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Sample records for breast feeding mother

  1. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  2. Food intakes in a group of breast-feeding and not breast-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Muratore, M C; Peltran, A; Cresi, F; Mostert, M; Oggero, R

    2000-01-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breast milk composition is still an open question. An important issue is whether mothers who are breast feeding modify, respect to before lactation, food intake to satisfy the increased requirements.

  3. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  4. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  5. [Breast feeding: importance of supportive counseling to the working mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta Noy, S; Paz Guzmán, P; Masalán, P

    1998-07-01

    This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother--Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile--has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been studied is formed by 82 mothers attended in the Support Consultation during March '95/September '95 period and from which a number of 30 people were taken as a sample. The impact of this consultation was evaluated with an instrument employed during an interview to each mother. Data were statistically analyzed with EPIINFO, the Kaplan-Meier survival method and the Mantel-Haenszel test to compare curves of survival. During data analysis authors found that mothers are mainly young adults, stable couples, first-time mothers, with technical and/or professional educational level, chiefly working as office clerks with full-time jobs and having a significant difference between existing minimum salary and the maximum one they earn. The results of this investigation lead us to the conclusion that mothers obtained an exclusive breast-feeding and ideal weaning age. The power of resolution of the Consultation--according to mothers--was satisfactory. The support given to the mother after her reincorporation to work is the most significant intensifier factor in relation with the increase in the probability of keeping on breast-feeding. In conclusion, the Consultation has good impact.

  6. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  7. Understanding adolescent mothers' feelings about breast-feeding. A study of perceived benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A

    1988-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the benefits and barriers accruing to breast-feeding as perceived by pregnant adolescents, and to establish whether these perceptions distinguished between adolescent mothers who chose to breast versus bottle feed. Surveys were completed by 254 young women attending prenatal clinics. Overall, 19.3% indicated their intent to breast-feed. When categorized by intended method of infant feeding (breast versus bottle), breast-feeding mothers cited more benefits and fewer barriers associated with that method of infant feeding. Overall, perceived benefits were more successful than perceived barriers in distinguishing between the groups of respondents. For those interested in promoting breast-feeding among adolescent mothers, our data support an emphasis on the diverse benefits of this method of infant feeding. Our results also suggest the usefulness of peer role models in correcting misinformation and encouraging breast-feeding among adolescent mothers.

  8. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

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    Rajendra N Gadhavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  9. Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana

    2014-06-01

    Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period.

  10. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

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    Saadia Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  11. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  12. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  13. Breast versus bottle: correlates of adolescent mothers' infant-feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1987-05-01

    Since the 1970s, breast-feeding as the preferred method of infant feeding has increased in overall popularity. However, certain populations, particularly poor, young, black, and less-educated women, have been slow to adopt this method. This prospective study was undertaken to identify factors relating to the choice of infant-feeding method among inner-city adolescents. Two hundred fifty-four pregnant adolescents completed a questionnaire supplying information regarding attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding, social support, personal experience, and other variables hypothesized to correlate with their choice of infant-feeding method. Of the total sample, 17% said they were "probably" or "definitely" going to breast-feed their babies. Analyses revealed adolescents most likely to intend to breast-feed were those who perceived more benefits to breast-feeding, who desired more knowledge about it, who were themselves breast-fed, who reported supportive social environments, and who perceived relatively fewer barriers to breast-feeding their infants. Specific interventions based upon these findings are proposed. We conclude that adolescent mothers are interested in breast-feeding their babies and that interventions are feasible to increase breast-feeding within this population.

  14. IMPACT OF BREAST-FEEDING EDUCATION ON NUTRITIONAL AWARENESS OF MOTHERS IN SOUTH TERRAN, IRAN

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    A.Djazayery

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrition education on knowledge of mothers concerning breast-feeding in Giassi Charity Health Centre in the south of Tehran, Yaftabad. Breast-feeding and nutritional awareness of 104 randomly selected mothers was assessed before and after a one-month breast-feeding course (Three 90-minutes' sessions per week. The proportion of the mothers with high awareness before the course was 0.0% and increased to 83% after the course. In this study the effect of such independent variables as mothers’ age and age at the first pregnancy, their education, number of children and physiological status, as well as family income on their nutritional awareness was determined. Statistical analysis (of both total score and individual question score changes showed the nutrition education course to have had a positive impact on mothers’ nutritional knowledge and awareness (P<0.001, confidence limits 99.9%.

  15. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants.

  16. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

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    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  17. About The Breast-Feedıng Attitudes And Behavıour Of The Mothers That Gave Bırt In Hospitals In Trabzon

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİTBAŞ, Çağla; KAHRİMAN, İlknur; BULUT, Kıymet YEŞİLÇİÇEK ÇALIK Hacer KOBYA

    2012-01-01

    Breast-feeding, impact on health baby and mother biologic and emotional as well as healthy growth and development of baby. This research was carried out as descriptive to determine the breast-feeding attitudes and behaviour of the mothers.The sample is composed of 405 mothers. Data were collected by using a questionnaire constructed by the researcher and The validity and reability of assessment scale breast feding was carried out by Arslan. The average breast feeding attitude points of the mo...

  18. A STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG POST- NA TAL MOTHERS ATTENDING GOVT MATERNITY HOSPITAL AT HYDE RABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Bhavani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  19. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

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    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  20. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NOURISHING MOTHERS ABOUT BREAST FEEDING, ATTENDING URBAN HEALTH CENTRE: A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

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    Laxman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  1. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants

    OpenAIRE

    Grewen, Karen M.; DAVENPORT, RUSSELL E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT...

  2. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  3. Constructing compatibility: managing breast-feeding and weaning from the mother's perspective.

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    Hauck, Yvonne L; Irurita, Vera F

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to analyze the maternal process of managing the later stages of established breast-feeding and, ultimately, weaning the child from the breast within a Western Australian context. Data were analyzed from 33 participants' interview transcripts, field notes, 9 postal questionnaires from fathers, and individual and discussion group interviews with child health nurses. A common social problem of incompatible expectations was revealed. All participants faced a dilemma in the management of their experience when personal expectations were in opposition to others' expectations. A process of Constructing Compatibility by Adapting Focus was adopted to compensate for this incompatibility.

  4. Breast feeding practices and associated factors in Bhaktapur District of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study among lactating mothers

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    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding is a major determinant of survival, future nutrition and health status of children. Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. It is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF is superior to non-exclusive breast-feeding with a protective effect against both morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to explore the breast feeding practice and affecting factors in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2007 in a rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Total 333 lactating mothers having a child less than 6 months were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was performed in Statistical Pakage of Social Science-13 version applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 333 mothers (mean age ± standard deviation 24.68 ± 4.16 years, majority (76.6% were 20-30 years. Almost 83.0% were Hindus, 25.8% illiterate, 62.8% house-wives and 53.5% from joint family with low economic status. About 48.0% had a baby of 2-4 months, 86.0% avoided pre-lacteal feeding, 87.1% fed colostrums, 27.9% fed the first milk within half an hour and 55.0% practiced exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. Child′s age, education, religion, occupation, family type and knowledge level were significant (P < 0.05 factors affecting to breast feeding. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of women initiated breast-feeding early after birth, the prevalence of EBF for 6 months was very low and a large portion had poor practice of breast feeding. Education, relationship of mother with a family member and level of knowledge were found most significant factors. Appropriate measures such as public awareness and effective counseling will support

  5. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewen, Karen M; Davenport, Russell E; Light, Kathleen C

    2010-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT in 5 saliva and 7 plasma samples in a protocol designed to elicit changes in OT (Rest, Infant Interaction, Stress, Feeding). Breast-feeders had higher OT levels than formula-feeders across all conditions in plasma (+36%) and saliva (+23%). OT levels and ranges were similar in saliva and plasma, with slightly greater variance in saliva. Concurrently sampled plasma and salivary OT were correlated at end of Baseline Rest (r=+.59, p=.022) and Post-Stress Recovery (r=+.59, p=.025). These data suggest that salivary OT assay is feasible, and will be of value where plasma samples are not possible. Validation with larger samples is needed.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

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    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  7. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

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    MS Maputle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  8. ‘She Breast Feeds in the Boardroom’ (Churchill 1982, p. 80 Working Mothers Onstage

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    Helen Grime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Actresses are some of the most visible working women. Throughout their history, many actresses have navigated the demands of both a professional career and motherhood. For some, these two roles have been mutually exclusive whereas others have found ways to become working mothers. As part of an unpredictable profession with antisocial hours, a mother employed in the acting profession knows much about the search for the idyllic notion of work/life balance. However, despite this long history of the working mother/actress in the off-stage arena, the opportunity for the actress to inhabit a similar role in her working life onstage is only too rare. In fact, the absence of the stage archetype of the salaried working mother is startling. This article surveys examples of stage representations of working motherhood, considering historical examples including Nora from A Doll’s House, Mrs Warren and Mother Courage. The main focus is on more recent representations of the working mother and debates around C21st motherhood in such plays as Lucinda Coxon’s Happy Now (2008, Amelia Bullmore’s Mammals (2007 and Gina Gionfriddo’s Rapture, Blister, Burn (2014. The aim is to gain a fuller understanding of shifting attitudes towards, and debates around, the figure of the working mother. A figure who, despite her elusive presence onstage, is increasingly prevalent in the profession who embodies her, the audience who consumes her, and the wider socio-political context.

  9. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

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    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  10. Breast Feeding Practices in Urban Community of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sunil, Jay Padodara, Patel Sushil, Gharat Vaibhav, Patel Swati, Choksi Vivek, Desai Toral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breast feeding practices adopted in terms of duration, frequency and exclusiveness of breast feeding and weaning have great impact on complete physical, mental and psycho-social development of the child. The objective of conducting the study is to evaluate the breast feeding practices adopted by women in urban community, and s to study factors affecting time of initiation of breast feeding, age of weaning, and food given to the baby other than breast milk. The current cross sectional study conducted among 200 women reveal that 70% of mothers were able to start breast feeding within first hour of life after normal delivery. Out of 26 complicated deliveries, 6 mothers were able to start breast feeding within 4 hours of life. The major reasons for delay in starting of breast feeding were uneasiness to mother and not having adequate breast milk. Exclusive breast feeding was practiced by 50% of the mothers for first six month of life. The common reason given by mother for not giving exclusive breast feeding were no knowledge of exclusive breast feeding (40% and not having adequate breast milk(35%. This study emphasizes the need of breast feeding education programme regarding the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the age of weaning.

  11. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Becquet

    2007-01-01

    Ditrame trial. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-y rates of adverse health outcomes were similar among short-term breast-fed and formula-fed children. Mortality rates did not differ significantly between these two groups and, after adjustment for pediatric HIV status, were similar to those observed among long-term breast-fed children. Given appropriate nutritional counseling and care, access to clean water, and a supply of breast-milk substitutes, these alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding can be safe interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in urban African settings.

  12. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  13. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  14. Lactancia materna: impacto de la consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja Breast feeding: impact of the support consultation to the working mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Elgueta Noy

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, descriptiva exploratoria, retrospectiva y transversal, pretende responder el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿ Cuál es el impacto que la Consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja, del Centro de Diagnóstico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, tiene en la prolongación de la lactancia materna?. La población estudiada la constituyen 82 madres atendidas en la Consulta de apoyo, durante el período de marzo y septiembre de 1995, de las cuales se tomó una muestra de treinta madres. El impacto de esta consulta fue evaluado a través de un instrumento que se aplicó por entrevista dirigida a cada una de las madres. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente con el programa estadístico EPIINFO, el método de sobre vida de Kaplan-Meier y el test de Mantel-Haenszel para comparar curvas de sobre vida. Al analizar los datos se encontró que las madres estudiadas son en su mayoría adultas jóvenes, con pareja estable, primíparas, con un nivel de educación técnico y/o profesional y que se desempeñan mayoritariamente como empleadas de oficina. Tienen una jornada laboral completa, y existe una diferencia significativa entre el sueldo mínimo y el máximo que perciben. Los resultados de este estudio permiten concluir que las madres lograron una lactancia materna exclusiva y edad de destete ideal. El poder de resolución de la Consulta según las madres resultó satisfactorio. El factor reforzador más significativo en relación al aumento de la probabilidad de continuar amamantando, es el apoyo que recibe la madre después de su reincorporación laboral. Finalmente la Consulta tiene un buen impacto.This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother -Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile- has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been

  15. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Ritual and customary factors have much impact then mother's education on breast feeding practices of infants. Apart from education, breast feeding awareness programme should be increased including both literate and illiterate mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1642-1647

  16. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  17. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  18. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce the risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes. Improved health. Research suggests that the longer breast-feeding continues and the more breast milk a baby drinks, the better a mother's health ...

  19. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  20. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  1. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  2. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  3. Risk factors for early termination of breast feeding in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, E R; Issler, R M; Justo, E B; Seffrin, C F; Hartmann, R M; Carvalho, N M

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to identify possible factors related to the duration of breast feeding. Two hundred and thirty-eight mothers who had delivered normal single babies with birth weights greater than 2.5 kg and had initiated breast feeding were randomly selected at the maternity hospital, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, and followed by mail questionnaires until termination of breast feeding, or until the end of the first year. If no reply was received, telephone contact or home visits were made. The group of mothers who stopped breast feeding prior to the end of the third month was compared with those who extended breast feeding beyond three months with respect to socioeconomic, biological, environmental, medical and psychological factors. The variables with a significant coefficient of association with early termination of breast feeding were maternal education, past experience with breast feeding, help of a maid, help with housework provided by a relative, breast feeding orientation during prenatal care and encouragement from the husband. These factors act simultaneously, with interactions among them.

  4. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  5. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  6. The breast-feeding dilemma and its impact on HIV-infected women and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Vo, P

    1999-07-01

    The rate of HIV transmission via breast-feeding ranges from 14% to 26%, depending on the timing of maternal infection. In settings where infant mortality rates from infectious diseases and malnutrition are low and relatively safe alternatives to breast-feeding are available, HIV-infected mothers should be advised not to breast-feed. Where breast-feeding by HIV-infected mothers and bottle-feeding both present serious risks of mortality, changing the conditions in which families live so that safe feeding alternatives become available must be a top priority. At the same time, these mothers need information about the relative risks and benefits of breast-feeding, early weaning, wet-nursing, and formula feeding. This article reviews the available research data and discusses critical gaps in current knowledge.

  7. Messages to new mothers: an analysis of breast pump advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Athena; Bowcher, Wendy L

    2016-04-22

    The mass media is replete with all kinds of advice, products and ideas about 'motherhood' with advertising being a major source of information on the latest products and consumer trends. Advertising is a key means of promoting ideas about infant feeding, and yet, there has been little in the way of critical analyses of breast pump advertisements in order to reveal the kinds of messages they convey about this method of feeding. This article makes an important step towards addressing this gap through analysing three advertisements for breast pumps from a popular Australian magazine for mothers. We utilize a social semiotic framework to investigate not just what choices are made in the design of the ads but also what those choices mean in terms of the overall message of the ads. Our analysis identifies three core messages: 'breastfeeding and breast pumping are the same with the purpose being to produce breast milk only', 'using breast pumps facilitates quality time with the baby' and 'mothers need outside expertise (including breast pumps) to ensure baby's development'. We believe it is important for those who provide information and support for breastfeeding women to be aware of the subtle, naturalized messages that ads convey so that they may better understand what may be underlying women's decisions regarding methods of infant feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding.

  9. [Main sociocultural aspects related to breast feeding in Malinalco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza Ogazón, A; Andrade Contreras, M D

    1991-06-01

    The present paper discusses data related to some sociocultural aspects on breast-feeding behavior among a group of women from a rural community in Mexico called Malinalco. A sample of 225 mothers with children aged less than 60 months, was selected. Several home visits were done in order to fill up a questionnaire, as well as to follow direct interviews according to some selected variables to the deepened, such as: schooling, occupation, place of children deliveries, breast-feeding behavior beliefs on breast-feeding abandonment, weaning practices, etc. The results showed that there is no relation between breast-feeding practices, income and school years; nevertheless, there is a certain tendency on early abandonment of breast-feeding in women with higher level of schooling. Some local beliefs about breast-milk production were detected, as well as some remedies to stimulate milk production and to cure certain breast-feeding problems. Data on weaning age and the commonest weaning food products are presented. The importance that cultural dimension has on breast-feeding studies is discussed, as well as the relevance of recognizing "the changes of concepts" within the process of cultural development itself, in order to understand them better and to propose solutions to the generated problems.

  10. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  11. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  12. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  13. Breast-feeding success among infants with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Shelton, Kathleen C; Lowe, Nancy D; Knafl, Kathleen A; Houck, Gail M

    2012-08-01

    Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005; American Association of Family Physicians, 2008; Association of Women's Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 2005; Canadian Paediatric Society, 2005; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2008; World Health Organization, 2009). In comparison to standard commercial formula, human breast milk has a lower concentration of protein and a lower content of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). For infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), these attributes of human breast milk make it ideal as a base source of nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and duration of breast-feeding and corresponding Phe levels of breast-fed and formula-fed infants with PKU in the caseload of a pediatric metabolic clinic at an urban tertiary-care medical center. Charts were reviewed for infants diagnosed with PKU beginning with 2005 and ending with 1980, the year no further breast-feeding cases were identified in the PKU population. During the first year of life, most of the infants, whether breast-fed or formula-fed, had similar mean Phe levels. However, the frequency distributions revealed that more breast-fed infants with PKU had Phe levels within the normal range (120-360 μmol/L) and were less likely to have low Phe levels (<120 μmol/L) than formula-fed infants with PKU. Further research is needed to understand how mothers manage breast-feeding in the context of PKU.

  14. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  15. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  16. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  17. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar; Indra Kumar Sharma; Mukesh Vir Singh; Durgesh Kumar; Krishan Mohan Shukla; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to know the impact of mother education on feeding practices of infants. Methods: Observational analytic cross sectional study. We used Semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire to interview 355 mothers of infants, aged one and half to 12 months, who came in OPD of Department of Paediatrics UPRIMS and R, Saifai for immunization or some problem. Results: Total 267 (75.2 %) out of 355 women had initiated breast feeding within 24 hours of birth. 172 (48.5%) mot...

  18. 探讨携带乙型肝炎病毒产妇母乳喂养安全性检测评价指标%To explore the safety testing evaluation index of breast-feeding by hepatitis B-positive mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文萍; 石荷英; 李彩彬; 李奇红; 杜蓬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨乙肝产妇母乳喂养的安全性检测评价指标.方法 荧光定量PCR检测252例乙肝产妇的血清及乳汁HBV DNA.结果 乙肝产妇血清与乳汁的HBV DNA总阳性率无统计学差异(P>0.05),双阳乙肝产妇血清及乳汁HBV DNA阳性率明显高于单阳乙肝产妇(P<0.01).结论 同时检测HBeAg、血清及乳汁的HBV DNA对指导乙肝产妇母乳喂养有重要意义.%Objective To explore the safety testing evaluation index of breast-feeding by hepatitis B-positive mothers.Methods HBV DNA from serum and breast milk of 252 hepatitis B-positive mothers were detected with the real-time quantitative PCR.Results The total positive rate of HBV DNA in serum had no difference with that in breast milk in hepatitis B-positive mothers (P > O.05).The positive rate of HBV DNA in serum and breast milk of positive HBeAg were significantly higher than that of hepatitis Bpositive mothers with negative HBeAg (P < 0.01).Conclusion To detecte HBeAg and HBV DNA in serum and breast milk have important significance for guiding of breast feeding of hepatitis B-positive mothers.

  19. Newborn right-holding is related to depressive symptoms in bottle-feeding mothers but not in breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques; Bréjard, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    This study examines the relationships between infant holding preferences and maternal depression according to the newborn feeding mode. Links between depression and infant holding biases have been observed in mothers [Vauclair, J., Scola, C. (in press). Dépression, alexithymie et latéralisation dans la façon de porter un nouveau-né [Infant holding biases in relation to depression, alexithymia and laterality]. Annales Médico-psychologiques; Weatherill, R. P., Almerigi, J. B., Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., von Eye, A., & Harris, L. J. (2004). Is maternal depression related to side of infant holding? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 421-427] but the fact that breastfeeding has never been studied in relation to these two factors is surprising as breastfeeding has some influence on depression (e.g., [Mezzacappa, E. S., Guethlein, W., Vaz, N., & Bagiella, E. (2000). A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 71-79]) and must also affect holding biases. Mothers who just gave birth (N=100) were tested few days after delivery. Measures of handedness, infant holding-side preferences, and level of depressive symptoms expressed by mothers (assessed with the CES-D scale) were collected via questionnaires. Asymmetries in emotional perception were assessed via a Chimeric Figure Task and a Dichotic Listening Task. Results showed that breastfeeding (1) reduced left-side bias for holding newborns and (2) was associated with lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Moreover, holding biases were related to maternal depression in bottle-feeding but not in breastfeeding mothers, namely that holding on the right-side while bottle-feeding was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results were not due to hemispheric specialization as auditory and visual asymmetries were similar between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding mothers. The discussion emphasizes the striking role of the early

  20. The emotional and practical experiences of formula-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Victoria; Komninou, Sophia; Bennett, Kate M; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-11-14

    The majority of infant-feeding research is focused on identifying mother's reasons for the cessation of breastfeeding. The experience of mothers who choose to use formula is largely overlooked in quantitative designs. This study aimed to describe the emotional and practical experiences of mothers who formula feed in any quantity, and examine whether these experiences would vary among different cohorts of formula-feeding mothers according to prenatal feeding intention and postnatal feeding method. A total of 890 mothers of infants up to 26 weeks of age, who were currently formula feeding in any quantity, were recruited through relevant international social media sites via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction, and defense as a result of their infant feeding choices. Practical predictor variables included support received from health professionals, respect displayed by their everyday environment, and main sources of infant feeding information. Descriptive findings from the overall sample highlighted a worryingly high percentage of mother's experienced negative emotions as a result of their decision to use formula. Multinomial logit models revealed that negative emotions such as guilt, dissatisfaction, and stigma were directly associated with feeding intention and method. The evidence suggests that the current approach to infant-feeding promotion and support may be paradoxically related to significant issues with emotional well-being. These findings support criticisms of how infant-feeding recommendations are framed by health care professionals and policy makers, and highlight a need to address formula feeding in a more balanced, woman-centered manner.

  1. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  2. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease.

  3. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders.

  4. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  5. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  6. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol wi...

  7. Association of family and health care provider opinion on infant feeding with mother's breastfeeding decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Perrine, Cria G; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In the United States, about 25% of women choose not to initiate breastfeeding, yet little is known about how opinions of individuals in a woman's support network influence her decision to breastfeed. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed questionnaires from the last trimester of pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. Mothers indicated prenatally their family members' and health care providers' opinion on how newborns should be fed: breastfed only, formula fed only, breast and formula fed, or no opinion/don't know. Breastfeeding initiation was determined by asking mothers around 4 weeks postpartum (n=2,041) whether they ever breastfed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mothers' perception of family members' and health care providers' opinion on how to feed the infant and the initiation of breastfeeding, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Nearly 14% of mothers surveyed did not initiate breastfeeding. Mothers who believed their family members or health care providers preferred breastfeeding only were least likely not to initiate breastfeeding. Never breastfeeding was significantly associated with the following perceptions: the infant's father (odds ratio [OR]=110.4; 95% CI 52.0 to 234.4) or maternal grandmother (OR=15.9; 95% CI 7.0 to 36.0) preferred only formula feeding; the infant's father (OR=3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 5.9) or doctor (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.2) preferred both breast and formula feeding; and the infant's father (OR=7.6; 95% CI 4.5 to 12.7), maternal grandmother (OR=5.4; 95% CI 2.6 to 11.0), or doctor (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) had no opinion/didn't know their feeding preference. The prenatal opinions of family members and health care providers play an important role in a woman's breastfeeding decisions after the infant's birth.

  8. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  9. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Ramara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: “Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?” Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301 -318, to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192 and De Vos (1998:343. Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers

  10. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramara, N S; Maputle, M S; Lekhuleni, M E

    2010-03-01

    HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: "Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?" Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301-318), to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4). Data were analysed according to Tesch's method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192) and De Vos (1998:343). Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies. The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers.

  11. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  12. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  14. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  15. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

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    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  16. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  17. A research study of sources of support for bottle feeding in new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Patricia; Barbour, Rosaline

    2007-06-01

    This paper asks if there is a difference in mothers' perceptions of the support they receive about bottle feeding from a range of professional and non-professional sources. The findings are put into the context of associated demographic characteristics. It forms part of a larger study, which was a longitudinal postal survey of 500 childbearing women across two health board regions in Scotland. Women were recruited at 34 weeks gestation by post. The results reported here are from further postal questionnaires at one and three months postnatally. Older women and those with higher education were more likely to initiate and maintain breast feeding, and less likely to introduce solid foods early. Younger women, who were mainly bottle feeding, were more likely to feel they had enough knowledge about feeding their infants than older women and were significantly more likely to feel that relatives were supportive about infant feeding. However, findings suggest that this confidence is largely dependent upon the support provided by relatives. Given the likelihood of misinformation and the potential for passing on inappropriate practices, this issue merits further examination. Health promotion strategies aimed at relatives of new mothers could, therefore, help to redress this and, thereby, promote more health advantages for the infants involved. However, there may be a large number of younger women who do not have knowledgeable support for infant feeding from relatives or friends and for whom access to health professionals for this information is restricted, possibly leading to poor infant-feeding decisions.

  18. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  19. Breast-Feeding May Not Lead to Smarter Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164308.html Breast-Feeding May Not Lead to Smarter Preschoolers But study ... 2017 MONDAY, March 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Breast-feeding may not make kids sharper or better behaved ...

  20. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  1. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  2. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  3. [Skin to skin contact and breast-feeding after birth: not always without risk!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsse, P.R.; Semmekrot, B.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin-to-skin contact after birth is propagated to facilitate breast-feeding and mother-child bonding. We describe two term infants with sudden unexpected postnatal collapse (SUPC) during skin-to-skin contact. The infants were found with abnormal colour, hypotonia and apnoea, in a prone position on t

  4. Predicting and understanding mothers' infant-feeding intentions and behavior: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, A S; Proffitt, C; Smart, J L

    1983-04-01

    The present study examines the applicability of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to the prediction and understanding of how primiparous and multiparous mothers intended to feed their infants and how they actually fed these infants during the 6 weeks following delivery. Measures of attitudes to behavior, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions were taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. Behavior was assessed by self-report 6 weeks postpartum. In most respects the findings supported the theory of reasoned action. However, attitudes to behavior were found to make an independent and significant contribution to the prediction of infant-feeding behavior, and the previous behavior of multiparous mothers explained an independent and significant proportion of variation in their behavioral intentions. The relative importance of the attitudinal and normative components of the theoretical model tended to vary according to whether the mothers had direct experience of the criterion behavior. Further analysis revealed that mothers who breast-fed during the 6-week postpartum period differed from those who bottle-fed exclusively during this period on a number of behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, and normative beliefs, and on one measure of motivation to comply. The implications of these findings for the theory of reasoned action are discussed.

  5. [Health care personnel's opinion on the breast-feeding pattern in the Mexican rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J E; Mojarro Dávila, O; Hernández, D

    1991-01-01

    This paper surveys the health care personnel's knowledge and opinion about the physiology of the mother milk production and the issues that occur when it is stopped at an earlier moment. From an inquire carried out in 1984 on 155 doctors and nurses and 48 midwives that render their services to the rural population of Mexico, it was found that the majority of the health care personnel recognized breast-feeding as the best nurture for the child. Nevertheless, this personnel is against having a long breast-feeding period. More than half of the doctors and nurses commented that the breast-feeding period must be stopped when the child has diarrhea, which is contrary to the international health agencies opinion. The majority of the health care personnel recommends the introduction of complementary food to children under three months old and suggests a quick stop of the breast-feeding period. From these data it is shown that the health care personnel has little knowledge about the breast-feeding role as an element that increases the period of amenorrhea and its value as a natural contraceptive. The relation between breast-feeding and amenorrhea and infertility is inaccurate, that is why it is concluded that it is necessary to have training for the health care personnel in some physiological aspects of breast-feeding that are of prime importance. If the health care personnel has a better knowledge about breast-feeding, these influencing agents to decrease the incidence and value of breast-feeding will turn into strong promoters of such a healthy practice.

  6. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  7. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING BREAST FEEDING, A PICTURE IN EAST KHASI HILLS DISTRICT OF MEGHALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and deve lopment. A child who is breast fed has greater chances of survival than a child who is art ificially fed. The low prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding increase the risk of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide, suboptimal breastfeeding still accounts for deaths of 1.4 million children a ged less than five years . AIM OF THE STUDY : 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices reg arding breast feeding among women 2. To study the factors influencing breast feeding practic es among women residing in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross sectional study conduct ed within the field practice area of NEIGRIHMS, two of which were urban- Nongmynsong and Pynthorbah and one rural area-Tynring. The study per iod was conducted from October 2012- December 2012 (three months duration. A total of 1 35 women were interviewed during the period. In the respective areas the households were s elected using simple random sampling after obtaining a list of all the households in the respective area from the ANM. In the selected household all the females available who have a chil d between 1-2 year of age were interviewed. Data analysis was done by descriptive analysis and a nalytical statistics by using Chi Square test using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS & OBSERVATION: Out of 135 families visited, 70 (51.9% families were nuclear families. With respect to feed ing practices; 80 (59% mothers had given Exclusive Breast Feeding for a period of 6 months. 7 4 (55% of mothers had knowledge on colostrums and 109 (80.75% of mothers had given co lostrum to their babies . 42 (31.1% mothers had initiated BF within 1 hour . The variables which were found to be associated wit h breast feeding are the mother

  8. Breast feeding practice among medical women in Nigeria

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    A E Sadoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health care workers are important in the promotion, protection and support of breast feeding. Their ability to do this may be influenced by their knowledge, personal experiences and work. Patients and Method: The breast feeding experience of 36 female medical doctors who had babies within the preceding two years and had resumed work was evaluated using a semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Result: All respondents knew that babies should be exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life but only 60% knew that breast feeding should continue until two years. The exclusive breast feeding rate for the studied doctors was 11.1%. Before their babies were six months old, about 75% of respondents had resumed work whilst over 50% had started taking calls. Most could not breast feed during working or call hours. Alternative feeds during working or call hours included expressed breast milk in 34.4% and infant formula in 21.9%. Feeding bottle was the major method (77.4% for feeding these alternatives. Work schedule was rearranged to allow breast feeding in only 27.3% of respondents. Conclusion: Failure to carry out exclusive breast feeding, the use of infant formula and feeding bottles (rather than cup feeding are practices that may be inimical to the practice of breast feeding in society in general. The suboptimal breast feeding experience in these doctors and the identified knowledge deficits may limit their effectiveness in promoting and supporting breast feeding among their patients and communities. Female medical personnel should be empowered to carry out optimal feeding of their own infants.

  9. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz Suzely A; Zina Livia; Saliba Nemre; Saliba Orlando

    2008-01-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers ...

  10. A comparative analytic study of knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding in primi and multipara women at a tertiary care centre in Gujarat, India

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    Manthan Patel

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Efforts need to be made to help mother to initiate feeding early specially in caesarean section. Women need to be made aware of benefits of breast feeding and proper techniques. Health care providers and nursing staff should be encouraged to actively participate in proper counselling and training of mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(10.000: 4403-4407

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding at a tertiary care centre in the government medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, India

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    Varsha Deshmukh

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Efforts need to be made to help mother to initiate feeding early specially in caesarean section. Women need to be made aware of benefits of breast feeding and proper techniques. Health care providers and nursing staff should be encouraged to actively participate in proper counseling and training of mothers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1912-1915

  12. Breast-feeding: nature's contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1985-01-01

    Our ancestors achieved the lowest rate of reproduction of any living mammal by the postponement of puberty until well into the 2nd decade of life, a maximal probability of conception of only about 24% per menstrual cycle even when ovulation had commenced, a 4-year birth interval as a result of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding, and sharply declining fertility during the 4th decade of life, leading to complete sterility at the menopause. This pattern of reproduction was ideally suited to the prevailing lifestyle of the nomadic hunter-gatherer. The postponement of puberty resulted in a prolonged period of childhood dependency, thus enabling parents to transmit their acquired experience to their offspring. Long birth intervals were essential for a woman who had to wander 1000 or more miles each year in search of food, because she could not manage to carry more than 1 child with her at a time. The lifestyle of comparatively recent times of a settled agricultural economy made possible subsequent rural and urban development, but this transition from nomad to city dweller also stimulated fertility. The cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals led to the development of permanent housing, where the mother could leave her baby in a safe place while she worked in the field. The resultant reduction in mother-infant contact coupled with the availability of early weaning foods reduced the suckling frequency, thereby eroding the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding and decreasing the birth interval. The model conquest of disease eventually led to rapid rates of population growth. In the developed countries of Europe and North America, reproduction was subsequently held in check by the use of artificial forms of contraception, but this has yet to take place in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. For a developing country, contraceptives are expensive, may be culturally unacceptable, and carry health risks. Breastfeeding is 1 form of

  13. Determinants of Breast Feeding Practices in Urban Slums of a Taluka Headquarter of District Anand, Gujarat

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    Varshney Amit M, Kumar Dinesh, Patel Mahendra, Singh Uday S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical and public health experts advocate breastfeeding as the best method of feeding young infants for a wide variety of reasons. Increasing urbanization and rising slum population is a ground reality even in the smaller towns of developing world. There are reports of improper child feeding practices in urban slums. The present study was undertaken to understand the determinants of breast feeding practices in urban slums of a small town (taluka head quarter, tire-IV in district Anand of Gujarat state. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre of Pramukhswami Medical College. Out of six served areas two were selected by using simple random sampling. After taking consent, the mothers of all children between the ages of 0-2 years were interviewed using pretested questionnaire. Results: Of the 75 mothers interviewed 4(5% did not have any antenatal checkups (ANC and 73 (97.3% had institutional deliveries. Of the 71 mothers who had ANC only 28(39.4% were counselled about breastfeeding. Prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding, exclusive breast feeding (EBF and bottle feeding was 17(22.7%, 37(46.7% and 10(13.3% respectively. Maternal education beyond 7th grade and antenatal counselling about breastfeeding were associated with increased EBF and decreased pre-lacteal feeds. Conclusions: Breast feeding practices though better than national average was far from satisfactory. Female literacy continues to be an important factor in child rearing practices. The breast feeding counselling services need great deal of improvement in all healthcare settings.

  14. Knowledge and Behaviors about Breast Milk and Breastfeeding on Mothers who have 0–24 Months Old Children

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    Diren Kaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is done to mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, for determining the mothers’ knowledge, attitude about breastfeeding and breast milk. METHOD: This descriptive type study was practiced with a questionnaire form which is including 44 questions by the 453 mothers who has 0–24 month children applied to the Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic for consultation. RESULTS: The age mean of the mothers comprised in the research is 28.04±5.49 years old. %56.5 of mothers have got information about breast milk and breastfeeding before birth. Course of to get information was %64.0 in postpartum time. %80.6 of mothers have give breast milk as first nutriment to their babies. %49.9 of mothers have suckled their babies in first hour after the birth. %90.9 of mothers said that they have give the colostrum to their babies. Babies breastfeeding time average was 6.66±5.37 months. Breastfeeding time average is low because of babies low age average. In study; %65.3 of babies are nourished with breast milk in first month and this rate as %60.0 in fourth month. This rate has decreased to %28.0 end of the sixth month. CONCLUSION: Consequently the mothers who applied to Firat University Hospital Pediatric Health and Disease Policlinic, percent of feeding with breast milk after the birth is high. However the percent of nursing with only breast milk is low in first six month and percent of starting to additional nourishment is high in early period. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2009; 8(6: 479-484

  15. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity.

  16. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

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    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  17. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.

  18. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

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    Herrick David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  19. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  20. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

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    Erly Catarina Moura

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01. Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward breast-feeding in public: SJSU students (56.8% felt social pressures to not breast=feed in public, and PUC-Campinas students (54.3% expressed personal constraint. SJSU students emphasized convenience, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, immunological factors as advantages of breast-feeding. PUC-Campinas students considered protection as an advantage of formula, feeding. Concerning causal factors for breast feeding failure, SJSU students cited negative social pressure and biological problems, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, lack of information. In conclusion, it is necessary to improve the curricula, if we expect future nutrition professionals to have adequate knowledge to promote and choose breast feeding successfully.

  1. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  2. Attitudes of medical and nursing personnel to breast feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Dutta, A K; Narayanan, I; Mullick, D N

    1987-10-01

    Medical staff from the department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology (50 doctors and 50 nurses) were interviewed in an assessment of attitudes towards and knowledge of breast feeding. 98% of the doctors and nurses believed that breast feeding was better than artificial feeding. However, 32% of the nurses believed that commercial powder milk is preferable for use with a preterm baby. Most of the 100 believed that a newborn baby should receive boiled water for the 1st feed. All of the doctors and 94% of the nurses agreed that the newborn should be given the opportunity for a breast feed within the 1st 12 hours following birth. While most of the doctors and nurses generally supported breast feeding, they also did not believe that the 1st feed should be breast milk, and nearly 1/3 of the nurses advocated commercial milk for preterm babies. 86% of the nurses and 70% of the doctors believed that breast feeding ought to continue for 1 year. Even though a general awareness and understanding of breast feeding existed among the medical personnel interviewed, there are still areas in which staff could be re-educated and re-directed.

  3. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date.

  4. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  5. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices

  6. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning modalities.…

  7. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  8. alpha-1-antitrypsin in breast milk of healthy Nigerian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeme, J A; Lantos, J D; Ihongbe, J C

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitryspin (x-1-AT) may play a possible role as effector of immunological stasis. This study examines the levels of this glycoprotein in 73 breast milk samples from 60 healthy Nigerian mothers. Levels of x-1-AT were measured by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini. Serum protein was measured by Lowry's method, albumin by Doumas' method. Highest mean levels of x-1-AT were found in colostrum (25 mg/dl). The level was significantly higher compared to transitional milk (14.2 mg/dl) or mature milk (165 mg/dl) (p0.001). Breast milk contains substantial amounts of x-1-AT which is not destroyed by pasturization at 56 degrees Centigrade. The immunological protective properties of breast milk are ideal for newborn babies, particularly those who are low birthweight and are thus most susceptible to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

  9. Duration of breast feeding and language ability in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Robinson, Monique; Li, Jianghong; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy over whether increased breast-feeding duration has long-term benefits for language development. The current study examined whether the positive associations of breast feeding on language ability at age 5 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort, were still present at age 10 years. The Raine Study is a longitudinal study of 2868 liveborn children recruited at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Breast-feeding data were based upon information prospectively collected during infancy, and were summarised according to four categories of breast-feeding duration: (1) never breast-fed, (2) breast-fed predominantly for 6 months. Language ability was assessed in 1195 children at the 10 year follow-up (mean age = 10.58 years; standard deviation = 0.19) using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), which is based around a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Associations between breast-feeding duration and PPVT-R scores were assessed before and after adjustment for a range of sociodemographic, obstetric and psychosocial covariates. Analysis of variance revealed a strong positive association between the duration of predominant breast feeding and PPVT-R at age 10 years. A multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for covariates and found that children who were predominantly breast-fed for >6 months had a mean PPVT-R score that was 4.04 points higher than children who were never breast-fed. This compared with an increase of 3.56 points at age 5 years. Breast feeding for longer periods in early life has a positive and statistically-independent effect on language development in middle childhood.

  10. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  11. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  12. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  13. Maintenance of the selected infant feeding methods amongst postnatal mothers at risk of HIV in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Yako

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to explore and describe influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods in the context of HIV and AIDS. Study objectives were: (1 to explore and describe the influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods selected by the mother during the antenatal period and (2 to describe the reasons related to a change in infant feeding method in the postnatal period. This cross-sectional study used the quantitative approach and a descriptive design. A convenience sample of 60 mothers in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme participated in this study. Data were collected six weeks post-delivery and analysed using SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The mean age of the mothers was 26.5 years, range 19 to 41 years (SD 5.3. At six weeks 73%(n= 44 of the mothers maintained the infant feeding method selected antenatally and 27%(n= 16 had changed methods. Using a Chi-square test, the difference between groups was significant (x2[df 1] = 19, p < 0.000. Every HIV-positive mother (100%, n= 28 continued with the method selected antenatally, compared with 50%(n = 16 of all HIV-negative mothers (n = 32. The reasons for deciding to change methods included going back to school or work; illness of babies; painful breasts; and advice from significant others. Most mothers maintained the feeding methods selected antenatally. HIV-positive mothers were more likely to adhere to the initial decisions made antenatally than HIV-negative mothers.

  14. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception.

  15. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  16. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  17. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women.

  18. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

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    Paula Chuproski Saldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  19. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  20. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU) in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas) in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01). Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward b...

  1. Isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that developed after breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare, even in endemic areas. There are few reports of breast hydatid cysts. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that was identified as a painless breast lump that had increased in size just after completion of breast feeding and was present with a painful breast mass after 25 years. This may indicate the possibility of retrograde passage of an Echinococcus granulosus egg through lactating ducts during breast feeding, liberation of an embryo that penetrates ductal mucus and enters the breast tissue and then develops into a hydatid cyst. When a patient comes from an area with little healthcare and where hydatid cysts are epidemic, and if this disease was indicated by radiologic or serologic examination, total mass excision without spillage is the best diagnostic and treatment. PMID:27194680

  2. Factors promoting breast feeding and nursing support

    OpenAIRE

    仲村, 美津枝; Nakamura, Mitsue; 琉球大学医学部保健学科小児看護学教室

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims at describing factors for promoting breastfeeding among working and nonworking mothers. It's also aims at helping them with breastfeeding from the nursing viewpoint. We surveyed the factors for continuing breastfeeding by following up postpartum mothers. We also surveyed the perception of breastfeeding the staff in obstetrical clinics and hospital. From our results, we found the following; 1) Mothers who continued breastfeeding for three months were significantly higher than t...

  3. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  4. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  5. What are mothers doing while bottle-feeding their infants? Exploring the prevalence of maternal distraction during bottle-feeding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Rebecca Pollack; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which mothers engage in distracting activities during infant feeding. Mothers reported engaging in other activities during 52% of feedings; television watching was the most prevalent activity reported. Further research on the impact of distraction on feeding outcomes is needed.

  6. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  7. Negotiating mothering against the odds: gastrostomy tube feeding, stigma, governmentality and disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gillian M; Scambler, Graham

    2006-03-01

    Using the findings of a small-scale qualitative investigation based on in-depth interviews with mothers attending a tertiary paediatric referral centre in London, this paper explores professional and parental discourses in relation to gastrostomy tube feeding and disabled children. Detailed accounts are given of women's struggles to negotiate their identities, and those of their children, within dominant discourses of mothering and child-centredness. Constructions of feeding practices as coercive conflict with normative expectations of 'good mothering' and the 'idealised autonomous' child. Although notions of 'stigmatised identities' featured in women's accounts of feeding children, both orally and by tube, stigma fails to explain why mothers are rendered culpable within expert discourses. Prevailing theories of stigma and coping are interrogated and judged to be more descriptive than explanatory. Felt stigma is posited as an aspect of governmentality.

  8. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Video Coding Scheme, IFSVCS) applied to both interview and video-taped data. We found that the most frequent feeding styles identified for both interviews and videotaped observations was restrictive, but that mothers were roughly equally divided among predominantly controlling (pressuring or restrictive) and less controlling (laissez-faire or indulgent) styles across methods. However, for over 2/3 of the sample, there was a lack of correspondence between interview and video-taped feeding styles. This unique characterization and comparison of observed and reported infant feeding styles provides additional insights into parental feeding approaches among mothers of infants at high risk of obesity, and highlights the need for further study of feeding style assessment and potential impact on infant weight outcomes. PMID:17336423

  9. A comparison of infant and toddler feeding practices of mothers with and without histories of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Bentley, Margaret E; Hamer, Robert M; Hodges, Eric A; Ward, Dianne S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-07-01

    This preliminary study surveyed the feeding practices of mothers with eating disorder histories through evaluation of mothers' reported feeding styles, child diet composition and restrictive special approaches to feeding. For this non-randomised cohort study, 25 mothers with eating disorder histories and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group and child sex. Mothers were compared on self-reported feeding style using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire and on child diet composition and special feeding approaches using a modified version of the Toddler Diet Questionnaire from the Women, Infants, and Children program. Mothers with eating disorder histories scored lower on the restrictive feeding style subscale than controls. No significant differences were detected between groups in child diet including the percentage of mothers who breastfed, duration of breastfeeding, age at solid food introduction, daily number of meals or snacks or daily frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or protein foods. Mothers with eating disorder histories were more likely to report taking a restrictive special approach to feeding such as limiting processed foods or feeding organic foods only. Although mothers with eating disorder histories may not differ greatly from control mothers in terms of child diet composition (smaller effects may not have been detected due to limited sample size), they may be more likely to take restrictive special approaches to feeding which mirror dietary rules common in individuals with eating disorders.

  10. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L. Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L.; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  11. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  12. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L. Garcia-Rodenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM amino acid (AA composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA and total (TAA AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors.

  13. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers

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    Francesca Giuffrida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA, phospholipids (PL, and gangliosides (GD play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD and with time of flight (TOF mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA, mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA, and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future.

  14. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

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    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  15. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

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    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  16. A study of feeding practices among infants born to HIV-infected mothers and its association with morbidity in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha S Mamulwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Globally, 2.3 million children have been victims of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV as of December 2006. Transmission through breastfeeding (BF is estimated to account for one third to one half of all these pediatric HIV infections. Aim: To study the feeding practices followed by HIV-infected mothers in Mumbai. Settings and Design: It is a prospective observational type of study conducted in a tertiary care hospital with antiretroviral treatment center for a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The study was reviewed and approved by the ethical committee of the hospital. Babies aged 0 to 9 months and born to HIV-positive mothers who are brought to integrated HIV outpatient department were included in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: The data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 15 package, Microsoft Excel 2003, and Epi Info. Results: As per the findings of this study, proportion of exclusive BF was 34.2%, top feeding was 42.1%, and mix feeding (MF was 23.7%. Diarrhea occurred more frequently in mix-fed infants (53.6% as compared to exclusively breast-fed infants (2.5% and top-fed infants (12.7%. The percentage of infants who were exclusively breast fed and had normal weight for age was 53.8%. Moderately malnourished infants were 30.8% and 15.4% of infants were severely malnourished. The percentage of severe malnutrition was more in top-fed and mix-fed infants (23.4% and 32.1%, respectively. Conclusion: MF was associated with increased risk of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Top-fed and mix-fed infants were more likely to suffer from infectious diseases.

  17. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  18. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  19. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...

  20. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  1. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite.

  2. Association of breast feeding practice with worm infestation in children aged 0 -24 months in Calabar South Local Gov-ernment Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Ekabua; Kufre Ekabua; Martin Meremeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Reduction in child morbidity and mortality require improved knowledge about hygiene,baby feed-ing and childrearing practices,especially by mothers in low resource nations.The objectives of the study were to compare the prevalence of worm infestation between exclusively and non-exclusively breast -fed children and to determine the age at which exclusively breast -fed children child could be significantly infested with worms. Method:Systematic sampling of 196 mother-infants pairs was done.A pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Fresh stool samples collected from the children were examined using the cellophane thick faecal smear technique of Kato -Katz.Results:The difference in preva-lence of worm infestation within 6 months of age was not significant between the exclusively and non-exclusively breast feed children.Age of significant worm infestation for exclusively breast -fed infants was 13 months. Mother's educational level significantly influenced their de-worming practices.Conclusion:This study showed that breast milk does protect children in the first year of life against worm infestation;but the burden of infesta-tion becomes significant after 12 months of age.Mothers should be taught to de -worm their children from 13 months of age.

  3. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  4. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. II. Lactose, nitrogen, and protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, B; Forsum, E; Gebre-Medhin, M; Hambraeus, L

    1976-10-01

    Breast milk from underprivileged and privileged Ethiopian mothers was collected at different stages of lactation and analyzed for total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, and individual milk proteins (lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, IgG and IgM). These values and the milk volume of one meal were compared to corresponding results from well-nourished Swedish mothers. No significant differences between the levels of these constituents or the milk volumes were found between the two groups of Ethiopian mothers. When comparison was made between breast milk from these two Ethiopian groups and the Swedish group, the former two showed significantly higher values for the iron-binding protein lactoferrin.

  5. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  6. Association of breast-feeding and feeding on demand with child weight status up to 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Thijs, C.; Stafleu, A.; Buuren, S. van; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of childhood overweight are unclear. This study examines the association of breast-feeding with weight gain in the first year, and body mass index (BMI) and overweight up to 4 years. In addition, we exam

  7. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  8. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  9. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...

  10. Difference in the breast milk proteome between allergic and non-allergic mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper A Hettinga

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. Important components that may be involved are breast milk proteins, as these are known to regulate immune development in the newborn. The objective of this study was therefore to explore differences in the proteins of breast milk from 20 allergic and non-allergic mothers. The results from this comparison may then be used to generate hypotheses on proteins associated with allergy in their offspring.Milk samples from allergic and non-allergic mothers were obtained from the PIAMA project, a prospective birth cohort study on incidence, risk factors, and prevention of asthma and inhalant allergy. Non-targeted proteomics technology, based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was used to compare breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers.Nineteen proteins, out of a total of 364 proteins identified in both groups, differed significantly in concentration between the breast milk of allergic and non-allergic mothers. Protease inhibitors and apolipoproteins were present in much higher concentrations in breast milk of allergic than non-allergic mothers. These proteins have been suggested to be linked to allergy and asthma.The non-targeted milk proteomic analysis employed has provided new targets for future studies on the relation between breast milk composition and allergy.

  11. Breast is best: Positive mealtime interactions in breastfeeding mothers from Israel and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netalie Shloim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined mealtime interactions to assess whether they varied according to maternal body mass index, country and mode of feeding in 41 Israeli and UK mother–infant dyads. Feeding behaviours were coded using the Simple Feeding Element Scale. Significantly, more UK mothers breastfed during the filmed meal compared to Israeli mothers. Mealtime interactions did not vary according to maternal body mass index or country. Women who breastfed (as opposed to those who bottle fed or fed solids provided fewer distractions during the meal, a more ideal feeding environment and fed more responsively.

  12. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions.

  13. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  14. Predictors of breast-feeding in a developing country: results of a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sahab, B; Tamim, H; Mumtaz, G; Khawaja, M.; Khogali, M.; Afifi, R; Nassif, Y; Yunis, KA; National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network (NCPNN)

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the paediatrician. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Predictors of breast-feeding significant at the bivariate level were tested at 1 and 4 ...

  15. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  16. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance.

  17. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  18. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. IV. Milk lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, O; Gebre-Medhin, M; Olivecrona, T

    1977-04-01

    The (potential) activities of the two lipases in human milk were determined in breast milk samples collected from Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. The major lipase in human milk is dependent on bile salts for activity and probably participates in intestinal digestion of milk lipids in the newborn. The level of this lipase in the milk did not change with time after parturition, but differed between the groups so that it was higher in the privileged Ethopian mothers than in the nonprivileged Ethiopian mothers, who in turn had a higher level than the Swedish mothers. The other lipase is a serum-stimulated lipase (lipoprotein lipase). The level of this lipase varied between samples from different mothers as well as between different samples from the same mother. It tended to be lower in samples obtained at 4 to 5 days after parturition (Swedish mothers) than in later samples. There were in this case no significant differences between nonprivileged and privileged Ethiopian mothers or between them and Swedish mothers.

  19. Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction During Feeding at Six and Nine Months and Its Relationship to Maternal Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Jill C.

    This study explored the relationship between maternal sensitivity and the development of mother-infant vocal interaction. Two characteristics of mother and infant vocalizations were assessed at six and nine months in a home feeding situation: (1) the degree of mutual responsiveness, and (2) the affective quality of vocalization. These assessments…

  20. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.

  1. Communication by mothers with breast cancer or melanoma with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rikki; Desai, Sapna; Smith, Maureen; Eilers, Steve; Blatt, Hanz; Guevara, Yanina; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-08

    Communication of familial risk of breast cancer and melanoma has the potential to educate relatives about their risk, and may also motivate them to engage in prevention and early detection practices. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy laws, the patient often becomes the sole communicator of such risks to family members. This study surveys mothers diagnosed with either breast cancer or melanoma and their adult children about their family communication style, knowledge of increased risk, and early detection practices. In both cancer groups, most mothers alerted their children of the risk and need for early detection practices. Breast cancer mothers communicated risk and secondary prevention with early detection by breast self-examination and mammograms whereas the melanoma mothers communicated risk and primary prevention strategies like applying sunscreen and avoiding deliberate tanning. Open communication about health matters significantly increased the likelihood that children engaged in early detection and/or primary prevention behaviors. Examining the information conveyed to at-risk family members, and whether such information motivated them to engage in early detection/prevention behaviors, is key to guiding better cancer prevention communication between doctors and patients.

  2. Communication by Mothers with Breast Cancer or Melanoma with Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication of familial risk of breast cancer and melanoma has the potential to educate relatives about their risk, and may also motivate them to engage in prevention and early detection practices. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA privacy laws, the patient often becomes the sole communicator of such risks to family members. This study surveys mothers diagnosed with either breast cancer or melanoma and their adult children about their family communication style, knowledge of increased risk, and early detection practices. In both cancer groups, most mothers alerted their children of the risk and need for early detection practices. Breast cancer mothers communicated risk and secondary prevention with early detection by breast self-examination and mammograms whereas the melanoma mothers communicated risk and primary prevention strategies like applying sunscreen and avoiding deliberate tanning. Open communication about health matters significantly increased the likelihood that children engaged in early detection and/or primary prevention behaviors. Examining the information conveyed to at-risk family members, and whether such information motivated them to engage in early detection/prevention behaviors, is key to guiding better cancer prevention communication between doctors and patients.

  3. Correlation between lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk: Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, Raafat A; Ghanem, Abdel-Aziz; El-Azab, Somaia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed on fifty-two drinking tap water samples (surface and groundwater) collected from different districts of Dakahlia Governorate and fifty-two breast milk samples from lactating mothers hosted in Dakahlia Governorate hospitals. All these samples were subjected to lead analysis. Lead level in drinking groundwater showed higher levels than in drinking surface water. Also, an elevation of lead levels in breast milk of mothers drinking groundwater was noticed when compared with that of mothers drinking surface water. The comparison between mean lead levels in drinking water and mothers' breast milk samples showed positive relationship. Lead concentrations in breast milk of the studied samples were elevated by exposure to smoking. We conclude that prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood. Also, we recommend that chemical analyses must be carried out periodically for the surface and groundwater to ensure the water suitability for drinking purposes. Passive exposure to smoking during lactation should be avoided. Capsule: Prolonged contact with lead plumbing can increase the lead content in tap water with subsequent increase in lead burden in infant fed formula and infant blood.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on infant and young child nutrition and feeding among adolescent girls and young mothers in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-04-01

    Improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have the potential to improve child health and development outcomes in poorly resourced communities. In Bangladesh, approximately 60% of rural girls become mothers before the age of 18, but most interventions to improve IYCF practices target older mothers. We investigated the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding IYCF among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-23 years old in two rural regions in north-west Bangladesh and identified the main points of concordance with, or mismatch to, key international IYCF recommendations. We compared qualitative data collected during interviews and focus groups with participants who were unmarried, married without a child and married with at least one child, and stratified by region. Qualitative indicators of concordance with international recommendations suggest that IYCF knowledge of participants was limited, irrespective of marriage or maternity. Young mothers in our study were no more knowledgeable about feeding practices than their nulliparous peers. Some participants were well aware of an IYCF recommendation (e.g. to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months), but their interpretation of the recommendation deviated from the intended public health message. Notions of insufficient or 'spoiled' breast milk, gender-based biases in feeding intentions and understandings of infant needs, and generational shifts in feeding practices were commonly reported. Conclusions are that female adolescence is a window of opportunity for improving health outcomes among future children, and increased investment in early education of adolescent girls regarding safe IYCF may be an effective strategy to promote and support improved infant feeding practices.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis investigating breast feeding and childhood wheezing illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Allen, C Wendy; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B

    2011-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between breast feeding and wheezing illness. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between breast feeding and wheezing in children aged over 5 years and to discover possible sources of heterogeneity. An electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted from January 2000 to June 2010. In addition, reference lists from relevant publications were searched. Birth cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies were included if they measured any breast feeding or exclusive breast feeding for 3 or 4 months. Wheezing illness, including asthma, was identified based on symptoms, reported diagnosis or objective criteria. Thirty-one publications were identified for meta-analysis. There was no association found between any or exclusive breast feeding and wheezing illness, although there was a high level of heterogeneity between the studies. Subgroup analysis revealed that any breast feeding slightly lowers the odds of wheeze (pooled odds ratio 0.92 [0.86, 0.98]) but slightly increases the odds of asthma defined by specific criteria (pooled odds ratio 1.10 [1.00, 1.22]). This meta-analysis does not provide evidence that breast feeding is protective against wheezing illness in children aged 5 years and over. The difference in the effects of breast feeding according to the nature of the wheezing illness highlights the importance of the heterogeneity of illness phenotypes.

  6. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  7. Role of the World Health Organization in the Promotion of Breast-Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sterken, Elisabeth

    1990-01-01

    In response to the global decline in breast-feeding initiation and duration rates, the World Health Organization has produced several documents to assist governments and health professionals to reverse the trend. The WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes addresses the detrimental influence of promotional methods by the infant formula industry. The recent WHO/UNICEF statement Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-feeding has been prepared to increase the awarenes...

  8. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding.

  9. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research.

  10. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions.

  11. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  12. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  13. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  14. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  15. Breast milk composition and bile salt-stimulated lipase in well-nourished and under-nourished Nigerian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindler, J; Nwankwo, M U; Omene, J A; Roberts, I M; LaRocca, G M; Glew, R H

    1987-03-01

    Breast milk was analysed in 9 under-nourished Nigerian mothers and 23 well-nourished mothers who served as controls. Milk from the under-nourished mothers contained adequate amounts of lactose and total triglycerides, but had significantly lower bile salt-stimulated lipase activity (BSSL); their mean BSSL activity was only about 50% of the activity in milk from the control group. Total milk protein was also significantly lower than for the controls (1.45 vs. 1.09 g/dl, respectively; P less than 0.01). Our findings may have nutritional implications for breast-fed infants of under-nourished nursing mothers.

  16. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  17. [Evaluation of a diet and nutritional status of breast feeding women on the basis of a questionnaire study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, H; Rudzka-Kańtoch, Z; Dylag, H; Strucińska, M; Klemarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    The subjects were 120 breast-feeding mothers whose children were admitted for outpatient or inpatient treatment at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw, between March, 1998 and July, 1999. A special nutritional questionnaire was elaborated with the aim to evaluate subjects' nutritional status as well as their diet. All subjects completed the questionnaire and then selected parameters of their nutritional status and diet were evaluated. For 43 of the women under study it was the first month of lactation, for 33--the fourth month, for 23--the sixth and 21 women had been breast-feeding for more then six months. The subjects were of different age, coming from both urban and rural areas. In the studied group the nutritional status, i.e. body mass indices (BMI) before pregnancy, at the end of pregnancy and during lactation were within the normal range. 65 of the subjects had changed their diet due to pregnancy and 52 due to lactation. Women declared to be used to eating 3-4 meals per day. Having additional snacks was declared by 62.5%. Liquids' intake was on average about 2.5 l/24 hr, range 2-31. Average daily energy intake--2938 kcal/12,980 kJ, the lowest--in a diet of a mother with diabetes, the highest--in a diet of a vegetarian mother. The proportion of protein in energy intake was 15.1%, whereas fat--36.3%. Dietary practices of women under study in the period of lactation were well adjusted to nutritional recommendations for this group, as evidenced by indices of nutritional status (i.e. BMI). Among 120 women, 71 were taking supplementary preparations of vitamins and minerals. It turned out that a level of some vitamins in a daily food intake together with supplementation was definitely too high.

  18. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women...... with a psychiatric disease, we asked the Danish Psychiatric Society, the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Danish Paediatric Society and the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology to appoint members for the working group. A comprehensive review of the literature was hereafter conducted. RESULTS...... and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  19. VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION - IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR LACTATING MOTHERS AND BREAST-FED INFANTS??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vit D deficiency is an upcoming health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is an essential nutrient required for bone metabolism and growth. Need for vitamin D and calcium is higher in embryonic period, infancy, early childhood, puberty, pregnancy, lactation and old age. Vit D supplementation is not included in the present antenatal care and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI programmes in India. AIM This study was done to evaluate the Vit D status of lactating mothers and their exclusively breast fed infants. The study also aims to find the correlation of Vit D with the blood biochemical markers like ALP, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and find the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty two lactating mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants up to 4 months age were selected and their blood was analysed for Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, ALP and PTH. RESULTS An 86% of mothers and 87% of infants showed hypovitaminosis D. There is significant positive correlation between maternal and infant Vit D levels. Vit D of infants showed significant inverse correlation with BMI of mothers and PTH of infants. CONCLUSION Vit D status of exclusively breast fed infants depend on maternal Vit D levels. Infant’s bone mineral status is affected by hypovitaminosis D. Therefore, both mothers and infants should be supplemented with Vit D to prevent complications in future

  20. Pattern of mother-child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSalvatori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on mother-child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother- toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm and 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother-child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother-child dyads.

  1. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  2. Development and pilot of a group skills-and-support intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J; Bryant-Waugh, R

    2012-04-01

    Child feeding problems are often associated with parental factors which may influence and maintain difficulties. This paper reports the development, pilot and preliminary evaluation of a group intervention for mothers of children with feeding problems. Themes for the group were derived from a survey of parents and professionals. Three pilot interventions were conducted in order to make an assessment of the feasibility, acceptability and potential for achieving change in levels of maternal mood, parenting stress and concerns related to feeding. While single case analysis revealed little change in standardised measures of mood and parenting stress, participants valued the social and emotional support offered by the group and reported improvements in concerns and maladaptive behaviours related to feeding. An intervention which provides support and a sense of a shared experience appears to have beneficial effects for mothers of children with feeding problems and therefore, may offer a constructive means of supporting this population.

  3. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  4. Mother's feeding practices for children 3-10 years of age and their associations with child demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined relationships between mothers' feeding practices and child demographics such as gender, age, weight status, and family income. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 2259 children between 3 and 10 years of age who were sampled for the development of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale. No child gender differences were found in mothers' feeding practices. Older children received more Fat Reduction and Many Food Choices, but less Positive Persuasion, Use of Rewards, Insistence on Eating, and Special Meals, with differences in these feeding practices being most notable from before to after school age. Overweight children received less Insistence on Eating and more Fat Reduction than underweight or normal weight children. Children with the lowest family incomes received less Fat Reduction, less Daily FV Availability, more Use of Rewards. Results suggest that mothers respond to changing conditions, possibly including feedback from school nurses, increases in children's weight status, and availability of financial resources.

  5. Antibiotics and breast-feeding: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Allison M; Reed, Michael D; Blumer, Jeffrey L

    2002-01-01

    Continuous breast-feeding, an integral component of the postpartum period, is often threatened upon maternal initiation of antibiotics. The real risk of antibiotic use while breast-feeding must be carefully analysed with regard to all the variables that influence the extent of antibiotic distribution into breast milk, including breast milk composition, physicochemical properties of the antibiotic (molecular weight, lipid solubility, pH, protein binding), length of feeding, and maternal disposition. In addition, infant disposition, including ability to absorb, metabolize, eliminate, and tolerate any amounts of antibiotic, must also be considered prior to maternal administration of antibiotic. The milk to plasma (M/P) ratio is a frequently quoted parameter used to predict drug distribution into breast milk. However, its utility is questionable and often fraught with misinterpretation. An alternative approach when the amount of antibiotic concentration in breast milk is known (through clinical trials) is to calculate an estimated or expected infant drug exposure factoring in known/expected milk consumption, drug concentration and bioavailability. In this review, the following antibiotic classes and current literature regarding their distribution into breast milk are critically reviewed: beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. In the majority of instances, these antibiotics do not distribute into breast milk in sufficient concentrations to be of any clinical consequence in the breast-feeding infant.

  6. Effect of prolonged breast-feeding on risk of atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Son, Dong Koog

    2014-01-01

    The effect of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopic disease remains controversial. This study is an investigation of the effect of breast-feeding on current atopic dermatitis (AD) among Korean children. This cross-sectional study of children's histories of current AD and environmental factors was completed by the subjects' parents. The subjects included 10,383 children aged 0-13 years in Seoul, Korea, in 2008. The diagnostic criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were applied in this study. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, maternal education, smoking in the household, relocation to a new house within 1 year of birth, and parental history of atopic disease. After adjustment for confounders, age and duration of maternal education were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of AD. Among subjects aged ≤5 years, the prevalence of AD was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (p feeding among children >5 years of age. Regardless of parental history of atopic diseases, breast-feeding >12 months was a significant risk factor for AD. The effect of breast-feeding differed by age group. Prolonged breast-feeding increased the risk of AD in children <5 years of age, regardless of parental history of atopic diseases.

  7. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life. PMID:27338468

  8. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI, their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA. Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR: 2.75 in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62 in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32 in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41 and 64 kg (IQR: 15. Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02, while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627. Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213 and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285. Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449 and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322. Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  9. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival.......02). Children aged 12-35 months who were not breast fed had a 3.5 times higher mortality (1.4 to 8.3) than breast fed children. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of breast feeding are not restricted to infancy. Though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than...... were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea...

  10. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines.

  11. Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Titi; Zhang Yumei; Ning Yibing; You Lili; Ma Defu; Zheng Yingdong; Yang Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development,in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients.Compared to western countries,research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited.Thus,it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages,to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population,and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk.Methods Breast milk of full expression of one side breast from 436 urban Chinese lactating mothers at 5-11 days,12-30 days,31-60 days,61-120 days,and 121-240 days postpartum was obtained at 9:00 a.m.to 11:00 a.m.Total energy,lactose,protein,and fat contents were measured.24-hour dietary recall was surveyed,and maternal nutrient intakes were analyzed.Results Milk composition changed over the course of lactation and large individual variations were documented.The concentrations were 61.3 kcal/dl for total energy,7.1 g/dl for lactose,0.9 g/dl for protein,and 3.4 g/dl for fat in mature milk.Stage of lactation was a strong factor affecting milk composition.Minimal evidence was found for associations between maternal current dietary intake and milk macronutrient concentration,consistently with prior research.Maternal body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with milk fat content,to a greater extent than did dietary intake.All other maternal characteristics were not significant for milk composition.Conclusion These findings suggest that milk composition is generally weakly associated with maternal factors except for stage of lactation,and is likely to be more susceptible to long-term maternal nutritional status than short-term dietary fluctuation.

  12. 乳旁加奶在母乳喂养中的应用%Application of the Breast Milk in the Breast Feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨使用乳旁加奶器混合喂养对母婴的影响。方法选择400组新生儿及其母亲随机分为观察组和对照组各200组。观察组以纯母乳喂养为基础,适时采用乳旁加奶器混合喂养方法,对照组实施纯母乳喂养。结果观察组的母亲睡眠状况、胎便排泄持续时间、每天排尿次数及新生儿睡眠质量,新生儿生理性黄疸消退时间均优于对照组,母乳达充足时间无差别。结论:母乳是新生儿最理想的天然食品,但在早期乳量不足的情况下,适时采用乳旁加奶的方法,可提高母亲及新生儿的睡眠质量、预防新生儿脱水、增加小便次数、促进大便排出,新生儿黄疸消退较快,更有利于新生儿的生长。%Objective Margin milk is mixed with milk feeding ef ects on maternal and infant.Methods Select 400 newborns and their mothers were randomly divided into observation group and control group 200 each set. Observation group based on pure breast-feeding, timely adopt next to the milk and milk mixed feeding method, the control implementation of exclusive breastfeeding.Results Observation group's mother sleep duration, meconium excretion, micturition number every day, and neonatal sleep quality,Neonatal physiological jaundice faded time were superior to control group, there was no dif erence in the breast milk of time.Conclusion Breast milk is a new student the most ideal natural food, but in the case of insuf icient early milk volume, timely adopt the method of near the milk white, to improve the quality of mothers and newborns sleep, prevent dehydration, to increase the number to urinate, and promote defecate eduction, neonatal jaundice subsided quickly, more conducive to the growth of newborns.

  13. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. I. Vitamin A and beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Medhin, M; Vahlquist, A; Hofvander, Y; Uppsäll, L; Vahlquist, B

    1976-04-01

    The vitamin A and beta-carotene contents of breast milk were determined at different stages of lactation in three population groups: nonprivileged Ethiopian, privileged Ethiopian, and Swedish mothers. In addition, a fractionation of vitamin A giving the proportion of retinol was performed. The concentrations of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and (in part of the material) beta-carotene and prealbumin in plasma were also measured. The mean concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene in the milk from the Swedish mothers (period 0.5 to 6.5 months) were in the range of 40.0 to 53.1 and 16.3 to 20.8 mug/100 ml, respectively. For the privileged Ethiopian mothers (period 0.5 to 3.5 months) the corresponding ranges were 36.2 to 36.4 and 26.2 to 28.1 mug/100 ml and for the nonprivileged Ethiopian mothers (period 0.5 to 6.5 months) 28.1 to 33.1 and 23.9 to 25.6 mug/100 ml. Only the nonprivileged Ethiopian mothers were examined during a later stage of lactation (6.5 to 11.5 and 11.5 to 23.5 months). The concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene in their milk showed a downward trend. The proportion of retinyl ester (percentage of total vitamin A content) was significantly higher in the milk of Swedish mothers than in privileged and nonprivileged Ethiopian mothers. In the Swedish mothers retinol constituted 3.5% of the total vitamin A content of the milk; in Ethiopian mothers it was 15 to 30%. Determination of RBP in plasma showed normal values for Swedish mothers and lowered values for Ethiopian mothers--particularly the nonprivileged, in whom 14 of 81 values were below 20 mug/ml. RBP was demonstrated in colostrum, but only in a low concentration (in the order of 5 mug/ml).

  14. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  15. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding;Proposta de um levantamento do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes submetidas a procedimento com radiofarmacos e respectivos bebes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2009-07-01

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  16. Attitudes towards breastfeeding - the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale in Chinese mothers living in China and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Binns, Colin W; Liu, Yi; Maycock, Bruce; Zhao, Yun; Tang, Li

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to translate and validate a Chinese (simplified) version of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) and compare the infant feeding attitudes of Chinese mothers living in Perth Australia and in Chengdu P.R. China. A survey was undertaken on 200 Chinese mothers living in Perth and 1620 mothers living in Chengdu. The simplified Chinese version of IIFAS had a moderate level of internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.69 for mothers in Australia and 0.55 for mothers in China. The mean IIFAS scores in both country groups lay in the range of 'neutral breastfeeding attitudes'. Higher IIFAS scores were significantly associated with the likelihood of both breastfeeding initiation (OR: 3.85; CI: 2.49-5.96; p=8 months) breastfeeding duration (OR: 2.52; CI: 1.87-3.40; pattitudes towards breastfeeding than mothers in Chengdu (mean IIFAS score=57.7±5.1, p<0.001), and had a longer duration of 'any breastfeeding' (10.0±6.2 months in Perth compared to 7.4±4.3 months in Chengdu, p<0.001). In conclusion, higher scores on the IIFAS in simplified Chinese are associated with breastfeeding initiation and duration in Chinese populations.

  17. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

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    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  18. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported.

  19. Persistent organochlorine compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Niida, Mami; Hashim, Hatijah

    2005-10-01

    This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and TCPMe. The residue levels of DDTs, HCHs, and CHLs were comparable to or higher than those in general populations of other countries, whereas PCBs and HCB were relatively low. In addition, dioxins and related compounds were also detected with a range of dioxin equivalent concentrations from 3.4 to 24 pg-TEQs/g lipid wt. Levels of toxic equivalents (TEQs) were slightly higher than those in other developing countries but still much lower than those of industrialized nations. One donor mother contained a high TEQs level, equal to the mean value in human breast milk from Japan, implying that some of the residents in Malaysia may be exposed to specific pollution sources of dioxins and related compounds. No association was observed between OCs concentrations and maternal characteristics, which might be related to a limited number of samples, narrow range of age of the donor mothers, and/or other external factors. The recently identified endocrine disrupter, TCPMe, was also detected in all human breast milk samples of this study. A significant positive correlation was observed between TCPMe and DDTs, suggesting that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in Malaysia. The present study provides a useful baseline for future studies on the accumulations of OCs in the general population of Malaysia.

  20. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.

  1. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development.

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :μg/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :μg/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :μg/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

  3. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (preterm (28-preterm (32-preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk.

  4. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain.

  5. Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付玉涛

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.You You quarreled with her mother.She was very angry and ran out of home.优优跟妈妈吵了一架,赌气跑了出去. 2.She walked to a noodle shop.And she felt a little hungry.她来到一个拉面铺前,才感到自己有些饿了.

  6. Breast feeding increases vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation in rat mesenteric artery. Role of neuronal nitric oxide and ATP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanco-Rivero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate in rat mesenteric artery whether breast feeding (BF affects the vasomotor response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS, participation by different innervations in the EFS-induced response and the mechanism/s underlying these possible modifications. METHODS: Experiments were performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old, divided into three groups: Control (in oestrous phase, mothers after 21 days of BF, and mothers that had recovered their oestral cycle (After BF, in oestrous phase. Vasomotor response to EFS, noradrenaline (NA and nitric oxide (NO donor DEA-NO were studied. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS and phosphorylated nNOS (P-nNOS protein expression were analysed and NO, superoxide anion (O(2(.-, NA and ATP releases were also determined. RESULTS: EFS-induced contraction was higher in the BF group, and was recovered after BF. 1 µmol/L phentolamine decreased the response to EFS similarly in control and BF rats. NA vasoconstriction and release were similar in both experimental groups. ATP release was higher in segments from BF rats. 0.1 mmol/L L-NAME increased the response to EFS in both control and BF rats, but more so in control animals. BF decreased NO release and did not modify O(2(.- production. Vasodilator response to DEA-NO was similar in both groups, while nNOS and P-nNOS expressions were decreased in segments from BF animals. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding increases EFS-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries, mainly through the decrease of neuronal NO release mediated by decreased nNOS and P-nNOS expression. Sympathetic function is increased through the increased ATP release in BF rats.

  7. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  8. Persuade Mothers in Post Natal Ward for Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding

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    Mamtarani, Ratan K Srivastava, B.Divakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Timely initiation of breast feeding has been an important issue since last many decades. However, encouragement and early initiation of breast feeding gained momentum since last 20 years. The traditional wisdom and scientific research have proved that mother’s milk is the best. Design: It is a Cross sectional study conducted in urban tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: a pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview hospitalised mothers. This paper is the result of the interview of 600 women who delivered babies in the hospital. Their Details of socio-demographic features were enquired in addition to the questions related to their initiation of breast feeding after the birth of baby. Timely initiation of breast-feeding was calculated in this paper as percent of infants (0 - <12 months who were put to the breast within one hour of delivery. Results: Out of all deliveries, breast feeding was timely initiated with in one hour only by 1.0 percent of mothers. However 30 percent mothers initiated breast feeding within two hours. Conclusion: The observations of the present study supports that the health functionaries must utilise the opportunity to persuade mothers in the postnatal ward after delivery of their babies for early initiation of breast feeding.

  9. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  10. [Duration of breast feeding after mandatory early discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, O

    1993-08-23

    A trial arrangement for mandatory early discharge for all normal multiparae was started in 1990 and the duration of breastfeeding was investigated by a questionnaire. 89 mothers who stayed at the hospital were compared to 113 mothers who were discharged within 24 hours after delivery. The latter group was also compared to 122 early discharged mothers who delivered 14-17 months after the trial arrangement had started. The three groups were comparable in all aspects. After four weeks a large proportion of the later discharged mothers were still breastfeeding compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001). This difference disappeared later, hence when comparing the total duration of breastfeeding no differences were found between the three groups.

  11. Breast Milk and Gut Microbiota in African Mothers and Infants from an Area of High HIV Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel González; Antonio Maldonado; Virginia Martín; Inácio Mandomando; Victoria Fumadó; Metzner, Karin J.; Charfudin Sacoor; Leónides Fernández; Eusébio Macete; Alonso, Pedro L.; Rodríguez, Juan M; Clara Menendez

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human milk and infant gut microbiota are essential for the immune system maturation and protection against infections. There is scarce information on the microbiological composition of breast milk in general, and none from developing countries. The objective of the study was to characterize the breast milk and gut microbiota from mothers and infants from southern Mozambique, where infections and breastfeeding are prevalent. METHODS: A community-based study was undertaken among 121...

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BREAST-FEEDING, CO-SLEEPING, AND SOMATIC COMPLAINTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elisabeth Maria; Lusher, Joanne Marie; Banbury, Samantha; Chandler, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The central aim of this study was to expand a limited body of knowledge on the complex relationship between breast-feeding, co-sleeping, and somatic complaints in early childhood. An opportunity sample of 98 parents from the general population with children aged 18 to 60 months consented to participate in the study. Each parent completed a series of questionnaires measuring somatic complaints, sleep problems, co-sleeping, breast-feeding, and demographic factors. Findings indicated that co-sleeping was associated with increased somatic complaints and that breast-feeding associated with decreased somatic complaints. Co-sleeping also was found to be associated with an increase in sleep problems. Boys demonstrated significantly higher levels of sleep problems than did girls. These findings highlight the relationship between co-sleeping during early childhood, which could have implications for prevention, treatment, and intervention regarding somatic complaints and sleep problems in early childhood.

  13. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

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    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  14. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  15. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rothfus

    2012-04-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  16. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  17. 母乳喂养与儿童哮喘的关系%Correlation between breast-feeding and childhood asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉双; 金哲英; 王玉凤; 马印慧; 汪俊红

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究母乳喂养对儿童哮喘的影响.方法 对6个月到4岁的164例哮喘儿童和1763名非哮喘儿童进行问卷调查,收集母乳喂养情况,并分析母乳喂养与儿童哮喘的关系.结果 1927名儿童中母乳喂养<4月组的儿童有818例(42.4%),母乳喂养≥4月组的儿童有1109例(57.6%).母乳喂养≥4月组的儿童哮喘发生率显著低于母乳喂养<4月组(x2=6.456,P=0.011),同时母乳喂养可以降低儿童发生哮喘的危险(OR=1.512;95%CI:1.097-2.083).进一步分析发现:年龄<3岁组、女性儿童组、孕周≥37周组、体重<2500 g组、出生时母亲年龄≥30岁组以及父母亲没有过敏史组的儿童母乳喂养≥4月组的哮喘发生率均明显低于母乳喂养<4月组(P<0.05),其他各组的儿童哮喘发生率差异均没有显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 母乳喂养可能减少感染和特应性变态反应,因此可以明显降低儿童的哮喘发生率.%Objective To investigate the effects of breast-fecding on childhood asthma. Methods 164 children with asthma and 1763 children without asthma in 6 months to 4 years of age were investigated by questionnaire. The data of breast-feeding was collected,and analyzed the correlation between breast-feeding and childhood asthma. Results There were 818(42. 4% ) children in breast-feeding <4 months group and 1109 (57.6%) children in breast-feeding≥ 4 months group among 1927 children. The incidence of childhood asthina in breast-feeding ≥4 months group was lower than that in breast-feeding <4 months group (x2 =6.4.56, P=0.011), and breast-feeding could reduce the risk of childhood asthma ( 0R = 1.512; 95% CI: 1. 097~2. 083 ). Further analysis showed that children in age <3 years, female children, gestational age≥37 weeks, weight <2500 g, mother's age≥30 years or parents without allergic history group had lower incidence of asthma by breast-feeding ≥4months than that by breast-feeding < 4 months ( P

  18. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society.

  19. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    De, G.; Batty, G.D.; Deary, I J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are co...

  20. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  1. Autoantibodies to αS1-casein are induced by breast-feeding.

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    Klaudia Petermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1 was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. METHODS: 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37 or were not (n = 25 breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies by a commercial ELISA. RESULTS: IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum, but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. CONCLUSION: We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood.

  2. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  3. Adaptive HIV-specific B cell-derived humoral immune defenses of the intestinal mucosa in children exposed to HIV via breast-feeding.

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    Sandrine Moussa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. METHODS: Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n = 14 and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n = 8 and HIV-infected (n = 6 babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and breastfed babies (n = 10 as controls, were prospectively included at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM and anti-gp160 antibodies from mother's milk and stools of breastfed children were quantified by ELISA. Immunoaffinity purified anti-gp160 antibodies were characterized functionally regarding their capacity to reduce attachment and/or infection of R5- and X4- tropic HIV-1 strains on human colorectal epithelial HT29 cells line or monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM. RESULTS: The levels of total IgA and IgG were increased in milk of HIV-infected mothers and stools of HIV-exposed children, indicating the activation of B cell-derived mucosal immunity. Breast milk samples as well as stool samples from HIV-negative and HIV-infected babies exposed to HIV by breast-feeding, contained high levels of HIV-specific antibodies, mainly IgG antibodies, less frequently IgA antibodies, and rarely IgM antibodies. Relative ratios of excretion by reference to lactoferrin calculated for HIV-specific IgA, IgG and IgM in stools of HIV-exposed children were largely superior to 1, indicating active production of HIV-specific antibodies by the intestinal mucosa. Antibodies to gp160 purified from pooled stools of HIV-exposed breastfed children inhibited the attachment of HIV-1NDK on HT29 cells by 63% and on MDM by 77%, and the attachment of HIV-1JRCSF on MDM by 40%; and the infection of MDM by HIV-1JRCSF by 93%. CONCLUSIONS: The intestinal mucosa of children exposed to HIV by breast-feeding produces HIV-specific antibodies harbouring

  4. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  5. Resurgence of nutritional rickets associated with breast-feeding and special dietary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edidin, D V; Levitsky, L L; Schey, W; Dumbovic, N; Campos, A

    1980-02-01

    Ten cases of nutritional rickets seen over a 10-month period are reviewed. The salient clinical features are summarized, and the striking association with unsupplemented breast-feeding, fad diets, and lack of immunizations is discussed. The importance of recognizing such associated practices for purposes of early diagnosis and intervention is stressed.

  6. Breast feeding pattern in urban infants in Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Sharma, R; Vanaja, K; Real, M

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of breastfeeding and the factors which determine the practice were assessed in 670 mothers from urban areas of Chandigarh. Unsupplemented breastmilk was administered to only 36.6% of babies up until 4 months of age. Women from the lower socioeconomic class, uneducated, and poorly educated mothers were more successful than those from the upper socioeconomic clases or those with higher education (P0.01). The success rate for breastfeeding was higher among babies born at home (50.0%) as compared to those born in the hospital (32.3%). Similarly, high proportions of male infants were successfully breastfed (40.3%) as compared to females (31.6%). Among those infants weaned breastfeeding was discontinued before 1 month of age in more than 60%. The main reason that breastfeeding failed was insufficient milk. Promotional efforts for unsupplemented breastfeeding should consider some of the above factors for their success.

  7. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  8. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament.

  9. Breast-feeding, nutritional status, and other prognostic factors for dehydration among young children with diarrhoea in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Fuchs, S C; Kirkwood, B R; Lombardi, C; Barros, F C

    1992-01-01

    Early identification of children at high risk of diarrhoea-associated dehydration would be of great value to health care workers in developing countries. To identify prognostic factors for life-threatening dehydration, we carried out a case-control study among under-2-year-olds in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cases were 192 children admitted to hospital with moderate or severe dehydration, while controls were children matched to controls by neighbourhood and age, who experienced nondehydrating diarrhoea in the week preceding the interview. The following variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of dehydration, after adjustment for age and other confounding variables: absence of the father from the home; low paternal education level; young age; maternal age 25-29 years or less than 20 years; mother of mixed race; high birth order; short birth interval; low birth weight; stunting, underweight and wasting; lack of breast-feeding; presence of other under-5-year-olds in the home; families with 4-5 members; lack of antenatal care; less than three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus or poliomyelitis vaccine; previous admission to hospital; use of medicines during the fortnight prior to the episode; and living in an unclean home. The associations were particularly strong (P less than 0.001) for the child's age, birth weight and other anthropometric indicators, birth interval, and feeding mode. In terms of their sensitivity and specificity, however, these prognostic factors were not as effective as early signs and symptoms for predicting the outcome of the episode.

  10. [Influence of maternal feeding restrictions on the mother-daughter dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattino, I; Sanfuentes, M T; Lagarribel, M; Jara, S; Lolas, F; Liberman, C

    1998-01-01

    Alimentary restraint, cognitive variable related to eating behavior and obesity, is reportedly a valuable predictor for the development of therapeutic strategies. This paper addresses the relationship between maternal restraint and several psychological variables in their daughters (alexithymia, neuroticism, extraversion). From the study of 35 mother-daughter dyads it can be concluded that daughters of highly restrained mothers tend to present high scores in the Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire of Stunkard and Messick, translated into Spanish and validated as Cuestionario de Conducta Alimentaria. Daughters of highle restrained mothers present also higher scores in the Neuroticism scale of the revised version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Daughters of mothers with low Restraint scores are in average higher than those of their mothers, although lower than those belonging to daughters of highle restrained mothers. Previous observations on the positive correlation between Disinhibition and Hunger of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire are confirmed. These results add an additional risk factor for obesity (mothers with high Restraint) and contribute to delineate a set of psychometric indicators which might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of eating and body weight disorders.

  11. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamarina Shohaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397 in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P<0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058. The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  13. Vitamin B-6 status of breast-fed neonates: influence of pyridoxine supplementation on mothers and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yoon, S A; Kirksey, A; Giacoia, G; West, K

    1992-09-01

    Vitamin B-6 concentrations in human milk are known to respond rapidly to changes in maternal vitamin B-6 intake. In this study, mothers were supplemented during the first 28 d of lactation with 2 or 27 mg pyridoxine (PN)-HCl/d and a subgroup of breast-fed infants of the 2-mg/d-supplemented mothers were supplemented with 0.4 mg PN-HCl/d. Vitamin B-6 intakes of breast-fed infants reflected the amount of their mother's supplement; intakes were highest for the vitamin-supplemented infants. Vitamin B-6 intake of mothers was a strong indicator of infant vitamin B-6 status. Vitamin intake of infants correlated significantly with five measures of vitamin B-6 status. Plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations and birth weight were the strongest predictors of infant growth that were examined. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the mother's milk and infant plasma reflected pyridoxal-PLP ratios in these fluids, suggesting that the enzyme acts in regulating circulating vitamer concentrations.

  14. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Early transition from breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits may be related to occlusofacial abnormalities as environmental factors. Previous studies have not taken into account the potential for interactions between feeding practice, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal traits. This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3–6-year-old childre...

  15. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  16. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  18. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  19. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  20. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: How do they compare to current recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample t...

  1. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a vegan-diet mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, R

    1986-04-01

    A 7-month-old male presented with lethargy and failure to thrive. The child was exclusively breast-fed from birth by a mother who was a strict vegetarian. Laboratory data revealed macrocytic anemia and methylmalonic acid in the urine, consistent with vitamin B12 deficient anemia. The patient responded well to supplementation with B12 alone and was developmentally normal by 11 months of age. This study emphasizes the need for assuring maternal dietary adequacy during pregnancy and after birth.

  2. Biochemical monitoring of pregnancy and breast feeding in five patients with classical galactosaemia - and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Schadewaldt; H.W. Hammen; L. Kamalanathan; U. Wendel; M. Schwarz; A.M. Bosch; N. Guion; M. Janssen; G.H.J. Boers

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and postpartal metabolic control was monitored biochemically in five patients (22-38 years of age) with clinically, enzymatically, and genotypically established classical galactosaemia and good dietary compliance. Three of the patients performed breast feeding of their newborns.

  3. [Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isilia Aparecida

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women demonstrated to be conditioned and highlighted by the conditions the women encounter in their domestic, professional, and study settings. The physical setting and the relations among their relatives, superiors and peers exerts a strong influence on their determination to keep on breastfeeding.

  4. A quality improvement project to improve the rate of early breast milk expression in mothers of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lindsey; Warner, Diane D; Parks, Jessica; Whitt, Jenny; Peter-Wohl, Sigal

    2014-11-01

    Providing breast milk is challenging for non-nursing mothers of premature infants. Early breast milk expression results in successful and longer lactation in mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This quality improvement initiative sought to increase the rate of early milk expression in mothers of VLBW infants and increase the proportion of infants receiving maternal breast milk (MBM) at 28 days of age and at discharge. Phase 1 (n = 45) occurred between April 1, 2012, and August 31, 2012. Phase 2 (n = 58) occurred between September 1, 2012, and February 28, 2013. Pre-phase 2 actions included increased lactation consultant workforce, early lactation consultation, tracking of MBM supply, and physician education. Inborn infants MBM at 28 days and at discharge was 64% and 74%, respectively (P = .40), and the proportion of infants receiving exclusive MBM at discharge increased from 37% to 59% (P = .046). In conclusion, a multidisciplinary initiative aimed at improving the rate of early milk expression was associated with more VLBW infants receiving exclusive MBM at discharge.

  5. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  6. Economic impact of breast-feeding-associated improvements of childhood cognitive development, based on data from the ALSPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2016-01-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic benefits of improved cognitive development related to being breast-fed. Breast-feeding rates were assessed in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Educational attainment was assessed at age 16 years with higher attainment defined as gaining five General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) passes at a high grade. The economic benefit of being breast-fed was calculated in a decision model using a child's educational attainment and the corresponding expected value of average income in later life. There was a positive association between being breast-fed and achieving higher educational attainment, which remained significant, after adjustment for possible confounders: being breast-fed £33·6 million over the working life of the cohort. Therefore, breast-feeding promotion is likely to be highly cost-effective and policymakers should take this into consideration.

  7. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  8. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Manash P.; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Aims: We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged < 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. Material and Methods: A total of 43...

  9. Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Zahra

    2005-09-01

    Atopy can be defined as the genetically determined risk to develop allergic disease. Avoidance of one specific allergen may decrease the risk for sensitization against this allergen, but it will not affect atopy. Our aim was to investigate if exclusive breast-feeding is associated with atopic dermatitis during the first 5 years of life. Data on 200 children were taken from parental-administered questionnaires from a case control study in Birjand - Iran (recruited 2003) comprised of a case (100 children with atopic dermatitis) and a control (100 normal children) subgroup. Outcomes were physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis (AD) and itchy rash. Data were analyzed by using SPSS package, Chi square and Exact Fisher tests.Thirty-four of the case and 50 of control group were exclusively breast-fed, whereas 6 of the case and 2 of control group were exclusively cow milk-fed. These differences were statistically significant. (P less than 0.05). Duration of breast-feeding in case and control group was different. These differences were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Duration of cow's milk formula feeding in case and control group was different, but these differences were not statistically significant. (P=0.6) Positive family history of allergy in case and control group was 63% and 23% respectively and this difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). These findings support the hypothesis that exclusive breast-feeding is a protective factor for development of atopic dermatitis if compared with conventional cow's milk formula.

  10. Breast feeding: reflection on the role of father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Bernarda Riveros Jeneral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to reveal the feelings experienced by fathers during breastfeeding. Methodology: it is a descriptive and qualitative research. Fifteen parents who had at least two children and experiences in breastfeeding processing Sorocaba were interviewed. The interviews were recorded at Santa Lucinda's Hospital. The data organization was carried out using the Collective Subject Discourse. Reports were grouped into core ideas, totaling twenty-four speeches, among the most cited: little involvement in the breastfeeding process, knowledge of the importance of breastfeeding, satisfaction with the process of breastfeeding, feelings of abandonment and frustration, guidance received from other (lay, ignorance about the process of breastfeeding and its importance, lack of guidance from professionals about breastfeeding knowledge about breastfeeding technique, negative and positive experiences in the process of breastfeeding, fear and grief against the weaning process and reflecting on the breastfeeding process. Results: the results shows that during this period, fathers demonstrates satisfaction and interest in participating with breastfeeding process, but also feel left out for being an intimate act between mother-child which is also not encouraged by health professionals in monitoring pre-birth. Conclusion: nurse's guidance is essential, either during the prenatal or postpartum period, because of the importance of incentives and guidance on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for the continuity of this process during the first six months of life and to decrease the incidence of early weaning process.

  11. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 17 parents through 45 individual interviews with both mothers and fathers, from birth to 12 months of age. This data was then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results The analysis identified six primary themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breast milk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. This paper reports on the theme of 'breast milk as connection'. Providing expressed breast milk offered one way the mothers could be physiologically and emotionally connected to their preterm infant while they were in the constant care of hospital staff. Indeed, breast milk was considered the only way the new mother could connect her body (or part there of to her preterm baby in hospital. This sense of connection however, comes at a cost. On the one hand, the breast milk offers a feeling of connection to the baby, but, on the other, this connection comes only after disconnection of the mother and baby and – through breast expression – mother and her milk. This ability of breast milk to connect mother and baby makes the expressed breast milk highly valued, and places unexpected pressure on the mother to produce milk as integral to her sense of motherhood. Conclusion The findings of

  12. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  13. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  14. Using Positive Deviance to Understand the Uptake of Optimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices by Mothers in an Urban Slum of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, M R; Deshmukh, D; Jayaraman, A; Chanani, S; Humphries, D L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Positive deviance research seeks out well-nourished children living in disadvantaged contexts to understand local growth-promoting behaviors. This study explored the factors that influence the uptake of infant and young child feeding behaviors among mothers. Methods Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ) > 0 (n = 10) or a HAZ Theory of qualitative research. Results Positive deviant mothers (those with children with a HAZ > 0) largely exhibited optimal infant and young child feeding practices explained by maternal information seeking behaviors; mothers acknowledging the importance of maternal health; and social support. The relationship between mother and health worker seemed to influence how well they listened to the health workers' recommendations. Across all households, the daily consumption of high-energy, processed foods was apparent. Conclusions Practical considerations include exploring how to tailor CMAM programs to include social support and counseling training for health workers to engage more closely with mothers; exploring the feasibility of a women's social group for mothers to share information on child rearing; and teaching mothers about healthy eating and the link between nutrition and health.

  15. Prática do aleitamento materno em comunidades rurais do semi-árido baiano The practice of maternal breast-feeding in rural communities of a semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marlúcia O. Assis

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer p estabelecimento e duração do aleitamento materno total e exclusivo em comunidades rurais do Semi-Árido Baiano, Brasil, foram estudadas 226 crianças de O a 2 anos de idade, filhas de pequenos produtores rurais que vivem numa das regiões mais secas do nordeste brasileiro, de pobreza absoluta. Os dados referem-se a todas as crianças da família que à data do estudo tinham até 2 anos de idade. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulários aplicados às mães ou responsáveis pelo menor, no período de 1988 a 1989. A tábua de vida foi o recurso estatístico utilizado para o cálculo da duração mediana do evento. Das 226 crianças que integraram o estudo, 91,6 iniciaram a amamentação ao peito. A duração mediana do aleitamento total foi de 90,28 dias e o aleitamento exclusivo apresentou duração mediana de 0,1 dia. Ainda que o estabelecimento da amamentação ao peito possa ser considerado alto, a duração mediana do aleitamento total foi extrememente curta, e o aleitamento exclusivo foi desprezível.A Research project in the establishment and duration of total and exclusive breast-feeding in rural communities of Cansação, BA, Brazil, is presented. It included 226 children, from zero to two years old, of families of peasants living on small-holdings in one of the driest and poorest regions of the Brazilian Northeast. The data were collected through questionnaires answered by mothers or any adult responsible for the child during 1988 and 1989. It relates to all children from these families who were two years of age at the time of the study. The survival time was the statistical method used to calculate the median duration of breast-feeding; 91.6% of the 226 children started to be breast-fed. This finding shows that the establishment of the breast-feeding was high. The median duration of total breast-feeding was of 90.28 days and exclusive breastfeeding presented a median duration of 0.1 day. Through

  16. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions—infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. Methods This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers’ occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. Conclusion The results suggest a trade-off between mothers’ work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes. PMID:28207894

  17. Alimentos complementares e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em lactentes até 12 meses de vida em Itapira, São Paulo, 1999 Complementary feeding and factors associated to breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among infant up to 12 months of age, Itapira, São Paulo, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celene Aparecida Ferrari Audi

    2003-03-01

    , pacifiers and maternal characteristics, was assessed through multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: the average age of the mothers was of 25,5 years old, 41% were primiparae and 51,7% of the deliveries were through C-sections. The average weight at birth was of 3.223g. It was noted that 98,1% of the infants were breast-fed during the first 30 days, but there was an early introduction of tea, water and other types of milk. Exclusive breast-feeding prevalence was of 64,8% in the first month dropping to 45% in the second month and 30,1% between four and six months. At twelve months 61,6% of the infants were breast-fed. Variables associated to weaning were: the use of pacifiers (OR 5,58; CI95%: 3,94 -7,89, low birth weight (OR 2,74; CI95%: 1,46 - 5,13 hospital of birth (OR 1,76; CI95%: 1,22 - 2,52. The reason for exclusive breast-feeding interruption in the first six months was the use of pacifiers (OR 4,41; CI95%: 2,57 - 7,59 and C-section births (OR 1,78; CI95%: 1,09 - 2,91. CONCLUSIONS: prevalence of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding is still far from the WHO current recommendations.

  18. 产前互动式培训对母乳喂养率及喂养技巧的影响%Effect of prenatal interactive training on breast feeding rate and the skill of breast feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佐卿; 姚春花; 郑雪芳; 罗彦明

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To explore the relationship between prenatal interactive training and breast feeding rate and the skill of breast feeding. Methods: 100 healthy full -terra primiparous women who received prenatal interactive training were selected as observation group, and 100 healthy full -term primiparous women who did not received prenatal interactive training at the same time were selected as control group, the primiparous women in the two groups both received postpartum personalized education of breast feeding knowledge, the grasp situation of neonatal breast feeding skills and the success rate of breast feeding in the two groups were observed. Results; There was significant difference in correct grasp situation of neonatal breast feeding skills between observation group and control group ( P < 0. 05 ) , the rate of breast feeding in observation group and control group were 95% and 67% , respectively, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: Prenatal interactive training in hospital and personalized publicity and education can improve the grasp situation of breast feeding skills and the success rate of breast feeding effectively.%目的:探讨产前互动式培训与母乳喂养率及喂养技巧的关系.方法:将参加产前互动式培训的100名健康足月妊娠初产妇设为观察组,未参加产前互动式培训的100名同期健康初产妇设为对照组,两组产妇均接受产后个性化哺乳知识教育,观察两组产妇产后新生儿喂养技巧掌握情况和母乳喂养成功率的差异.结果:观察组产妇与对照组产妇对母乳喂养技巧正确掌握情况差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),同时观察组与对照组母乳喂养率分别为95%和67%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:产前互动式培训和住院个性化宣教能有效提高产妇母乳喂养技巧的掌握和母乳喂养成功率.

  19. Bone mass and breast milk calcium concentration are associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Cabello, Giselda M K; Mendonça, Laura M C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2008-02-01

    Lactation-associated bone loss has been reported in adolescent mothers. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may contribute to differences in the physiologic skeletal response to lactation in these mothers. We evaluated the influence of VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI, BsmI, and TaqI on bone mass, bone and calcium-related hormones, and breast milk calcium of lactating adolescents with habitually low calcium intake. Total body bone mineral content (TBMC), total body bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD), serum hormones [intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1), prolactin, and estradiol), and breast milk calcium were measured in 40 lactating Brazilian adolescents (15-18 y), and compared by VDR genotype subgroups after adjustment for calcium intake and postmenarcheal and lactational periods. TBMD and LSBMD Z scores were -0.55 +/- 1.01 and -1.15 +/- 1.48, respectively. LSBMD was higher (21%; P milk calcium and serum iPTH were higher (24 and 80%, respectively; P milk calcium are significantly associated with VDR genotypes in lactating Brazilian adolescents. Those with aa and tt genotypes had a better bone status and those with bb genotype had greater breast milk calcium.

  20. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  1. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term.

  2. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are m...

  3. Breast feeding rate and its influencing factors in Haidian District of Beijing%北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the breast feeding status in Haidian District and explore its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for improvement of infant nutrition .Methods A self-designed questionnaire survey was carried out among 580 mothers or caregivers , who took their babies aged 0-4 months for health care in child early department center of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital in the period of January to December in 2012.Results The pure breast feeding rate of mothers with senior middle school education or lower was significantly higher than that of the mothers with vocational high school education or higher (χ2 =4.192,P<0.05).The rate of breast feeding was different among mothers with different occupation , and that was highest among unemployed women (χ2 =9.631,P<0.05). The rate of pure breast feeding of eutocia was higher than that of dystocia (χ2 =5.631,P<0.05).The rate of pure breast feeding of women with normal breast development was higher than that of women with abnormal breast development (χ2 =48.275, P<0.05).Conclusion Education , occupation , obstetrical way as well as breast development are the major influencing factors of breast feeding .Intervention program should be implemented by maternal and child health care workers .%目的:了解北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养情况,探讨影响母乳喂养的相关因素,为改善婴儿营养提供依据。方法采用随机抽样的方法,抽取在北京市海淀妇幼保健医院儿童早期发展中心进行健康检查的0~4个月龄婴儿580例,用自行设计的母乳喂养状况调查表,了解2012年1月至12月产妇母乳喂养情况。结果母亲高中文化程度以下较中专文化程度以上纯母乳喂养率高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.192,P<0.05)。不同职业的母乳喂养率差异有统计学意义,其中全职妈妈的母乳喂养率最高(χ2=9.631,P<0.05)。顺产组的纯母乳喂养率高于剖宫产组

  4. Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breast-feeding in Peruvian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R A; Howanitz, P J; Oski, F A

    1981-10-01

    Serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin concentrations were measured in seven Peruvian infants, who ranged in age from 7.5-12.0 months (mean: 9.3 months), who had been exclusively breast-fed all their lives. No infant had evidence of iron deficiency as reflected by a reduced serum ferritin, or an increased erythrocyte porphyrin. Mean serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin values in these seven infants were similar to those of 40 nonanemic, noniron-deficient U.S. infants who ranged in age from 9 to 12 months, on a mixed diet. These findings illustrate that exclusively breast-feeding an infant for at least 9 months of life meets the iron requirements of the full-term infant.

  5. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos de baixo peso Prevalence of breast feeding of low birthweight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César C. Xavier

    1991-10-01

    had started it was of 4 months. An association was found between the level of literacy of the mothers and the duration of breast feeding. Birthweight was found to be associated with the incidence and duration of breast feeding in general, as well as with the incidence of exclusive breast feeding. These data are considerably lower than recent figures obtained from the populations of well-developed countries, especially than those of Finnish infants born with a weight of less than 1.500 g. Action programmes involving the community and/or the Institution must be implemented in order to improve these figures.

  6. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Barros de Arruda Telles; Rívea Inês Ferreira; Luiza do Nascimento Cezar Magalhães; Helio Scavone-Junior

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 gr...

  7. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  8. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schwartz

    Full Text Available The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood.To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding.This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery. When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis.BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318. There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits.Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.

  9. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingping [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Wu Yongning, E-mail: wuyncdc@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Yin Shian; Li Jingguang; Zhao Yunfeng; Zhang Lei; Chen Huijing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu Yinping [Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 97 Huaian East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050021 (China); Yang Xin; Li Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Safety and Health, and National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 7 Panjiayuan nanli Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. - Research highlights: Among the OCPs analyzed, DDTs were the most prevalent agent. Lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested recent intake of DDT. Animal food consumptions were correlated to DDTs concentrations in breast milk. The mean EDIs of various OCPs by Chinese infants were lower than the TDI guidelines. - A survey of concentrations of OCPs in breast milk helps identify background concentrations in the Chinese population.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers regarding diarrhoea among children in a Sudanese rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I S; Eltom, A R; Karrar, Z A; Gibril, A R

    1994-11-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the rural communities of two villages in Sudan regarding diarrhoeal diseases in children was conducted using a focus group research technique. Seven groups of literate mothers (87 mothers) and 13 groups of illiterate mothers (152 mothers) interviewed comprised 85% of mothers with children under 5 years of age in that community. The study showed that mothers can define and describe diarrhoea, however awareness about the aetiology and the importance of germs in its causation was low. The majority of mothers attributed diarrhoea to teething, milk of pregnant women, hot food and salty water. Less than 40% of mothers identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. Only 10% could relate danger signs to severe dehydration. The ORS use rate was very low (2.1-4.3%). Although awareness about ORS was high (100%), only 25% prepared and used it correctly. However, home made fluids including rice water, custard, pap and tabaladi juice were used by 45% of the mothers. 45% of illiterate mothers stop breast feeding and food during diarrhoea compared to 30% of literate mothers. Harmful practices used in caring for children with diarrhoea included: fumigation (50%), cauterization and removal of teeth buds (45% illiterate mothers, 10% literate), withholding of breast feeding and indiscriminate use of drugs and herbs in 30%.

  11. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  12. The challenges of adherence to infant feeding choices in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infections in South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani LO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucky O Lawani,1 Azubuike K Onyebuchi,2 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,3 Robinson C Onoh,2 Peter O Nkwo31School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Global and national efforts in the 21st century are directed toward the elimination of new pediatric HIV infections through evidence-based infant feeding interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, with patient preference, motivation, and adherence identified as key factors for success.Objectives: This study assessed the challenges faced by HIV-infected parturients in adhering to the national infant feeding recommendations and their infant feeding preference for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in South East Nigeria.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based study of 556 parturients infected with HIV/AIDS.Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.0±5.3 years. The infant feeding choices were made jointly by both partners (61.1% in the antepartum period. The HIV status disclosure rate was 89.2%. A large proportion (91.7% practiced exclusive breastfeeding with highly active antiretroviral therapy, and 7.6% practiced mixed feeding because of nonadherence to their choice and national/international recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV/AIDS. This was mainly a result of pressure from family members (42.8% and cultural practices (28.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that adherence was strongly associated with age, marital status, and employment status, but not with residence, educational status, or parity.Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding is predominately the infant feeding choice among HIV

  13. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...... to breast-feed are interrelated, and therefore, analyzing true causal effects presents a number of methodologic challenges....

  14. Mixed messages about the meanings of breast-feeding representations in the Australian press and popular magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A M

    1999-03-01

    The popular press is an influential medium for the communication of messages and meanings about health and lifestyle issues (Lupton 1993). Through language and images, the print media present selected phenomena, events and issues to readers. The choice and connections between works used can impress upon the reader specific images of the world and the attitudes toward the presented issues and ideas (Nunan 1993). Discourse analysis is used in this study to examine representations of breast feeding in articles published in the Australian press and popular magazines over a six-month period. Discourse analysis is a method of inquiry that focuses on sociocultural and political contexts in which communication occurs (Lupton 1992). Discourses revealed mixed messages and meanings. Breast feeding was seen as natural and the best way of feeding but also as problematic in practice. Dominant ideologies of power and persuasion were also evident. The media portrayed predominantly negative views about breast feeding. Such discourses may influence decisions to breast feed and have wider implications for midwives in their roles as supporters and educators of women and their families.

  15. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  16. Feed Safe: a multidisciplinary partnership approach results in a successful mobile application for breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Becky; White, James; Giglia, Roslyn; Tawia, Susan

    2016-05-30

    Issue addressed: Mobile applications are increasingly being used in health promotion initiatives. Although there is evidence that developing these mobile health applications in multidisciplinary teams is good practice, there is a gap in the literature with respect to evaluation of the process of this partnership model and how best to disseminate the application into the community. The aim of this paper is twofold, to describe the partnership model in which the Feed Safe application was developed and to investigate what worked in terms of dissemination.Methods: The process of working in partnership was measured using the VicHealth partnership analysis tool for health promotion. The dissemination strategy and reach of the application was measured using both automated analytics data and estimates of community-initiated promotion.Results: The combined average score from the partnership analysis tool was 138 out of a possible 175. A multipronged dissemination strategy led to good uptake of the application among Australian women.Conclusions: Multidisciplinary partnership models are important in the development of health promotion mobile applications. Recognising and utilising the skills of each partner organisation can help expand the reach of mobile health applications into the Australian population and aid in good uptake of health promotion resources.So what?: Developing mobile applications in multidisciplinary partnerships is good practice and can lead to wide community uptake of the health promotion resource.

  17. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  18. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  19. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and non-all

  20. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  1. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S A; Ngo, T T; Knodel, J; Le, H; Tran, T T

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1994 Demographic Survey are used to determine the trends in breast feeding and amenorrhea among ever married women of reproductive age. Life table procedures are used to calculate monthly probabilities of weaning. Then five month moving averages of equal weight are computed for observed monthly probabilities of weaning. The smoothed probabilities are used to calculate the cumulative proportion weaned at successive monthly ages. Breast feeding is universal in Vietnam. Infants are put to the breast earlier when delivery occurs at home. Almost all children are breast fed through the first six months, and 80% are breast fed for a year. The median duration was 15.3 months in the 1988 survey and 15.9 months in the 1994 survey based on life table methods. Calculations based on current status methods were slightly higher for both years. Rural women tended to breast feed longer than urban women. Children who had mothers working in agriculture were breast fed longer than children whose mothers had other occupations. Socioeconomic factors did not correlate well with breast feeding duration. Findings indicate that over 66% of breast fed infants aged under 3 months were given plain water, and over 90% of infants aged 3-5 months were given plain water. Fresh cow's milk is not given to Vietnamese infants. Juices were given to children aged older than 6 months. Sugar water was given to younger infants. The introduction of supplemental liquids was more common in urban areas. Few infants during the first few months of life were given solid or mushy foods. But by 4 months of age, 50% of infants were given solid or mushy foods, and the practice was more common in rural areas. The urban-rural gap closed by 6 months of age. Over 90% of infants received solids at 9 months. It is expected that modernization will negatively impact on breast feeding.

  2. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified.

  3. Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding: Effects of Health Promotion Intervention in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDOCHI M NWOSU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Low level of knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding have been reported in Nigeria especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study is to identify factors contributing to low knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding (E B F in rural communities of Abia State, Nigeria and apply health promotion intervention (H P I to address these factors in order to increase knowledge and practice of E B F. METHOD: A quasi-experimental study design was used. Four communities formed the unit of allocation to experimental and control groups for the purpose of introducing health promotion intervention. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting the study sample. A sample size of 400 households out of 1978 enumerated from the four communities was used for the survey, two as experimental and two as control. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire that was interviewer administered. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Chi-square statistic was used in determining statistical significance. Analysis of knowledge and practice of EBF was taken before and after H P I and compared in both experimental and control groups.\\ RESULT: The results indicated increase in knowledge of E B F from 28(14% to 200(98.5%. Correspondingly, practice of E B F increased from 21 (10% to 162(80% in the experimental group. No significant increase was made in the control group both in knowledge and practice of EBF. Factors contributing to low level of practice of EBF in the study area included low level of knowledge about ten steps to successful breast feeding, illusory fears about EBF, ignorance, resistance to change, cultural imperatives and medical reasons. Health promotion intervention directed at the rural women helped to scale up the practice of EBF to 70% within nine months. CONCLUSION: The study recommends health promotion intervention as a proven method for scaling up knowledge and practice of EBF in

  4. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  5. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  6. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors-the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy-might partly explain the conflicting re

  7. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros de Arruda Telles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723 with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9% and G4 (19.4%. Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively. Chances of non-breastfed children (G1 with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p < 0.01. When comparing bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2, 3-4 years (OR = 7.6 and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0, p < 0.01. It may be suggested that breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  8. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-like DNA sequences in the breast tumors of father, mother, and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernik Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of late onset breast cancer in a father, mother, and daughter living in the same house for decades suggested the possibility of an environmental agent as a common etiological factor. Both molecular and epidemiological data have indicated a possible role for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, the etiological agent of breast cancer in mice, in a certain percentage of human breast tumors. The aim of this study was to determine if MMTV might be involved in the breast cancer of this cluster of three family members. Results MMTV-like envelope (env and long terminal repeat (LTR sequences containing the MMTV superantigen gene (sag were detected in the malignant tissues of all three family members. The amplified env gene sequences were 98.0%–99.6% homologous to the MMTV env sequences found in the GR, C3H, and BR6 mouse strains. The amplified LTR sequences containing sag sequences segregated to specific branches of the MMTV phylogenetic tree and did not form a distinct branch of their own. Conclusion The presence of MMTV-like DNA sequences in the malignant tissues of all three family members suggests the possibility of MMTV as an etiological agent. Phylogenetic data suggest that the MMTV-like DNA sequences are mouse and not human derived and that the ultimate reservoir of MMTV is most likely the mouse. Although the route by which these family members came to be infected with MMTV is unknown, the possibility exists that such infection may have resulted from a shared exposure to mice.

  9. Adverse health outcomes in offspring of mothers with cosmetic breast implants : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjoller, Kim; Friis, Soren; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Olsen, Jorgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether maternal cosmetic breast implants are associated with adverse health outcomes among offspring, the authors examined published findings of epidemiologic studies that addressed this hypothesis. Methods: Four epidemiologic studies, ail from Scandinavia, were identified. Wo

  10. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  11. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Payatas and Malate, the Philippines: Levels, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.j [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Human breast milk samples (n = 33) from primipara and multipara mothers from Payatas a waste dump site, and Malate a reference site in the Phillipines were collected in 2004 and analyzed for eight organohalogen compounds, viz., PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, TCPMe, PBDEs and HBCDs. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the samples. Overall mean concentrations of PBDEs found in our study were higher (7.5 ng/g lipid wt.) than those reported for Japan and many other Asian countries. Primipara mothers had significantly higher levels of DDTs, CHLs and HCHs than multipara mothers, but not PBDEs and HBCDs. A few individuals accumulated CHLs close to or even higher than the tolerable daily intake guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - First comprehensive study on organohalogen contaminants in human breast milk from the Philippines.

  12. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding-A clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... and changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians.......This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself...

  14. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in blood and breast milk collected from 60 same mothers. Of these 60 mothers, 30 were primipara (mean: 30.1 years, median: 28.0 years) and 30 were multipara (mean: 32.2 years, median: 32.5 years). The arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the primiparous mothers were 9.0, 3.3, 5.7, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 5.2, 2.2, 4.5, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds being 9.3-42.9 (mean: 18.4, median: 17.3) and 7.0-41.1 (mean: 12.3, median: 11.4) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. In the case of multiparous mothers, the arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds in blood and breast milk were 7.1, 2.7, 5.3, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 3.9, 1.7, 3.8, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations being 3.4-28.1 (mean: 15.5, median: 13.9) and 2.7-20.0 (mean: 9.8, median: 9.2)pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of primiparous mothers in Sapporo City appeared to be generally lower than those recently surveyed throughout the greater area of Japan. Significant correlations were observed between age and the total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in the blood of primiparae and multiparae, and significant correlations were also observed between age and the total TEQ

  15. Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y

    1998-03-01

    Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.

  16. Infant feeding counselling in Uganda in a changing environment with focus on the general population and HIV-positive mothers - a mixed method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadnes Lars T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workers' counselling practices are essential to improve infant feeding practices. This paper will assess how infant feeding counselling was done and experienced by counsellors and mothers in Eastern Uganda in the context of previous guidelines. This has implications for implementation of the new infant feeding guidelines from 2009. Methods This paper combines qualitative and quantitative data from Mbale District in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected from 2003 to 2005 in a mixed methods approach. This includes: key-informant interviews among eighteen health workers in the public hospital, health clinics and non-governmental organisations working with people living with HIV, fifteen focus group discussions in the general population and among clients from an HIV clinic, two cross-sectional surveys including 727 mothers from the general population and 235 HIV-positive mothers. Results The counselling sessions were often improvised. Health workers frequently had pragmatic approaches to infant feeding as many clients struggled with poverty, stigma and non-disclosure of HIV. The feasibility of the infant feeding recommendations was perceived as challenging among health workers, both for HIV-positive mothers and in the general population. Group counselling with large groups was common in the public health service. Some extra infant feeding teaching capacities were mobilised for care-takers of undernourished children. A tendency to simplify messages giving one-sided information was seen. Different health workers presented contradicting simplified perspectives in some cases. Outdated training was a common concern with many health workers not being given courses or seminars on infant feeding since professional graduation. Other problems were minimal staffing, lack of resources, and programs being started and subsequently stopped abruptly. Many of the HIV-counsellors in the non-governmental organisations got extended training in

  17. Mother’s Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  18. 服用阿莫西林母亲哺乳的婴儿出现血小板减少性紫癜%Thrombocytopenic purpura in a infant breast-fed by a mother receiving amoxicillin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月; 谢黎崖

    2011-01-01

    1例56 d男婴因血小板减少性紫癜入院.入院前2d其母行输卵管结扎手术,术后口服阿莫西林预防感染,服药期间未停止哺乳.服药第2天晚患儿下肢皮肤出现散在针尖大小红点,第3天左下肢出现瘀斑.入院时血小板4×109/L,经骨髓细胞学检查,确诊为血小板减少性紫癜.停止哺乳,予以支持治疗,2周后患儿治愈出院.%A 56-day-old male infant was hospitalized with thrombocytopenic purpura. Two days before admission, his mother underwent tubal ligation surgery and received oral amoxicillin to prevent infections after surgery. Breast-feeding was not stopped during the period of drug use. On day 2 of drug therapy, the infant developed scattered pin-sized red spots on his lower leg skin and, on day 3, petechia appeared on his lower left leg. On admission, his PLT level was 4 x 10VL, thrombocytopenic purpura was confirmed by bone marrow cytological analysis. Breast-feeding was stopped and the infant was given supportive treatments. Two weeks later, he recovered and was discharged.

  19. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Affolter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG and transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  20. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Michael; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Jenni, Rosemarie; Roggero, Iris; Avanti-Nigro, Ornella; de Castro, Carlos Antonio; Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K; Favre, Laurent

    2016-08-17

    Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  1. Day-to-Day Variations in Iron, Zinc and Copper in Breast Milk of Guatemalan Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; West, C.E.; Schümann, K.; Bulux-Hernandes, J.; Solomons, N.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation (CV) of iron, zinc and copper concentrations in the milk of Guatemalan mothers. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in lactating women who had delivered a healthy infant 1 to 6 months previously in two lo

  2. [Breast feeding in Puerto Rico: traditional patterns, national trends and future strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rican society has gone through profound transformations during the past 50 years. Industrialization and the incorporation of women into the labor force have been accompanied by medicalization of the reproductive process and a progressive reduction in the prevalence of breastfeeding as the cultural norm for nutrition of infants. The data base for 1990 places Puerto Rico significantly below Latin America and the United States in the percentage of breastfed infants. The authors report their experience in the promotion of breastfeeding during the last 5 years. The principal negative factors which hinder the beginning and maintenance of successful breastfeeding are of a social nature. The orientation of physicians towards technology underrates the benefits of breastfeeding. The marketing strategies of the corporations which manufacture artificial milk continuously violate the International Code for Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and disfigure the community's perception on the benefits of breastfeeding. The lack of social and legal support for the breastfeeding working mother frequently prevents her from carrying out successful breastfeeding for the recommended period of time. Strategies are presented for the overturn of the existent barriers which have reduced breastfeeding in Puerto Rico to the present precarious levels.

  3. Nuclear medicine and the nursing mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, A.J.; Mountford, P.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (UK))

    1985-07-20

    Many radiopharmaceuticals may be detected in breast milk, but differ from other drugs in that for diagnostic purposes they are used in tracer quantities and do not produce demonstrable pharmacological changes in mother or infant. Patients may also be given non-radioactive drugs to induce changes in the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals and some of these, too, appear in milk (e.g. frusemide, potassium perchlorate, iodides, and cholecystokinin). Iodides are selectively concentrated in breast milk, and some consider them contra-indicated during lactation. A period of interruption of breast feeding, expression of milk, and reduction of close contact with the infant is usually recommended for mothers who have a nuclear medicine investigation. The inconvenience and disadvantages of interrupting breast feeding have to be balanced against the potential risk to the infant: the prolonged interruption of feeding advocated for some agents is often impracticable. Interruption for 24 hours for sup(99m)Tc compounds is excessive for doses used in Britain. Twelve hours leaves a wide range of safety for pertechnetate. No interruption is needed for sup(99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin and sup(99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine-penta-acetic acid in order to remain below one tenth of the annual limit of intake.

  4. Mother knows best: occurrence and associations of resighted humpback whales suggest maternally derived fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere coastal feeding ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barendse

    Full Text Available Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae. In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales.

  5. Mother knows best: occurrence and associations of resighted humpback whales suggest maternally derived fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere coastal feeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, Jaco; Best, Peter B; Carvalho, Inês; Pomilla, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins) and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping) over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant) females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales.

  6. Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicić, Sara; Johansson, Git; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2010-10-01

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-[gamma] levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-[beta]2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-[gamma] levels but lower TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma]. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-[beta], particularly TGF-[beta]2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma] than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  7. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  8. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  9. Problemas com a mama puerperal revelados por mães soropositivas Problemas puerperales en las mamas de madres seropositivas Problems with the puerperal breast revealed by HIV-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2010-03-01

    ampliar estrategias para minimizar los problemas emocionales derivados del no amamantar, así como para la incomodidad de la mama puerperal.Given the recommendation not to breastfeed their infants, HIV-positive women may experience breast problems. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge regarding breast health as revealed by HIV+ women before the non-breast-feeding. This qualitative study was performed with 15 mothers with HIV/ AIDS in Fortaleza, Brazil. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The mothers revealed problems with their breasts following childbirth, such as engorgement and pain in the breasts. They revealed that they received instruction in the course of prenatal care not to breastfeed; however, there was no further instruction or care in the postpartum period. The use of lactation inhibitors and bandaging (binding of the breast were reduced. Health professionals should adopt appropriate measures to guide HIV- positive parturient women. Health services need to broaden strategies to minimize the current emotional problems resulting from non-breast-feeding, as well as the discomfort in the puerperal breast.

  10. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  11. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  12. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  13. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico

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    SUSAN VANDALE-TONEY

    1997-09-01

    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  14. Mothers of lower socio-economic status make the decision to formula-feed in the context of culturally shared expectations and practices. Invited commentary on:\\ud \\ud Carroll M, Gallagher L, Clarke M, et al. Artificial milk-feeding women’s views of their feeding choice in Ireland. Midwifery 2015; 31:640–6.

    OpenAIRE

    Leeming, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    • Within some communities women may already view formula-feeding as the obvious infant-feeding choice, even before pregnancy. Therefore, breastfeeding promotion should not be focused just on pregnant women, but on the wider community. \\ud • Exposure to other women breastfeeding may help to promote breastfeeding during pregnancy.\\ud • Research methods which enable more sustained engagement with participants may facilitate further understanding of the perspectives of mothers from communities wh...

  15. Protecting the unborn -- reducing mother-to-child transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, A

    1998-02-01

    HIV is transmitted to a child during pregnancy, at birth, or through the mother's milk during infancy. Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 3.8 million children are estimated to have become infected with HIV and 2.7 million have died. More than 9% acquired HIV through their HIV-positive mothers and in 1997, 1600 children were infected daily. Since many women in developing countries do not have access to clean water, it is unsafe for them to bottle feed. As such, HIV-infected women in such settings have been encouraged to breast feed their infants despite the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. The most recent research, however, indicates that 10-25% of fetal/infant HIV infections occur intrauterine, 60-75% during delivery, and 20-40% postpartum. It is estimated that breast feeding increases the risk of infection by 5-40%. These findings have led the principal administrator of the European Union's HIV/AIDS program and other health experts to recommend that children be weaned from breast feeding at 4-6 months, a change from existing breast feeding guidelines. As several trials end in the near future, important results are expected in 1998 on how to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. The ethics of involving pregnant women in Africa and Asia in clinical trials to reduce perinatal HIV transmission and vitamin A supplements and vaginal lavages are discussed.

  16. Estimated radiation dose to breast feeding infant following maternal administration of 57Co labelled to vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Kay M; Sawyer, Laura J; Evans, Martyn J

    2005-09-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.

  17. From folklore to scientific evidence: breast-feeding and wet-nursing in islam and the case of non-puerperal lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-12-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the "power structures" that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition.

  18. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

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    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  19. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887

  20. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. III. Amino acids and other nitrogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, U; Gebre-Medhin, M; Ljungqvist, B; Olsson, M

    1977-04-01

    The content of amino acids and other nitrogenous substances was determined in milk samples from Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. The Ethiopian mothers were divided into two groups, one with children having low weight for age and one with children having standard weight for age. All children were in the age range 2 to 5 months, and there were eight in each group. The main findings were as follows: 1) The mean daily milk volumes and total daily nitrogen content in the milk were found to be similar in all three groups. The Swedish group had a significantly lower nitrogen content per milliliter than did the Ethiopian group with low weight for age. 2) The total amino acid composition of the milk was almost identical in the three groups studied except for the tyrosine value, which was significantly lower in the Ethiopian standard group than in the low weight for age group. The composition corresponded well with previous findings. 3) The protein fraction constituted 90 to 92% of the total amino acids, the peptide fraction 4 to 5%, and the free amino acids 5%. 4) The concentrations of free amino acids in milk were lower (2 to 6 times) than in plasma, except for glutamic and aspartic acid. The taurine concentration was much higher in milk than in plasma. Only the urea levels in milk and plasma were significantly correlated. The implications of these findings in child health are discussed.

  1. Anti-schistosomal IgE and its relation to gastrointestinal allergy in breast-fed infants of Schistosoma mansoni infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, M S; Shaltout, A A

    1998-08-01

    To study the relationship between presence of gastrointestinal allergic manifestations in breast-fed infants and presence of IgE against Schistosoma mansoni antigens, sixty breast-fed infants of S. mansoni infected mothers were selected. Of them, thirty infants were suffering from manifestations of gastrointestinal allergy (patients) and the other thirty were not suffering from such manifestations (controls). Levels of IgE against S. mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA), soluble egg antigen (SEA) and cercarial antigen (CA) were determined, by ELISA, in sera of these infants. There was significant association between presence of allergic manifestations and presence of IgE against AWA (P = 0.018), SEA (P < 0.001) and CA (P = 0.002). Also, concentration of IgE against AWA was significantly higher in patients group than the control group (P = 0.024). IgE against AWA showed significant negative correlation with haemoglobin concentration (P = 0.009) and serum albumin level (P = 021) and significant positive correlation with absolute eosinophilic count (P = 0.005). Also, IgE against CA showed significant negative correlation with haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.047) and serum albumin level (0 = 0.036). It was concluded that gastrointestinal allergy in breast-fed infants of S. mansoni infected mothers may be due to hypersensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni antigens present in mothers' milk. Schistosoma mansoni should be investigated and treated in mothers from endemic localities when their breast-fed infants are suffering from manifestations suggestive of gastrointestinal allergy.

  2. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems.

  3. Patterns of breast and bottle feeding and their association with dental caries in 1- to 4-year-old South African children. 1. Dental caries prevalence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G J; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Fatti, L P; Richardson, B D; Sinwel, R E; Hargreaves, J A; Williams, S

    1993-12-01

    In order to study associations between breast and bottle feeding and dental caries a questionnaire on feeding habits was completed by trained interviewers for 1,263 children aged 1 to 4 years from five South African communities. Of these, 73 to 94 per cent had been breast fed for mean periods of 9 to 16 months. The types of infant feeding practised (breast, bottle or mixed) varied little within the groups although each group differed significantly from the others for the preferred feeding practice. Using responses to a dietary interview the children were subdivided into those breast fed for 12 months or longer (n = 546), those who had mixed breast and bottle feeding (n = 527) and those who were bottle fed only (n = 190). Caries prevalence increased with the age of the child, more in bottle fed than other groups. Within all feeding groups caries prevalence was lowest among white children and in social class I. The dmfs and dmft scores showed irregular patterns and were significantly influenced by feeding group and the interaction between race and social class.

  4. Iodine Concentrations in Breast Milk and Urine in Mothers and Infants During the Period of 16 Weeks Postpartum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng ZHANG; Wen CHEN; Jun SHEN; Zhuo ZHAO; Jan HUO; Shu-hai LAN; Wan-qi ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the iodine status of lactating women and their infants during the first 4 month postpartum in the regions with optimal iodine nutrition.Methods Thirty pairs of lactating women and infants were followed up for 16 weeks after delivery. Urine samples were collected from mothers and infants at weeks 4, 8 and 12 and maternal breast-milk samples were collected at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16. The contents of iodine were measured accordingly.Results Over the period of 12 weeks, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of lactating women was 110.1µg/L (from 78.3µg/L to 138.8µg/L). Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was 171.8µg/L (from 125.4µg/L to 261.1µg/L) over the period of 16 weeks. There was significant difference between BMIC and UIC in lactating women (P<0.001). There was no correlation between UIC and the BMIC in lactating women. The median UIC in infants was 211.8µg/L (from 141.5µg/L to 283.1µg/L). No differences were observed among UICs of infants over the three sampling times. Infant UIC was correlated with BMIC, but not maternal UIC. A significant difference was observed among BMICs over the four sampling times (P<0.001). A decline tendency was found in BMIC with time after delivery (R2=-0.545,P<0.001). Conclusion: BMIC was decreased in the first 16 weeks in the lactating women with an optimal iodine status. So adequate supplementation of iodine is recommended for lactating women.

  5. Fat content of expressed breast milk: a case for quality control.

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, S A; Hull, D

    1981-01-01

    Expressed breast milk used to feed preterm infants is precious and so, despite heterogeneity of composition, all available milk is used. A study of 274 samples of expressed breast milk supplied by preterm mothers and National Childbirth Trust donors showed pronounced variation in fat content as measured by the "creamatocrit" method. This was not due to differences between term and preterm mothers or between transitional and mature milk. The composition was affected by diurnal variation and me...

  6. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Payatas and Malate, the Philippines: levels, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Prudente, Maricar; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=33) from primipara and multipara mothers from Payatas a waste dump site, and Malate a reference site in the Phillipines were collected in 2004 and analyzed for eight organohalogen compounds, viz., PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, TCPMe, PBDEs and HBCDs. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the samples. Overall mean concentrations of PBDEs found in our study were higher (7.5 ng/g lipid wt.) than those reported for Japan and many other Asian countries. Primipara mothers had significantly higher levels of DDTs, CHLs and HCHs than multipara mothers, but not PBDEs and HBCDs. A few individuals accumulated CHLs close to or even higher than the tolerable daily intake guidelines proposed by Health Canada.

  7. Relação clínica entre hábitos de sucção, má oclusão, aleitamento e grau de informação prévia das mães Clinical relationship among suction oral habits, malocclusion, infant feeding and mother's previous knowledge

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    Daniela Feu Rosa Kroeff de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo avaliou a relação clínica entre a forma de aleitamento da criança, orientação prévia das mães sobre amamentação natural, instalação de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos e a presença de más oclusões. METODOLOGIA: foram examinadas 79 crianças (39 com hábitos de sucção e 40 sem hábitos de sucção, de ambos os gêneros, entre 2 e 5 anos, com a dentadura decídua completa e sem perda de tecido dentário interproximal, selecionadas de maneira randomizada, que participavam do Projeto de Bebês da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Apenas um examinador (Kappa intra-examinador: 0,96 avaliou as características faciais e oclusais das crianças, no sentido ântero-posterior, transversal e vertical. As mães foram instruídas a responderem um questionário sobre o desenvolvimento da criança e o grau de orientação prévia que receberam sobre amamentação natural, hábitos, más oclusões e respiração bucal. Foram empregados os testes estatísticos qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fischer, t de Student e Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que: 1 existe uma relação estatisticamente significante entre o prolongamento do aleitamento materno e a redução da instalação de hábitos de sucção (pAIM: the proposal of this study was to associate infant feeding methods, mother’s previous knowledge about breast-feeding, installation of oral habits and presence of malocclusions. METHODS: 79 children (39 with suction habits and 40 without habits, both genres, from ages between 2 and 5 years old, with complete health deciduous dentition were randomizedly selected from the ones attended at Baby’s Clinic, in Federal University of Espírito Santo. Only one examiner (Kappa intra-examiner= 0.96 evaluated facial characteristics and the occlusion at transversal, antero-posterior and vertical relation. Each mother was oriented to answer a questionnaire concerning child’s development and the degree of

  8. The Investigation of Pregnant women' Cognition about Breast Feeding%孕妇对母乳喂养认知情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳秋; 孙美农

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims at knowing about the pregnant women's cognition about breast feeding , the feeding plan for infant and the requirements of breast feeding knowledge , in order to provide basis for clinical to have breast feeding health education . Methods We had an investigar~ tion on 190 pregnant women from obstetrical department outpatient service using a self-designed questionnaire . The main contents of the questionnaire include general materials , breast feeding plan postpartum , breast feeding cognition , knowledge source and the ways and timing of hoping to get breast feeding knowledge . Results There are 159 pregnant women planning to choose pure breast feeding; the average score of breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women is 8 .34+6 .42 , which is quite low; the score and the age and gestational age appears low positive correlation; the situation of taking the initiative for getting breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women from different gestational age and different culture degree has statistical difference ( P<0 .05 ); pregnant women's initiative of getting breast feeding knowledge are different , whose knowledge score has statistical difference ( P<0.05); 70% pregnant women hope to get propaganda and education from medical staffs; 66 .3% of them hope to learn certain knowledge about breast feeding during second trimester . Conclusions The cognition situation about breast feeding of pregnant women is not optimistic . The requirements of propaganda and education from medical staffs are amount . Medical staffs should develop effective breast feeding health education for pregnant women , for laying a foundation to improve the rate of pure breast feeding postpartum .%目的 了解孕妇母乳喂养知识的认知情况,对婴儿的喂养计划及对母乳喂养知识的需求情况,为临床进行母乳喂养方面的健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对产科门诊就诊的190名孕妇进行调查.问卷的主要内容

  9. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  10. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

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    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  11. Paraprofessionals' Perceptions on Delivering Infant Feeding Lessons to Disadvantaged Mothers via a Self-Directed Computer-Supported Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Lisa R.; Horodynski, Mildred A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain paraprofessionals' perceptions regarding a self-directed computer-supported nutrition educational intervention to disadvantaged mothers of infants. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Three county extension programs in a Midwestern state, which serve disadvantaged families. Method: Sixteen paraprofessional…

  12. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  13. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding.

  14. 不同喂养方式对HBV母婴传播的影响%Influence of Feeding Modes on Risk of Mother-to-child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅; 陈洁; 张姝; 刘启兰; 周乙华; 胡娅莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify whether breastfeeding of infants adds risk for the mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods Totally 281 HBsAg-positive pregnant women, in whom 30.2% were also HBeAg-positive, and their 281 infants born from 2002 to 2004, were investigated from October 2009 to March 2010. HBV serologic markers were tested by ELISA and HBV DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Of the 281 children, 222 were breastfed and 59 formula-fed. All children had been vaccinated against hepatitis B and 37.0%received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG). Results The pregnant women’s age, delivery mode, children’s age, gender ratio, and administration of HBIG in infants were comparable between breast- and formula-feeding groups (P>0.05). The overall prevalence of HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs in the children was 3.2% and 58.0% respectively. In formula- and breast-fed children, the HBsAg-positive rates were 5.1% and 2.7% respectively (P>0.05). Further comparison of HBV infection in children of the 85 HBeAg-positive mothers showed that formula-and breast-fed children (27 and 58 respectively) had comparable HBsAg-positive rate (11.1% Vs 10.3%, P>0.05), while their mothers had similar HBV DNA levels (2.285×106 Vs 2.350×106, P>0.05). Conclusion With the currently available immunoprophylaxis, breast-feeding of infants born to chronic HBV carriers, add no risk for the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Therefore, with administration of HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine, HBV-infected mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed their infants.%  目的探讨母乳喂养对HBV母婴传播的影响.方法2002年1月—2004年12月江苏地区HBsAg阳性的281例孕妇及其子女,其中30.2%孕妇乙肝病毒e抗原阳性.婴儿母乳喂养222例,人工喂养59例.所有儿童均接种过乙肝疫苗,37.0%同时注射HBIG.2009年10月—2010年3月随访采血,检测HBV血清学标志.结果母乳喂养组和人工喂养组孕妇年龄、分娩方式,儿童年

  15. Custo e economia da prática do aleitamento materno para a família Costs and savings for the family as the result of breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Moura de Araújo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar o custo da alimentação complementar da nutriz em relação à alimentação do bebê com substitutos do leite materno. MÉTODOS: o custo do gasto energético da lactação foi calculado com a adição de um ou dois alimentos da dieta habitual para suprir a demanda extra da lactante. Foram elaborados e calculados cardápios adicionais para a nutriz, e estimado o custo da alimentação com fórmula infantil e com leite de vaca tipo C para lactentes menores de seis meses, segundo recomendações nutricionais para essas fases da vida, para um consumo de seis meses. Determinou-se a porcentagem de salário mínimo gasto com cada tipo de alimentação. RESULTADOS: observou-se que a alimentação complementar da nutriz custa em média 8,7% do salário mínimo. Gasta-se aproximadamente 35% do salário mínimo na alimentação do bebê com fórmula infantil e 11% com leite de vaca tipo C. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados apontam que é mais barato e eficaz garantir a complementação alimentar de nutrizes carentes, para se promover a amamentação, que distribuir fórmulas ou leites, e favorecer o desmame precoce.OBJECTIVES: to compare supplementary food cost of nursing mothers related to breast feeding with breast milk substitutes. METHODS: the cost of energy spent during lactation was calculated with the addition of one or two types of food of the usual diet to supply the extra demand of a nursing baby. Menus were designed and calculated for the mothers and food cost estimated as well as the cost of baby formulas and type C cow milk for children under six months of age according to nutritional recommendations for this phase of life considering a six month consumption period. Percentage of minimum wage spent with each type of food was determined. RESULTS: supplementary food offered to mothers has an average cost of 8.7% of the minimum wage. Approximately 35% of the minimum wage is spent in feeding the baby with formulas and 11% with type

  16. Assessment of radiation dose to infants from breast milk following the administration of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate to nursing mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunleye, O.T.

    1983-07-01

    Results of measurements of /sup 99m/Tc activity in the milk samples of nursing mothers who received /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate for thyroid scans are presented. The maximum concentration is found around 2 hours after injection. The total body dose to a 3-month-old infant feeding on the assayed milk varied with time from about 685 mrad to 0.5 mrad.

  17. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) wer

  18. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of nursing mothers' milk in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.; Copeland, R.; Tilden, R.

    1981-02-01

    As part of an effort to assess the extent and distribution of PCB contamination in the human population of Michigan, PCB levels in the breast milk of Michigan nursing mothers were investigated. All of the 1057 samples collected from 68 counties contained PCB residues ranging from trace amounts to 5.1 ppm. The mean PCB level was 1.496 ppm. The public health significance of PCB contamination in human populations and the implications of PCB contamination of human milk for current breast-feeding practices are discussed. Several precautionary measures for nursing mothers are recommended.

  20. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult.

  1. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother-Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D; March, Kaitlin M; Chen, Nancy N; Stamm, Rosemary A; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Tim J; Whitfield, Kyly C

    2017-03-12

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother-infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3-27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001).

  2. Risco para amamentação ineficaz: um diagnóstico de enfermagem Risco para el amamantamiento ineficaz: un diagnostico de enfermería Risk of ineffective breast-feeding: a nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva apresentar o diagnóstico de enfermagem risco para amamentação ineficaz em mães com filho prematuro hospitalizados em uma UTI neonatal. O estudo de caso delineou a metodologia do estudo, constituindo-se a amostra de 35 mães. Encontrou-se este diagnóstico em 100% da amostra, obtendo como fatores de risco:prematuridade; oportunidade insuficiente para a amamentação ao seio, devido ao recém-nascido (RN estar hospitalizado; déficit de conhecimento quanto à manutenção da lactação; medo materno; inconstância da sucção do seio devido à separação; alimentação artificial do RN. Considera-se que a identificação de riscos para a não amamentação durante o período de hospitalização do RN possibilita o direcionamento de um cuidado de enfermagem voltado para a prevenção de um diagnóstico de amamentação ineficaz.Este estudio objetiva presentar el diagnóstico de enfermería riesgo para amamantamiento ineficaz en madres con hijo prematuro hospitalizados en una UTI neonatal. El estudio de caso delineó la metodología del estudio, constituyéndose la muestra de 35 madres. Se encontró este diagnóstico en 100% de la muestra, obteniendo como factores de riesgo: premadurez; oportunidad insuficiente para el amamantamiento al seno, debido al recién nacido (RN estar hospitalizado; déficit de conocimiento en lo que se refiere al mantenimiento de la lactancia; miedo materno; inconstancia de la succión del seno debido a la separación; alimentación artificial del RN. Se considera que la identificación de riesgos para que no se amamante durante el período de hospitalización del RN posibilita la dirección de un cuidado de enfermería volcado para la prevención de un diagnóstico de amamantamiento ineficaz.This study is aimed at presenting the 'risk of ineffective breast-feeding' nursing diagnosis regarding mothers of premature infants who are hospitalized in a neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The case study

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  4. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  5. Survey for the current situation of infant feeding knowledge, attitude and behaviors of some rural mothers in southern Shaanxi province%陕南部分农村母亲的婴幼儿喂养知信行现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓芬; 胡晓菊; 陈凤萍

    2013-01-01

    .6%, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for six months was 31.2%, colostrums feeding rate was 66.3%, and early milk feeding rate was 54.9%.Rural mothers who were affected by the concept of elder family members and squeezing out colostrums accounted for 55%.Totally 48.8% of the mothers thought that they couldn ’ t produce adequate milk.And 51.2%mothers considered that infants ’ supplementary food should be added to make up the nutrient deficiencies of breast milk.The rate of complementary feeding among the infants aged 4-6 months was 63.4%, and that among the infants more than 6 months was only 22.8%.Porridge, vegetable juice and fruit juice took highest proportion (62.2%) in main complementary food, while yolk took 45.9%and animal meat (meat, liver, and fish) accounted for only 5.9%.Mothers who did not insist on breastfeeding thought that breast milk was deficient and added complementary feeding too early .Mothers who squeezed colostrums were affected by outdated ideas.And mothers did not add animal meat considered that the infants could not digest meat until 1 year old.Conclusion Colostrums feeding rate, early milk feeding rate, rate of exclusive breastfeeding for six months and the rate of complementary feeding at 6 month are all relatively low .Complementary feeding is simple in types and imbalanced , and there is a sharp shortage in animal meat taking .Therefore , the training for health workers , pediatric personnel and mothers should be strengthened so as to update the relevant knowledge and skills .

  6. ASSESSMENT OF INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG UNDER-3 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN SLUMS OF HUBBALLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.

  7. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rwanda's National PMTCT program aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. In November 2010, Rwanda adopted the WHO 2010 ARV guidelines for PMTCT recommending Option B (HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women extended throughout breastfeeding and discontinued (short course-HAART only for those not eligible for life treatment. The current study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of this policy choice. METHODS: Based on a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Rwanda, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of six regimens: dual ARV prophylaxis with either 12 months breastfeeding or replacement feeding; short course HAART (Sc-HAART prophylaxis with either 6 months breastfeeding, 12 months breastfeeding, or 18 months breastfeeding; and Sc-HAART prophylaxis with replacement feeding. Direct costs were modelled based on all inputs in each scenario and related unit costs. Effectiveness was evaluated by measuring HIV-free survival at 18 months. Savings correspond to the lifetime costs of HIV treatment and care avoided as a result of all vertical HIV infections averted. RESULTS: All PMTCT scenarios considered are cost saving compared to "no intervention." Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding or 6 months breastfeeding dominate all other scenarios. Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding allows for more children to be alive and HIV-uninfected by 18 months than Sc-HAART with 6 months breastfeeding for an incremental cost per child alive and uninfected of 11,882 USD. This conclusion is sensitive to changes in the relative risk of mortality by 18 months for exposed HIV-uninfected children on replacement feeding from birth and those who were breastfed for only 6 months compared to those breastfeeding for 12 months or more. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the earlier decision by Rwanda to adopt WHO Option B and could inform alternatives for breastfeeding duration. Local contexts and existing care delivery models should

  8. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children.

  9. Induced lactation: a study of 37 non-puerperal mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemba, K

    1994-08-01

    Of a series of 37 non-puerperal women aged between 19 and 55 years who requested bottle feeding, 27 were known to have completed a lactation induction programme and 24 (89 per cent) of these women were known to be successfully breast feeding well nourished children. All 11 women who had never previously lactated were successful. Of the three mothers in whom induction was unsuccessful, two obtained a bottle from other sources and both their children were malnourished. This study indicates that given a high degree of motivation combined with medication, support, and encouragement, lactation induction is likely to be highly successful and may thus be an important factor in child survival.

  10. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  12. Exclusive breast feeding and prevention of diarrheal diseases: a study in Qatar Aleitamento materno exclusivo na prevenção de doenças diarréicas: um estudo realizado no Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the relationships between breast feeding and diarrhea and to assess the effect of exclusive breast feeding (EBF on reducing the risk of diarrhea in Qatar. METHODS: this is a cross sectional survey carried out at the Well baby clinics and Pediatric clinics in the 11 Primary Health Care Centers and Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1500 Qatari infants and preschool children with an age range of 0-3 years and mothers agedbetween 18 to 47 years were surveyed during the period from October 2006 to September 2008 in Qatar. Out of the 1500 mothers, 1278 agreed to participate in this study, with a response rate of 85.2%. Questionnaires were administered to women who were attending Primary Health Care (PHC Centers for child immunization. Data about the child gathered included date of birth, gender, birth order, consanguinity, socio-economic conditions, age of mother, level of education of mother, occupation, mode of breast feeding, sterilization of bottle and incident of diarrhea during the interview. Univariate statistical methods were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: of the 1278 infants studied, more than half (59.3% were exclusively breastfed, and the mean duration was11.4 (SD=6.7. The risk for presenting diarrhea was higher in formula fed (48.7% and partiallybreastfed children (37.3% when compared to EBF(32.5%. CONCLUSION: EBF plays an important role in reducing the incidence and severity of infantile diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: investigar a relação entre a amamentação e a diarréia e avaliar o efeito do aleitamento maternao exclusivo (AME na redução do risco de diarréia noQatar. MÉTODOS: um estudo transversal realizado nos Well Baby Clinics and Pediatric Clinics dos 11 centros de atenção básica do Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, no Qatar. Um desenho amostral de múltiplos estágios foi empregado com

  13. Avaliação dos conhecimentos de equipes do Programa de Saúde da Família sobre o manejo do aleitamento materno em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo Knowledge assessment of Family Health Program teams on breast feeding in a Municipality of São Paulo's Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Veríssimo Ciconi

    2004-06-01

    as one of the priority actions developed focusing on child health, 98.4% agreed to the value and advantages of BF for both mother and child, 96.7% recommended exclusive breast feeding up to six months of life, 24.6% instructed mothers to continue breast feeding up to two years old; 88.5% instruct on breast feeding position and nursing, 38.9% offer correct instructions for manual milking, 21.4% offer adequate instructions. CONCLUSIONS: respondents are aware of the value of breast feeding and have theoretical knowledge on the subject but have difficulties to resolve practical questions concerning breast feeding management which could have a negative impact on the work developed to support nursing mothers.

  14. Evaluation of the radioprotection state-of-the-art for nursing mothers and the recommendation for multidisciplinary teams; Avaliacao do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes e elaboracao de recomendacoes para equipes multidisciplinares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de, E-mail: lirio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Related to the ionizing radiation exposure, the breast feed babies can be classified as individuals occupational y exposed and public individuals existing dose limits, and nonexisting limits. breast feeds are always considered as public individuals, independently of the category which women are classified. The contamination can occur by ingestion of mother warm milk on the cases of accidents involving mothers occupational y exposed, intake of radionuclides by inhalation, or ingestion, or when the mother are submitted to diagnostic procedures or therapeutics with radiopharmaceuticals, that can reach high concentrations in the milk which can cause significant absorbed doses for the children organs. Besides the internal dose, the close contact between the mother and the baby results in external doses. In Brazil, round 7 % of the diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I, and 84 % are carry out by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, it is necessary the definitive interruption of the breast feeding. This work proposes a study on the risk of children and babies breast feed in the country. A questionnaire was developed to be applied to interviews with doctors and nurses on public and private nuclear medicine services, for the evaluation of the procedures used with young women. After that, will be developed a brochure for multidisciplinary teams, presenting the basic concepts on internal dosimetry of the children and babies, allowing the precise prediction of interruption time of the maternal breast feed and, when applicable, the alternative methods for that period

  15. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  16. [Abnormalities in behavior in the oral and cervical area: reassurance breast-feeding. Considerations on sudden infant death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudin, R G; Khalef, M

    1993-01-01

    The oral zone reflects the relational modalities of the child: the sensorimotor physiological and psychological behaviour is established according to the development of the facial sphere and its aero-digestive crossroads. In the baby, the mandibular equilibrium and position and the dimensions of the lower part of the face essentially depend upon praxic activities, which drive the mandibular and hyoid displacements. During the period of immaturity, the lingual area is brought into movement with each "sucking-swallowing" action that characterises breast-feeding: the mandibulo-hyoid swing is subordinate to the pharyngo-lingual complex. The analysis of this psycho-motor behaviour reveals imperfect and upsetting "mimics" that modify the balance of the jaw and of the hyo-lingual area during swallowing, which is the second phase of the reassurance breast-feed. The lingual ptosis causes congestion of the airways. These lax children, with a receding chin, are deformed by their oral habits. The clinical picture evidences the constitutional hyperlaxity by examining the parental group -the same facial dystrophies, the same habits resulting in various disorders of general or cervical statics. At the level of the temporomandibular joint, the dysfunction is also accompanied by claudication by mandibulo-hyo-lingual tipping. The general and cervical statics of the baby are thus affected in the course of sleep. It is during paradoxical sleep that the baby's head tips on to the thorax, due to the resultant atonia of the neck muscles. The head, insufficiently supported on its cervical pillar accentuates the asphyxial mechanism provoked by the tipping of the lingual area on the epiglottis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. [The relation between maternal breast feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Rocha, Najara Barbosa; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Orlando

    2011-05-01

    This study sought to identify the type and duration of breastfeeding received by children and establish the association with non-nutritive suction habits. A retrospective, transversal study was conducted using a questionnaire given to 330 mothers or persons responsible for 3 to 6-year-old children registered in kindergartens in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, after obtaining their free and informed consent. It was revealed that 86.4% of mothers breastfed their children. With respect to duration, only 33.4% of these mothers breastfed exclusively after 6 months. The average time of exclusive breastfeeding received by children was 3.84 months and complementary breastfeeding was 11.68 months. Of this total, 53.3% reported that their infants manifested non-nutritive suction habits and of these children, 70.45% were not exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, there being a significant association between both (phabit (44.4%), showing a statistically significant association with breastfeeding time (pbreastfeeding was practiced, albeit for a lesser duration than considered indispensable for the baby's development, there being an association between duration and type of breastfeeding and non-nutritive suction habits.

  18. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  19. The Effect of Modes of Delivery on Infants' Feeding Practices

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    Gulshan Saeed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding has a great impact on the infant morbidity and mortality. According to Pakistan Demographic and Health survey (PDHS infant mortality rate is 78 deaths per 1,000 live births. World Health Organization recommends that exclusive breast feeding for six months can decrease infant mortality rate by one-third. The objective of the study was to find out how the mode of delivery had impact on the practice of breast feeding. Data were collected for 2500 consecutive patients during a period of two years, and it was seen that maternal initiative to breast feed was low and problems with lactation were much more in cases delivering their babies via cesarean sections than those delivering theirs by normal delivery. Vaginal and cesarean section deliveries took place in 54% and 46% of the case, respectively. Thirty percent of the women studied felt that they had no problems regarding breastfeeding, but 70% of them had some sort of problems with breastfeeding their babies. When the women were matched for the mode of delivery, 58% of women who had breastfeeding problems belonged to the cesarean delivery group and 42% of complaining mothers were from women with normal delivery. The relative risk of having problems with breastfeeding for women subjected to cesarean was 1.38 and the odds ratio was 0.61. The findings of the present study indicate that more in depth counseling sessions are required for women undergoing operative delivery to improve breast feeding among them

  20. [Macrocytic anemia and neurological signs due to vitamin B-12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, A; Neuwirth, M; Békési, A; Bocskai, E

    2001-11-18

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a very rare disease of infants and young children in Europe. Authors report a case of a 9.5-month-old infant who was exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother and developed serious vitamin B12 deficiency in form of neurological regression, repetitive vomiting, drowsiness, dysphagia, obstipation, and tremor. A few days after intramuscular vitamin substitution his abnormal signs improved dramatically, hematological restitution was reached in six weeks. Authors describe the hematological and neurological signs, the diagnostic and differential-diagnostic pitfalls, therapy, prognosis, and prevention of this condition. Beside reviewing the literature they emphasize the importance of early recognition and intervention and the need of an appropriate doctor-parent cooperation in this disease.

  1. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  2. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  3. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  4. Evaluation of Infant and young child feeding through a Trial for Improved Practices (TIPs in rural Varanasi

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    Fahmina Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervention targeting exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding has the greatest impact on child survival. In view of these facts a formative research was conducted in rural Varanasi with objectives-To assess the status of IYCF practices prevailing in the experimental area and to demonstrate the effect of intervention among selected mothers for improved IYCF practices. Methodology: Follow up intervention study, on 2 types of cohort (0-6 and 7-36 months old mother & child pair conducted for the period of November 2011- October 2012.  Cohorts were followed for a period of 3 months, using a formative research methodology. A total of 293 mother & child pair were enrolled for intervention using appropriate sampling methodology. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF and a child feeding index (CFI were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 7-24 and 25-36 months Results: There was inadequacy of optimal breastfeeding and sub optimal Practice regarding Complementary feeding. Measurement of anthropometric Indies indicates that 46.7% were stunted, 35.5% are wasted and 29.6% are underweight. Inferential analysis for Difference in exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding Index during pre and post TIPs intervention phase indicated a significant (p=0.001 change in exclusive breast and complementary feeding. Conclusion: Study indicated, it is possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviours to promote exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding using TIPs methodology. However, long-term sustainability of these changes requires further study, and the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods, intakes of breast milk and total daily consumption of energy & nutrients requires further research.

  5. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  6. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an...

  7. Preliminary Observations on Safety of Children Whose Mother Use Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate During Lactation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小菲; 雷贞武; 袁晓蓉; 杜桂来; 李梅; 赵玉琼; 刘光海; 吴尚纯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of the children breast-fed by the mothers receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) during lactation Methods A total of 180 children were divided into two groups. The children in the experimental group (n= 90) included those whose mothers were given DMPA injection during lactation while mothers of the children in the control group (n = 90), at the same time, did not use DMPA. The body weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral adaptation of children in the two groups were measured and compared.Results There were no significant differences (P> 0. 05) in the body weight, height,head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral in two groups.Conclusion DMPA can be safely used in breast-feeding women without harmful effects on physical and intellectual developments and behavioral adaptation of their offspring.

  8. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

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    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  9. Child feeding practices in a rural Western Kenya community

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    Grace M. Mbagaya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is nearly universal in Kenya. However, supplementation of breast milk starts too early, thereby exposing the infants to diarrhoea and other infections. Despite the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO of exclusive breastfeeding (EB from birth to six months, EB is rare and poorly timed and complementary feeding (CF practices are still common. The study describes feeding practices of children aged 0 to 24 months in the Mumias Division of the Kakamega district in Kenya. Method: Using a cross-sectional study, 180 mothers of infants/children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, feeding practices and sources of information on the same were obtained from the mothers.Results: Whereas 92.1% of the children were breastfed, only 12.2% of the mothers practiced EB up to 4 to 6 months. Mothers introduced liquids and complementary foods at a mean age of 2.7 months and by the fourth month, more than one-third (34.5% of the mothers had initiated CF. Apart from water, fresh milk, tea, commercial juices, maize-meal/millet porridge, mashed potatoes, bananas and fruits were also introduced. The perceived reasons for introducing these foods included the child being old enough (33.8%, another pregnancy (25%, insufficient milk (20.3%, sickness of the mother or child (10.5% and in order for the child to eat other foods (11.4%. Over half (53.3% of the mothers obtained information on BF and CF from friends, neighbours, media advertisements and health workers.Conclusion: Breastfeeding is common; however, mothers do not seem to practice the WHO recommendations. Mothers in this study area and other rural communities need to be empowered with information on the correct BF and CF practices through existing government health services, nongovernmental organisations and other community-based networks, especially in the light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  10. Nosocomial colonization due to imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidemiologically linked to breast milk feeding in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina MAMMINA; Paola DI CARLO; Domenico CIPOLLA; Alessandra CASUCCIO; Matilde TANTILLO; Maria Rosa Anna PLANO; Angela MAZZOLA; Giovanni CORSELLO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We describe a one-year investigation of colonization by imipenem-resistant, metallo-β-1actamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the University Hospital of Palermo, Italy. Methods: A prospective epidemiological investigation was conducted in the period 2003 January to 2004 January. Rectal swabs were collected twice a week from all neonates throughout their NICU stay. MBL production by imipenem-resistant strains of P aeruginosa was detected by phenotypic and molecular methods. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out on all isolates of P aeruginosa. The association between risk factors and colonization by imipenem-resistant, imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates and other multidrug-resistant Gram negative (MDRGN) organisms was analyzed for variables present at admission and during the NICU stay. Data analysis was carried out by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Twenty-two of 210 neonates were colonized with imipenem-resistant, MBL-producing P aeruginosa isolates and 14 by imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates. A single pulsotype, named A, was shared by all imipenem-resistant isolates. Colonization by P aeruginosa of pulsotype A was positively correlated with breast milk feeding and administration of ampicillin-sulbactam, and inversely correlated with exclusive feeding by formula. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, birthweight of more than 2500 g and breast milk feeding were independently associated with an increased risk of colonization by MBL-producing P aeruginosa. Conclusion: The results strongly support an association between colonization by a well-defined imipenem-resistant, MBL producing P aeruginosa strain and breast milk feeding. Such a study may highlight the need for implementation of strategies to prevent expressed breast milk from becoming a vehicle of health care-associated infections.

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF INFANT FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EASTERN INDIA

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    Ratan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world's major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival , birth spacing , and the prevent ion of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation , duration , and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the knowledge , attitude and practices of infant feeding and , to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among women in rural area of West Bengal , India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted on mothers of childr en less than two year of age attending the outpatient department of Malda Medical College and Hospital , a rural medical college in Eastern India. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed who were randomly selected. A structured , pretested and predesigned qu estionnaire was used to collect information on the socio - demographic profile and infant feeding practice. RESULTS : Mothers of male children were 65% and female children were 35%. 44% were literate upto middle school and 28% with primary education. 14% mothe rs were illiterate. 52% of mothers had the knowledge about initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour of birth whereas only 28% practiced it. 80% mothers had the knowledge of exclusive breast feeding but only 60% practiced it. 24% of infants had received p relacteal feeds and only 2% breast fed upto 24 months. CONCLUSIONS : Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding , awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. Creating an awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding will strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid early introduction of complementary foods for socio - cultural

  12. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-05-01

    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.

  13. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

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    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  14. Retrospective stuclies on lactation mastitis distribution in breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yi; ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Wen-hai; JIA Shi; GU Xi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the factors which would be likely to affect the occurrence of lactation mastitis.Methods 216 patients with lactation mastitis,who met our grouping criteria,were chosen for survey and clinical data collection.Their age,time of onset,mode of delivery,post-partum colostrum time,mastering of breast-feeding skills,feeding habits,occurring site of their mastitis and other data were input into SPSS 17.0 software,respectively,to perform retrospective analysis.Results Patients' average age and their age of first breast-feeding were all 30 years old ; the average age of their first pregnancy were 27 years old.Their initial post-natal breast-feeding was about 2 to 4 days.The onset of incidence of mastitis was about 28 days post-natal.First,second and third pregnancy patients represented 1/3 of the total patients respectively.63.4% patients had cesarean delivery and only 36.6% patients had vaginal delivery; 91.7% were outpatients and 8.3% patients were inpatients.10.6% patients had abscess and 89.4% patients hadn't.The distribution ratio of inflammation in the upper outer,lower outer,lower inner and upper inner quadrants of the breast was 30.6%,48.1%,19%,2.3% respectively.If the mode of delivery is considered as a factor to investigate incidence time of mastitis and postpartum colostrums time,no significant difference between the two groups was found (P > 0.05).Our survey indicated that 79.2% patients did not have any knowledge of breastfeeding,8.8% patients got the breast-feeding knowledge from their mothers,11.6% patients got the breastfeeding knowledge from books or web resources,only 0.5% of the patients participated in the training of breast-feeding.76.9% patients never had breast massage,19% of patients had a few times of massage,2.8% of patients had occasional massage,and only 1.4% of patients had regular breast massage with the help of their family.85.6% patients didn't have their breasts emptied from breast-feeding

  15. Coupled mother-child model for bioaccumulation of POPs in nursing infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapp, Stefan [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Bygningstorvet 115, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: stt@env.dtu.dk; Ma Bomholtz, Li [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Bygningstorvet 115, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Legind, Charlotte N. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Bygningstorvet 115, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegard Alle 13, DK-2630 Taastrup (Denmark)

    2008-11-15

    Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) leads to high levels in human milk and high doses of POPs for nursing infants. This is currently not considered in chemical risk assessment. A coupled model for bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in breast-feeding mother and nursing infant was developed and tested for a series of organic compounds. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mother, breast milk and child were predicted to vary with log K{sub OW} and, for volatile compounds, with K{sub AW} and concentration in air. The concentrations of POPs in the infant body increase the first half year to about factor 3 above mother and decline thereafter to lower levels. The predicted results are close to empirical data and to an empirical regression. The new mother-child model is compact due to its easy structure and the analytical matrix solution. It could be added to existing exposure and risk assessment systems, such as EUSES. - This paper addresses a model for accumulation of organic compounds by mother and breast-fed infant, applicable for exposure assessment within larger frameworks.

  16. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  17. Feeding Your Baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use the combination of breast milk and formula, bottle-feeding and nursing that works best for you and ... the breast even if you supplement with a bottle-feeding afterwards, do so. Permit yourself room to experiment ...

  18. Mothers' health-seeking behaviour in acute diarrhoea in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cuevas, R; Guiscafré, H; Romero, G; Rodríguez, L; Gutiérrez, G

    1996-12-01

    This study, a cross-sectional survey, was conducted to assess how mothers take care of their children with diarrhoea and to develop a model of health-care seeking behaviour. Multistage sampling was used. Mothers whose children aged less than five years had suffered from diarrhoea in the last fortnight were included. Nurses interviewed the mothers to collect data. Variables included in the interview were: mothers' characteristics, children's characteristics, clinical data, treatment given by the mother, maternal health-seeking behaviour and mothers' information about diarrhoea and dehydration. Variables corresponding to the clinical data were grouped to identify dehydration signs and the need for medical care. Dehydration was defined as the presence of two or more of the following reported signs: thirst, sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle, or scanty urine. The need for medical care was defined as the presence of one or more of the following characteristics: illness lasting more than three days, vomiting, fever, bloody diarrhoea or dehydration. A sample of 747 mothers was obtained. Household treatments consisted of herbal teas to stop diarrhoea (52.3%), liquids to prevent dehydration (92.2%), symptomatic drugs (35.2%) and changes in feeding patterns (36.3%), which consisted in suppressing milk and dairy products and interrupting breast feeding (12.2%). Mothers sought medical assistance when they perceived a worsening of clinical conditions. Clinical signs statistically associated with their decision were: bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, illness longer than three days, weight loss, and fever. The signs of dehydration were not associated with health care-seeking because the mother did not recognise them. It is concluded that maternal educational programmes should emphasise, besides the proper use of oral rehydration therapy, teaching mothers to identify signs of dehydration as an indication to seek timely medical care.

  19. Lactancia materna en bebés pretérminos: cuidados centrados en el desarrollo en el contexto palestino Breast feeding in premature babies: development-centered care in Palestine

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    M. J. Aguilar Cordero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El contacto precoz piel a piel provee beneficios para la madre y para el bebé, además de tener un papel importante en el establecimiento de la lactancia materna. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue informar a las madres de bebés pretérmino sobre la importancia del contacto piel con piel para la implantación de la lactancia materna y para un mejor vínculo entre ellos (cuidados centrados en el desarrollo CCD. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte, prospectivo, en varios Hospitales de Cisjordania en Palestina, en el período de tiempo comprendido entre 2008 y 2011. El universo lo constituyó una estimación de un promedio de 2.500 partos anuales en cada hospital. Se determinó una población muestral de n = 252. Todos los recién nacidos tenían una edad gestacional inferior a 37 semanas y un peso inferior a 2.500 gramos y, por problemas de salud, fueron ingresados en unidades de encamación neonatal. Resultados: Este estudio ha puesto de manifiesto que en Palestina las mujeres jóvenes practican el contacto piel con piel y la lactancia materna con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres mayores; una vez informada de sus ventajas, muestran mayor interés en aprender los cuidados de sus bebés en las propias unidades de encamación neonatal. Conclusiones: La aplicación del contacto piel a piel (CCD y la lactancia en bebés pretérmino ha sido posible mediante información e instrucción a las madres. Este estudio ha tenido una gran repercusión y ha sido muy bien aceptado por la población femenina. No existían estudios similares en ningún hospital de Palestina.In addition to its important role in the initiation of breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact benefits both mothers and their babies. Objective: To inform all mothers of premature babies about the importance of skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding in order to foment a closer bond between mother and child (development-centered care. Materials and method: A

  20. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Iona; Anderson, Wayne; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean; Evans, Rhodri; Fernandes, Alwyn; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael; Keane, Declan; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general relationship

  1. Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD\\/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC\\/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated\\/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INTERVENTIONAL FEEDING PRACTICES ON GROWTH OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE BABIES

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    Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One year hospital based non - randomised trial to evaluate the effect of interventional feeding practices on the growth of cleft lip and palate patients was conducted at K.L.E.S’s Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka state, India. This trial was planned to study the various feeding modalities, the feeding problems, the incidence of morbidities, and the effect of different types of clefts on the growth parameters in control group. At the same time, evaluation of the effect of interve ntional feeding practices in terms of difference in the incidence of morbidities and the growth parameters between the interventional and control groups was studied. 22 and 33 cleft patients, who satisfied the criteria for the interventional and the contro l groups respectively, were enrolled for the trial. The feeding problems were quite prevalent in both the groups, with nasal regurgitation being the commonest, followed by vomiting and chocking. Isolated cleft lip did not interfere with breast feeding as a ll the cases in both the groups practiced direct breast feeding. Cleft palate/lip interfered with the technique of direct breast feeding resulting in the practice of top feeds, commonly with cup and spoon modality even when the mother were eager to breast feed, indicating the less technical difficulties in the cup and spoon feeding modality. Isolated cleft lip did not have statistically significant over the growth parameters in contrast to the combined cleft palate and lip. There were no statistically signi ficant differences in the growth parameters between males and females among different types of clefts in both interventional and control groups. The interventional feeding practices in combined cleft palate and lip cases resulted in statistically significa nt decrease in various morbidities and also better growth parameters. The use of obturators was not associated with improved growth parameters secondary to small sample size and inherent disadvantages of its

  3. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

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    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  4. Guttus, tiralatte and téterelle: a history of breast pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Breast pumps have been used since antiquity, and their form has changed with the available material. The ancient Greeks used the ceramic guttus type, both to empty the breast and feed the infant. The Romans invented glass milk-extractors, sucked by the mother herself to elevate retracted nipples. Devices in the form of a smoking pipe were in widespread use when corsets had caused an epidemic of flat nipples in the 17th century. In the 19th century, vessels to be sucked both by mother and infant were developed to facilitate breastfeeding for preterm infants. When from 1870 the role of pathogenic bacteria became known, easy and thorough cleaning became an important feature of breast pumps. The 20th century sexualized the female breast to such a degree that its nourishing function was threatened. Electric pumps, developed at the beginning of the 20th century for hospital use, found a large private market when breast feeding in public was no longer tolerated. Today, breast pumps are mainly used to enable breastfeeding mothers to return to work.

  5. Prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices among preschool children of Lucknow City

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    Ridhi Narang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of nursing caries and its relationship with feeding practices in preschool children of Lucknow city. Materials & Method: A sample of 512 preschool going children was selected through multistage cluster random sampling. Mothers provided information regarding demographic data and feeding practices. Dental caries experience was recorded using Dentition status and treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997. Association between 2 variables was obtained using chi square test. One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.1%. Children having mixed type of feeding practices had statistically highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those children solely fed on bottle or breast. Also, children who were breast fed at night had a highly significant (p<0.001 caries experience than those who were not breast fed. Conclusions: The prevalence of nursing caries was high and was significantly associated with mixed type of feeding practices and who were breastfed or bottlefed at night. nursing caries, bottle feeding, breast feeding, preschool

  6. Participation in a mail survey: role of repeated mailings and characteristics of nonrespondents among recent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, B; Kaminski, M; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Hollebecque, V

    1999-04-01

    This study analysed the characteristics of respondent and nonrespondent mothers at each stage of a survey procedure, from a initial questionnaire to a reminder letter and two repeated mailings. Of 938 mothers of liveborn children who, while maternity inpatients, received a questionnaire and information about a mail survey to follow 2 months later, 828 completed and returned the initial questionnaire, 708 agreed to participate in the mail survey and were sent the mail questionnaire, and 612 finally completed and returned the questionnaire at 2 months. There were differences between respondents and non-respondents for socio-demographic factors at each stage of the process. The final response rate to the mail questionnaire was higher among mothers who were younger, were breast feeding, and had more education, an occupation and fewer children. The characteristics of late respondents were intermediate between those of early to middle respondents and nonrespondents for age, educational level, breast feeding and occupation. Maternal and infant health varied only slightly according to response status. Repeated mailings increased response and diminished selection. A mail questionnaire after contact in a maternity ward is a cost-effective means of gathering data about a large sample of recent mothers and their children.

  7. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  8. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  9. The study of association between mother weight efficacy life-style with feeding practices, food groups intake and body mass index in children aged 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child′s intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.

  10. Probable topiramate-induced diarrhea in a 2-month-old breast-fed child — A case report

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    Tone Westergren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An infant developed a severe condition of recurrent and persistent watery diarrhea at 40 days of age. The child had been partially breast-fed, and the mother used topiramate for epilepsy. Hospital examination excluded a viral or bacterial infection and failed to identify any other potential cause. After two weeks, topiramate exposure was suspected to be the cause, and breast-feeding was suspended. The diarrhea ceased within 2 days. Analysis of the breast milk showed a topiramate concentration of 15.7 μmol/L (5.3 μg/mL. There is little information on the use of topiramate in breast-feeding women. The potential effects on the children are not known. Topiramate passes into breast milk, and the concentration may equal the therapeutic plasma concentration. In this case, the infant may have ingested up to 40% of the mother's weight-adjusted dose. Diarrhea is a well-known adverse reaction to topiramate and has the potential to cause serious electrolyte disturbances in neonates and infants. The condition improved rapidly after suspension of breast-feeding. Topiramate in breast milk may reach levels that cause adverse effects in infants. Based on the adverse reaction profile of topiramate and the milk concentration, the diarrhea was assessed as a probable adverse drug reaction in the infant.

  11. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast milk.

  12. Whose Breasts are They Anyway?

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    Becky Spencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available I have been conducting qualitative breastfeeding research regarding the experiences of African American families who have parented breastfed children. One comment has been stated over and over again in response to questions regarding perceived challenges with breastfeeding, “My breasts belong to my baby now and my husband will get them back after weaning,” or fathers have said, “It is an adjustment to have to share her breasts with my child.” I also frequently hear these comments in clinical practice as well, and not just from African American parents. As a lactation consultant and breastfeeding advocate I find these comments frustrating. In fact, the more I hear them the more bothered I become. My emotional response and the increasing frequency with which I hear these statements warrant discussion and inquiry. Why are women so disassociated from their breasts? Why do men claim ownership of women’s breasts? When women and men make comments about the ownership of lactating breasts the comments are usually followed by nervous or uncomfortable laughter. As clinicians how should we respond? Let me clarify that by clinicians I am referring to nurses, physicians, dieticians, public health professionals, or anyone who provides professional support to breastfeeding families. The medical community has centrally situated breastfeeding in a medical context. We encourage women to breastfeed their children because of the numerous health benefits of breastmilk; but breastfeeding is experienced in a social and cultural context[1]. Incidents of breastfeeding mothers who are scorned for feeding their children in public places are reported frequently on local and national news outlets. This public outcry is a testament of American cultural views that breastfeeding is an unacceptable practice that should occur only in private spaces. As clinicians I would argue that some of us are very skilled at teaching women about the mechanics of breastfeeding, but

  13. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

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    Broka Līga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  14. 汉源地区哺乳期妇女营养知识、态度、行为及食物摄入频率状况研究%INVESTIGATION OF NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE AND THE STATUS OF FOOD FREQUENCY OF BREAST-FEEDING WOMEN IN HAN YUAN REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇倩; 唐偲琦; 王海英; 彭锦瑞; 陈雅薇; 俞捷; 吴璟屿; 帅才; 宋雅晴

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To find out the status of nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice and the food frequency of breast-feeding women in Han Yuan region, and provide scientific basis of nutritional education for breast-feeding women.[ Methods] 100 breast-feeding women living in Han Yuan county were inquired face-to-face by self-produced questionnaire.[ Results] The level of nutritional KAP for the breast-feeding women in Han Yuan county was low, and the qualification rate was 20%. There was obvious positive correlations among nutritional K, A and P; the nutritional attitude were generally good;problema of practice were: insufficient of apecific foods such as dairy and eggs products, legume and pluck, the frequency of cereals, vegetables and fruits were reasonable. [ Conclusion] The current nutritional knowledge and diet pattem for local breast-feeding women should be improved. The advantage of well-mannered nutritional attitude should be taken to carry out intervene of nutritional health education and enhance nutritional education for breast-feeding women and her family, in order to impmve the health of both mothers and offspring.%[目的] 了解汉源地区哺乳期妇女营养相关知识、态度、行为及食物摄入频率的现状,为哺乳期妇女营养教育工作的开展提供科学依据.[方法] 采用自制问卷对汉源县100名哺乳期妇女进行面对面问卷调查.[结果]汉源县哺乳期妇女营养相关知识、态度及行为总体水平较差,合格率为20%;营养K、A、P之间有明显正相关性;营养态度普遍较好;营养行为中的主要问题是:哺乳期特殊需要食物如奶类、蛋类、豆类、动物内脏等摄入不足,谷类、蔬菜、水果类食物的摄入频率较为合理.[结论] 目前当地哺乳期妇女人群的营养知识和饮食模式有待改善,可利用营养态度普遍较好的有利条件,开展系列营养健康教育干预活动,加强哺乳期妇女及家人的营养教育,以促进母子健康.

  15. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

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    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  16. Feeding Modalities and the Onset of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBreast milk has been reported to ameliorate the severity and outcome of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS. The mechanism of this beneficial effect of breast milk on NAS remains unclear, as the negligible amount of methadone transmitted via breast milk is unlikely to have an impact on NAS. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different feeding modalities on the onset of NAS.A retrospective medical record review was conducted on one hundred and ninety-four methadone maintained mother/infant dyads. Infants were categorized on the first 2 days of life as predominantly breastfed, fed expressed human breast milk or formula fed. The feeding categories were then analyzed using the onset of NAS as the outcome measure. After adjusting for confounders, there was no significant effect of the modality of feeding on the rates of NAS requiring treatment (p=0.11. Breastfeeding significantly delayed the onset of NAS (p=0.04The act of breastfeeding in the first two days of life had no effect on whether an infant required treatment for NAS when compared to those fed EBM or formula. This only suggests that the advantages of breastfeeding on NAS cannot be substantiated in a small cohort and should not discourage breastfeeding.

  17. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

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    Sathish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children . 1 This study is being done to know about the feeding practices, nutritional sta tus, anaemia prevalence in children residing in rural areas of Puducherry. OBJECTIVES : 1. To study feeding practices, nutritional status, prevalence of anemia in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. 2. Influence of feeding practices on nutritional stat us and hemoglobin levels. METHODS : This is a hospital based prospective study done for a period of 1yr. The study included 200 children from 1 month to 2 years of age. Patients from rural areas of Puducherry nearing Tamil Nadu border and people from adjoi ning rural areas of Tamil Nadu come to our hospital. A questionnaire is provided to parents/guardians of children asking about feeding practices . Participants weight in kilograms and length in centimeters are measured. Blood samples are drawn from participants for the estimation of hemoglobin levels. Peripheral smear study will be done if hemoglobin level is less than 11 gram/dl. Observations are tabulated. RESULTS : 85 % children under study were initiated feed according to guidelines and 15 % were not initiated. 54% children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 46% children were not exclusively breast fed. 54% children were given complementary feeds after the age of 6 months. 70% had normal weight for length, 12% were moderately wasted, 18% children were severely wasted, 86% children were anemic and 14% children were not anemic. CONCLUSION : 1 . The study shows the effect of feeding practices on the

  18. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  19. Transmission of mutans streptococci in mother-child pairs

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    S G Damle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. Methods: Thirty mother-child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated. After inoculation and incubation, MS colonies were submitted to amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification and arbitrarily primed PCRs (AP-PCRs to determine various MS genotypes. Results: From birth to six months of age, 30 per cent of children exhibited MS colonization, and by the age of 30 months, 100 per cent harboured the bacteria (P < 0.001. Factors associated with MS colonization were eruption of teeth (P < 0.001, feeding habits with mean colony count being significantly lower in breast-fed as compared to bottle-fed children (P < 0.001 and a significant association between mean MS count of child and mother′s practice of sharing spoon with child (P < 0.001. The AP-PCR fingerprinting profile analysis showed 17 MS groups (clusters containing identical or highly related isolates in mother-child pairs with a high level of similarity (77.27 %. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of matching MS genotypes suggested vertical transmission from mothers to children. Feeding habits, gum cleaning and number of erupted teeth in children had significant effect on MS colonization. There is a need to develop strategies to present MS colonization in children.

  20. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Pemberian asi eksklusif merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menurunkan kematian bayi dan neonatal. Namun, prevalensi asi eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai hubungan inisiasi menyusu dini dan penggunaan botol/dot dengan praktek asi eksklusif pada bayi di bawah usia 6 bulan di Indonesia. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013. Sub-sampel adalah bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan. Dari 7226 bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan, 6397 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox. Hasil: Dari 6397 responden, 44% mendapatkan asi eksklusif. Inisiasi menyusu dini, penggunaan botol, pelayanan kesehatan pasca persalinan, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi berhubungan dengan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. Anak yang mendapat inisiasi menyusu dini 66% lebih besar kemungkinan untuk memperoleh asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak memperoleh inisiasi menyusu dini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI: 1,45 – 1,90]. Anak yang menggunakan dot/kempeng memiliki kemungkinan 71% lebih rendah untuk asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak menggunakan dot/kempeng (RRa = 0,29; 95% CI: 0,25 – 0,34. Kesimpulan: Inisiasi menyusu dini dapat meningkatkan pemberian asi eksklusif, sedangkan penggunaan dot dapat menurunkan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Kata kunci: asi eksklusif, inisiasi menyusu dini, dot  Abstract Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is a intervention to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. However,the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia remains low. The aim of the study was identify the association of early initiation and bottle-feeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice among infant less than six month in Indonesia. Methods: This study was a part of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS 2013

  1. Women Literacy and Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS Block of Delhi

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    Davey Sanjeev , Davey Anuradha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding practices have significant effect on the child nutrition, which largely dependent upon the mothers correct knowledge and awareness for the same. Objective: To find out effect of rural women empowerment through literacy on infant feeding practices in an ICDS block. Material and Methodology: Interview of the mothers of registered children up to 6 years in the rural ICDS block for the feeding practices and recording of the weight of those registered children by the salter weighing scale for their nutritional status. Results: Three fourth of the children had received ceremonial feed in the form of honey or gutti and 40 percent of the mothers in our study has discarded colostrums, considering it as ‘bad milk’. Exclusive breast feeding was received by 34.6% children. As literacy level of mothers increased the nutritional status of children was better. This could be because most of the women who are middle school passed or above are non working, so are able to give more time for care and feeding practices. The Severe malnutrition (grade III and IV was evident only in illiterate category of mothers, where 58.7% women were working in unskilled or semiskilled job outside home. Conclusion: Women living in chronic hunger are forced to unskilled jobs for income generation for the family, thereby influencing the feeding practices of their children. In such scenario AWCs and AWWs can be a unique opportunity with their focused approach to take care of severe and moderate malnutrition.

  2. A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY ON INFANT AND YOUNG FEEDING PRACTICES IN A RURAL AREA OF KARNATAKA

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    Sharvanan Udayar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childho od is critical to the development of children’s full human potential . OBJECTIVE : The main objective was to assess the Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF pra ctices and associated socio demographic variables among children aged less than two years i n rural areas METHODS: A community based, cross sectional descriptive study was done du ring Sept 09-Aug 2010 which is the rural field practice area of Shri. B. M. Patil Medical Col lege SBMPMC. The data was computed and analyzed using SPSS statistical package (version 13. 0. RESULTS: During the study period 264 mothers of infants and young children interviewed w ith the questionnaire and 159 out of 264 had received prelacteal feeds (males 64 % and female s56.3 %. Illiterate mothers (69.7% practiced more prelacteal feeding than the literate m others (54.6%. 36% received exclusive breast feeding for a period six months. Majority of the illiterate mothers were practicing early (31.4% and delayed weaning (32.5%.Poor socioecono mic status, illiteracy, birth spacing and cultural beliefs had significant effect on infant a nd young children feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study re-emphasized the need for conducting con tinued infant and child feeding intervention programmes especially for the mo ther during antenatal and postnatal checkups.

  3. Age, introduction of solid feed and weaning are more important determinants of gut bacterial succession in piglets than breed and nursing mother as revealed by a reciprocal cross-fostering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Gaorui; Ma, Shouqing; Zhu, Zhigang; Su, Yong; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Mackie, Roderick; Liu, Junhua; Mu, Chunlong; Huang, Ruihua; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-05-01

    A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the acquisition and development gut bacteria from birth until after weaning. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes results revealed an age- and diet-dependent bacterial succession process in piglets. During the first 3 days after birth, the bacterial community was relatively simple and dominated by Firmicutes with 79% and 65% relative abundance for Meishan and Yorkshire piglets, respectively. During the suckling period until day 14, the piglet breed and the nursing mother lead to increasing differentiation of the fecal bacterial community, with specific bacteria taxa associated with breed, and others with the nursing sow most likely due to its milk composition. Although the effect of nursing mother and the breed were evident through the suckling period, the introduction of solid feed and subsequent weaning were the major events occurring that dominated succession of the gut microbiota in the early life of piglets. This piglet cross-fostering model is a useful tool for studying the effects of diet, host genetics and the environment on the development and acquisition of the gut microbiota and over longer studies the subsequent impact on growth, health and performance of pigs.

  4. 社区健康教育对哺乳期母乳喂养及乳腺炎的影响%Effect of community health education on lactation mastitis and breast feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽玲; 黄新桥; 曾绍芳; 幸晓燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨社区健康教育对哺乳期母乳喂养和乳腺炎发生的影响。方法对90例产妇实施社区健康教育,时间6个月。了解其乳腺炎发生情况和母乳喂养情况。结果本组产妇乳腺炎发病率为3.3%,母乳喂养率为97.8%。结论对哺乳期产妇实施社区健康教育,可及时纠正产妇不良饮食习惯,使其能正确掌握哺乳期保健及新生儿护理方法,从而降低乳腺炎的发生,进而提高母乳喂养率。%Objective To study the effect of community health education on lactation mastitis and breast feeding.Method Ninety parturients were given community health education for 6 months and then the rates of mastitis and breast feeding were recorded.Results The mastitis morbidity was 3.3%and the rate of breast feeding was 97.8%.Conclusion The implementation of the community health education can reduce the morbidity of maternal mastitis and raise the rate of breast feeding.

  5. Women's liberation and the rhetoric of "choice" in infant feeding debates

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    Hausman Bernice L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short essay examines infant formula marketing and information sources for their representation of "choice" in the infant feeding context, and finds that while providing information about breast and bottle feeding, infant formula manufacturers focus on mothers' feelings and intuition rather than knowledge in making decisions. In addition, the essay considers how "choice" operates in the history of reproductive rights, shifting the discourse from a rights-based set of arguments to one based on a consumerist mentality. Utilizing the work of historian Rickie Solinger and a 2007 paper for the National Bureau of Labor Statistics, I argue that the structure of market work, and not abstract maternal decision making, determine mothers' choices and practices concerning infant feeding. For true freedoms for mothers to be achieved, freedoms that would include greater social provisions for mothers, our culture will have to confront how structural constraints make breastfeeding difficult, as well as how the concept of choice divides mothers into those who make good choices and those who do not.

  6. Aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios em respiradores orais e nasais Breast-feeding and deleterious oral habits in mouth and nose breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Vitaliano Voi Trawitzki

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A amamentação promove vários benefícios na criança, entre eles o favorecimento da respiração nasal. Neste estudo verificou-se a relação do padrão respiratório com o histórico de aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A população foi constituída por 62 crianças, de 3 anos e 3 meses a 6 anos e 11 meses, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação otorrinolaringológica, para definição dos grupos respiradores nasais e orais e entrevista fonoaudiológica. A avaliação otorrinolaringológica constituiu-se dos seguintes exames: rinoscopia anterior, oroscopia e exame radiológico. Os pais das crianças foram questionados em relação à forma (natural e/ou artificial, e ao período de aleitamento, além da presença de hábitos orais deletérios (sucção e mordida. O teste Exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparar os grupos em relação à presença ou ausência de hábitos e diferentes períodos de aleitamento. RESULTADOS: O período de aleitamento materno foi maior nos respiradores nasais concentrando-se no período de 3 a 6 meses de idade. Quanto ao uso de mamadeira, os resultados mostraram que a maioria das crianças de ambos os grupos utilizou-se deste tipo de aleitamento nos primeiros anos de vida, não apresentando diferença estatística entre os grupos (p=0.58. A presença de hábitos orais deletérios ocorreu de maneira marcante nos respiradores orais, evidenciando diferença estatisticamente significativa, entre os grupos, para os hábitos de sucção (p=0.004 e hábitos de mordida (p=0.0002. CONCLUSÃO: As crianças respiradoras orais apresentaram um menor período de aleitamento materno e um histórico de hábitos orais presentes comparadas às crianças respiradoras nasais.AIM: Breast-feeding promotes several benefits in childhood, among them favoring the nasal breathing. In the present study, the relationship between breathing pattern

  7. Breast-feeding in Buddhist Art:Concerning the Raging Controversy about Breasting-feeding in Public Places%漫谈佛教艺术中的哺乳图--从当代社会关于公共场所哺乳问题的争论谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡同庆

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many controversies have taken place on the internet about the legitimacy of breast-feeding in full view of the public.The heart of these controversies can be summarized as follows:what is beautiful and what is reprehensi-ble?In this age of diverse ideologies, why is there so much tolerance about ugly things and yet so little tolerance, or even zero tolerance, for truly beautiful things?Focusing on the raging controversy about breast-feeding in upblic places and mak-ing reference to breast-feeding scene s in the history of Buddhist art and their underlying aestheitc ideas, this paper attempts to reflect on this phenomenon.%近年来,关于妇女在公共场所无遮盖哺乳是否具有正当性的争议,在互联网上可谓此伏彼起。这一争论的实质在于:什么是美的?什么是不美的?在这个思想观念日益多元的时代,为什么人们有时候能够对丑陋的事物表现出极大的宽容,却对某些真正美好的事物如此苛责,甚至是“零容忍”?由此围绕当代社会关于公共场所哺乳问题的争论,结合宗教艺术史上的诸多艺术表现及其背后的审美观念进行反思。

  8. Breast milk intake is not reduced more by the introduction of energy dense complementary food than by typical infant porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Lauren; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Ken; Wong, William W; Manary, Mark J

    2007-07-01

    The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decrease their breast milk intake more than a traditional corn + soy blended flour (CSB). Forty-four healthy 6-mo-old infant and mother pairs were enrolled in a prospective, parallel group, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled complementary feeding trial. Infants were randomized to receive 25 g/d of FS, 50 g/d of FS, or 72 g/d of CSB. The primary outcome was the difference in breast milk intake after 1 mo of complementary feeding as measured by the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution technique. Outcomes were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. A total of 41 mother-infant pairs completed the study. At enrollment, 88% of the infants had received corn porridge. At baseline, the infants consumed 129 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1) (mean +/- SD) of breast milk. After 1 mo of complementary feeding with 25 g/d FS, 50 g/d FS, or 72 g/d CSB, their breast milk consumption was 115 +/- 18 g.kg body wt(-1) x d(-1), a significant reduction; however, the effects of the complementary foods did not differ from one another (F-value model = 4.33, P = 0.0008 for effect of time and P = 0.69 for effect of type of food). The results suggest that complementary feeding of Malawian infants with FS has the same effect on their breast milk intake as complementary feeding with traditional CSB porridge.

  9. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site.

  11. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  12. Relationship between children's obesity and mothers'weight gain during pregnancy, infants's feeding mode.%儿童肥胖与母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张暹; 朱美红; 花静; 张巧妹; 潘建盈; 吴擢春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the association of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy and infants' early feeding mode on children' obesity so as to provide the clues for preventing the children's obesity. [Methods] A total of 949 children from four second-level kindergartens were selected randomly from two communities in Hongkou district in Shanghai. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the children's weight, height, family conditions, the mothers'weight gain during pregnancy and infants' feeding mode,and so on. The relationship between the mothers' weihgt during the pregnancy, infants's feeding mode and children's obesity were analyzed with x2 test and binary logistic regression. (Results] Resulst of the study showed that the rates of obesity and over-weight was 10. 1% and 13. 2% respectively. Pregnancy weight gain ≥15 kg, children exclusively breastfed within 6 months were associated with obesity when age, gender, the characteristic of registered residence,family structure and family income were considered. [Conclusions] Mother's weight gain more than 15 kg during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood obesity; And exclusive breastfeeding within 6 months may be a protective factor on children's obesity which may reduce the incidence of obesity in children.%[目的]研究母亲孕期增重及婴儿喂养方式对儿童肥胖的影响,为制定预防儿童肥胖措施提供依据.[方法]利用整群抽样的方法,随机抽取上海市虹口区2个社区的4所二级幼儿园共计儿童949名.自行设计问卷调查儿童的身高、体重、家庭基本状况、母亲孕期、喂养早期状况等.使用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归模型分析母亲孕期及喂养早期状况与儿童肥胖的关系. [结果]研究结果显示,调查到的949名儿童中,超重及肥胖检出率分别为13.2%和10.1%;在控制儿童年龄、性别、户口属性、家庭结构、家庭收入后,孕期增重≥15 kg、6月龄内纯母乳喂养2

  13. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  14. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  15. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    MOTHER had finely-chiseled features. She liked to read and loved flowers, trees and insects. She had wide interests and knowledge and could recite many ancient poems. Mother was never dressed gorgeously or adorned with jewelry like earrings and finger rings. Especially during her middle age, our big family was poverty

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among infants, born from HIV seropositive mothers, tested by DNA-PCR at yekatit 12 Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Weldesenbet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since its recognition two decades ago, HIV/AIDS remains a major global challenge. Infants contract the infection from their mother in the womb, during birth and breast feeding. In Ethiopia, limited information is available in relation to mother to child transmission (MCT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among infants born from HIV seropositive mothers and identify associated risk factors. Method: Hospital based retrospective record review was employed on 159 infants born from HIV seropositive mothers. Data was collected from the pediatric HIV log book using a structured questionnaire. Data was entered in to excel sheet, cleaned and then exported to STATA and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Result: The study revealed that 32.1% (51/159 of the infants born from HIV seropositive mothers were found to be HIV positive. Majority of the infants were born in health institutions and their birth was attended by health professionals. The rate of HIV transmission was about 3 times higher in those born at home and assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBA than those born at health institutions and assisted by health professionals (58.5% versus 22,9%; P 0.004. The data also revealed a significant association between HIV infection and feeding practice (p 0.004 which was 45.4% (25/55 in those who practice mixed feeding, 34% (18/53 in those practicing exclusive breast feeding and 15.7% (8/51 among those with replacement feeding. Conclusion: The vertical transmission rate of 32.1% observed in the present study is quite high and is within the estimated range for Sub saharan African countries.

  17. Research report--Volunteer infant feeding and care counselors: a health education intervention to improve mother and child health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Mikey; Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Chapota, Hilda; Vergnano, Stefania; Newell, Marie-Louise; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this report is to describe a health education intervention involving volunteer infant feeding and care counselors being implemented in Mchinji district, Malawi. The intervention was established in January 2004 and involves 72 volunteer infant feeding and care counselors, supervised by 24 government Health Surveillance Assistants, covering 355 villages in Mchinji district. It aims to change the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices. The main target population are women of child bearing age who are visited at five key points during pregnancy and after birth. Where possible, their partners are also involved. The visits cover exclusive breastfeeding and other important neonatal and infant care practices. Volunteers are provided with an intervention manual and picture book. Resource inputs are low and include training allowances and equipment for counselors and supervisors, and a salary, equipment and materials for a coordinator. It is hypothesized that the counselors will encourage informational and attitudinal change to enhance motivation and risk reduction skills and self-efficacy to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices and reduce infant mortality. The impact is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial and results will be reported in 2012.

  18. Risk of HBV transmission between breast-fed and artificial fed infants with HBV mothers after immunoprophylaxis: A Meta-analysis%乙肝病毒携带母亲喂养方式对阻断免疫后婴儿母婴传播影响Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪娟; 李筱青; 冯晨晨; 马岩; 黄芬; 陈红; 叶冬青

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨对婴儿采取免疫措施后,乙肝病毒(HBV)携带母亲采用不同的喂养方式对母婴HBV传播的影响.方法 检索PubMed、Medline、Embase、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库、维普中文科技期刊数据库和万方数据库等,对免疫干预后比较母乳喂养和人工喂养婴儿HBV感染率的前瞻性研究进行Meta分析.结果 10篇随机对照试验满足纳入条件进入Meta分析,其中母乳喂养组婴儿873例,人工喂养组751例.在对婴儿进行免疫于预后,母乳喂养组与人工喂养组的6~ 12月龄婴儿乙肝表面抗原或HBV DNA阳性率差异无统计学意义(7个研究:OR=0.86,95%CI=0.51 ~1.45,P=0.56;I2 =0,P=0.99);母乳喂养组与人工喂养组6~12月龄婴儿的乙肝表面抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义(8个研究:OR=0.98,95% CI=0.69~1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P=0.99).结论 HBV携带者母亲采用不同的喂养方式对免疫于预措施阻断母婴HBV传播没有影响,HBV携带产妇母乳喂养并不增加HBV母婴传播的风险.%Objective To compare the risk of hepatitis B vims (HBV) transmission between breastfeeding group and artificial feeding group in infants with HBV mothers after combination immunoprophylaxis. Methods Comprehensive computerized literature search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, National Science Digital Library, and China Biological Medicine Database were conducted. A meta-analysis of prospective studies exploring the role of breastfeeding in mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBV in infants who had HBV mothers was performed. Results Ten Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included, involving 751 infants in the breastfeeding group and 873 infants in the artificial feeding group. There was no significant differences of positive rates of HBsAg/HBV DNA(OR=0.86,95%Cl=0.51-1. 45,P=0.56;l2 =0,P=0.99) and surface antibodies(OR=0.98,95%Cl=0.69-1.40,P=0.93;I2 =0,P = 0.99) among the infants by different feeding patterns

  19. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  20. 人乳质和量的非疾病性母源影响因素%Influencing factors from lactating mother without diseases on breast milk quality and quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓慧

    2016-01-01

    人乳是新生婴儿最天然、最健康的食物.人乳研究发现乳汁分泌量和许多成分的含量存在明显个体差异;但对于同一个体而言,某些乳汁成分不受环境及母体本身各种因素的影响,如蛋白质、乳糖,而另一些成分易波动,如脂肪、干物质等浓度随各种条件的变化而变化.母体疾病可影响乳汁质和量,乳母膳食、心情、生活习惯等也可使乳汁中脂肪酸、干物质、细胞因子等发生变化.为帮助哺乳母亲为婴儿提供更优质的乳汁,更好地实现人乳喂养,该文对人乳各成分的变化特点及非疾病性的母源性影响因素作一综述.%Breast milk is the most natural and healthy food for newborns.Human milk studies show that there are individual differences in milk production and its compositions.Some maternal disease can affect milk quality and quantity,and even health lactating mother's milk does not keep still.It can be found in studies that fatty acid,protein,lactose,microbiology,cell factors and so on can be influenced by many factors from lactating mothers without diseases,such as nurse meals,mood and living habits.To help nursing mothers to provide more high-quality milk for the baby,realize better breastfeeding,characteristics of breast milk components and influence factors of healthy mothers will be discussed.

  1. My mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2007-01-01

    @@ My mother is a farmer. She is thirty-five years old. She is verytall. She has big eyes and long hair.She is very hard-working and kind.As my father works a place far away from us, she does all the housework every day. She loves me and loves my grandparents. My grandparents are both over seventy years old. She always looks after them very carefully. My grandmother is often ill, so my mother always buys some meat, fish and eggs for her. My mother gets on well with them. She makes our family become very harmonious.My grandmother often says my mother is better than her own daughter.

  2. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文章

    2016-01-01

    My mother is beautiful.She is about forty years old.She is a nurse.She loves her job and works hard.My family all like her.I love my mother,because she does most of the housework at home and she does everything for me.Every day she spends some time with me on my study.Sometimes she helps me with Maths and Chinese.She is

  3. Amamentação ao seio, amamentação com leite de vaca e o diabetes mellitus tipo 1: examinando as evidências Breast- feeding, bottle- feeding and the type 1 diabetes mellitus: examining the evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Godoy Agostinho Gimeno

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A etiologia do diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1 envolve tanto herança genética como a exposição a fatores ambientais. Evidências de estudos epidemiológicos e experimentais sugerem que a dieta pode ser importante na etiopatogenia dessa doença. Em 1984, Borch-Johnsen e col. sugeriram, com base nos resultados de um estudo caso-controle, que o leite materno seria um fator de proteção para o DM1; esse efeito se daria devido às propriedades anti-infecciosas desse tipo de leite, ou pelo fato de que a amamentação ao seio evitaria que as crianças pudessem ser precocemente expostas a outros agentes etiológicos contidos nos substitutos do leite materno. Esses mesmos achados foram poste-riormente encontrados em diversos estudos, mas o papel do leite materno no aparecimento do DM1 ainda permanece controverso. Em 1992, Karjalainen e col., ao compararem os soros de indivíduos com e sem DM1, observaram, entre os diabéticos, altas concentrações de anticorpos anti-albumina bovina. Os autores postularam a hipótese de que a albumina bovina poderia atuar como desencadeadora do processo destrutivo das células ß do pâncreas e, conseqüentemente, do diabetes. Resultados conflitantes foram observados nas publicações que se sucederam a essa. Neste artigo, resumem-se e discutem-se os achados de diferentes pesquisadores que investigaram a importância desses fatores dietéticos para o aparecimento do DM1.The aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 includes genetic heritage and environmental exposure. Evidence from animal and epidemiological studies suggests that some diet components may play a role in the aetiology of DM1. In 1984, Borch-Johnsen et al. suggested, based on a case-control study, that breast-feeding was a protective factor for DM1, probably due its anti-infectious properties or because breast-feeding delays exposure to other etiologic agents in the diet. Afterwards, the same results were found in several studies but the role of breast

  4. Expressionists of the twenty-first century: the commodification and commercialization of expressed breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kath; Team, Victoria; Alexander, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk expression has been promoted as liberating for women and as offering them more choices, but there has been little research on women's experiences of it and even less critical commentary on the consequences of its incorporation into mainstream behavior. Drawing on narratives of women in the United Kingdom about breastfeeding, we explore the increasingly popular practice of expressing and feeding expressed breast milk. We argue that breast milk has become commodified, breastfeeding commercialized and technologized, and the mother-infant relationship disrupted. We suggest that breastfeeding as a process is being undermined by vested interests that portray it as unreliable and reconstruct it in artificial feeding terms, so playing on women's insecurities. The major beneficiaries of expression are fathers who want increased involvement in infant care and commercial enterprises that aim to maximize profits for shareholders.

  5. Transmission of mutans streptococci in mother-child pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, S. G.; Yadav, Renu; Garg, Shalini; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Beniwal, Vikas; Loomba, Ashish; Chatterjee, Shailja

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS) has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. Methods: Thirty mother–child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated. After inoculation and incubation, MS colonies were submitted to amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification and arbitrarily primed PCRs (AP-PCRs) to determine various MS genotypes. Results: From birth to six months of age, 30 per cent of children exhibited MS colonization, and by the age of 30 months, 100 per cent harboured the bacteria (P feeding habits with mean colony count being significantly lower in breast-fed as compared to bottle-fed children (P Feeding habits, gum cleaning and number of erupted teeth in children had significant effect on MS colonization. There is a need to develop strategies to present MS colonization in children. PMID:27934807

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  7. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  8. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  9. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age.

  10. Review of the secretion of radioactivity in human breast milk: data, quantitative analysis and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A general method is given to quantify the radioactivity ingested by a breast-fed infant following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration, and to derive the period to interrupt feeding which reduces the corresponding effective dose equivalent to below 1 mSv. Results are presented from applying the method to all available measurements of radioactivity secreted in breast milk. Recommendations for interrupting feeding with mature milk have been expanded into four categories: (1) interruption not essential; (2) interruption for a fixed period of time; (3) interruption until measurements indicate feeding can be resumed; and (4) cease breast feeding. Changes to the earlier guidance are that /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-pertechnetate, (/sup 99/Tc/sup m/) erythrocytes, /sup 125/I-OIH and /sup 131/I-OIH have been moved to the third category, and that recommendations have been included for /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-DMSA, /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-glucoheptonate, /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-HDP, /sup 99/Tc/sup m/-HMDP, /sup 123/I-iodide and /sup 123/I-OIH. Before recommendations (1) and (2) can be issued to a mother, quality control measurements must be made of the radiopharmaceutical administered. Recommendations (3) or (4) only should be issued to mothers secreting colostrum.

  11. Maternal feeding practices associated with food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between children's and mother's food neophobia and parental feeding practices. Eighty-five mothers of 3- to 12-year old children (M=5.7 years; 52% girls) completed a questionnaire online about food neophobia and feeding practices. Mothers with children high in food neophobia used more restriction for health and less monitoring. Mothers with food neophobic children and mothers who were themselves food neophobic also reported that they do not make healthy foods readily available for their children. Mothers high in food neophobia also used more restriction for weight. This study is a starting point for understanding the link between neophobia and feeding practices, but future longitudinal work is needed in order to determine direction of effects. However, interventions could be created to help parents understand the importance of feeding practices for promoting children's food acceptance.

  12. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...... applied in the analysis.Results:There were marked differences in mothers' health concerns in early and in later phases of complementary feeding. In the early phase, feeding a child healthy food was an unquestioned and self-evident practice. The child's food was a specific category, separated from the rest....... Contested and partly contradictory practices resulted, including conscious acceptance of some intake of sugar and unhealthy fats. Perceived relevance of nutritional guidelines on complementary feeding was high in the early phase but declined later.Conclusion:Mothers' concerns and practices in the feeding...

  13. Lead and cadmium in breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternowsky, H.J.; Wessolowski, R.

    1985-04-01

    Breast milk from 10 women each from the city of Hamburg and from a rural area was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry for contamination with lead and cadmium. Samples were examined at regular intervals for 3 months after birth. On day 5 a diurnal profile was analyzed; on the other days milk was taken before and after the morning feed. For breast milk as the main source of nutrition in infants, this study shows values of 9.1 +- 2.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l for lead in the rural population, with a tendency to decrease towards the end of lactation. Urban mothers had 13.3 +- 5.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l, with a tendency to increase. Mean cadmium content in rural mothers was 17.3 +- 4.9 ..mu..g/l, with much higher values in the colostrum and a decrease after 15 days. Urban mothers had 24.6 +- 7.3 ..mu..g/l, again with high colostrum values and a subsequent decrease. Calculated daily intake according to these values is presented, based on 840 ml breast milk for a 5.5 kg infant per day. Rural infants ingested 0.9-1.3 ..mu..g/kg/day of lead, and in the city 1.5-2.3 ..mu..g/kg/day. Cadmium intake in rural infants amounted from 1.2-1.8 ..mu..g/kg/day; in Hamburg it was 1.6-2.2 ..mu..g/kg/day. Thus the daily ingestion of lead was just below the DPI, cadmium ingestion was higher than the DPI for adults. The rural population had lower values in breast milk for both heavy metals than the urban population, although not statistically significant. Compared to earlier reports there was a slight increase in lead concentration and a more significant increase for cadmium.

  14. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  15. Prevalência do aleitamento materno na região noroeste de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, 2001 Breast-feeding prevalence, northwest region of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Felipe Alves Cecchetti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular a prevalência do aleitamento materno entre crianças menores de dois anos de idade, residentes na região Noroeste de Campinas, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal foi conduzido, em 2001, junto a 4 103 crianças, questionando sobre data de nascimento, sexo, alimentação e serviço de saúde utilizado. O questionário foi aplicado em 42 postos de vacinação durante a Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra Poliomielite (Campólio. A dieta foi classificada em amamentação exclusiva, predominante, continuada e aleitamento artificial. RESULTADOS: No primeiro semestre, a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 31,6% e a de aleitamento total 74,5%. Das crianças com idade entre 6 e 12 meses, 38,0% recebiam leite materno. No segundo ano, a prevalência de aleitamento materno foi reduzida para 22,1%. O aleitamento materno exclusivo passou de 72,2% aos 7 dias de idade para 53,8% aos 15 dias, 33,3% aos 3 meses, 10,0% aos 4 meses e 5,7% aos 6 meses. A prevalência do aleitamento materno total foi de 100,0% aos 7 dias; 79,1% aos 3 meses; 54,3% aos 6; 34,4% aos 12 meses; 26,1% aos 18 e zero aos 24 meses. A mediana de amamentação exclusiva foi de 67 dias e a de amamentação total foi de 6,6 meses. Das crianças vinculadas ao Sistema Único de Saúde, 42,2% receberam aleitamento materno, em contraste com 34,4% das usuárias de serviços privados (pOBJECTIVE: To calculate the prevalence of breast-feeding among children less than two years old, in the northwest region of the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2001, with 4 103 children, querying about birth date, gender, feeding practices and health services routinely used. The questionnaire was applied at the 42 public immunization centers during the 2001 National Campaign against Polyomielites. The child's diet was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, continued breast-feeding and bottle-feeding

  16. Cup versus bottle feeding for hospitalized late preterm infants in Egypt: A quasi-experimental study

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    Dabash Soheir A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have demonstrated beneficial breastfeeding outcomes when cup feeding rather than bottle feeding was used for feeding preterm infants, cup feeding has not been implemented in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of using cup feeding as an exclusive method of feeding preterm infants during hospitalization on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Methods A quasi-experimental design, with the control group studied first, was used to examine the effect of cup feeding for preterm infants on breastfeeding outcomes after discharge. Sixty preterm infants (mean gestational age was 35.13 weeks and mean birth weight was 2150 grams were recruited during Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay. Control group infants (n = 30 received only bottle feedings during hospitalization and the experimental group (n = 30 received only cup feedings during hospitalization. Both groups were followed up after discharge for six weeks to evaluate infant's breastfeeding behavior and mother's breastfeeding practices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA for testing the differences between the cup feeding and bottle feeding groups over six weeks after discharge. Results Cup fed infants demonstrated significantly more mature breastfeeding behaviors when compared to bottle fed infants (p Conclusion Cup fed infants were more exclusively breast fed one week after discharge, supporting the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative recommendations for using cup feeding and avoiding bottle feeding when providing supplementation for preterm infants. The current study provides initial evidence for the implementation of cup feeding as a method of supplementation for late preterm infants during hospitalization. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00756587.

  17. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

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    Ehud Lebel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA machine at femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3% were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5% were primiparous; 36 (27.3% were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5% never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5% outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years, parity (1–13 viable births, and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years.

  19. Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts Presença de Candida spp. em boca de lactentes em aleitamento materno e em bocas e mamas de suas nutrizes

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    Maria Stella Amorim da Costa Zöllner

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1 infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55 and their mothers (n = 55; 2 infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30; 3 non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80 and, 4 non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34. Oral and mammary swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. The Candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. Yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a presença de leveduras do gênero Candida na cavidade bucal de lactentes em aleitamento materno predominante e nas bocas e mamas de suas mães, assim como na cavidade bucal de lactentes em aleitamento artificial e em mulheres na ausência de lactação. Participaram do estudo 169 mulheres e 85 lactentes divididos em quatro grupos: 1 crianças em aleitamento natural predominante (n = 55 e suas mães (n = 55; 2 crianças em aleitamento artificial (n = 30; 3 mulheres que não estavam amamentando, em que se realizaram coletas bucais (n = 80 e, 4 mulheres em ausência de lactação em que se realizaram coletas mamárias (n = 34. "Swabs" bucais e mamários, foram semeados em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, e as cepas de levedura isoladas foram identificadas utilizando-se provas morfológicas e bioquímicas. Espécies de Candida foram detectadas a partir de um n

  20. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  1. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  2. Análise da efetividade de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em comunidade carente na cidade de São Paulo Effectiveness analysis of an exclusive breast feeding program in a poor community in the city of São Paulo

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    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2005-03-01

    % of the women were unemployed, 39.3% were adolescents, 48.2% were primiparous, 67.9% had normal delivery, 78.6% were roomed in with their babies and 68.6% did not refer to early contact with the baby following birth, 51.8% adhered to the program and 48.2% abandoned the program for unknown reasons. When discharged, 17.3% of the mothers claimed to exclusive breast feeding for six months, 58.6% mixed and 24.1% used formulas. Early weaning occurred at an average of 96 days following birth. CONCLUSIONS: the Program, notwithstanding an apparent low effectiveness needs to be continued because it benefits both mother and child especially in the social and economic conditions of that community although new strategies are required to improve adhesion and exclusive breast feeding averages.

  3. 婴儿母乳喂养与学龄前肥胖症关系的病例对照研究%Relationship between infant breast feeding and simple obesity in preschool children:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣明纪; 孙殿凤; 周晓彬

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To explore the relation between infant breast feeding and simple obesity in preschool children,and provide theoretical evidence for preventing child simple obesity. METHODS:Eighteen hundred children aged 4- 5 from Qingdao and Binhai were chosen, their breast feeding types during infancy and BMI development were investigated.The relationship between infant breast feeding types and its duraton,and the occurrence of simple obesity in preschool children was analyzed. RESULTS:With single factor analysis,it was found that the occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children,whose feeding types in the first 4 months were breast feeding only,breast feeding mainly,both equally,formula feeding mainly,formula feeding only,were 12.6% ,13.0% ,17.0% ,18% and 30% respectively.The occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children,whose breast feeding duration were 0,9 months,were 29% ,30% ,33% ,17% ,14% and 12% respectively.The occurrence rates of simple obesity in preschool children were different because of various breast feeding types and different durations(χ 2=10.407,P< 0.05;χ 2=20.903,P< 0.001).Multiple factor logistic regression analysis showed that the more formula milk was given during the first 4 months after birth, the more occurrence of obesity in the preschool children was(OR=1.120,χ 2=8.233,P< 0.01);the longer the duration of breast feeding was, the less the occurrence of obesity in preschool children was(OR=0.782,χ 2=6.604,P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Infants who were fed more breast milk than formula milk,or who were breasted for longer periods,have a lower risk of being simple obesity during preschool period.Breast feeding should be strongly recommended and lasted for more than 9 months.%目的:探讨婴儿期母乳喂养行为与学龄前期单纯性肥胖症发生之间的关系 ,为预防儿童单纯性肥胖症提供理论依据. 方法:对 1800名青岛市和滨州市四五岁儿童的婴儿期母乳喂养情况及其体重指数( BMI)发育

  4. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  5. My Mother

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艺海; 胡宝兰

    2002-01-01

    My mother is a teacher She works in a middle school.She teaches music.She can sing very well She teaches four classes every day.She works very hard.She likes her work very much and she loves to work for children.too.

  6. Update: transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M G

    1997-12-01

    Mother-to-child transmission near the time of birth is the primary route of HIV-1 infection among infants and young children. Throughout the world, 1000 babies a day become infected with HIV, and cumulative global estimates are that 3 million children have been infected since the HIV pandemic began. Although major advances have been made in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in the USA and Europe through the use of an intensive regimen of zidovudine, many research questions remain unresolved. These include (1) viral and host characteristics which hinder or facilitate perinatal HIV transmission (i.e. the role played by viral load, the placenta and obstetric risk factors); (2) the proportion of transmission occurring in utero, intrapartum or during the breast feeding period; and (3) the mode of action of the successful zidovudine regimen. Studies published within the past year have shed light on several of these research topics. In 1996-1997 a number of important studies were published which support a general correlation between maternal viral load and infant HIV infection. The most recent studies do not, however, support the theory that there is a threshold below which transmission cannot occur, and also indicate that zidovudine, given according to the US Public Health Service guidelines, can significantly reduce the risk of transmission across all levels of maternal viral load. Analyses of viral load data from the successful clinical trial with zidovudine (AIDS Clinical Trial Group 076) suggest that its primary action is not by reducing the viral load, and raise the possibility that administering antiretroviral prophylaxis to the infant at the time of highest exposure may be another reason for the reduction in transmission. Obstetric risk factors for mother-to-child HIV transmission have been evaluated in several large cohort studies. A duration of membrane rupture of more than 4 h, and procedures such as amniocentesis, preterm labor, and the presence

  7. 母乳吸吮干预对婴儿静脉穿刺疼痛的影响%Effects of breast-feeding intervention on newborns' pain caused by vein puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨母乳吸吮时机对婴儿静脉穿刺疼痛的影响.方法 随机把符合条件的入院患儿分成干预组与对照组各60例.干预组在操作前暂禁母乳喂养2~3h,在静脉穿刺时给予母乳吸吮干预.对照组按常规给予静脉穿刺.通过检测患儿啼哭时间、心率、血氧饱和度来评估患儿的疼痛程度.结果 干预组静脉穿刺患儿啼哭持续时间均少于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(Z=-4.405,P<0.05),血氧饱和度均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 母乳吸吮干预可有效减轻婴儿静脉穿刺疼痛程度.%Objective To evaluate the effect of breast-feeding on newborns' pain caused by vein puncture.Methods The newborns having pneumonia after into the hospital were randomly divided into breast-feeding group and control group, each group have sixty cases. The newborns in the breast-feeding group prohibit breastfeeding two or three hours before the operation, then began to receive breast-feeding at one minute before the vein puncture until the vein puncture finished. The newborns' time of cry, heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results The heart rate was significant differences on the time of cry caused by pain between the two groups (Z=-4.405,P<0.05), SaO2 after vein puncture are higher than control group(P<0.01).Conclusions Breast-feeding intervention can relieve newborns' pain caused by vein puncture.

  8. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  9. Frequency and duration of breast-feeding in Cuban children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM Freqüência e duração do aleitamento materno em crianças cubanas com Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1

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    Fernando Collado-Mesa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that breastfeeding is a protective factor against Type 1 DM due to anti-infection properties or delay in exposure to other agents in the diet. A descriptive study was carried out using data from the Cuban National Registry of Childhood-Onset Diabetes Mellitus (CNRDM. The goal of the study was to determine the frequency and duration of breast-feeding in Cuban children with Type 1 DM. Four hundred and eighty-six children were registered in the CNRDM between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1993. Breast-feeding data was obtained from two hundred and sixty three (54.1% of the total registered children. Of these children, two hundred and one (76.4% were breastfed. The median duration of breast-feeding was three months (Total range 144 months. No statistically significant association was found between the mean age at DM or the clinical profile at diagnosis and the breast-feeding duration groups (p >0.05, respectively. In conclusion, Cuban children with Type 1 DM have relatively low frequency of breast-feeding. When breast-feeding is studied without stratifying for different types of breast-feeding (e.g. exclusive and non-exclusive, there is no association found with the age at DM diagnosis or the clinical profiles at diagnosis.Há evidências de que o aleitamento materno age como um fator protetor contra o DM Tipo 1 devido a propriedades antiinfecciosas ou porque retarda a exposição a outros agentes na dieta. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo com dados do Registro Nacional Cubanas de Diabetes Mellitus na Infância (CNRDM. O objetivo desse estudo era determinar a freqüência e duração do aleitamento materno em crianças cubanas com DM Tipo 1. Quatrocentas e oitenta e seis crianças foram cadastradas no CNRDM entre 1 de janeiro de 1988 e 31 de dezembro de 1993. Os dados sobre aleitamento materno foram obtidos de duzentas e sessenta e três crianças (54.1% do total registrado. Dessas crianças, duzentas e uma (76.4% foram

  10. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

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    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  11. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

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    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  12. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  13. Meta-analysis on the effect of breast-feeding in the prevention of respiratory infection%母乳喂养预防呼吸道感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪梅; 徐力堃; 何柳瑜; 林俊红; 黄健强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluation the preventive effect of breast-feeding for respiratory infection in infants. Methods We searched China BioMedical literature on disc (CBMdisc), China Journals Full text database, Vip Chinese science and technology journals, Wanfang Digital journals databases. The qualified articles were selected and analyzed by RevMan4.2 software for meta-analysis. Results Seventeen articles were included. Stratified analysis was applied for different months of infants, The OR values were calculated respectively. Meta-analysis showed that the combined OR and 95% CI of the respiratory infections of breast-feeding and the mixed feeding for newboms in the neonatal period was 0.71 [0.31, 1.61]; The combined OR and 95% CI of the respiratory infections of breast-feeding and the mixed feeding in 6 months for infants of 6 months old was 0.58 [0.49, 0.70]; the combined OR and 95% CI of the respiratory infections of breast-feeding and the artificial feeding for infants of 6 months old was 0.33 [0.22, 0.49]; the combined OR and 95% CI of the respiratory infections of breast-feeding and the mixed feeding in one year for infants of 1 year old was 0.98 [0.38, 2.49]; the combined OR and 95% CI of the respiratory infections of breast-feeding and the artificial feeding for infants of 1 year old was 0.40 [0.16, 1.04]. Conclusion The respiratory infections for infants of 6 months old during 6-month period was significantly lower in the breast-feeding group than the mixed-feeding group, proving that breastfeeding playes a protective effect against respiratory infections. But because of insufficient studies, the potential publication bias and the low quality of published articles, newboms and 1-year-old infants in the breast-feeding group did not reflect the significant protective effect. Therefore, it is necessary for newboms and one-year-old babies to continue to carry out high-quality, large sample survey.%目的 评价母乳喂养对婴儿呼吸道感

  14. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  15. Comparison of growth and nutritional evolution stages in infants with working mothers and infants with housewife mothers in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Behzad; Golshiri, Parasto; Saleki, Azam; Isfagani, Motahereh Rabar; Najimi, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that the growth status of the children with working mothers is about 2 standard deviations lower than that of the children of housewife mothers. It seems that absence of mothers in the second stage of nutritional evolution (attachment), which is a very sensitive stage, has an important role in initiating and continuation of an appropriate supplemental feeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children of working mothers and 50 children of...

  16. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  17. Expressed breast milk on a neonatal unit: a hazard analysis and critical control points approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossey, Veerle; Jeurissen, Axel; Thelissen, Marie-José; Vanhole, Chris; Schuermans, Annette

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing use of human milk and growing evidence of the benefits of mother's milk for preterm and ill newborns, guidelines to ensure its quality and safety are an important part of daily practice in neonatal intensive care units. Operating procedures based on hazard analysis and critical control points can standardize the handling of mother's expressed milk, thereby improving nutrition and minimizing the risk of breast milk-induced infection in susceptible newborns. Because breast milk is not sterile, microorganisms can multiply when the milk is not handled properly. Additional exogenous contamination should be prevented. Strict hygiene and careful temperature and time control are important during the expression, collection, transport, storage, and feeding of maternal milk. In contrast to formula milk, no legal standards exist for the use of expressed maternal milk. The need for additional measures, such as bacteriological screening or heat treatment, remains unresolved.

  18. Comportamiento de la madre en relación con la lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria del niño menor de quince meses, durante la enfermedad diarreica Maternal behavior concerning breast and complementary feeding of children younger than 15 months during acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Marina Mora

    1994-01-01

    procedencia y los cambios realizados en la alimentación de los niños durante la diarrea.

    At the Oral Rehydration Service, Hospital lnfantil, Medellín, Colombia, the mothers of 300 children younger than 15 months. Suffering from acute diarreal disease, were surveyed concerning changes introduced in infant feeding during diarrheal episodes. their duration and the reasons for them ; also explored was the relationship between such changes, the years of schooling of the mother and her place of residence In the clty. Two hundred and eighteen mothers (72.7% belonged to the low socioeconomical class, 17 (5.7% were 1IIiterate and only 19 (6.3% had finished secondary school. Children were more frequently (69% between 5 and 12 months. One hundred and twenty mothers (40% breast-fed their children and all of them continued to do so during the diarrheal episode; however, 16 mothers (13.3% decreased and 50 (41.7% increased the daily number of feedings. Of 295 mothers who gave milk formulae to their children 66 (22.4% continued to do so with no change; 89 (30.2% discontinued them, 83 (28.1% decreased the amount given and 65 (22% started with a diluted preparation. Concerning complementary feeding two patterns of behavior were found during the diarrheal episode: some Items were frequently discontinued, among them: candy (77.2%, egg (66.7%, beans (65.8%, chocolate (60.7%, fats (59.4% and carbonated drinks (55.2%. Others, by contrast, were frequently continued, name- Iy: meat (69%, plantain (85.6%, soups (82%, juices (71.8%, vegetables (73.4% and carbohydrate solutions (63.4%. Changes were maintained longer than 3 days which contributed to nutritional deterioration. The main reason (52.2% for introducing changes was to prevent the increase of diarrhea. No correlation was found between schooling level of the mother or her place of residence In the clty and changes performed In Infant feeding during acute diarrheal disease

  19. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

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    Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the burden of malnutrition and thus to childhood morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY : A hospital based, cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 100 ill children less than 5 years age attending outpatient department of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital, Visakhapatnam. A semi structured, pretested interview schedule was ad ministered after taking prior consent from mothers. Results were analyzed by using MS Excel. Data was represented as frequencies, percentages and p<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS : Among 100 study subjects, 62% were boys and 38% were g irls. Thirty percent of children in the study had Grade IV malnutrition (IAP classification. 38% of the mothers had education up to high school. Most of them were Hindu by religion (70%, and housewives by occupation (71%. Most of them belonged to grade III socio - economic status according to modified B G Prasad classification. During illness, one fourth of mothers in group A (children < 6 months and group B (7 – 24 months decreased breast feeding and in group C (2 - 5 years, 35% mothers made the consiste ncy of food thinner than usual. Belief on hot and cold foods concept was among 34% mothers. Level of education of mothers didn’t show any significant difference in keeping beliefs regarding hot and cold properties of foods. CONCLUSION : False beliefs and pr actices like food restriction during child’s ill health was observed in our study. Appropriate nutritional education to care givers, during common childhood

  20. 变性梯度胶电泳分析不同喂养方式对早产新生儿肠道菌群的影响%Study of intestinal microbiota between breast- feeding and formula- feeding premature neonates by PCR- DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀云; 兰和魁; 王霞; 符薇; 严奇; 任大明

    2004-01-01

    目的采用变性梯度胶电泳方法(DGGE)研究喂养方式对早产新生儿肠道茵群的影响.方法收集同期6对新生儿1~21 d粪便,直接提取细菌总DNA,扩增16S rDNA V6~V8区后DGGE分离,测序并与EMBL核苷序列数据库进行比较.结果喂养前肠