Freguesia do Ó area

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    Mônica G. N. Spinelli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a situação de aleitamento materno entre crianças menores de dezoito meses que freqüentam creches e identificar as variáveis associadas ao desmame. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas, no mês de fevereiro de 2000, mães de 235 crianças menores de dezoito meses que freqüentavam as creches ligadas à Secretaria da Assistência Social do Município de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil, (região Freguesia do Ó. Foi investigado a associação do aleitamento com idade e escolaridade maternas, tipo de parto e peso ao nascer das crianças. O teste chi2 foi empregado para comparação das proporções quando se estudaram os fatores associados ao desmame precoce. Foi calculado o risco relativo (RR para as prevalências. Para a análise da duração do aleitamento materno utilizou-se a técnica da tábua de vida. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de amamentação das crianças que foram amamentadas alguma vez por suas mães foi 92,7% com uma duração media de 5,6 meses. 80,4% das crianças foram amamentadas no primeiro mês de vida e no final do quarto mês, 50% já se encontravam desmamadas. CONCLUSÕES: nenhuma das variáveis estudadas apresentou condições para entrada em um modelo multivariado; também não mostraram associação com o desmame.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate breast-feeding in children, under 18 months old in day care centers and identify the variables associated to the weaning process. METHODS: two hundred and thirty five mothers of under -18 months' old infants, in day care centers of the Social Welfare Department of the Municipality of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Freguesia do Ó area were interviewed in February 2000. Association of breast-feeding to maternal age and education level, delivery type and birthweight was made. The chi2 test was conducted to compare the proportions when factors associated to precocious weaning were studied. Relative risk (RR was calculated for prevalence. The survival analysis was used to

  19. Comportamiento de la madre en relación con la lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria del niño menor de quince meses, durante la enfermedad diarreica Maternal behavior concerning breast and complementary feeding of children younger than 15 months during acute diarrheal disease

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    Ethel Marina Mora

    1994-01-01

    procedencia y los cambios realizados en la alimentación de los niños durante la diarrea.

    At the Oral Rehydration Service, Hospital lnfantil, Medellín, Colombia, the mothers of 300 children younger than 15 months. Suffering from acute diarreal disease, were surveyed concerning changes introduced in infant feeding during diarrheal episodes. their duration and the reasons for them ; also explored was the relationship between such changes, the years of schooling of the mother and her place of residence In the clty. Two hundred and eighteen mothers (72.7% belonged to the low socioeconomical class, 17 (5.7% were 1IIiterate and only 19 (6.3% had finished secondary school. Children were more frequently (69% between 5 and 12 months. One hundred and twenty mothers (40% breast-fed their children and all of them continued to do so during the diarrheal episode; however, 16 mothers (13.3% decreased and 50 (41.7% increased the daily number of feedings. Of 295 mothers who gave milk formulae to their children 66 (22.4% continued to do so with no change; 89 (30.2% discontinued them, 83 (28.1% decreased the amount given and 65 (22% started with a diluted preparation. Concerning complementary feeding two patterns of behavior were found during the diarrheal episode: some Items were frequently discontinued, among them: candy (77.2%, egg (66.7%, beans (65.8%, chocolate (60.7%, fats (59.4% and carbonated drinks (55.2%. Others, by contrast, were frequently continued, name- Iy: meat (69%, plantain (85.6%, soups (82%, juices (71.8%, vegetables (73.4% and carbohydrate solutions (63.4%. Changes were maintained longer than 3 days which contributed to nutritional deterioration. The main reason (52.2% for introducing changes was to prevent the increase of diarrhea. No correlation was found between schooling level of the mother or her place of residence In the clty and changes performed In Infant feeding during acute diarrheal disease

  20. Comparison of growth and nutritional evolution stages in infants with working mothers and infants with housewife mothers in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Behzad; Golshiri, Parasto; Saleki, Azam; Isfagani, Motahereh Rabar; Najimi, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that the growth status of the children with working mothers is about 2 standard deviations lower than that of the children of housewife mothers. It seems that absence of mothers in the second stage of nutritional evolution (attachment), which is a very sensitive stage, has an important role in initiating and continuation of an appropriate supplemental feeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children of working mothers and 50 children of...

  1. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed

  2. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  3. Hipnose, singularidade e dificuldades de amamentação: um estudo clínico Hipnosis, singularidad y problemas de amamantamiento: estudo clínico Hypnosis, singularity and breast-feeding difficulties: a clinical study

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    Maurício da Silva Neubern

    2010-06-01

    último, el trabajo concluye resaltando la perspectiva de que la necesidad de más investigaciones cualitativas debe reconocer a la clínica como un campo de investigaciones, de modo que sea posible contemplar procesos subjetivos presentes en las relaciones hipnóticas como el trance, la comunicación, el lenguaje, la simbolización, las emociones y las construcciones de sentido.Through a brief case study, the present article aims at elucidating the forming of individualized processes and the hypnotic suggestions for a young mother who had difficulties breast-feeding her child. Right after the presentation of the case, this work focuses on three axis of interpreting the suggestive processes which had been present in leading the hypnotic session: A first dealing with physical senses, a second dealing the use of metaphors involving the milk itself, and a third dealing with the forms of redefining the role of the young woman as a mother. Within these three axis, It is worth mentioning the how important it is for the hypnotic suggestions to take into account the singularity of the mother, considering her emotions, senses, and private meanings. Lastly, this work concludes by highlighting the outlook on the fact that the need for more qualitative research must acknowledge clinical practice as a research field in a way to entail subjective processes present in hypnotic relations such as trance, communication, language, symbolization, emotions, and the forming of senses.

  4. Relation of childhood malnutrition to parental education and mothers' nutrition related KAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M C; Mehrotra, M; Arora, S; Saran, M

    1991-01-01

    Severely malnourished children (26), weight for age 55.27 +/- 3.17, were identified in a colony of predominantly Muslim urban slum dwellers of low economic status. An equal number of normally nourished children matched for age, sex and per capita income were identified. A strong relation was found between nutritional status of the subjects and educational level of their mothers (P less than 0.025). Father's education was unrelated to childrens' nutritional status. A thirty seven point questionnaire was administered to the mothers to record their nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). Analysis revealed that better KAP in relation to 16 of these 37 questions was not associated with better nutritional status. Seven questions were found to have only a weak association. The remaining 14 questions were identified as important for a nutrition education programme. Comparison of nutritional KAP score based on these 14 questions in case of mothers of normal and severely malnourished children revealed a significantly higher score in the former. Questions related to growth monitoring and breast feeding were not found to be important. No significant association was found between mothers' KAP and educational level. It is concluded that (i) Maternal education and KAP are significantly and independently associated with childrens' nutritional status. (ii) The content areas of knowledge, attitudes and practices significantly associated with nutritional status pertain to nutritional requirements of children, nutritional value of foods, immunisation, hygiene, oral rehydration and diarrhea. PMID:1879910

  5. Modern features of infants’ feeding and its impact on respiratory diseases

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    Duka K.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of infants’ feeding connected with the incidence of respiratory diseases. Rationality and duration of breast feeding does not cause doubts. But unfortunately today, only 60-80% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Naturally, this causes impact on disease incidence of such children. Formation of bronchopulmonary pathology is of particular interest. The basis of modern research is the concept of programmed impact of nutrition in early childhood on health in lateryears. We have determined the dependence of respiratory diseases incidence in children of early age on duration of exclusively breast feeding. Not only frequent respiratory diseases, but formation of bronchitis, pneumonia or other complications of their course is of importance. The study included questioning of mothers and children under 7 years of age, clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations in the hospital in case of respiratory disease. All studies were conducted in accordance with the characteristics of diet quality of the child in the first year of life with the following biostatistical processing. 601 children aged from 3 months to 7 years were examined. It was found that the duration of breast feeding in the region is 89% only to the age of 6-months, and up to 1 year the percentage of breastfed children reduces to 38%. This affected the resistance of children to respiratory infections, especially in the first year of life. Children exclusively breastfed up to 1 year suffer from respiratory diseases 1-2 times per year. In children over one year of age breast feeding does not affect the frequency of respiratory pathology. Increase of respiratory diseases frequency in children aged 3-5 years is due to attending preschool institutions and increasing contacts between children, which significantly reduces their resistance.

  6. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

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    Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the burden of malnutrition and thus to childhood morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY : A hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 100 ill children less than 5 years age attending outpatient department of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital, Visakhapatnam. A semi structured, pretested interview schedule was ad ministered after taking prior consent from mothers. Results were analyzed by using MS Excel. Data was represented as frequencies, percentages and p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS : Among 100 study subjects, 62% were boys and 38% were g irls. Thirty percent of children in the study had Grade IV malnutrition (IAP classification. 38% of the mothers had education up to high school. Most of them were Hindu by religion (70%, and housewives by occupation (71%. Most of them belonged to grade III socio - economic status according to modified B G Prasad classification. During illness, one fourth of mothers in group A (children < 6 months and group B (7 – 24 months decreased breast feeding and in group C (2 - 5 years, 35% mothers made the consiste ncy of food thinner than usual. Belief on hot and cold foods concept was among 34% mothers. Level of education of mothers didn’t show any significant difference in keeping beliefs regarding hot and cold properties of foods. CONCLUSION : False beliefs and pr actices like food restriction during child’s ill health was observed in our study. Appropriate nutritional education to care givers, during common childhood

  7. Abandono del consumo de tabaco en las fumadoras gallegas durante el embarazo o la lactancia, 1954-2004 Smoking cessation in Galician [Spain] smokers during pregnancy and breast feeding, 1954-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pérez-Ríos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la proporción de mujeres residentes en Galicia que dejan de fumar durante el embarazo y los 6 primeros meses de lactancia e identificar posibles cambios temporales en el patrón de abandono. Método: Se analizan datos aportados de manera retrospectiva por fumadoras o exfumadoras residentes en Galicia. Resultados: El 31,9% (26,9-37,0 de las fumadoras no abandonó su hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. En función del período temporal en el que ocurrió el último embarazo, no se aprecian diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el porcentaje de mujeres que dejan de fumar, aunque se observa una tendencia hacia un menor abandono. Conclusiones: Un alto porcentaje de las gestantes fumadoras gallegas no abandonó el hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. Estos datos indican la necesidad de promover y potenciar medidas orientadas al abandono del consumo de tabaco en estas mujeres.Objective: To determine how many women living in Galicia (Spain quit smoking during pregnancy and in the first 6 months of breast feeding. A second objective was to identify possible temporal changes in smoking cessation. Method: Data retrospectively provided by smokers and ex-smokers living in Galicia were analyzed. Results: A total of 31.9% (26.9-37.0 of Galician smokers did not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the 6 first months of breast feeding. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of women who stopped smoking in relation to the period when they became pregnant. A tendency towards lower cessation rates was found. Conclusions: A high percentage of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the first 6 months of breast feeding. These data indicate that health policies on smoking during pregnancy and breast feeding should be improved.

  8. QCC Application in Improving Breast Feeding Rate of Cesarean Section%品管圈活动在提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦霞; 刘丽芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈活动对提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率的效果。方法:在品管圈活动前先对科室的剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率进行统计。由10名护士自愿组成一个品管圈,成立质量控制品管圈,确立提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率为活动主题,对活动前科室的剖宫产产妇母乳喂养现状进行调查,找出母乳喂养不足或未进行母乳喂养的原因,制定和落实整改措施。结果:通过开展品管圈活动,剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率较实施品管圈活动前有提高,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:开展品管圈活动提高了剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率,提高了产妇满意度,同时也提高了圈员的团队合作精神和质量管理能力。%Objective:To investigate the effect of QCC activities in improving breast feeding rate of cesarean section.Method:The management circle activities in before the hospital cesarean section maternal breastfeeding rate statistics,by 10 nurses voluntarily formed a quality control circle,the establishment of quality control circle,the establishment of increasing cesarean section rate of breastfeeding as the theme,the activity before sections of the cesarean section maternal breast milk feeding status of the investigation,find out the reasons of insufficient breastfeeding breastfeeding,formulate and implement rectification measures.Result:The circle activities of cesarean section rate of breast feeding was improved QCC ago through the development of quality management,by comparison with statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion:The QCC increases cesarean section rate of breast feeding and increased maternal satisfaction,but also improve the team cooperation spirit and quality management capability of the ring member.

  9. Estimation of Ga-67 radiation dose to a breast-fed infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The quality assurance programs for the practice of nuclear medicine in Colombia include optimization of public exposure by the radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis and treatment. Precautionary measures notwithstanding, occasionally members of the public receive doses larger than expected; usually there is no direct data to evaluate dose. We briefly describe the process to estimate the radiation dose absorbed by a 5-month-old baby that was inadvertently breast-fed for 48 hours by his 22-year-old mother that was administered 296 MBq of radioactive Ga-67 citrate. After the intravenous administration, the Ga-67 is commonly observed in the intestine, and other organs, and in the breasts of lactating women, thus possibly leading to radiation exposure of the infant's lower intestine. We had 256x256 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images, and whole-body 1024 x 256 planar images, taken 48h and 72 h after Ga-67 intake. The images were obtained with a Siemens E-cam gamma camera, a 20% energy window was placed at the 93, 184 and 296 keV gamma photopeaks. From these images we calculated the concentration of Ga-67 in mother's milk (using Medical Internal Radiation Dose MIRD methodology). Hence, the dose absorbed by the baby. The radioactivity in breast milk per liter was 4% of the injected activity. The dose absorbed by the infant's lower intestine was 11 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was estimated as 7 mSv, which is above the annual limit to the general public (1 mSv/year). Hence, an infant breast-fed by a mother undergoing Ga-67 treatment may easily receive a radiation dose in excess of the annual upper limit. From the viewpoint of radiation protection it is extremely important to convey to the mother the necessity of abiding by the standard medical recommendation of discontinuing breast feeding for at least 2 weeks after Ga-67 intake. (author)

  10. Comparison of bacterial counts in expressed breast milk following standard or strict infection control regimens in neonatal intensive care units: compliance of mothers does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, N; Pimpel, B; Assadian, O; Binder, C; Kreissl, A; Repa, A; Thanhäuser, M; Roberts, C D; Berger, A

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial counts in 1466 expressed breast milk (EBM) samples from women following one of two infection control regimens (standard vs strict) were investigated. Overall, 12% of samples yielded Gram-negative bacteria, with no significant differences between the standard [11.9% (94/788)] and strict [12.1% (82/678)] regimens (P = 0.92). Significantly more samples were contaminated when expressed at home (standard regimen home/hospital: 17.9% vs 6.1%; strict regimen home/hospital: 19.6% vs 3.4%; P personal hygiene during milk collection seem to be of limited value. Good hygiene of collection and storage equipment is likely to be the most important way to ensure the microbiological quality of EBM. PMID:26850928

  11. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and the use of the Iowa Infant Attitude Feeding Scale to describe breastfeeding initiation and duration in a population of urban, Latina mothers: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Katherine E; White, Mary C.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age. Maternal attitudes toward infant feeding are correlated with chosen feeding method and breastfeeding duration. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been used to assess attitudes towards breastfeeding prenatally and is predictive of breastfeeding decisions in certain population groups. Methods ...

  12. Motherly Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Translated onto glass from copper plates As from Rembrandt or Brueghel or their heirs In whose busy depictions such an act Is incidental, some side-alley fact, Now placed here in the center by Millet -- This all too human scene, both rude and true: A mother wrinkling up her young son’s gown  Before he wets himself on backdoor steps Where his six-year-old sister, shrinking, stares At the wobbly colossus, wholly exposed. His soft hand grips his mother’s muscled wrist, Still nearer to the milked...

  13. Development of Wideband Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  14. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  15. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers...

  16. Qualidade das informações sobre aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar em sites brasileiros de profissionais de saúde disponíveis na internet The quality of information on maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding on Brazilian internet sites available for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Quirino da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as informações de sites da internet sobre o aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar de acordo com a adequação às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. MÉTODOS: realizado estudo transversal, com amostra de 103 sites de profissionais de saúde. Analisaram-se informações sobre aleitamento materno (AM e alimentação complementar (AC. As informações foram quantificadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: as recomendações relativas ao AM foram: exclusivo até 6º mês (64,1%; sem água e chá (31,1%; duração de dois anos ou mais (36,9%; e não utilizar mamadeira e chupeta (33%. Para a AC foi utilizada a terminologia desmame (30,1%, recomendada a introdução alimentar no 6º mês (47,9%, introdução da primeira papa com fruta (11,6% ou suco (9,7%; e a oferta de sopa (14,6% como refeição. Na análise qualitativa, entre as informações incorretas, constavam recomendações de consumo de carne no 12º mês, horários regulares para refeições, introdução de alimentos no 7º mês e consumo de leite de vaca no 6º mês. CONCLUSÕES: a maior parte das informações sobre aleitamento materno está de acordo com o preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde, mas são insuficientes para estimular a prática do aleitamento materno. Já as informações sobre alimentação complementar na sua maioria divergem do recomendado.OBJECTIVES: to analyze the information available on internet sites regarding maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out using a sample of 103 sites for professional healthcare workers. Information was analyzed on maternal breast feeding (MB and complementary feeding (CF. The information was quantified and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: the recommendations for MB were: that it should be exclusive up to the 6th month of life (64.1%; that no water or tea

  17. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby ...

  18. Management issues in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast feeding period%妊娠及哺乳期妇女双相障碍的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪武; 方贻儒

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disease. Pregnancy is one of the risk factors of the recurrence. Management in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast-feeding is very difficult. The management issues are not only related to the health of patients, but also involved in the health of fetus and neonatus. This article reviewed the treatment progress of patients with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast-feeding, and also reviewed the management guidelines of China and other countries and regions.%双相障碍是一种容易复发的疾病,妊娠是双相障碍复发的危险因素之一。双相障碍患者的妊娠和哺乳期的处理一直是临床上的难题,这不仅关乎患者的健康,更涉及胎儿和新生儿的健康。本文将综述有关双相障碍妊娠及哺乳期治疗的进展以及中国和其他国家、地区相关治疗指南和建议。

  19. Responsive complementary feeding in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika; Aboud, Frances E

    2006-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that malnutrition can partly be attributed to caregiver-child interaction during feeding episodes. Current conceptual frameworks emphasize the importance of responsiveness (including active and social behaviour), psychomotor abilities of the child to self-feed, and a non-distracting feeding environment. The present observational study had three main objectives: (1) to define operationally key terms such as responsive and active feeding and observe their frequency in a rural Bangladesh sample; (2) to examine whether self-feeding, responsive and active behaviours of the mother and child varied with child's age and amounts eaten; and (3) to determine associations between mother and child behaviours. Fifty-four mother-child pairs were observed during one feeding episode and behaviours were coded for 5 categories, namely self-feeding, responsive, active, social and distracting behaviours. Children were between 8 and 24 months of age. Results indicated that the five behaviours could be observed and reliably coded. Two-thirds of mothers had an active feeding style but only a third were responsive; the two styles did not overlap. With older children, mothers encouraged more eating and more self-feeding, but children did not feed themselves more; instead older children were more negatively responsive (refusing offered food). Positively responsive mothers tended to have active children who explicitly signaled their desire for food or water, and who ate more mouthfuls of food. Positively active mothers adopted different strategies to encourage eating, such as verbally directing the child to eat, focusing, and temporarily diverting. These mothers tended to have children who were negatively responsive and refused food. Children accepted on average 5.31 mouthfuls of food and rejected 2.13. Mothers who used intrusively active strategies (e.g. force feeding) tended to have children who were both positively and negatively responsive, thus partially

  20. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kiezebrink Kirsty; Irvine Linda; Crombie Iain K; Power Kevin G; Swanson Vivien; Wrieden Wendy; Slane Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of c...

  1. Feeding of low birth weight newborns in tertiary care hospitals in pakistan: do they follow the world health organization latest guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the extent the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the care of Low Birth Weight (LBW) newborns are followed in Pakistani hospitals and analyze any difference in policy compliance between different hospitals. Study Design: Descriptive analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected from five tertiary care hospitals, one each from Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta, Karachi and Islamabad, from January to June 2012. Methodology: LBW newborns data derived from medical records was used. It was collected using a questionnaire, which encompassed the recent WHO recommendations for feeding of LBW. Twenty questionnaires were collected from each hospital. STATA 11.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Fifty seven LBW newborns (57%) were fed with mother's own milk, and 9 (9%) were fed on donor human milk. Forty four newborns (44%) were initiated breast feeding within the first hour after birth. Most of the babies not able to be breast fed were fed with intra gastric tube. Feeding practices varied markedly across hospitals, ranging from one hospital where all newborns were fed formula milk to one where all were fed breast milk. Conclusion: The WHO guidelines were only partially implemented, with significant differences between hospitals in level of implementation of recommended practices. Given the benefits expected from the application of the guidelines, efforts should be made for the establishment and promotion of a single national policy for LBW feeding that follows the WHO new guidelines and streamlines the LBW feeding practices across the country. (author)

  2. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. PMID:25677342

  3. Promoção da amamentação em localidade urbana da região sul do Brasil: estudo de intervenção randomizado A randomized intervention trial to increase breast-feeding prevalence in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Barros

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado em Pelotas, RS, Brasil, estudo de intervenção randomizado, para a promoção do aleitamento materno. Grupo de 450 mães e lactentes foram visitados em casa aos 5, 10 e 20 dias após o nascimento, e comparados com um grupo-controle do mesmo número. Noventa e dois por cento das famílias no grupo de intervenção receberam as três visitas planejadas. A avaliação do padrão de aleitamento materno e causas de desmame aconteceu seis meses depois do nascimento para ambos os grupos. Noventa e quatro por cento do grupo de intervenção e noventa e dois por cento do grupo-controle foram encontrados na visita de avaliação. A intervenção aumentou a duração do aleitamento (mediana de 120 dias no grupo de intervenção, contra 105 dias no grupo-controle; p=0,03 e retardou a introdução do leite artificial (mediana de idade de 90 dias no grupo de intervenção e 60 dias no grupo-controle; p=0,01. As causas de desmame foram classificadas como subjacentes, intermediárias, e imediatas. A causa subjacente mais comum foi "o bebê chora muito", sugerindo que as mães devem ser instruídas a respeito dos padrões normais de comportamento do lactente nas primeiras semanas de vida, em particular da necessidade que a criança tem de chorar e o fato de que isto, não necessariamente, significa fome.A randomized intervention trial to promote breast-feeding was carried out in southern Brazil. A group of 450 mothers and babies was visited at home 5, 10 and 20 days after birth and compared to a non-visited control group of the same size. Ninety-two per cent of the families visited received the three home visits planned. The evaluation of breast-feeding patterns and reasons for weaning took place 6 months after birth for both groups. Ninety-four per cent of the group visited and 92% of the non-visited controls group were traced on the occasion of the assessment. The intervention increased the duration of breastfeeding (median duration of 120 days

  4. Couple relationships in families with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer in the United Kingdom: Perspectives from mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Roslyn; Puthussery, Shuby; Swinglehurst, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the facilitators and the barriers to couple relationships in families in the UK with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 participants, including 10 couples and three women whose partners did not take part. Recorded interviews were analyzed using a thematic approach identifying themes and patterns in the interview transcripts and categorizing them using a framework. Key individual and contextual factors perceived as barriers or facilitators to couple relationships included: being a "young" family with young children, frustration and resentment from male partners, women's reactions to the illness, individual communication styles, differing needs for "personal space," body image concerns, and social support. Findings indicated the need for strengthening "family focus" in services with adequate support for male partners. Health and family services should consider variability in the experiences of couples with dependent children and be sensitive to the needs of partners alongside the women. PMID:27295387

  5. Cocaine and crack cocaine abuse by pregnant or lactating mothers and analysis of its biomarkers in meconium and breast milk by LC-MS-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avila, Felipe Bianchini; Limberger, Renata Pereira; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Abusive use of drugs is a public health problem worldwide. The use of these substances by pregnant or lactating women can have many serious side effects in newborns. Among the commonest causes of addiction in drug users is cocaine in powdered form, inhaled, intravenously injected or smoked form (crack). Fast screening and a confirmation test using high specificity and sensitivity instruments such as LC-MS or GC/MS, can provide data to qualify and quantify chemical substances present in biological samples such as breast milk or meconium. Cocaine and/or crack can be detected through biomarkers or the unchanged molecule, enabling the form of cocaine use to be distinguished through the analytes. These methods must be carefully developed and validated according to internationally recognized guidelines. Thus, the study of biological matrices in which it can be detected through the development of simple and quick analytical methods can help prevent intoxication and diagnose the symptoms of dependency such as seizures, especially in babies, providing appropriate medical care. PMID:26827634

  6. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. PMID:23962403

  7. The Effect of Giving Information to Baby’s Mother about Breastfeeding in Kendari

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmawati; Kameriah Gani; Rofiqoh Rofiqoh; Imanudin Imanudin; Rasmaniar

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains a variety of nutrients needed in the process of growth and development of infants. The nutritional value contained in breast milk is very high so it does not require any composition again from outside. Breast milk should be given in accordance with the will of the baby and mother. This study aimed to determine the effect of the information on the baby's mother to knowledge, attitudes, norms / culture, beliefs and actions of breastfeeding in Kendari. This study uses "quasy...

  8. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  9. RSS Feeds

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    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rss.html RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  10. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her ...

  11. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  12. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.; Ovesen, Lars; Nohr, S.B.; Pedersen, I.B.

    2002-01-01

    breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the...... iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake......Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during...

  13. A STUDY ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL FEEDING FORMULA AMONGST URBAN CHILDREN: A STUDY FROM KATIHAR DISTRICT OF BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the best way to feed infant and therefore, every effort should be made to promote and protect this salutary traditional practice everywhere. Commercial Feeding Formula (CFF is liquid or reco nstituted powder fed to infants and growing children. They sometimes serve as substitute for human milk. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our study are to assess the prevalence of the use of CFF among mothers having 6 weeks to 6 months aged children, and to s tudy some factors associated with CFF use. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A cross - sectional study was conducted between Dec - 2014 to Feb - 2015, using a pre - designed, pre - structured questionnaire. A total of 145 mothers having children between 6 weeks to 36 months of age were selected for the study. Interview was done using pre - designed questionnaire. Information regarding the use of CFF with special emphasis on reconstitution of formula food and sterilisation process was obtained. Data, thus collected was compiled an d analysed by us. RESULTS: In our study, CFF was used by 59.3% of total study subjects. 49.2% of the mothers were using it for under 6 month’s children. Maximum 76.6% of the children were between 13 - 24 months of age. CFF was used by mothers of better educa tion group (80%. Mothers belonging to upper and middle socio - economic strata were more users of CFF, i.e 100% & 65% respectively, but CFF was also used by maximum proportion of 59.5% by upper lower socio - economic strata. It was also observed in our study that 46.6% of the mothers were diluting the feeding formula improperly and 32.6% unhygienically. Majority of the CFF users were using it as per advice of their relatives and friends (51.1%. CONCLUSION: Human breast milk is the best source of nourishment f or human infants. Improper reconstitution of CFF is a significant factor affecting nutritional status of children. Generating proper awareness about CFF is must.

  14. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eNagasawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  15. KEBIASAAN MEMBERIKAN MAKANAN KEPADA BAYI BARU LAHIR DI PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH DAN JAWA BARAT (NEW BORN INFANT FEEDING HABIT IN CENTRAL JAVA AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekti Widodo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of breast milk should be given to the baby as soon as possible, not more than half hour after the baby was bora If initiate of breast milk is not early, it will be difficult to avoid introduced other food than breast milk to new bom be infant. The objective of research is to know how the community habit, especially in Central Java and West Java in order with infant feeding for new born infant The result of the research showed 77,0% respondent introduced other food to new born infant and 23% respondents initiated breast milk soon after the baby bora Two reason for mother introduced other food before they give breast milk First, as "baby food' for the new born infant (knowing as prelacteal food. Kind of this food are honey (64,2%, water-honey (11,73%, boiled water (13,5%, and milk formula (10,6%. They gave this food for prelacteal food, because breast milk not flows yet (64,8%, for the baby not hungry (14,8%, suggested by traditional birth attendance (dukun bayi, suggested by grandmother (4,7% and mother not ready yet to give breast milk (3,6%. Second, Not as 'baby food', but because the culture. Usually they give other food just once time, in the first minutes of the baby life. After that, they give breast milk. The kinds of this food are solution water coffee (19,4%, pepper (29,6%, "kurma" (3,7%, onion (21,3%, lime juice (5,6% and salt solution (18,8%, also white egg (1,9%. The reason to give that food are: to bring out dirty things from baby stomach (82,4% as the not cramp (13,9%, and religion (3,7%. Actually, the first reason suggested by traditional birth attendance as a "helping delivery package" . This always doing by the traditional birth attendance

  16. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE STUDY ON COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS FACTORS INFLUENCING AGE OF COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS AND EFFECT ON GRO W TH OF CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge & attitude regarding complimentary feeds among mothers with children 6 - 24 months of age. To know various factors influencing age of complimentary feeds. Age of complimentary feeds started and its effect on growth of the child. METHODS: 500 mothers were interviewed with children 6 - 24 months of age attending OPD . Data was collected using a self - administered, semi - stru ctured questionnaire with the mothers regarding knowledge, attitude of complimentary feeds and factors influencing age of complimentary feeds like, education, occupation, socio - economic status, religion and residence. The growth of child was assessed by re cording weight and length, and classified according to WHO criterion by using WHO Anthro software. RESULTS: Knowledge and attitude were assessed in 500 mothers. The m ean age of complimentary feeds wa s 8.24±2.79 months. 23% of mothers started complimentary feeds at 6 months of age . I lliterate mothers, low socio - economic group and rural mothers tend to wean late (p0.05. 34.1%, 34.5% and 23.8% of children were under weight, stunt ed and wasted respectively. There wa s significant association between delayed complimentary feeds and malnutrition of the child. CONCLUSION: Mothers knowledge rega rding complimentary feeds time wa s inadequate and practices i nappropriate, majority of them w e re not aware of current recommendations. M ean age of complimentary feeds wa s delayed due to improper information, false beliefs and attitudes, illiteracy, low socio - economic status and rural mothers, thus leading to malnutrition of the child. Hence, accurate information and education should be given to mothers and caregivers about timely complimentary feeds, complimentary feeds foods, preparation and practice to prevent malnutrition and improve the health status of the children KEYWORDS: Complimentar y feeds; Attitude; Practices; Complementary feeding; Mothers knowledge; Malnutrition.

  17. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  18. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  19. Long-term treatment of a breastfeeding mother with fluconazole-resolved nipple pain caused by yeast: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodley, V; Powers, D

    1997-12-01

    This case follows a breastfeeding mother with cracked nipples undergoing antibiotic treatment (dicloxacillin) for mastitis. Nipple candidiasis also presented with burning, stinging pain radiating from the nipples into the breast, lasting throughout feedings and beyond. Over a 7-week period, the asymptomatic infant was treated with the oral antifungal, nystatin. After other antifungal treatment regimens (oral nystatin, tristatin ointment) had been deemed unsuccessful for the mother, the physician prescribed fluconazole (200 mg loading dose plus 100 mg/day for 15 days) which reduced, but did not eliminate, the nipple yeast and accompanying pain. Fluconazole was continued for an additional 30 days (200 mg/day) for a total of 6 weeks of treatment with this medication. Concurrently, a topical yeast medication (tristatin ointment) was used for a total of 8 weeks on the nipples/areola, after which the overt pain was resolved. Although the mastitis resolved after 1 week, the cracked nipples did not completely heal for several months. During the initial 3 weeks of treatment, neither over-the-counter pain medication nor acetaminophen with codeine relieved this mother's pain. Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen (10/650 mg/tablet) (Lorcet) offered the pain relief necessary for this mother to continue to breastfeed. PMID:9429366

  20. Determination of the mothers' milk storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sercekus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Breast milk storage conditions, is an important issue alongside the protection of substantiality and immunological content of milk in terms of preventing the development of microorganisms. The purpose of this research was to determine breast milk storage applications of mothers. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. Ten health care centers were taken for the study scope in Denizli. The study sample consisted of 77 mothers who stored breast milk. Results: 49.4% of the mother's stores their milk at room temperature, 76.6% of them stores in the refrigerator, 59.7% of them stores it in the deep-freezer. % 41.6 of women use plastic milk storage bags to store milk, 57.1% of them write date on the storage container, 37.7% of them boil in order to clean the containers, 51.9% of them clean containers after each use. Conclusion: It was found incorrect applications, which can adversely affect baby's health, at the selection of storage containers and cleaning, storage location, duration and thawing the frozen milk stages in this study. Important tasks fall to the healthcare personnel while teaching mothers the right applications for the storage of milk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 483-488

  1. Nurses’ counseling to mothers to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding : A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Staflin, Emma; Lundkvist, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: HIV is a serious problem in Namibia, 13.1% of the adult population is HIV-positive or is a carrier of AIDS. This is one of the highest numbers in the world. HIV is passed from mother to child during pregnancy, during labour or through breast milk. 18.8 % of the pregnant mothers in Namibia who is in contact with the maternity welfare have HIV. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe nurses’ counseling to mothers to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV through breastfeedi...

  2. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes; Examens scintigraphiques durant la grossesse et chez les femmes en periode d'allaitement: enquete a propos des attitudes pratiques des nuclearistes belges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint Pierre, Bruxellex (Belgium); Sand, A. [CEDRI, Vilvoorde (Belgium)

    2003-05-01

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  3. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S;

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  4. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...

  5. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  6. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING OF INFANTS AGED 0-6 MONTHS BY URBAN REFUGEE WOMEN IN KIGALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedeon Jino Bahemuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee women’s knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EBF and to determine EBF practice rate among these women. This is a descriptive crosssectional study. It involves 90 urban refugee women who had children aged six months to two years during the period of the study. The study was conducted between January 2011 and mid-February of the same year.The main results are the following: 74.4% of the mothers have correct knowledge about the EBF, and the health facilities are reported to at 90 % their main source of the information 71.1% of the mothers have positive attitude towards EBF, but 34.4 % practised EBF up to 6 months. There is no significant correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (p > 0.05.The factors leading the mothers in the study to such low practice of EBF, which are not captured by this study, might be anchored in their cultural or traditional practices. For almost all of the mothers come from the same country: the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mainly from the East of the country.Therefore, as a recommendation, a qualitative research should diligently be conducted in order to dig up the reasons for these women’s failure in practising EBF to six months. In addition, the women’s sensitisation for EBF practice should continue and be enhanced.

  7. Suicidal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  8. Contribution of Knowledge on Breastfeeding among Mothers who Joined Mother Support Group Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The infant feeding decision is complex and involves the influence of psychological, social, and economic factors, and health care system. This study aimed to determine the contribution of knowledge on breastfeeding among nonworking mothers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 173 nonworking mothers with babies between 0-6 months who joined the mother support group (MSG program participated in this study. The results showed that knowledge has significant influence on breastfeeding practice among the non working mothers (beta= .21, p= .01. MSG may be a suitable method to promote breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers.

  9. [Female responsibilities: midwives, nurses and mothers in the works of some antique and Renaissance physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalexi, Dina

    2005-01-01

    In his De morborum causis Galen presents the very moment of childbirth, in order to emphasise that the midwife's act of reception is instrumental in preventing malformations of the infant's "humid" limbs; nurses are also responsible for future malformations. The role of the midwife as the physician's assistant with female patients is stressed by Hippocrates and Soranos. The French Renaissance physicians Simon de Vallambert, Jacques and Charles Guillemeau refer to Galen in order to criticise the incompetence of midwives and nurses, as opposed to biological mothers, who have to breast-feed their babies because nurses lack moral integrity. Galen's commentator François Valleriole explains that nurses swaddle girls differently from boys because they aim at artificial (immoral) beauty. Leonhart Fuchs underlines that improper swaddling causes girls to lose their femininity. Thus, medical commentary changes into moralising remarks in order to maintain the moral and social status quo concerning women. PMID:16201319

  10. Child Care Arrangements Of Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Children arrangements for infants and preschool children and the reasons for working outside the home were studied in 300 mothers of whom 100 were teachers (Group. I 100 clerks (groups II and 100 tabourers (Group III. The interview method was used. The most common (80% reason for working was financial needs, the next most frequent was utilization of specialized skills. In 58.7% of the cases, substitute childcare was provided by one of the family members, usually the grandmother. Sixty six percent of caretakers were illiterate. Most (93% of the working mothers had also to perform certain household chores. Bottle-feeding was stated at birth by 80% of these mothers: Childcare arrangements for children of working mothers must be considered in the future.

  11. Komaelksbaserede modermaelkserstatninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    1990-01-01

    proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during...

  12. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshabari Sebalda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.

  13. Becoming a mother through culture

    OpenAIRE

    Urwin, Cathy; Hauge, Mona Iren; Hollway, Wendy; Haavind, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ‘Culture’ is often considered in terms of identifiable artefacts, rules and practices, with less attention given to how investment in these features comes about. Using data extracts from a case study of a young woman who is becoming a mother for the first time, we pay attention to how people react to cultural processes in terms of how they ‘feel’. We use our own affective and reflective responses to interviews and observational material about Azra’s experiences with feeding her baby within th...

  14. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  15. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  16. BIO - SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF MOTHERS OF LBW BABIES AND ASSOCIATION OF THEIR HEALTH KNOWLEDGE REGARDING LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES : A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY IN AN URBAN SLUM (DILAWARGANJ NEAR MGM MEDICAL COLLEGE, KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhaditya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in developing countries including India. The epidemiological observations depicted that infants weighing lesser than 2500 g are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier babies, closely associated with the fetal and neonatal mortality and morbid ity. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the relevant socio - demographic and biological determinants of Low Birth Weight babies and t o assess the degree of association between impact of health education and Low birth weight babi es. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from May - August 2013 in Dilawarganj, an urban slum, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, MGM Medical College, Kishanganj, Bihar. Study population comprised of wome n in 3 rd trimester of pregnancy belonged to DILAWARGANJ urban slum area. 100 mothers of low birth weight and normal birth weight babies at urban slum of Kishanganj (Among them 33 mothers had delivered LBW babies & 67 mothers had delivered normal babies were selected and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the socio - demographic factors that have been considered in the present study, it was observed that 51 .5% mothers belong to age group 20 – 29, 84.8% mothers from Muslim community, 66.67% mothers were illiterate, 69.7% mothers were multipara,75.76% mothers reside in a nuclear family 60.6% mothers were engaged in agricultural fields66.67% belong to lower and poor socio - economic group. It was also observed that 84.85% mothers do not consumes extra meals, 81.82% do not take adequate rest & sleep, 93.9% mothers take less than 100 IFA tablets, 69.7% mothers attend less than 3 ANC, 84.85% mothers practice exclusiv e breast feeding and 78.8% mother give vaccines to their babies. CONCLUSION: The study of LBW baby in

  17. A case report of pink breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  18. Feeding practices and nutritional status of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdel E. Rossouw

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal infant- and young child–feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health and, ultimately, survival. Human breast milk is optimal nutrition for all infants. Complementary food introduced at the correct age is part of optimal feeding practices. In South Africa, widespread access to antiretrovirals and a programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced HIV infection in infants and increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants. However, little is known about the feeding practices and nutritional status of HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU infants.Objective: To assess the feeding practices and nutritional status of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed (HU infants in the Western Cape.Design: Prospective substudy on feeding practices nested in a pilot study investigating the innate immune abnormalities in HEU infants compared to HU infants. The main study commenced at week 2 of life with the nutrition component added from 6 months. Information on children’s dietary intake was obtained at each visit from the caregiver, mainly the mother. Head circumference, weight and length were recorded at each visit. Data were obtained from 6-, 12- and 18-month visits. World Health Organization feeding practice indicators and nutrition indicators were utilised.Setting: Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape. Mothers were recruited from the postnatal wards.Subjects: Forty-seven mother–infant pairs, 25 HEU and 22 HU infants, participated in this nutritional substudy. Eight (17% infants, one HU and seven HEU, were lost to follow-up over the next 12 months. The HEU children were mainly Xhosa (76% and HU were mainly mixed race (77%.Results: The participants were from poor socio-economic backgrounds. In both groups, adherence to breastfeeding recommendations was low with suboptimal dietary diversity. We noted a high rate of sugar- and salt-containing snacks given from a young age. The HU

  19. Antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in mothers and breastfeeding infants from 6 to 24 weeks post partum: results of the BAN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Amanda H; Kayira, Dumbani; White, Nicole R; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Chasela, Charles; Martinson, Francis; Phiri, Grace; Musisi, Bonaface; Kamwendo, Deborah; Hudgens, Michael G; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Nelson, Julie AE; Ellington, Sascha R; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Kashuba, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Background An intensive, prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study in a subset of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants enrolled in the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition study was performed to describe drug exposure and antiviral response. Methods Women using Combivir®[zidovudine (ZDV)+ lamivudine (3TC)]+Aluvia®[lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/RTV)] were enrolled. Breast milk (BM) and mother and infant plasma (MP, IP) samples were obtained over 6hrs after observed dosing at 6, 12, or 24wks post-partum for drug concentrations and HIV RNA. Results 30 mother/infant pairs (10 each at 6, 12,and 24wks post-partum) were enrolled. Relative to MP, BM concentrations of ZDV and 3TC were 35% and 21% higher, while LPV and RTV were 80% lower. Only 3TC was detected in IP with concentrations 96% and 98% lower than MP and BM, respectively. Concentrations in all matrices were similar at 6-24wks. The majority (98.3%) of BM concentrations were >HIVwt IC50, with one having detectable virus. There was no association between PK parameters and MP or BM HIV RNA. Conclusions ZDV and 3TC concentrated in BM while LPV and RTV did not, possibly due to protein binding and drug transporter affinity. Undetectable to low ARV concentrations in IP suggests prevention of transmission while breast feeding may be due to ARV effects on systemic or BM HIV RNA in the mother. Low IP 3TC exposure may predispose an infected infant to HIV resistance, necessitating testing and treating infants early. PMID:24464632

  20. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  1. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  2. Duração do aleitamento materno em menores de dois anos de idade em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil: há diferenças entre os grupos sociais? Breast feeding duration in children under two years of age in Itupeva, São Paulo, Brazil: are there differences among social groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a duração do aleitamento materno (AM total e os determinantes associados à sua interrupção segundo perfis de reprodução social das famílias (formas de trabalhar e viver, fundamentados na teoria da determinação social do processo saúde-doença. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal conduzido em uma amostra de 261 crianças menores de dois anos, residentes em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil. A partir de uma base teórico-metodológica-operacional compuseramse três grupos sociais homogêneos (GSH segundo semelhantes formas de trabalhar e de viver. A duração do AM total foi estimada com a técnica de tábuas de vida. O teste de Wilcoxon foi empregado para identificar associação entre as variáveis categóricas na análise bivariada. Para análise múltipla, as variáveis associadas com a duração mediana do AM (pOBJECTIVE: based on the theory of social determination of the health-disease process, the objective of this study was to know the duration of overall breast feeding and the factors associated with its interruption, according to the social reproduction profiles of the families (ways of living and working. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study carried out with a representative sample of 261 children under two years of age, living in Itupeva city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. From a theoretical-methodologicaloperational basis, three social homogeneous groups (GSH were established, according to similar conditions of working and living. Overall breast feeding duration was calculated from survival tables. Variables with p<0.20 in bivariate Wilcoxon test were then introduced in multiple Cox Regression model in order to find associated aspects to the breast feeding duration. RESULTS: the breast feeding duration medians of the 3 GSH were 6.7 months, 7.1 months and 9.9 months, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.31. The multivariate analysis showed that the sequence of birth (p=0.018, pacifier use (p<0.001 and bottle-feeding

  3. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar; Ankitha; Udayamaliny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children...

  4. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  5. A case control study to find out child feeding practices responsible for severe acute malnutrition among under-five children admitted in MTC at a tertiary care centre, Bikaner, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Choudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no significant difference between NFHS II &III with respect to under- nutrition data but Gross national income has increased many times, so poverty and unavailability of food alone cannot be the only reasons of under- nutrition. Under-nutrition is the result of many interrelated factors such as poverty, insufficient household food security, inadequate health services, poor maternal and child care practices and inadequate water and sanitation. For communities with a high prevalence of under- nutrition, it may take years or even decades before all of these factors can be addressed. Aims and Objectives:  to find out child feeding practices responsible for severe acute malnutrition among Under-five Children and to recommend a Community Action Plan based on Positive Deviance Approach to deal with under-nutrition quickly, affordably and sustainably in a culturally acceptable manner. Materials & Methods: Study design: Matched Case Control study. Sample size: 143 cases and age, socio-economic status matched 143 controls. Study place: MTC and Immunization clinic. Study Duration: May, 2013- May, 2014. Study Tool and Data Collection: Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data analysis: with help of SPSS16 (Mean, SD, Proportion, odds ratio. Results: Strong positive association was found between duration of exclusive breast feeding(both shorter and longer, prelacteals, diluted milk as weaning food, bottle feeding, giving excess milk and less solid protein diet, not able to recognize cue of hunger by mother, lack of demand feeding, and severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion: Not any nutritional programme can help in preventing SAM unless we motivate the mothers for good child feeding and rearing practices. This can be achieved by identification of the Positive Deviant mothers from the same community and SES, who can motivate the mothers of SAM children and can practically demonstrate positive child feeding practices in a culturally

  6. Upward Communication About Cancer Screening—Adolescent Daughter to Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; PORTS, KATIE A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low social economic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally ina...

  7. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Ashton, Elizabeth; Hardwick, Catherine M.; Rowan, Marnie K.; Chia, Elisa S.; Fairclough, Kyle A.; Menon, Lalitha L.; Scott, Courtney; Mather-McCaw, Georgia; Navarro, Katherine; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA) were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469) and 2014 (n = 708). Attributed cause(s) of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s) advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Results: Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2–110). Conclusion: The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that effective early lactation management for prevention of nipple pain and early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial to avoid early weaning. PMID:26426034

  8. Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers: Incidence, Causes and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Kent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persistent nipple pain is one of the most common reasons given by mothers for ceasing exclusive breastfeeding. We aimed to determine the frequency of nipple pain as a reason for consultation, the most common attributed aetiologies, and the effectiveness of the advice and treatment given. Methods: All consultations at the Breast Feeding Centre of Western Australia (WA were audited over two six-month periods in 2011 (n = 469 and 2014 (n = 708. Attributed cause(s of nipple pain, microbiology results, treatment(s advised, and resolution of pain were recorded. Results: Nipple pain was one of the reasons for consultation in 36% of cases. The most common attributed cause of nipple pain was incorrect positioning and attachment, followed by tongue tie, infection, palatal anomaly, flat or inverted nipples, mastitis, and vasospasm. Advice included correction of positioning and attachment, use of a nipple shield, resting the nipples and expressing breastmilk, frenotomy, oral antibiotics, topical treatments, and cold or warm compresses. Pain was resolving or resolved in 57% of cases after 18 days (range 2–110. Conclusion: The multiple attributed causes of nipple pain, possibly as a result of a cascade of events, suggests that