WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast feeding mother

  1. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  2. Mothers' experience of fathers' support for breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Lauren E; Sykes, Abby C; Fung, Teresa T

    2012-09-01

    To examine mothers' experience of support received from fathers for breast-feeding. We conducted in-depth in-person interviews with women with recent breast-feeding experience. Interview transcripts were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Interviews were designed to explore the mothers' perception of role of fathers in breast-feeding, education on breast-feeding that fathers received and their perception of the fathers' view on breast-feeding. Urban and suburban community. Nineteen women from a metropolitan area in the north-eastern USA. Ten themes emerged, these involved practical and emotional support provided by fathers, especially during times of unexpected breast-feeding challenges. In addition, mothers perceived fathers may benefit from more peer and professional support, lactation consultant service and breast-feeding education. Mothers appreciated the support from fathers for breast-feeding continuation, including encouragement and understanding. These results may be useful for health-care practitioners to promote breast-feeding continuation by supporting fathers in their role in the breast-feeding process.

  3. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  4. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-10-01

    Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding.

  6. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  7. Factors contributing to early breast-feeding cessation among Chinese mothers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Wu, Kendra M

    2014-10-01

    Although more than 85% of all new mothers in Hong Kong now initiate breast feeding, few exclusively breast feed and the overall duration is short. More than one-third stop breast feeding within the first month post partum. To explore the breast-feeding experiences of Hong Kong Chinese mothers who prematurely discontinue breast feeding and to identify contributing factors that might be remediated to help women breast feed longer. Qualitative exploratory study. In-depth, exploratory interviews were carried out with 24 new mothers who stopped breast feeding within one month after birth, and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five core themes emerged from the data: unnatural expectations, left to figure it out, uncertainty, unfulfilling experiences, and guilt versus relief. Because breast feeding is 'natural' participants expected that it would come naturally and thus be easy. When breast feeding did not happen naturally, however, midwives were too busy to provide breast-feeding support and mothers were left to figure it out on their own. Participants also reported difficulty in gauging whether the infant was getting adequate nutrition from their breastmilk. Few participants had positive breast-feeding experiences; while the decision to stop breast feeding caused guilt for most participants, others expressed relief at stopping breast feeding. Greater postnatal breast-feeding support, both in the hospital and after the mother returns home, would likely increase the mother׳s confidence and enhance her mothering experience. Further antenatal and postnatal education on the realistic breast-feeding expectations and the amount of breastmilk required by babies is also important. More research is needed to test professional and peer support breast-feeding interventions to provide guidance to policy makers on the most effective breast-feeding support strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana

    2014-06-01

    Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete coverage and covering completely: Breast feeding and complementary feeding: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil; Thapar, R K; Gupta, R K

    2018-01-01

    Knowing current trends for timely comprehensive action for health promotion practices is an important prerequisite for medical practitioners and policy makers. A survey of mothers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in central India. On the knowledge front >83.75% of the mothers studied showed good knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Similar, but not as encouraging, were the results about attitude, with 76.25% of mothers having a positive attitude. The results of the practices part were varied. The WHO indicators assessed were 'early initiation of breastfeeding' (68.75%), 'exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months' (85%) (however exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months was carried out by only 36.25%), 'introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods' (48.75%), 'continued breastfeeding at 1 year' (63.75%) and 'continued breastfeeding at 2 years' (6.25%). There is a discrepancy between knowledge and practices. The exclusive breast feeding rates are far from the ideal and there is a decline of continued breast feeding beyond 15 months. This calls for sustained efforts with the aim - 'cover all and cover completely'. The ideal WHO indicator for exclusive breast feeding should be 'exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months' which will provide information about the completeness of this ideal practice.

  10. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  11. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  12. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  13. Early postpartum breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy in Turkish mothers undergoing vaginal birth or cesarean birth with different types of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alus Tokat, Merlinda; Serçekuş, Pinar; Yenal, Kerziban; Okumuş, Hülya

    2015-04-01

    To compare the breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy, in the first 24 postpartum hours, of mothers who underwent vaginal birth, cesarean birth with epidural anesthesia, and cesarean birth with general anesthesia. A comparative study was conducted in Turkey. A total of 334 mothers participated. Data were evaluated through descriptive data form, breast-feeding outcomes form, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale. It was observed that the mothers who had cesarean birth with general anesthesia experienced more breast-feeding problems. With regard to breast-feeding self-efficacy, all the groups were similar. For reducing breast-feeding problems, nurses should provide more care and support to mothers undergoing cesarean birth. Therefore, the fact that the breast-feeding self-efficacy was similar among the groups might be related to culture. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  14. A description of breast-feeding outcomes among U.S. mothers using nipple shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Sheryl; Wilson, Marian; Norwood, Susan

    2013-06-01

    this study explored satisfaction with the use of ultrathin silicone nipple shields and breast-feeding experiences among mothers with early breast-feeding difficulties. a convenience sample of 81 postpartum mothers at a Baby Friendly community hospital in the northwest region of the U.S. participated in an exploratory, longitudinal descriptive study. A structured survey measured mothers' ratings of the helpfulness of the nipple shield, duration of nipple shield use and breast feeding, and infant weight gain patterns. the majority of mothers were satisfied with the nipple shield and 72% found it to be 'extremely helpful.' The median duration for nipple shield use was 6.6 weeks, with close to half of mothers stopping use of nipple shields by the fifth week postpartum. On average, study mothers breastfed for 12.6 weeks, and 31% of the mothers were still breast feeding at six months postpartum. study findings are consistent with prior research findings that nipple shields can help mothers who might otherwise abandon breast feeding. Problems with latch or painful, inverted or flat nipples may be managed in some cases with nipple shields. Health-care professionals should be aware of this option and offer mothers information on nipple shields when clinically indicated to alleviate breast-feeding difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  16. Ghost mothers and wet nurses: breast feeding practices and care of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghost mothers and wet nurses: breast feeding practices and care of children in crisis in Ellembelle Nzema. Douglas Frimpong-Nnuroh. Abstract. No abstract available for this article... Keywords: ghost mothers, wet nurses, breast fedding, children, Ellembelle Nzema Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 85-92).

  17. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children (aged 0-36 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 29, 2001. 60. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children. (aged 0-36 months) in a rural area of ... The prevalence of breast feeding in urban areas of the developing world seems to be declining (Zetterström,. 1994). Several researchers have ...

  18. Patterns And Determinants Of Breast Feeding Among Mother Infant Pairs In Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moazzam Ali; Qureshi, Zubia; Khan, Kauser Aftab; Gill, Fouzia Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine the patterns and explore the determinants associated with breast feeding practices among the nursing women in Dera Ghazi Khan. A cross sectional study was conducted on randomly selected lactating mother infant pairs in Dera Ghazi Khan. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Analysis was done by using SPSS, chi square test was applied to see the association between breast feeding practices and its determinants such as knowledge of breast feeding practices. Majority 372 (93%) of mothers mentioned that they had ever breastfed the youngest child. About 292 (73%) mothers gave colostrum to the child, and 48 (12%) exclusively breastfed. Weaning babies before four month of age was practiced by 84 (21%) of the mothers, 120 (55%) mothers started weaning at 4-6 months of child age, while 72 (18%) started to give additional food after baby turned six months old. Out of total 276 (69%) mothers reported that they had knowledge regarding breast feeding. Significant association was found between knowledge of breastfeeding and initiation and Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) practices (p-values Breast feeding practices in the studied area were not up to the mark. There is a strong need to improve the breastfeeding practices by Behavior Change Communication.

  19. The Nutritional Status of Mothers Practicing Breast Feeding In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a globally recommended way of feeding and caring for young infants (0-6 months). Its benefits to both infants and mothers have been established. However, its impact on the maternal nutritional status is still a subject of contention. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of ...

  20. [Breast-feeding and the mother's sentiment towards child rearing. Analysis of database on health checkups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Murai, Chikako; Miyashita, Akane; Tatsumi, Tomomi; Fujioka, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the breast-feeding rate and associated factors and to get better understanding on the mother's sentiment towards child rearing due to differences in feeding methods. This information can be used as primary sources providing effective support through community-based health care for mothers and infants. The study was carried out in Osaka city from April 2005 to December 2009. Data from the health-checkup records on infants aged 3-5 months were used after excluding any personal information. The data used included feeding methods (exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottlefeeding), gestational age, multiple pregnancy status, gender, birth weight, use of an incubator, and birth year. Moreover, the data included the following maternal factors: planned or unplanned nature of pregnancy, smoking and drinking status during pregnancy, presence or absence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, maternal age at delivery, working status, presence or absence of financial anxiety, presence or absence of child-rearing support, presence or absence of individuals who can provide advice concerning child rearing, and sentiments of mothers during child rearing. From April 2005 to December 2009, 2552 infants underwent health checkups designed for infants. Of these, data on 2476 children, excluding 61 infants with unknown feeding methods and 15 infants aged 6 months, were used for analyses. The results showed that 56.6%, 28.7%, and 14.7% of children received exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding, and bottle-feeding, respectively. Infant feeding methods were significantly associated with the birth year: in recent years, a decrease in the number of mothers who chose to bottle-feed their infants was observed. Furthermore, the feeding methods were associated with multiple births, birth weight, maternal smoking status during pregnancy, and maternal age at delivery. The results revealed that mothers who chose to breast-feed exclusively enjoyed child rearing at

  1. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies.

  2. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Breast-feeding pattern and onset of menstruation among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adeyemi, Adebayo B; Owolabi, Alexander T

    2007-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding practices and duration of lactational amenorrhoea among women within the first year of delivery in a Nigerian population. Cross-sectional study carried out between January 2005 and April 2006, among mothers within one year of delivery, who were attending the Infant Welfare Clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, mothers were interviewed to obtain information regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, parity, breast-feeding habits, use of contraception and onset of menstruation after delivery. Information obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 11. All 268 (100%) mothers interviewed breast-fed their babies, 261 (97.4%) of which for at least 6 months. Most (71.6%) suckled exclusively for 6 months and more; only 10 (3.7%) never carried out exclusive breast-feeding. Age, parity and educational level did not affect the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Lactational amenorrhoea lasted 3 months or more in 229 (85.5%) of the mothers. Of the 174 who exclusively breast-fed for 6 months, 109 (62.6%) remained amenorrhoeic during that time and, hence, met the criteria for use of LAM contraception. Exclusive breast-feeding among nursing mothers is highly prevalent among Yoruba mothers of South-west Nigeria. Since lactational amenorrhoea lasts 6 months in about two-thirds of the women nursing for that period of time, there is a great potential for the application of LAM for contraception.

  4. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  5. Breast-feeding knowledge and attitudes of teenage mothers in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewan, N.; Wood, L.; Maxwell, S.; Cooper, C.; Brabin, B.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes of teenage mothers towards breast-feeding. Design A questionnaire of teenage ( <-20 years) and non-teenage (&GE;20 years) primigravidae attending the antenatal care services at the Liverpool Women's Hospital, during the period April-May 2000.

  6. Breast-Feeding and Diabetes: Long-Term Impact on Mothers and Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P.

    2010-01-01

    In the general population, breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk of the offspring being overweight later in life by 22% to 24% across the age spectrum, from preschool children to adults. There is a dose-response gradient with increasing duration of breast-feeding, and lowest risk with prolonged, exclusive breast-feeding. Breast-feeding has been shown to slow infant growth up to 2 years of age. By contrast, the scientific evidence is inconclusive about whether breast-feeding protects against the onset of overweight and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes among offspring whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy. Moreover, evidence is insufficient to determine if lactation protects against development of type 2 diabetes later in life in women with a diabetes history during pregnancy. Given the paucity of the evidence and equivocal findings about the long-term effects of breast-feeding on future health of women with diabetes during pregnancy and their infants, further research is recommended. PMID:18631440

  7. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOTHERS IN PROTECTION AND SUPPORTING OF BREAST FEEDING: HISTORY AND PRESENT TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Abol’yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a data on creation of social associations of mothers — groups of maternal supporting of breast feeding in continuation with international initiative «Baby-Friendly Hospital» of WHO/UNICEF in Russia. As breast feeding is mostly a medical problem usual for medical personnel in obstetrical and children’s medical institution (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists, pediatricians, there is a question on legality of such groups’ presence and its competence, relations to medical personnel, forms of work. The Soviet public health had wide experience of successful collaboration of public activists of Russian Red Cross Society and Health Care Administrations in performance of prophylactic and health-improving measures and hygienic education among population. Successful activity of voluntary associations supporting breast feeding depends on collaboration with medical personnel, development of scientifically-based programs of mothers-consultants education, and presence of informational, methodical and hygienical educational materials.Key words: breast feeding, groups of maternal support.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:15-18

  8. Comparison of subjective sleep and fatigue in breast- and bottle-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobback, Els; Behaeghel, Katoesjka; Hanoulle, Ignace; Delesie, Liesbeth; Loccufier, Anne; Van Holsbeeck, Ann; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An

    2017-04-01

    Artificial milk supplementation remains a popular practice in spite of the well documented and indisputable advantages of breast feeding for both mother and child. However, the association between maternal sleep, fatigue and feeding method is understudied and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceived sleep and fatigue differ between breast- and bottle feeding post partum women. In addition, the relationship between subjective sleep characteristics and fatigue is examined. Post partum women (four to 16 weeks) filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Sixty-one within the past week exclusively breast- and 44 exclusively bottle-feeding mothers were included. The first group showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency as measured by the PSQI. Global PSQI, as well as subjective fatigue and global CIS, did not differ between the two groups. Significant positive correlations were found between global CIS and the number of night feeds and global PSQI. However, only global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS in relation to the number of night feeds. Within a general pattern of deteriorated sleep quality, breast-feeding women showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency, between four and fourteen weeks after childbirth. However, the PSQI component scores compensated for each other, resulting in absence of any difference in global PSQI sleep quality between the two groups. Global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS, resulting in an absence of any difference in post partum fatigue according to feeding method. Midwives and nurses should, together with the parents, continue to focus on exploring ways to improve maternal sleep quality and to reduce postnatal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential.

  10. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on Breast Feeding at the Time of NICU Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ershadmanesh, Mashallah; Gholamitabar Tabari, Maryam; Khazaee, Soheila

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is one of the most important essential components of Kangaroo Mother Care. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of KMC on exclusive breastfeeding just at the time of discharge. In this cross sectional study, 251 consecutive premature newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between May 2008 and May 2009 in Alzahra University Hospital in Tabriz were evaluated. All of candidate mothers were educated for KMC method by scheduled program. Standard questionnaire was prepared by focus group discussion, and mothers filled it prior to infant hospital discharge. In this study 157(62.5%) mothers performed kangaroo mother care (KMC group) versus 94 (37.5%) in conventional method care (CMC group). In KMC group exclusive breast feeding was 98 (62.5%) vs. 34 (37.5%), and P =.00 in CMC group, at the time of hospital discharge. Receiving KMC, and gestational age were the only effective factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding. Our result indicated that there was a 4.1 time increase in exclusive breastfeeding by KMC, and also weekly increase in gestational age increased it 1.2 times, but maternal age, birth weight, mode of delivery, and 5 minute Apgar score had no influence on it. KMC is more effective, and increases exclusive breast feeding successfully. It can be a good substitution for CMC (conventional methods of care). It is a safe, effective, and feasible method of care for LBWI even in the NICU settings.

  11. Validity of Guatemalan Mother's Self-Reported Breast-Feeding Practices of 3-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazariegos, Monica; Slater, Christine; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Breast-feeding practices (BFPs) can be assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall. It is crucial to establish the accuracy of these methods, which are commonly used by public health decision makers to design health policies aimed at increasing exclusive breast-feeding rates. We aimed to validate 2 self-report BFP instruments using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide turnover technique (DMDOT) as the reference method. Breast-feeding practices were assessed by interviewing the mother about current feeding practices and with a 24-hour recall in 36 Guatemalan mother-infant pairs. The validity of these instruments was assessed using DMDOT as the reference method. Both self-report instruments overestimated exclusively breast-fed (EBF) infants. Infants classified as EBF were 50% by the reported current feeding practice, 61% by the 24-hour recall, and only 36% using DMDOT. Sensitivity to detect EBF infants from the mother's self-report was 92% (95% CI: 62%-99%) while from the 24-hour recall was 100% (95% CI: 72%-100%, P feeding practice and at 61% (95% CI: 39%-79%) for the 24-hour recall (P feeding practice and the 24-hour recall instruments overestimated exclusive breast-feeding. Nevertheless, the use of reported current feeding practice provided more accurate data to assess BFPs in a public health setting. Furthermore, population-based surveys should consider the overestimation of exclusive breast-feeding caused when using these BFP instruments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. [1981-1983 breast feeding studies of 1,500 mothers in Dortmund and Haltern. II. Volume of breast milk in the maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, M; Koester, H; Wennemann, J; Wember, T; Schöch, G

    1987-05-01

    In two large maternity wards encouraging breast-feeding, breast-milk volumes (weighing of the baby before and after each feeding) and weight development of the infants were determined until dismissal. On days 2, 3 and 4, 20-30%, 60-70%, and 80-90% of the mothers, respectively, produced milk. The largest increase in milk volume ("Einschuss") usually took place between days 3 and 4. Milk volume increased from an average of 150-180 ml on day 4 to 270-300 ml on day 6. Development of milk production was independent of type of delivery; however, the usual delay of one day following caesarean section was not made up for until discharge. Fully breast-feeding mothers produced on the average the same amounts of milk as mothers at the turn of the century. Throughout their stay in the maternity ward, mothers with good breast-feeding experience produced more milk than those with bad or without any breast-feeding experience. Nursing all infants at fairly regular intervals during the day and at night is recommended in order to achieve that as many mothers as possible are fully breast-feeding on discharge. Comparing energy intake and weight development between groups of fully, partially and non breast-fed infants suggested a better utilization of breast-milk.

  13. Detectable Tenofovir Levels in Breast-Feeding Infants of Mothers Exposed to Topical Tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Lisa M; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Biggio, Joseph R; Hendrix, Craig W; Bogen, Debra L; Hillier, Sharon L; Dai, James Y; Piper, Jeanna M; Marzinke, Mark A; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Isaacs, S Karen; Schwartz, Jill L; Watts, D Heather; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-09-01

    Lactation studies are necessary evaluations of medications for reproductive-age women. We evaluated pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, safety, and adherence profiles associated with 7 days of 1% tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel use during lactation. Tenofovir levels (maternal/infant serum, milk) and anti-HIV activity (milk), adverse events (AEs), and adherence were measured for 17 HIV-1-seronegative breast-feeding mother-infant pairs. Tenofovir use was well-tolerated and detected at low levels in maternal serum, milk, and infant serum but demonstrated no anti-HIV activity in milk. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  15. Maternal Distraction During Breast- and Bottle Feeding Among WIC and non-WIC Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Teitelbaum, Simone

    To explore the prevalence and correlates of maternal distraction during infant feeding within a sample of mothers enrolled or not in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Woman, Infants, and Children (WIC). Mothers kept diaries of their infants' feeding patterns. Mothers (n = 75) with infants aged ≤6 months. Within the diaries, mothers recorded what else, if anything, they did during the feeding. Mothers also completed questionnaires on demographics, feeding styles, and infant temperament and eating behaviors. Mothers' responses were coded into thematic categories. Feedings were classified as distracted when the mothers reported doing something other than feeding and/or interacting with the infant. Logistic regression was used to explore whether mothers exhibited different levels of distraction when breastfeeding (BF) vs bottle feeding. The researchers used multiple stepwise regression to explore associations between distracted feeding and characteristics of mothers and infants. Distractions were reported during 43% of feedings; 26% involved technological distractors. Mothers who were multiparous and perceived that their infants had greater appetites reported greater levels of any distraction during feeding. Mothers who were of racial/ethnic minorities, adhered to laissez faire feeding style, had younger infants, and perceived their infants to have lower food responsiveness and greater appetite reported greater levels of technological distraction. Being enrolled in WIC was not associated with mothers' levels of distracted feeding. Mothers reported a wide variety of distractions during both BF and bottle feeding; higher levels of distraction were associated with characteristics of both mothers and infants. Further research is needed to understand whether and how maternal distraction affects feeding outcomes. Awareness of such distractions and their potential impact would be useful to practitioners working with pregnant and postpartum women. Copyright

  16. Breast-feeding multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  17. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  18. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    V.К. Kotlukov; L.G. Kuzmenko; N.V. Antipova; М.V. Polyakov

    2011-01-01

    The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6): 170–175)

  19. Relationship between the nutritional status of breast-feeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frojo, Gianfranco A.; Rogers, Nathaniel G.; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesized that maternal excess caloric intake (measured as BMI) would increase the association while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breast feeding) will diminish the effect. Methods Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (OR), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Results Cases (n=84) had an increased odds (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared to controls (n=85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI 1.30-5.02) . Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI -0.96) as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI -2.27). Conclusion Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner. PMID:22462552

  20. Breast-feeding duration for the prevention of excess body weight of mother-child pairs concurrently: a 2-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Czarnobay, Sandra Ana; Ekwaru, John Paul; Loehr, Sarah A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between breast-feeding duration and the risk of excess body weight (children >85th percentile, mothers BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) concurrently in mother-child pairs two years after delivery. Prospective cohort study in Joinville, Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent relationship between breast-feeding duration and risk of excess body weight. Brazilian public maternity hospital. Three hundred and five mother-child pairs. At 2-year follow-up, 23·6 % of mother-child pairs had excess body weight. Children breast-fed for breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). Breast-feeding for breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 8·1). There was a progressive increase in the likelihood of mother-child pairs having excess body weight as breast-feeding duration decreased. In addition to breast-feeding duration, other independent determinants of excess body weight were pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and number of pregnancies in mothers, and birth weight in children. Breast-feeding for a longer duration has a parallel protective effect on the risk of excess body weight in mother-child pairs two years after birth. Since members of the same family could be influenced by the same risk factors, continued promotion and support of breast-feeding may help to attenuate the rising prevalence of overweight in mother-child pairs.

  1. Breast feeding practices in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyali, M M; Al-tawil, K

    1989-01-01

    Medical staff at the neonatal outpatient clinic of the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar randomly distributed a questionnaire about breast feeding and socioeconomic characteristics to 340 women (53.5% Qataris and 46.5% other Arabic speaking women) from February-August 1988. Only 32% of the mothers exclusively breast fed at birth. This low incidence could be due to excessive advertising by formula manufacturers and the increasing purchasing power of the Qataris. 5l5% used both breast milk and formula. 13% only bottle fed their infants. 50% of the mothers from the below average income group (5000 Qatar Riyals) breast fed their infants, while only 12% of those from the high income group (10,000 Qatar Riyals) did. Further, 55% of the mothers with less than secondary school education exclusively breast fed whereas 25% of those with secondary school and above breast fed. This result confirmed the downward trend for breast feeding in Qatar as identified in the early 1980s. Even though most mothers decided themselves not to breast feed, 31% reported that their physician suggested feeding formula to their infants. The longer infants stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit the less likely their mothers would breast feed them. For example, 72% were breast fed if discharged 1 week after admission while none were breast fed if discharged 3 weeks after admission. The leading reasons for bottle feeding included that the infant was still hungry (634%), night feeding (12%), mother worked (11%), and maternal diseases (5%). Regardless of the reasons for the downward trend in breast feeding in Qatar, public health professionals and health practitioners must begin direct and specific health education efforts about the benefits of breast feeding.

  2. [Silymarin/galega administration in term and preterm mothers to sustain breast feeding: an observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, F; Pivetti, V; Moiraghi, L; Marangione, P; Lista, G

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is considered the most important source of nutrition both in the first year of life for term and preterm infants, because of its well-known positive effects on short and long-term outcome. Unfortunately not all the mothers can begin or maintain an adequate milk secretion. Premature delivery and prolonged length of stay in the hospital can influence maternal milk production due to maternal anxiety and/ or neonatal pathologies related to prematurity. A variety of herbal and pharmaceutical products have been recommended as galactogogues, substances that promote lactation. In this observational study, the authors compared the effect on breast milk production of an oral maternal supplementation of two galactogogues (sylimarine and galega-Lutein latte®) in a term and preterm mothers group (preterm infants recovered in neonatal intensive care unit-NICU). The breast milk production significantly reduced at start in preterm mothers (N.=16) versus term mothers (N.=16) (P<0.08), after sylimarine and galega supplementation was the same in both groups within two months of life (P=NS). This galactogogues supplementation could be recommended to maintain an adequate lactation in premature mothers, especially when their infants are still recovered in the NICU.

  3. Bed sharing among mother-infant pairs in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia and its relationship to breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Leong

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of mother-infant bed sharing in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia and to identify factors associated with bed sharing. This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to 6 months attending government clinics in Klang district, Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire for a 4-month period in 2006. Data regarding maternal, paternal, obstetric, infant, occupancy, breast-feeding characteristics, and bed-sharing practice were collected. Data on bed sharing were based on practice in the past 1-month period. Bed sharing was defined as an infant sharing a bed with mother, and infant must be within arms reach from the mother, whereas a bed was defined as either a sleeping mattress placed on a bed frame or placed on the floor. The prevalence of bed sharing was estimated. Relationship and magnitude of association between independent factors and bed sharing were examined using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounding factors. The prevalence of bed sharing among mothers with infants aged between 1 and 6 months was 73.5% (95% confidence interval: 70.0-76.7). In multivariate analysis, urban/rural differences, mothers' ethnicity, occupation, family income, husbands' support on bed sharing, number of children younger than 12 years staying in the house, and breast-feeding were associated with bed sharing. These factors need to be considered in analyzing the overall risks and benefits of bed sharing, paying attention to breastfeeding practices.

  4. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  5. Delta and theta power spectra of night sleep EEG are higher in breast-feeding mothers than in non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Kyoko; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Eto, Hiromi; Uchida, Sunao; Honda, Makoto

    2004-09-23

    The power spectra of night sleep EEGs of 12 breast-feeding 9-13 week postpartum mothers were analyzed and compared with those of 12 non-pregnant women. The power spectra in the delta and theta frequency range during NREM sleep for breast-feeding mothers were significantly higher than those for non-pregnant women. In addition, the all-night sleep patterns of the mothers were classified into two groups - interrupted sleep due to taking care of their infants and non-interrupted sleep - in order to observe the influence of partial sleep deprivation. The power spectra in the delta and theta frequency range were not significantly different between them. This result suggests that increased delta and theta power spectra during postpartum sleep do not result from partial sleep deprivation. The role of prolactin in breast-feeding mothers' sleep is also discussed.

  6. Breast feeding as seen by Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawwas, A W

    1988-01-01

    Islamic law requires mothers to breast feed their children for 2 years. the father must assist the mother in breast feeding the children by providing her with food and clothing. If the father dies or does not live at home, the heir must support the mother thereby allowing her to breast feed her infants. A wet nurse can feed a child only if the mother's milk is not available. Allah recognizes that breast milk is the most wholesome food source for infants. It is made daily based on the infant's needs for growing and nourishment, while other milks and/or formulas remain the same regardless of the infant's daily requirements. For example, the 1st milk, a small amount of yellowish colostrum, contains protein, minerals, and antibodies. Colostrum also acts as a laxative. Breast milk is also comprised of enzymes which make breast milk easy to digest. These digestive enzymes also destroy any microorganisms in the stomach that may have entered thereby providing extra protection against disease. Further, breast milk is sterile. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) among breast fed infants are 4 time lower than IMRs of artificially fed infants. In addition, breast feeding establishes a strong bond between mother and child in which the child feels happiness and security. Breast feeding also benefits the mother. The uterus of a breast feeding mother fully contracts to its original size, while the uterus of a mother who does not breast feed does not. Further, breast feeding women are less prone to breast cancer than those women who have never breast fed. In addition, the more a women breast feeds the less likely she is to get breast cancer. Breast feeding also acts to a certain degree as a contraceptive.

  7. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  8. Cyprus mothers׳ breast feeding self-efficacy and their perceptions about the implementation of the '10 steps' in the first 48hours after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiona, Vasiliki; Middleton, Nicos; Kouta, Christiana; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Kolokotroni, Ourania

    2016-05-01

    more than two decades after the launch of the '10 steps' for successful breast feeding, there is still concern that implementation is suboptimal. Commonly, studies assess the level of implementation based on self-assessments from maternity staff and more rarely based on the mothers' own experience. To date, there has been only anecdotal evidence with regards to the implementation of the '10 steps' in Cyprus while there is general lack of research data on breast feeding in this country. this study assessed breast feeding self-efficacy among mothers during the first 48hours after birth and explored their views with regards to the implementation of the '10 steps' across public and private maternity units in Nicosia, Cyprus. this is a descriptive study with a consecutive sample of 216 mothers, aged at least 18, who gave birth to a full-term healthy infant between January and April 2014. Two data collection tools were used: Section 4 of the BFHI (Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative) questionnaire referring to mothers' self-assessment of maternity unit practices and the BSES-SF (Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form) which measures perceived self-efficacy in bryeast feeding. midwifery assistance for breast feeding skills development along with encouragement of breast feeding on demand (steps 5 and 8) were identified by mothers as the steps they were more likely to have experienced. In addition, there appeared to be relatively good adherence to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. In contrast, it seems that step 7(rooming-in), step 9 (no pacifiers) and step 10 (breast feeding support after discharge) were not systematically practiced. While a higher percentage of mothers in public maternity units reported being informed about the importance of skin-to-skin contact compared to the private sector (51.5% versus 25.7%), there does not appear to be much difference in terms of its actual practice which is generally low (29.0% versus 25

  9. Mothers' restrictive eating and food neophobia and fathers' dietary quality are associated with breast-feeding duration and introduction of solid foods: the STEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarno, Jenni; Niinikoski, Harri; Kaljonen, Anne; Aromaa, Minna; Lagström, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental eating behaviours and dietary patterns and feeding practices of infants and young children. Data on infant-feeding practices were collected from each infant's birth via parentally self-administered follow-up diaries. Three questionnaires, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Food Neophobia Scale and the Index of Diet Quality, were administered when the children were aged 4 and 13 months. South-western Finland. Families participating in the STEPS longitudinal cohort study (n 1797). Mean duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 2.4 months and total duration of breast-feeding averaged 8.1 months. The first solid food was introduced into children's diets at the age of 3.9 months, on average. Mothers with highly restrictive eating were more likely to introduce solid foods sooner than mothers who ranked lower in these behaviours (3.8 months v. 4.0 months, P = 0.012). Neophobic mothers breast-fed exclusively (2.0 v. 2.6 months, P = 0.038) and in total (7.2 v. 8.5 months, P = 0.039) for shorter times than average mothers, even after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. Fathers' diet quality was associated with total breast-feeding duration and with introduction of complementary foods in unadjusted analyses and with total breast-feeding duration also after adjusting for confounding factors. Mothers' and fathers' eating patterns and practices are associated with the feeding practices of infants and young children. Health promotion interventions seeking to improve parents' eating patterns might lead to more favourable feeding practices for infants and young children.

  10. Breast feeding practices and associated factors in Bhaktapur District of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study among lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding is a major determinant of survival, future nutrition and health status of children. Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. It is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF is superior to non-exclusive breast-feeding with a protective effect against both morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to explore the breast feeding practice and affecting factors in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2007 in a rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Total 333 lactating mothers having a child less than 6 months were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was performed in Statistical Pakage of Social Science-13 version applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 333 mothers (mean age ± standard deviation 24.68 ± 4.16 years, majority (76.6% were 20-30 years. Almost 83.0% were Hindus, 25.8% illiterate, 62.8% house-wives and 53.5% from joint family with low economic status. About 48.0% had a baby of 2-4 months, 86.0% avoided pre-lacteal feeding, 87.1% fed colostrums, 27.9% fed the first milk within half an hour and 55.0% practiced exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. Child′s age, education, religion, occupation, family type and knowledge level were significant (P < 0.05 factors affecting to breast feeding. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of women initiated breast-feeding early after birth, the prevalence of EBF for 6 months was very low and a large portion had poor practice of breast feeding. Education, relationship of mother with a family member and level of knowledge were found most significant factors. Appropriate measures such as public awareness and effective counseling will support

  11. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    1University of Zambia Department of Nursing Sciences. 2University of Zambia ... a focus group discussion guide at study sites. Quantitative data was ... this study. The study population was breast feeding mothers with infants aged from birth to six months. A sample of 171 breast feeding mothers with infants aged from birth to ...

  12. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  13. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  14. Difficulties in Breast Feeding Full - Term New - Born Children

    OpenAIRE

    Felcmanová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis deals the breast-feeding in term of difficulties, that can be found by mothers during a period of lactation. The Theoretical Part is discussing importance of the breast-feeding for a child, a mother and society and it includes instructions for the successful breast-feeding. There are especially mentioned the most frequent difficulties of the breast-feeding, prevention and finding solution of these difficulties. The consulting servise for the breast-feeding are mentioned,...

  15. Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework: A New Framework to Improve Breast-feeding Duration and Exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    Targeting mothers and fathers in breast-feeding promotion programs is recommended as research has found that father's support positively impacts breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Breast-feeding coparenting refers to the manner in which parents work together to achieve their breast-feeding goals. The Breast-feeding Coparenting Framework was developed on the basis of diverse coparenting models and research related to father's involvement with breast-feeding. This framework consists of 5 components: joint breast-feeding goal setting, shared breast-feeding responsibility, proactive breast-feeding support, father's/partner's parental-child interactions, and productive communication and problem solving. This framework may be of value to policy makers and program providers working to improve breast-feeding outcomes.

  16. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  17. Role of kangaroo mother care in growth and breast feeding rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Sharma, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep; Sharma, Akash

    2017-03-27

    To evaluate the role of kangaroo mother care (KMC) on growth and breast feeding rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A literature search was done to identify eligible studies using various electronic database searches including PubMed and EMBASE, various Web of Science including Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), SCIWIN (Scientific World Index), Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) and various clinical trial registries. Thirteen studies that evaluated the role of KMC in VLBW infants in improvement of growth outcome (weight/length/head circumference) or breast feeding rates as their primary or secondary outcome, were included in this systematic review. Seven studies evaluated both growth and breast feeding rates, four studies evaluated breast feeding rates and two studies evaluated growth outcome. All included studies except one either showed positive effect or no effect on growth and breast feeding rates. KMC has a positive effect on growth of the VLBW infants and also leads to increase in the breast-feeding rates. KMC should be an integral part of neonatal care and should be promoted as an essential newborn care component.

  18. Breast pain in lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Sf

    2016-08-01

    The number of new mothers who breastfeed has increased dramatically over the last three decades. There is a concern that the present related medical service may be inadequate. Breast pain is the most common complaint among lactating mothers who seek medical help. This study aimed to investigate this problem. Medical records of women who presented with breast pain to a private clinic run by a doctor who was trained as an International Lactation Consultant were reviewed over a period of 6 months in 2015. Most patients were self-referred after chatting online. Assessment included characteristics and duration of pain, treatment prior to consultation, feeding practices, mother's diet, and breast examination. Any site of blockage was identified and relieved. Those with persistent pain were given antibiotics. When there were signs of abscess or abscess that could not be drained, they were referred to a breast surgeon. A total of 69 patients were seen of whom 45 had been breastfeeding for more than 1 month. Pain was experienced for longer than 7 days in 22 women. Antifungal or antibacterial treatment had been unsuccessful in 31 women prior to consultation. The diagnoses were engorgement in five women, blocked duct in 35, mastitis in 13, breast abscess in six, poor positioning and latch in seven, nipple cracks in two, and skin infection in one. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 21 patients and local antifungal treatment was given to one patient only. Blocked duct was the most common cause of breast pain in lactating mothers. Without prompt relief it is possible that it will progress to mastitis/breast abscess or the mother may discontinue breastfeeding. This may be a suitable time for Hong Kong to set up one or more public full-time breastfeeding clinics to provide a better service to lactating mothers and to facilitate professional training and research.

  19. Infant feeding practices: a study of mothers attending a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infant feeding practices: a study of mothers attending a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ... No significant difference was found between type of feeding and educational level (p=0.1). ... Mothers\\' age, level of education and the number of children all related to the age of the child when breast feeding was stopped.

  20. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  1. Prolonged breast-feeding protects mothers from later-life obesity and related cardio-metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Petri; Xu, Leiting; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Saltevo, Juha; Wang, Qin; Völgyi, Eszter; Munukka, Eveliina; Cheng, Shumei; Alen, Markku; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Cheng, Sulin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of duration of postpartum lactation on maternal body composition and risk for cardio-metabolic disorders in later life. Retrospective study. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum glucose, insulin and lipids were analysed using enzymatic photometric methods 16-20 years after the last pregnancy. Medical history and lifestyle factors were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Detailed information regarding weight change patterns during each pregnancy was obtained from personal maternity tracking records. City of Jyväskylä and surroundings in Central Finland. Two hundred and twelve women (mean age 48, range 36-60 years). At 16-20 years after their last pregnancy, women who had breast-fed for less than 6 months had higher total body fat mass and fat mass percentage, particularly in the android region (46·5 (sd 8·2) %) than mothers who had breast-fed for longer than 6 months (39·0 (sd 10·2) %) or for longer than 10 months (38·4 (sd 10·9) %, P < 0·01). These differences were independent of pre-pregnancy weight and BMI, menopausal status, smoking status, level of education, participation in past and present leisure-time physical activity, and current dietary energy intake. Higher body fat mass was also associated with higher fasting serum glucose concentration and insulin resistance, TAG, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations, as well as higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0·05 for all). Short duration of breast-feeding may induce weight retention and fat mass accumulation, resulting in increased risk of cardio-metabolic disorders in later life.

  2. Factors influencing the sustainability of volunteer peer support for breast-feeding mothers within a hospital environment: An exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Heather; Skirton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    the objectives of this study were to explore breast feeding peer supporters' motivation to volunteer within a hospital environment, to describe their experiences of volunteering within a hospital environment, to examine the relationships between peer supporters and ward staff, and to identify factors contributing to the future sustainability of the service. a qualitative study; peer supporters and clinical ward staff were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis with an inductive approach. six peer supporters and ten ward staff, whose role included giving breast feeding support, working on a maternity ward in one consultant-led unit in England that had been hosting breast feeding peer support volunteers for the previous three years. three main themes were identified: 1. What peer supporters brought to the maternity ward; this included providing breast-feeding mothers with confidence, reassurance and empowerment, and spending 'unhurried time' with mothers; 2. What motivated the peer supporters; this included an interest in midwifery as a future career and a desire to help people; 3. Factors contributing to the sustainability of the service; these included an existing rolling training programme, however recruitment processes were causing long delays and some aspects of operational management needed improvement. individuals with a passion for breast feeding were willing to volunteer as peer supporters and their experience of the activity was positive. Organisational processes did not always provide peer supporters with a positive experience of the organisation and these needed to be improved as they contributed to the future sustainability of the service. the study indicates that a sustainable hospital-based volunteer service for breast feeding peer support requires a rolling training programme for peer supporters, efficient recruitment processes and effective operational management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother-infant pairs from Ireland and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-08-08

    To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Population-based cross-sectional study. Ireland and UK. 10 604 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008-2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001-2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infant feeding practices: a study of mothers attending a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habit of leaving the bottle or breast in child\\'s mouth while the child fell asleep was only significantly related to the mothers\\' age but not to the level of education or number of children. Conclusion: Mothers with more than four children practiced breast feeding more frequently while those with one or two children tend to ...

  6. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  7. Promoting and supporting breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J; Coombs, J

    2000-04-01

    The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and identifies potential problem areas. Hospital practices should focus on rooming-in, early and frequent breast-feeding, skilled support and avoidance of artificial nipples, pacifiers and formula. Infant follow-up should be two to four days postdischarge, with liberal use of referral and support groups, including lactation consultants and peer counselors.

  8. Breast feeding, bottle feeding and caries experience in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...

  9. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Becquet

    2007-01-01

    Ditrame trial. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-y rates of adverse health outcomes were similar among short-term breast-fed and formula-fed children. Mortality rates did not differ significantly between these two groups and, after adjustment for pediatric HIV status, were similar to those observed among long-term breast-fed children. Given appropriate nutritional counseling and care, access to clean water, and a supply of breast-milk substitutes, these alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding can be safe interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in urban African settings.

  10. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  11. Breast feeding and weaning practices of urban housewives in Srinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, C; Rowlands, R

    1988-11-01

    Researchers interviewed 125 mothers in Srinagar, India about breast feeding and weaning practices. Overall the mothers were generally illiterate (52%), housewives (67.2%), Muslim (76%), and from a nuclear family (56%). 39% were in the low income group. Most of the children (48%) ranged for 6-12 months old. 96% of the children had been breast fed. Some of the reasons for breast feeding included nutritional quality, economical, pleased the mother, and made the infant feel secure. 65.8% breast fed their infants on demand. 65.7% weaned their infants between 7-9 months yet 52% believed breast feeding should continue to 18 months. 96% breast fed their infants while ill with diarrhea. 57% believed colostrum to be unhygienic and did not feed it to their infants. 72% decided to breast feed before becoming pregnant while 36% decided to bottle feed before pregnancy. 89% of illiterate mothers breast fed while only 45% of literate mothers did. Further, only 11.8% of the mothers whose family income was 1500 rupees/month breast fed whereas 47% in the lower and 41.2% in the middle income groups did. At 7-9 months, 69.8% of illiterate and 69.5% of literate mothers had already introduced semi solid foods. 78.3% of literate mothers gave semi solid foods to their infants 2 times/day, but only 11.6% of the illiterate mothers did so. Moreover 81.4% of illiterate mothers only fed their infants semi solid foods once a day. Literate mothers were more likely than literate mothers to feed their infants solid foods (75% vs. 46.2%), introduce them at an earlier age (22.2% vs 10%, 7-9 months), and feed them more often (55.5% vs 16.6%; twice a day). In conclusion, the higher the educational status the more likely mothers were likely to breast feed.

  12. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  13. Operational effectiveness of guidelines on complete breast-feeding cessation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV: results from a prospective observational cohort study at routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission sites, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Ameena E; Van Wyk, Brian; Doherty, Tanya; Colvin, Mark; Jackson, Debra J; Chopra, Mickey

    2009-04-15

    Until 2006, HIV-positive women who chose to exclusively breast-feed were advised to completely stop breast-feeding by 6 months. We investigated operational feasibility and predictors of complete breast-feeding cessation (CBC). A prospective observational cohort study at 3 routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission sites, South Africa. Data on "complete breast-feeding cessation at 24 weeks" and "not breast-feeding (NBF) for 4 days before the last follow-up visit at or before 24 weeks" were gathered during home visits (3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks). The main subgroup of interest for this analysis was women practicing exclusive breast-feeding/predominant breast-feeding at 3 weeks. Univariate analysis, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis, and Cox regression were performed. Eighty-eight women (43.6%) reported CBC. "Health staff suggesting formula use: [OR(a) 4.39 (1.76-10.97)] and "infant hospitalization" [OR(a) 3.27 (1.37-7.79)] were the only significant predictors of CBC. The probability of NBF at 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks was 2.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8% to 3.8%], 4.3% (3.0% to 5.6%), 5.9% (4.4% to 7.4%, 9.8% (7.9% to 11.7%), 16.1 (13.8% to 18.4%), 23.1% (20.5% to 25.7%), and 37.6% (34.6% to 40.6%), respectively. Infant HIV status [hazard ratio 5.5 95% CI 2.4 to 12.5] was the only predictor of infant death. NBF was not protective against 9-month infant HIV or death in univariate and multivariable analysis. At programmatic level, CBC by 24 weeks is uncommon, and success seems unrelated to predetermined social, economic, and environmental (acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe AFASS) criteria. Thus at this level, activities that encourage CBC (amongst women meeting AFASS criteria) need to be identified and tested.

  14. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (pbreast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. maternity hospital in South West England. 218 breast feeds (160 mother-infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach's alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast-feeding, neonatal jaundice and kernicterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Glenn R

    2002-04-01

    Despite the many advantages of breast-feeding, there is ample documentation of the strong association between breast-feeding and an increase in the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed infants. Suggested mechanisms for these findings include poor fluid and caloric intake, inhibition of hepatic excretion of bilirubin, and intestinal absorption of bilirubin (enterohepatic circulation). On rare occasions, breast-fed infants without evidence of haemolysis have developed extreme hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. Because almost all of the cases of kernicterus reported in the last 15 years have occurred in fully or partially breast-fed newborns, it is important that these infants be followed closely. Appropriate support and advice must be provided to the lactating mother so that successful breast-feeding can be established and the risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia reduced.

  17. Lactancia materna: impacto de la consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja Breast feeding: impact of the support consultation to the working mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Elgueta Noy

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, descriptiva exploratoria, retrospectiva y transversal, pretende responder el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿ Cuál es el impacto que la Consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja, del Centro de Diagnóstico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, tiene en la prolongación de la lactancia materna?. La población estudiada la constituyen 82 madres atendidas en la Consulta de apoyo, durante el período de marzo y septiembre de 1995, de las cuales se tomó una muestra de treinta madres. El impacto de esta consulta fue evaluado a través de un instrumento que se aplicó por entrevista dirigida a cada una de las madres. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente con el programa estadístico EPIINFO, el método de sobre vida de Kaplan-Meier y el test de Mantel-Haenszel para comparar curvas de sobre vida. Al analizar los datos se encontró que las madres estudiadas son en su mayoría adultas jóvenes, con pareja estable, primíparas, con un nivel de educación técnico y/o profesional y que se desempeñan mayoritariamente como empleadas de oficina. Tienen una jornada laboral completa, y existe una diferencia significativa entre el sueldo mínimo y el máximo que perciben. Los resultados de este estudio permiten concluir que las madres lograron una lactancia materna exclusiva y edad de destete ideal. El poder de resolución de la Consulta según las madres resultó satisfactorio. El factor reforzador más significativo en relación al aumento de la probabilidad de continuar amamantando, es el apoyo que recibe la madre después de su reincorporación laboral. Finalmente la Consulta tiene un buen impacto.This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother -Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile- has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been

  18. Breast-feeding and HIV: an update | Coutsoudis | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding is a route of transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and the ideal way of feeding an infant, as well as providing a unique biological and emotional basis for child development. This article highlights the dilemma created by the ...

  19. Breast-feeding and bottle-feeding of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ooki, Syuichi

    2004-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the rates of breast-feeding and/or bottle-feeding in mothers of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births compared to those in mothers of singletons, and identify factors associated with decision as to breast-feed or bottle-feed. The subjects were 1,529 mothers of twins aged 6 months-6 years and 258 mothers of triplets and higher order multiple births (higher multiples) aged 6 months-6 years (234 mothers of triplets, 20 mothers of quadruplets, 4 mothers of quintuplets). Also, 1,300 subjects were recruited as a control group from mothers of singletons aged 6 months-6 years. Information regarding feeding methods, including exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding with formula milk only, and duration of breast-feeding (in months) was collected. There were significantly higher rates of bottle-feeding in mothers of twins and higher multiples than in mothers of singletons. Duration of breast-feeding in mothers who chose exclusive breast-feeding or mixed-feeding for twins and higher multiples was significantly shorter than those for the singletons. The feeding methods for the twins or higher multiples were not associated with prematurity or low birth weight. However, after adjusting for each associated factor using logistic regression analysis, the decision to bottle-feed was significantly associated with non-cooperation of the husband in childrearing and degree of anxiety that mothers felt when informed of a multiple pregnancy. The odds ratio indicated that mothers who received no cooperation from the husband for childrearing were 1.83 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who received cooperation. Further, the odds ratio indicated that mothers who felt greater anxiety when informed of a multiple pregnancy were 1.73 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who did not feel much anxiety. This study found that establishment and continuation of breast-feeding for twins, triplets and

  20. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach׳s alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. Conclusions the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. Implications for practice the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. PMID:25061006

  1. Early Provision of Mother's Own Milk and Other Predictors of Successful Breast Milk Feeding after Very Preterm Birth: A Regional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emilija; Christensson, Kyllike; Brandt, Lena; Altman, Maria; Bonamy, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    Breast milk is associated with a lower risk of neonatal morbidity in very preterm infants. Despite the benefits, the duration of breastfeeding is shorter in very preterm infants than in term infants. This study aimed to investigate how early provision of mother's own milk (MOM) and maternal and infant characteristics are related to breast milk feeding (BMF) between 36 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) after very preterm birth. A regional observational study of 138 singleton infants born at < 32 weeks of gestation in Stockholm, Sweden, was conducted. Data were derived from medical charts to investigate the association between early provision of MOM; maternal and infant characteristics; and exclusive, partial, or no BMF at 36 weeks PMA. Moreover, changes in BMF between 36 and 40 weeks PMA were studied. Most infants (80%) received MOM at 36 weeks PMA (55% exclusively, 25% partial). High provision of MOM at postnatal day 7 was associated with exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA, odds ratio (OR) 1.18 per 10 mL/kg MOM (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.32). Mothers born in non-Nordic countries provided MOM exclusively less often, adjusted OR 0.27 (95% CI, 0.10-0.69), compared to Nordic mothers. Between 36 and 40 weeks PMA, BMF decreased overall. This change was not associated with investigated predictors. It is possible to achieve high rates of BMF in very preterm infants. High intake of MOM early in the postnatal period is strongly related to exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regarding motivation, struggle for breast feeding and long-term maintenance among medical personnel, mothers and their families. It is especially important to provide premature infants and sick children, who are often born unable to suck adequately, with breast feeding. The authors provide results of a study conducted at the SCCH demonstrating that special medical devices (nipples, feeding bottles developed on the basis of studies of maternal breast sucking physiology facilitate a gradual transition from tube feeding to breast feeding

  3. MATERNAL EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING PRACTICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate the among the unemployed and self-employed mothers was lower than that of those in paid employment. This is contrary to expectation, since the unemployed/scif~employed are usually not separated from their children unlike those in paid employment who usually separated during working. Exclusive breast feeding ...

  4. MATERNAL EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING PRACTICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were paid employment with maternity leave ... (ENE) and five community health workers who had been trained prior to onset of study and who showed understanding. DEFINITIONS. Exclusive breast feeding: the infant has received only ... mothers with paid employment and this was significant when compares with ...

  5. Breast feeding among Brazilian adolescents: practice and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J C S; Dias, F A; Stefanello, J; Reis, M C G; Nakano, A M S; Gomes-Sponholz, F A

    2014-03-01

    to characterise breast feeding practices among Brazilian adolescents and identify their breast feeding needs. the study was undertaken in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in two stages. The first stage analysed data from the Second National Survey of Breast-feeding Prevalence, held in August 2008, which included 229 adolescent mothers. The second stage was a qualitative approach, and involved interviews with 10 adolescent mothers in a primary care unit. The data from the first stage were analysed in June 2010 based on descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the interviews were transcribed and organised using thematic content analysis. breast feeding was reported by 75% of the adolescent mothers. Of the 144 mothers with infants aged breastfeeding as longer as possible in a satisfactory way for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast feeding and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. O. Kulia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Prevalence of allergy in children is increasing. Influence of feeding on the risk of development of allergy in infants was studied in 140 infants. Methods and results. Along with general clinical evaluation methods immunological parameters assessment was used. It was showed that great care must be given to the pregnant woman treatment, especially with antibiotics, vitamins. Conclusion. As secondary preventive measures suggest: early (in the first 30 minutes application of the newborn babies on the breast, exclusively breastfeeding, careful and minimal medicines prescription, rational feeding.

  7. Effect of natural-feeding education on successful exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding self-efficacy of low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Çelebioğlu, Ayda

    2014-02-01

    The ideal nourishment for newborns with low birth-weight is breast milk. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of natural-feeding education given to mothers of low-birth-weight infants, on the mothers' breast-feeding self-efficacy level, breast-feeding success, and the growth of the infants. The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental way. The study group consisted of a total of 85 low-birth-weight infants and their mothers who had been treated in the neonatal clinics of two hospitals. The mothers included in the test group were given breast-feeding education for half an hour per day, during the first 5 days of their hospitalization. Home visits were carried out at the homes of the participants from both the test and control groups, until the infants reached 6 months of age. For collecting data, the following forms were used: Personal Information Form, Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Form, LATCH Breast-feeding Assessment Tool, and Anthropometric Measurements Form. For analyzing the collected data, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and chi-square we used, and, in independent groups, t-tests were employed. Findings : It was determined that natural-feeding education given to the mothers increases their breast-feeding self-efficacy levels and success in breast-feeding (P<0.05). It was found that in the test group, the rate of feeding the infants exclusively with breast milk is higher in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Results of the study indicate that natural-feeding education increases breast-feeding self-efficacy levels, breast-feeding success, and the breast-feeding duration.

  8. Prediction of duration of breast feeding in primiparas.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, H J; Walker, P C

    1983-01-01

    A random sample of 617 primiparas was identified from birth notifications over a 12 month period and 534 of these were interviewed four weeks after confinement. Those breast feeding at the time of interview were contacted again at four months and those still breast feeding then were contacted at six and a half months. Duration of breast feeding was found to be significantly associated with five interassociated personal characteristics of the mother and with specific aspects of her knowledge a...

  9. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... promote breast-feeding in the neonatal unit were either ineffectual or inadequate. In order to remedy this situation it is necessary to keep the motherinfant pair together (lodger mothers) and to promote breastfeeding before and after delivery. It would also be necessary to train staff in the management of lactation problems.

  10. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  11. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Easton, Sue; Walters, Stephen

    2016-04-11

    Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The 'Nourishing Start for Health' (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10,833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0-6 months. Participating organisations Research and Governance

  12. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990 | Zollner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990. ... Journal Home > Vol 83, No 8 (1993) > ... and duration of breast-feeding alllong Venda mothers as well as the foods that Venda children commonly ate in their first 2 years of life. Nearly ...

  13. Eating for pregnancy and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Hannah E

    2007-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential to help support a successful pregnancy and breast-feeding. Women planning a pregnancy should follow a balanced nutrient-rich diet and consume a daily folic acid supplement up until the end of the first trimester. Many pregnancies, especially amongst teenagers, are unplanned, and educating women of childbearing age about the need to take folic acid to prevent neural tube defects is important. Maintaining a healthy body weight and weight gain is also important: if the mother is underweight, overweight or obese this can harm the health of both mother and fetus. Care should be taken to monitor the nutritional status of vulnerable groups (e.g. teenagers, vegans, women who are underweight, and those at risk of too little vitamin D) to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. During breast-feeding the mother needs to eat a sufficient and nutrient-rich diet to provide enough energy and nutrients to support milk production.

  14. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  15. Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Can Breast Milk Feed a Love of Vegetables? Think of it as an early stealth strategy ... medicine," Mennella said. When an expectant mother eats vegetables, they flavor her amniotic fluid -- and later, her ...

  16. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.

  17. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  18. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, R.; Islam, A.; Hamadani, J; Amin, N. J.; Kabir, I.; Malek, M. A.; D Mahalanabis; Habte, D

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by th...

  19. Social Support and Exclusive Breast feeding among Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Chris M; Islam, Nazrul; Janssen, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between exclusive breast feeding and four dimensions of social support: (i) tangible, (ii) affectionate, (iii) positive social interaction, and (iv) emotional and informational, based on the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. Absolute and relative differences in the probability of breast feeding exclusively and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In adjusted models, differences in the probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months were not different among women with high vs. low social support. The association between social support and breastfeeding exclusively was modified by education level, with significantly higher probability of breast feeding exclusively among women with lower education and high vs. low levels of tangible and affectionate support. Among women with education below a high school level, high tangible and affectionate support significantly increased probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months in this study. Efforts to encourage exclusive breast feeding need to address social support for mothers, especially those with lower education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, R

    2011-08-01

    Rates of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge are low in premature infants due to the many associated challenges. Although there are many benefits associated with breast milk, the effects of direct breast-feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between direct breast-feeding (infant sucking directly from the breast) and duration and success with breast milk feedings until discharge in premature infants. This retrospective cohort was conducted on 66 very-low birth weight infants whose mothers initiated breast milk feedings in the NICU. Chart review revealed documented type (breast milk with or without fortifiers or type of infant formula), volume and mode (nasogastric tube, breast or bottle) of all gastric feeds for each day of NICU hospitalization. From this documentation, whether the mother initiated breast milk feedings, the number of times the mother put the infant to breast, the gestational age of the first direct breast-feeding, whether the first oral feeding was at the breast, the duration of breast milk feedings and whether breast milk feedings continued until NICU discharge were determined. Associations between breast-feeding participatory factors and breast milk feeding outcomes were investigated using linear and logistic regression. Positive associations were found between breast milk feedings at discharge and mothers putting their infants directly to breast in the NICU (P=0.0005). The duration of breast milk feedings was associated with: mothers putting their infants directly to breast (P=0.0110), whether the first oral sucking feeding was at the breast (P=0.0108) and the gestational age of the first breast-feeding attempt (PBreast milk feedings are encouraged in most NICU's, but direct breast-feeding is often overlooked as an important area of research in the tightly controlled environment of the NICU. This study demonstrates a link between direct

  1. Effect of Natural-Feeding Education on Successful Exclusive Breast-Feeding and Breast-Feeding Self-Efficacy of Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Çelebioğlu, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The ideal nourishment for newborns with low birth-weight is breast milk. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of natural-feeding education given to mothers of low-birth-weight infants, on the mothers’ breast-feeding self-efficacy level, breast-feeding success, and the growth of the infants. Methods: The study was conducted in a quasi-experimental way. The study group consisted of a total of 85 low-birth-weight infants and their mothers who had been treated in the neonatal clinics of two hospitals. The mothers included in the test group were given breast-feeding education for half an hour per day, during the first 5 days of their hospitalization. Home visits were carried out at the homes of the participants from both the test and control groups, until the infants reached 6 months of age. For collecting data, the following forms were used: Personal Information Form, Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Form, LATCH Breast-feeding Assessment Tool, and Anthropometric Measurements Form. For analyzing the collected data, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and chi-square we used, and, in independent groups, t-tests were employed. Findings : It was determined that natural-feeding education given to the mothers increases their breast-feeding self-efficacy levels and success in breast-feeding (Pfeeding the infants exclusively with breast milk is higher in comparison with the control group (Pfeeding education increases breast-feeding self-efficacy levels, breast-feeding success, and the breast-feeding duration. PMID:25793045

  2. [Risk of inffective breast-feeding: a nursing diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Cláudia Silveira

    2004-01-01

    This study is aimed at presenting the 'risk of ineffective breast-feeding' nursing diagnosis regarding mothers of premature infants who are hospitalized in a neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The case study outlined the methodology of the study, and the sample is composed of 35 mothers. Such a diagnosis was detected in 100% of the sample and the risk factors are prematureness; insufficient opportunity to breast-feed due to the newborn's hospitalization; lack of knowledge regarding the maintenance of lactation; maternal fear; inconstancy of breast suction due to separation; and artificial feeding of the newborn. It is believed that the identification of the risks of ineffective breast-feeding during the newborn's hospitalization period makes possible a nursing care focused on the prevention of an 'ineffective breast-feeding' diagnosis.

  3. [Effects of breast-feeding education and support services on breast-feeding rates and infant's growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun-Ja; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of breast-feeding education and support services on rate of breast-feeding three and six months after birth, and the effect on infant's growth (weight, height, body mass index [BMI]). The experimental group which had both education and support services was compared with the control group which had only breast-feeding education. This study was a quasi-experimental study with a time-series design. The participants were 39 mothers who were hospitalized for childbirth. Twenty mother were assigned to the experimental group and 19 mothers, to the control group. The breast feeding education was done during hospitalization, and support services were provided once a week after discharge for a month (a total 4 times) by a maternity ward nurse. Data regarding breastfeeding rate at one month after childbirth was collected by phone call; the breast-feeding rates at three and six months after childbirth were collected in a visit to the families. The child's weight and height were also measured during the visit. The experimental group had a statistically significant higher rate for frequency of breast-feeding at one, three and six months after childbirth than the control group. However, there was no meaningful difference between the two groups for infant growth. The results of this study suggest that breast-feeding education is helpful for a start, but support services are also necessary to sustain breast-feeding.

  4. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  5. Influences of household structure and composition on breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deang, L P; Doan, R M; Popkin, B M

    1988-01-01

    Researchers applied longitudinal data on 2884 women who were at least 6 months pregnant between May 1983-April 1984 and living in the Cebu metropolitan area, the Philippines to examine assumptions which may explain the association between lower breast feeding levels and dwindling social support for mothers who breast feed in urban areas. Extended family households were much more common in urban areas than rural areas (46.3% vs. 27.5%). This finding did not support the 3rd assumption of falling extended family patterns with urbanization. Further as the levels of complexity and extension of the household rose so did infant care support regardless of location. For example, the number of hours of help with infant care for mothers in nuclear families in urban areas was 1.23 which climbed from 2.53 for horizontal extended families to 2.9 for vertical extended families and to 3.09 for horizontal and vertical extended families. This result supported the 2nd assumption of much more social support in extended families than nuclear families. Yet social support did not translate into promotion of breast feeding--the 1st assumption. Mothers in horizontally extended families had a lower likelihood of breast feeding than those in nuclear families. Further only adult female relatives of the same generation as the mother has a negative influence on breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In fact, female children of at least 7 years old, female servants, and yayas all negatively affect breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In rural households, young female relatives (at least 7 years old) significantly increased the probability of breast feeding whereas young male relatives decreased the probability.

  6. Exploration of reasons for feeding choices in Hispanic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Julee

    2013-01-01

    To explore factors that contribute to feeding choices Hispanic women make for their newborn infants in the immediate postpartum period, with a focus on the phenomenon of "los dos," breastfeeding with formula supplementation. A descriptive qualitative design that utilized a semistructured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. Qualitative data preparation and analysis methods were used to identify themes surrounding feeding choices. The sample included 19 women within 48 hours of giving birth who self-identified as Spanish speakers. Reasons included 1) previous experience; 2) "no llora con hambre" (no crying for hunger); 3) "para salud" (for health); and 4) to prevent suffering that might occur when the mother and infant were separated while the mother worked "no quiero que sufra mientras trabajo." Discussion of infant feeding choices should occur prior to birth since many mothers decide on feeding method while still pregnant. At the first prenatal visit identification of preference should occur to include not just breast or formula, but also asking about "los dos." Educational interventions that directly address the "los dos" feeding practice should be culturally appropriate, evaluated and disseminated for use in the prenatal period. Influential family members should be included in prenatal visits and educational sessions to help assure that the woman is not receiving mixed messages at home. Assessment of the workplace environment should also occur during the prenatal period with an exploration of how pumping and storing of breast milk might be possible once women return to work after the baby's birth.

  7. Healthy late preterm infants and supplementary artificial milk feeds: effects on breast feeding and associated clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Elisabet; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Wickström, Maria; Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Volgsten, Helena

    2015-04-01

    to compare the influence of supplementary artificial milk feeds on breast feeding and certain clinical parameters among healthy late preterm infants given regular supplementary artificial milk feeds versus being exclusively breast fed from birth. a comparative study using quantitative methods. Data were collected via a parental diary and medical records. parents of 77 late preterm infants (34 5/7-36 6/7 weeks), whose mothers intended to breast feed, completed a diary during the infants׳ hospital stay. infants who received regular supplementary artificial milk feeds experienced a longer delay before initiation of breast feeding, were breast fed less frequently and had longer hospital stays than infants exclusively breast fed from birth. Exclusively breast-fed infants had a greater weight loss than infants with regular artificial milk supplementation. A majority of the mothers (65%) with an infant prescribed artificial milk never expressed their milk and among the mothers who used a breast-pump, milk expression commenced late (10-84 hours after birth). At discharge, all infants were breast fed to some extent, 43% were exclusively breast fed. clinical practice and routines influence the initiation of breast feeding among late preterm infants and may act as barriers to the mothers׳ establishment of exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  9. Do state breastfeeding laws in the USA promote breast feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-03-01

    Despite the passage of state laws promoting breast feeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breast feeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the USA creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326 263 mothers from 32 states in the USA. For each mother, we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breast fed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and, if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breast feed for ≥4 weeks. Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breast feed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. State laws that support breast feeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breast feeding.

  10. Direct Feeding at the Breast Is Associated with Breast Milk Feeding Duration among Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevski-Kadir, Shiran; Shust-Barequet, Shir; Zajicek, Michal; Leibovich, Mira; Strauss, Tzipi; Leibovitch, Leah; Morag, Iris

    2017-11-01

    In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC). Perinatal data were collected retrospectively from infants' computerized charts. Mothers were approached >12 months postpartum and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Those who agreed to participate were asked (during their visit to the follow-up clinic or by phone or mail) to complete a questionnaire regarding mode and duration of BMF as well as reasons for its discontinuation. Mothers were also asked about their pre-partum intentions to feed directly at the breast. Out of 162 eligible mothers, 131 (80.8%) initiated BMF during their intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Of these, 66 (50.3%) discontinued BMF earlier than six months postpartum. BMF ≥ 6 months was significantly associated with direct feeding at the breast, duration of exclusive BMF, and singleton birth. Regression analysis revealed that direct feeding at the breast (any or only) and duration of BMF exclusivity were the only significant variables associated with BMF duration (Odds ratio (OR) 5.5 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00-15.37; OR 1.5 and 95% CI 1.25-1.88, respectively). Milk supply (inadequate or nonexistent) was the most commonly reported cause for BMF discontinuation feeding at the breast was significantly associated with BMF duration and was more common among singletons. Direct feeding at the breast and duration of exclusive BMF are associated with duration of BMF among infants born <32 weeks of gestational age (GA). These findings suggest that

  11. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  12. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  13. Infant feeding practice of HIV positive mothers and its determinants in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Avoidance of all breast-feeding by HIV infected mothers is recommended when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe. Whereas for women whose HIV status is unknown or negative, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is the single infant feeding option ...

  14. Fifteen-minute consultation on the healthy child: breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleugh, F; Langseth, A

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive evidence about the benefits of breast feeding for both infants and mothers, breastfeeding rates in the UK remain low. Most infants presenting with feeding issues are otherwise well but are often over diagnosed with clinical conditions such as maternal milk insufficiency, cow's milk intolerance or reflux. With simple advice and troubleshooting common problems, all child health professionals can support mothers to establish and continue breast feeding exclusively for longer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Symptoms of maternal depression immediately after delivery predict unsuccessful breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Luigi; Petrozzi, Angela; Rusconi, Franca

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal depression may interfere with breast feeding. This study tested the ability of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to predict later breast feeding problems, hypothesising that risk of unsuccessful breast feeding increased with increasing EPDS scores, even at low values. The authors administered the EPDS on days 2-3 after delivery to 592 mothers of a healthy baby. Feeding method was recorded at 12-14 weeks. Median EPDS score was 5 (IQR 2 -8); 15.7% of women scored >9. At 12-14 weeks, 50.7% of infants received full breast feeding, 21.0% mixed breast feeding and 28.4% bottle feeding. Mothers with higher EPDS scores were more likely to bottle feed at 3 months; the odds of bottle feeding increased with EPDS result, even at low scores (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11). Higher EPDS scores immediately after delivery were associated with later breast feeding failure.

  16. Infant feeding practices and the decline of breast feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Nahedh, N N; Morley, D C

    1994-01-01

    Socioeconomic change in Saudi Arabia over the last two to three decades has introduced many foreign ideas into the country, many of which have influenced the Saudi people and changed long-established habits. The present level of breast feeding remains much higher in Saudi Arabia than in some other developing countries, but there is nonetheless a trend toward bottle feeding both in urban and rural areas. The increasing tendency to feed by bottle, especially among illiterate mothers and under bad hygienic conditions, must be stopped. Most of these mothers can successfully breastfeed their babies. A lack of breast milk and pregnancy have been stated as the reasons for giving artificial feeds by the majority of mothers in most studies from Saudi Arabia, although high purchasing capacity, easy availability, excessive advertisements, and acceptance of the promotion of artificial feeds may also be reasons for the increasing tendency to bottle feed. Widespread ignorance of modern research on breast feeding by the medical profession and nurses also drives many health personnel to either encourage or ignore the trend. The use of raw milk for infant feeding is a common practice in certain areas where brucellosis is endemic. Poor supplementation with solid food is a common problem in developing countries and is a major cause of malnutrition, since supplementation hastens the discontinuation of breast feeding. Supplementation and the allowance of fluids other than breast milk must be discouraged from the beginning.

  17. Student nurses' attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs of students newly enrolled in an urban university baccalaureate nursing program. A qualitative approach was used to conduct in-depth semistructured interviews with 12 students prior to their formal course work in maternal-child nursing. Four themes emerged from the data analysis: 1. Personal experiences are important in the development of breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs. 2. The students generally believed that breast-feeding offered benefits for babies and mothers, but the beliefs were stronger for those who grew up with breast-feeding as the norm. 3. All the students believed that there were barriers to breast-feeding in the United States that they identified as the societal view of the breast, dependence/independence conflicts, and concerns about intimacy. 4. The students identified an educational rather than promotional role for nurses in breast-feeding because of conflicts about personal choice. This study suggests that students need help identifying their attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding and reflecting how their personal experiences influence breast-feeding promotion.

  18. Breast-feeding Duration: Early Weaning-Do We Sufficiently Consider the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karall, Daniela; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Heichlinger, Angelika; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Stojakovic, Sarah; Leitner, Hermann; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the recommended form of nutrition for the first 6 months. This target is unmet, however, in most industrialized regions. We evaluated aspects of breast-feeding in a cohort of mother-baby dyads. Breast-feeding practices in 555 mother-baby dyads were prospectively studied for 24 months (personal interview at birth and 7 structured telephone interviews). Of the babies, 71.3% were fully breast-fed on discharge from maternity hospitals and 11.9% were partially breast-feed. Median breast-feeding duration was 6.93 (interquartile range 2.57-11.00) months; for full (exclusive) breast-feeding 5.62 (interquartile range 3.12-7.77) months; 61.7% received supplemental feedings during the first days of life. Breast-feeding duration in babies receiving supplemental feedings was significantly shorter (median 5.06 months versus 8.21 months, P breast-feeding. Risk factors for early weaning were early supplemental feedings (odds ratio [OR] 2.87, 95% CI 1.65-4.98), perceived milk insufficiency (OR 7.35, 95% CI 3.59-15.07), low breast-feeding self-efficacy (a mother's self-confidence in her ability to adequately feed her baby) (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.48-7.94), lower maternal age (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.45-10.46), and lower education level of the mother (OR 7.30, 95% CI 2.93-18.20). The recommended full breast-feeding duration of the first 6 months of life was not reached. Sociodemographic variables and factors directly related to breast-feeding practices play an important role on breast-feeding duration/weaning in our region. Understanding risk factors will provide insights to give better support to mothers and prevent short- and long-term morbidity following early weaning.

  19. Which Breast Pump for Which Mother: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Individualizing Breast Pump Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paula P.; Patel, Aloka L.; Hoban, Rebecca; Engstrom, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of new mothers in the United States use breast pumps in the first four months post-birth in order to achieve their personal human milk feeding goals. Although these mothers seek guidance from health care professionals with respect to the type and use of breast pumps, there are few evidence-based guidelines to guide this professional advice. This paper reviews the evidence to facilitate professional individualization of breast pump recommendations using three categories of literature: the infant as the gold standard to which the pump is compared; the degree of maternal breast pump dependency (e.g., the extent to which the breast pump replaces the infant for milk removal and mammary gland stimulation); and the stage of lactation for which the pump replaces the infant. This review can also serve to inform public and private payers with respect to individualizing breast pump type to mother-dyad characteristics. PMID:26914013

  20. Breast-feeding in a UK urban context: who breast-feeds, for how long and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charlotte M; Parkinson, Kathryn; Scott, Jane

    2006-09-01

    To investigate what factors relate most strongly to breast-feeding duration in order to successfully support breast-feeding mothers. Prospective birth cohort study using questionnaires, routinely collected weights and health check at age 13 months. Gateshead, UK. Parents of 923 term infants born in a defined geographical area and recruited shortly after birth, 50% of whom were breast-feeding initially. Only 225 (24%) infants were still breast-fed at 6 weeks, although 136 (15%) continued beyond 4 months. Infants in the most affluent quintile were three times more likely to be initially breast-fed (P weight gain and were tallest at age 13 months. Non-breast-fed infants had 50% more family doctor contacts up to age 4 months (P = 0.005). Initiation of breast-feeding in urban Britain remains strongly determined by socio-economic background and early cessation seems to be related to frequent feeding and rapid growth as well as a continuing failure to eradicate health practices that undermine breast-feeding. Those infants not receiving breast milk suffered increased morbidity, but the apparent association between breast-feeding duration and growth probably reflects reverse causation.

  1. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain? Data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiday, R E; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K N

    2004-09-01

    To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. A longitudinal cohort study. Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the study. In all, 502 usable diaries were returned from 54% of the cohort. Breast-fed infants were fed more frequently (2.71 h between feeds) than bottle-fed infants (3.25 h between feeds) and mixed-fed infants (3.14 h between feeds) (Pweight gain at 6 weeks for breast-feeders, but no analysed factors were associated with higher weight gain for bottle-feeders. This large-scale study of first-week feeding patterns sheds light on the important and complicated issues of breast-feeding continuation and infant weight gain, with implications for the feeding advice given to mothers. Supplementary bottle feeds were clearly associated with discontinued breast-feeding at 6 weeks. Over that period, higher weight gain was associated with more frequent feeding for breast-fed infants only. Henry Smith Charity, SPARKS, Child Growth Foundation. Copyright 2004 Nature Publishing Group

  3. A study to promote breast feeding in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Leena S; Kaunonen, Marja E; Puukka, Pauli J

    2014-06-01

    the aim of this study was to assess the impact of providing intensified support for breast feeding during the perinatal period. a quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control group. three public maternity hospitals (two study, one control) in the Helsinki Metropolitan area in Finland. a convenience sample of 705 mothers (431 in the intervention group, 274 in the control group). in this study, families in the intervention group had access to intensified breast feeding support from midpregnancy, whereas those in the control group had access to normal care. Intensified support included lectures and workshops to health professionals, and families in the intervention group had access to more intensive support and counselling for breast feeding and a breast feeding outpatient clinic. Additionally, an internet-based intervention was only used in the intervention group, but not in the control group. Mothers in the control group received normal care from the midwifery and nursing professionals who were to continue their work normally. The data were analysed statistically. altogether 705 women participated in the study. In the intervention group (n=431), 76% of the women breast fed exclusively throughout the hospital stay, compared to 66% of the mothers in the control group (n=274). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of exclusive breast feeding at the time of responding (at hospital discharge or after that at home) was increased by the mother not being treated for an underlying illness or medical problem during pregnancy, being in the intervention group, having normal vaginal childbirth, high breast feeding confidence, positive attitude towards breast feeding, good coping with breast feeding, and 24-hour presence of the infant's father in the ward. the low exclusive breast feeding rates of newborns could be increased by using intensified breast feeding support. Mothers' health problems during pregnancy can decrease exclusive breast feeding. Mothers with health

  4. Infant feeding practices of mothers and nutritional status of infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the breast-feeding and weaning practices of mothers and the nutritional status of infants in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Design: A descriptive and exploratory study was done. A sample of 185 mothers with 185 infants 12 months and younger was selected from five primary healthcare ...

  5. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  6. Important determinants of newborn health: postpartum depression, teen parenting, and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Katie E; Sandrock, Deborah; Spector, Nancy D; Pattishall, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The present article addresses recent research related to three important determinants of newborn health: postpartum depression, teenage parents and their offspring, and breast-feeding. Postpartum depression can impact the entire family unit, and fathers may be affected more than previously recognized. Teenage mothers and their infants are at risk of a number of poor physical and mental health outcomes. New research continues to support the benefits of breast-feeding infants, and hospitals have adopted policies to improve breast-feeding rates. Recognizing both maternal and paternal depression during outpatient visits is key to family well-being, as well as to infant development and attachment. Pediatric providers should address the unique emotional, socioeconomic, educational, and health needs of teen mothers. Hospital implementation of evidence-based policies may increase the number of mothers who are successful in establishing breast-feeding, and pediatric healthcare providers should be prepared to support mothers of breast-feeding infants.

  7. We only talk about breast feeding: a discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Fenwick; Elaine, Burns; Athena, Sheehan; Virginia, Schmied

    2013-05-01

    discourses used by midwives during the antenatal sessions revealed, however, that their language and practices were often limited to convincing women to breast feed rather than engaging with them in conversations that facilitated exploration and discovery of how breast feeding might be experienced within the mother-infant relationship and broader social and cultural context. In addition, there was evidence that global breast-feeding policies, in resource rich countries such as Australia, may influence how midwives talk about breast feeding without them being fully cognisant of the potentially coercive nature of the messages women receive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Design Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. Setting England and Wales, UK. Participants Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August–September 2005 and August–October 2010. Main outcome measure Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Results Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays–Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Conclusions Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. PMID:27401354

  9. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-07-08

    To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. England and Wales, UK. Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August-September 2005 and August-October 2010. Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays-Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærug, Anne; Laake, Petter; Løland, Beate Fossum; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tufte, Elisabeth; Fretheim, Atle

    2017-08-01

    In high-income countries, lower socioeconomic position is associated with lower rates of breast feeding, but it is unclear what factors explain this inequality. Our objective was to examine the association between socioeconomic position and exclusive breast feeding, and to explore whether socioeconomic inequality in exclusive breast feeding could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics, for example, maternal age and parity, smoking habits, birth characteristics, quality of counselling and breastfeeding difficulties. We used data from a questionnaire sent to mothers when their infants were five completed months as part of a trial of a breastfeeding intervention in Norway. We used maternal education as an indicator of socioeconomic position. Analyses of 1598 mother-infant pairs were conducted using logistic regression to assess explanatory factors of educational inequalities in breast feeding. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding were present from the beginning and persisted for five completed months, when 22% of the most educated mothers exclusively breast fed compared with 7% of the least educated mothers: OR 3.39 (95% CI 1.74 to 6.61). After adjustment for all potentially explanatory factors, the OR was reduced to 1.49 (95% CI 0.70 to 3.14). This decrease in educational inequality seemed to be mainly driven by sociodemographic factors, smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, in particular perceived milk insufficiency. Socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breast feeding at 5 months were largely explained by sociodemographic factors, but also by modifiable factors, such as smoking habits and breastfeeding difficulties, which can be amenable to public health interventions. NCT01025362. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Determinants of trends in breast-feeding indicators in Nigeria, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley E; Claudio, Fernanda

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the trends and differentials in key breast-feeding indicators in Nigeria for the period 1999-2013. Longitudinal study of trends (1999-2013) in optimal feeding practices using a series of population-based Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys. Trends in socio-economic, health service and individual characteristics associated with key breast-feeding indicators were examined using multilevel regression analyses. Nigeria. Children (n 88 152) aged under 24 months (n 8199 in 1999; n 7620 in 2003; n 33 385 in 2008; n 38 948 in 2013). Among educated mothers, there was an increase in prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding (26% in 1999 to 30% in 2013) and predominant breast-feeding (27% in 1999 to 39% in 2013) compared with mothers with no schooling. A similar increasing trend was evident for mothers from wealthier households and mothers who had a higher frequency of health service access compared with mothers from poorer households and women who reported no health service access, respectively. Mothers with no schooling predominantly breast-fed, but the odds for bottle-feeding were higher among educated mothers and women from wealthier households. The odds for early initiation of breast-feeding were lower for mothers who reported no health service contacts and mothers of lower socio-economic status. Significant increasing trends in key breast-feeding indicators were evident among mothers with higher socio-economic status and mothers who had more health service access in Nigeria. Broader national and sub-national policies that underpin nursing mothers in work environments and a comprehensive community-based approach are proposed to improve feeding practices in Nigeria.

  12. Breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration among Hong Kong Chinese women: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Kin Sin

    2014-06-01

    to (1) estimate the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration rate; (2) identify the reasons to initiate and wean breast feeding and (3) explore predictors of breast-feeding duration. a prospective longitudinal study antenatal clinics of five regional hospitals from four clusters in Hong Kong a population-based sample of 2098 women in the second trimester of pregnancy was recruited with a systematic sampling method. three different sets of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration, demographic, socio-economic, obstetric, complications of pregnancy and intrapartum variables at three time points. Reasons for initiating and weaning breast feeding, the formal and informal supportive resources of participants during breast feeding were collated at the third time points. the rates of artificial feeding and breast feeding were 41.1% and 58.9%, whereas breast-feeding intention and initiation rates were 85.3% and 67.0%, respectively. The breast-feeding duration rates were 11.1%, 10.3%, 10.7% and 26.7%, for the 'within 3-6 weeks' and '>6 weeks' groups. The common reasons for initiating breast feeding were that breast feeding is beneficial for both the baby (89.8%) and mother (39.7%). Reasons for weaning breast feeding were insufficient breast milk (32.7%), tiredness and fatigue (39.7%) and return to work (29.6%). Partner, relatives and nurse midwives were important supportive resource during breast feeding. Ordinal logistic regression analysis identified five predictive factors of breast-feeding duration. Participants who were working part-time or were housewives (p=0.037), had monthly family income of breast-feeding intention (p=0.001) and early breast feeding within the first hour (pbreast feeding than their counterparts. mothers in Hong Kong do not meet the recommendation of the international standards for breast feeding. Understanding of reasons for initiation, weaning and predictors of breast-feeding

  13. Breast feeding: preventive therapy for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for six months, continued along with top feed up to the age of 2 years and beyond, is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization. Apart from the various benefits that it provides, breast feeding may also serve to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers, and type 1 diabetes and overweight/ obesity in their offspring. This review discusses the evidence related to breastfeeding and type 2 diabetes. It highlights pertinent aspects of breast feeding management, which can help facilitate optimal use of this natural preventive intervention.

  14. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives: this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. Methods: data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006–March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. Result...

  15. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies.

  16. Lactation counseling increases breast-feeding duration but not breast milk intake as measured by isotopic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G; Haisma, Hinke; Wright, Antony; Coward, William A

    The importance of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 mo of life is widely recognized, but most mothers still do not reach this goal. Several studies have shown that face-to-face lactation counseling is effective in increasing not only exclusive breast-feeding rates but also the total duration

  17. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  18. Parturients' Awareness and Perception of Benefits of Breast Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with similar dental erosion to that of formula and more than that of plain cow milk.19 In addition, this is also sequel to the issue of rampant caries associated with night breastfeeding whereby mothers leave the breast nipple in the mouth of the infants to comfort them while they sleep, and this feeding method or ...

  19. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  20. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, J; Green, J

    2000-11-11

    To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Content analysis. Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. UK mass media. Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with "ordinary" families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding.

  1. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  2. Practices, predictors and consequences of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Tarrant, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and predictors of expressed breast-milk feeding in healthy full-term infants and its association with total duration of breast-milk feeding. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. A total of 2450 mother-infant pairs were recruited in 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 and followed up prospectively for 12 months or until breast-milk feeding had stopped. Across the first 6 months postpartum, the rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding ranged from 5·1 to 8·0 % in 2006-2007 and from 18·0 to 19·8 % in 2011-2012. Factors associated with higher rate of exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding included supplementation with infant formula, lack of previous breast-milk feeding experience, having a planned caesarean section delivery and returning to work postpartum. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding was associated with an increased risk of early breast-milk feeding cessation when compared with direct feeding at the breast. The hazard ratio (95 % CI) ranged from 1·25 (1·04, 1·51) to 1·91 (1·34, 2·73) across the first 6 months. Mothers of healthy term infants should be encouraged and supported to feed directly at the breast. Exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding should be recommended only when medically necessary and not as a substitute for feeding directly at the breast. Further research is required to explore mothers' reasons for exclusive expressed breast-milk feeding and to identify the health outcomes associated with this practice.

  3. Mothers' Perception of Infant Feeding Counselling in The ... - Lusaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of infant-feeding counselling is to facilitate informed decision on method of feeding in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, HIV-positive mothers are faced with uncertainty on how best to feed their infants. The question we asked for this research was: how does the ...

  4. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Li-Qian; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly. PMID:25918908

  5. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  6. Breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria – 2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the impact of “baby friendly hospital initiative” on breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria, 2 years after introduction. Setting: Holy Rosary Maternity Hospital Onitsha Materials and methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 178 breast feeding mothers on maternal ...

  7. Breast-feeding among female employees at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisaiye, A; Oyediran, M A

    1983-01-01

    The importance of breast-feeding to the health of infant and mother is discussed. However the working conditions of employed women in developing countries prevent exclusive breast-feeding once the mother has returned to work after delivery and also present obstacles to partial breast-feeding. The breast-feeding practices of women employed at a major health institution in Lagos, Nigeria are examined. Duration of breast-feeding was in inverse relation to salary level. Women on the lowest salaries had a mean duration of breast-feeding their last child of 8 months, whereas women in senior professional positions had a mean breast-feeding duration of 3.3 months. Conflicts with work responsibilities were the most commonly cited reason for terminating breast-feeding earlier than the mother desired. If a creche was available at place of work, half the women surveyed said they would breast-feed for longer. Anticipated durations, if a creche was available, would lengthen breast-feeding to 12 months for lowest paid women and to nearly 9 months for women at the higher salary levels. Present options available to the employed women who wishes to breast-feed as long as possible, namely the use of wet-nurses and expression of breast-milk, are discussed. It is concluded that the most satisfactory means of promoting breast-feeding among employed women is the provision of paid leave post delivery for at least three months and the provision of a creche at place of work. The costs should be borne by the employer, assisted by government in the form of grants and tax-relief.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential transfer of neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) from mother to infant during breast-feeding: Predictions from human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Ersson, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; Bergström, Ulrika

    2017-04-01

    β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [14C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [14C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [14C]l- and [14C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [14C]l- and [14C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [14C]l-and [14C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [14C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  11. Pregnancy, breast-feeding and drugs used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H

    2012-08-01

    Despite advances in the study of birth defects related to drug exposures during pregnancy, medication use during pregnancy still causes anxiety and misunderstanding among both members of the public and health care professionals. This may result in a woman's unknowingly taking a medication that may harm the fetus or cause a birth defect or discontinuing medications necessary for treating chronic conditions. Using medications while breast-feeding also represents a challenge for patients and prescribers. Many mothers are told they must stop breast-feeding or "pump and discard" their breast milk if they are taking certain medications; however, in many cases, this advice-based on what may be limited education on the part of the health care provider about breast-feeding and medication use-may be incorrect. The authors review the current evidence regarding drugs that may be safe for pregnant or breast-feeding patients and medications that such patients should avoid. When considering prescribing in pregnancy, the dentist must weigh the risk to the fetus versus the benefit to the mother, and the appropriate conclusion should reflect current evidence. In some cases medication dosing should be avoided or altered; however, there are times when it is unnecessary to stop the use of medications. Breast-feeding also represents a clinical challenge, the risks and benefits of which need to be understood by both the patient and practitioner before any medication is administered. Dentists should be familiar with the risks and benefits for pregnant or breast-feeding patients posed by five types of medications: analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, local anesthetics, sedatives and emergency medications.

  12. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  13. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  14. Nutritional evaluation of breast-feeding practices in some countries in the far east.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intengan, C L

    1976-04-01

    This nutritional evaluation of breast feeding practices in some countries in the Far East focuses on feeding practices, composition of human milk, trend in infant feeding, urbanization and breast feeding, reasons for weaning, human milk substitutes, food supplements, and vitamin supplements. The background of malnutrition is complex. In addition to adverse ecological factors that prevail in developing areas, there are the cultural factors of poor dietary practices and food beliefs. Traditionally, infants are breast fed by the mothers. In some families, particularly lower income families, breast milk is the only food given to the baby. It is generally accepted that mother's milk is nutritionally adequate only up to 5-6 months of age. After this point, breast milk without any supplement will be inadequate to support the fast growth of the child. Consequently, the baby is always hungry and irritable. A case of protein-energy malnutrition is slowly developing, compounded with anemia since milk is a poor source of iron. The baby from a higher-income family may be denied the opportunity of breast feeding. The greatest danger with bottle feeding is the prevailing poor hygiene and sanitation in the developing areas. The type of feeding commonly practiced in most countries in the Far East is still breast feeding although the popularity of breast feeding is declining in these countries. A study of breast feeding in the Philippines revealed that 2-1/2 times more mothers in rural areas than in urban areas were breast feeding. In Luzon, Philippines, the major cause or reason for weaning in urban areas was inadequacy of the mother's milk. The next most frequently given reason for terminating lactation was that the child was old enough to be weaned. 70% of study mothers in rural Luzon chose sweetened condensed milk for use in artifical feeding; 73% of the urban mothers preferred powdered milk. The most frequent food supplement given to infants in both rural and urban areas in

  15. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  16. Mothers' perception of the use of banked human milk for feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers' perception of the use of banked human milk for feeding of the infants. ... Results: The mean age of the mothers was 29.8 ± 5.5 years with 46.5% having some form of tertiary education and 48.5% having secondary education. Only 51 (25.8%) of them had heard of breast milk banking; source of information being ...

  17. Factors affecting breast-feeding initiation in Greece: What is important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Andriopoulou, Eirini; Kreatsas, George; Linos, Athena

    2015-02-01

    to investigate the association between breast-feeding initiation and socio-demographic, lifestyle-related, clinical and lactation-related factors in a sample of mothers living in Greece. cross-sectional study. Tertiary University Hospital, maternity ward. 428 mothers were interviewed (43.2% response rate) from February until December 2009, using a structured face-to-face questionnaire after at least 24 hours from childbirth. 71.0% of mothers were Greeks and 29.0% immigrants; the mean age was 32.0 years. 44.4% initiated exclusive breast feeding, 7.9% artificial milk -feeding and 47.7% partial feeding. In the multivariate analysis, exclusive breast feeding was inversely related to maternal body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of gestation (odds ratio (OR)=0.93, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)=0.89-0.98) and caesarean section (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.84). Lactation-related factors which favourably affected exclusive breast-feeding initiation included previous breast-feeding experience (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.39-3.78), information about breast feeding (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.41-4.01) and rooming-in (OR=1.62 95% CI=1.03-2.54), whilst any breast feeding was favourably affected by encouraging women to breast feed (OR=5.42, 95% CI=1.90-15.50), providing information about breast feeding (OR=6.92, 95% CI=2.53-18.89), and rooming-in (OR=6.93 95% CI=2.01-23.88), and negatively associated with caesarean section (OR=0.11, 95% CI=0.03-0.39). Being an immigrant mother was also positively associated with any breast-feeding initiation (OR=7.97, 95% CI=1.02-62.19). Maternal age, education and income, as well as, smoking status, were not associated with any breast-feeding initiation. maternal BMI and immigrant status, information provided by midwives and encouragement, rooming-in and mode of childbirth (caesarean section), were found to be important for breast-feeding initiation in this study population. No other indicator of socio-demographic status was found to be associated with breast-feeding

  18. Difficult choices: Infant feeding experiences of HIV-positive mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infant feeding represents a great challenge in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (pMTCT). The international guidelines informing infant feeding counselling suggest feeding methods that reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and discourage mixed feeding (combining breastfeeding with other fluids and ...

  19. A grounded theory study of Swedish women's experiences of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Linda J; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2006-06-01

    to gain an understanding of the experiences of women who have had an episode of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. a grounded theory approach, inspired by Glaser and Strauss, was used in an interview study. the study was carried out at a midwife-led breast-feeding clinic in Sweden. the strategic sample consisted of 14 mothers, all of whom had had an episode of breast inflammation between 10 and 22 weeks before the interview. Nine were primiparous. Ages ranged between 24 and 38 years. the analysis resulted in the emergence of one core category and five conceptual categories. The core category was 'the will to breast feed', and the five conceptual categories were 'perspectives on breast feeding', 'personal strategies', 'enduring and adjustment', 'support' and 'causal frameworks'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent on them. an episode of breast inflammation is a possible threat to the maintenance of breast feeding, but the will to breast feed may make it possible for mothers to withstand physical and emotional difficulties caused by the illness. Breast-feeding mothers may have chosen a goal for the length of time they wish to breast feed, and the attainment of this goal is prestige-filled. Midwives, throughout the chain of care, could improve the amount and type of information given about the demands and possible complications of breast feeding. The availability of immediate clinical expertise for these mothers is an important factor, and health-care planners should be aware of this.

  20. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U

    1991-07-01

    This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.

  1. Effect of breast-feeding frequency on hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed term neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Juang; Yeh, Tsu-Fu; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemic neonates have significantly less bodyweight gain from nursery discharge to outpatient department (OPD) follow up. We tested the hypothesis that discharge instructions encouraging frequent breast-feeding given in the nursery would increase infant bodyweight gain and decrease the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled consecutively live-born neonates who were discharged from the nursery and who received OPD follow up within the first 2 weeks of birth in 2011. The nursing staff discussed the discharge instructions with the parents at the time of nursery discharge. Parents were asked to fill in a nursing information form to record the frequency of breast-feeding and diaper change per day. Parents of 98 breast-fed term neonates provided complete nursing information forms. These 98 neonates were classified into two groups according to breast-feeding frequency, namely breast-feeding frequency and diaper change frequency per day indicated that the data were highly reliable. The gestational age, Apgar score, birthweight, and bodyweight at nursery discharge and at OPD were similar between the two groups. Neonates who were breast-fed ≥8 times/day had a significantly lower incidence of hyperbilirubinemia. Nursery discharge instructions that encouraged mothers to breast-feed their newborns frequently decreased the rate of hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breast-fed term neonates. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. A survey on difficulties and desires of breast-feeding women in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Su, Min; Redding, Sharon R

    2016-06-01

    exclusive breast feeding in China is relatively low and no research has been conducted to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese lactating mothers. Currently, Chinese women turn to massage therapists to increase breastmilk volume, implying that many breast-feeding women faced problems but had few support mechanisms.This study aimed to explore the difficulties and desires of Chinese breast-feeding women and to propose strategies for increasing the rate of exclusive breast feeding. three hundred and seventy-five primiparous women were recruited from two randomized cluster communities in Wuhan following ethical approval. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 76 of the participants to collect data on their infants' feeding status, duration of exclusive breast feeding, reasons for stopping, difficulties encountered, and sources of support for lactation. the breast feeding initiation rate was 93.6%, but exclusive breast feeding was only 6.2% at six months. The most frequently cited reason for giving up exclusive breast feeding was perceived breastmilk insufficiency. Women cited a desire for professional and individualised instruction from following resources: (1) lactation consultants in hospital and communities; (2) Qualified cuirushi; (3) breast feeding website;(4) Relatives, friends and peers;(5) Telephone hotline. to improve the rate and duration of exclusive breast feeding in China, effective and available resources must be available. Timely,professional and face-to-face lactation counselling such as lactation consultant, qualified cuirushin is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    data from the focus group discussions was analysed using content analysis with the help of qualitative research computer software Nvivo. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding practice was at 61%. The factors that were found to be statistically significant to exclusive breast feeding were age of infant and ...

  4. Maternal experiences of embodied emotional sensations during breast feeding: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Marcelina; Murray, Craig; Simpson, Jane

    2016-05-01

    the purpose of this study was to explore mothers׳ experiences of embodied emotional sensations during breast feeding and to understand the meaning and consequences that such experiences may have on mothers' sense of self and the relationships they form with their children. a qualitative design was applied to this study as it was judged as the most appropriate approach to this novel field of enquiry. the study was conducted in United Kingdom using a sample of mothers drawn from five different countries from Europe, America and Australia. the sample consisted of 11 mothers who reported experiencing or having experienced negative embodied emotional sensations associated with breast feeding in the past five years. semi-structured interviews were conducted with the mothers and interviews were transcribed to enable the process of data analysis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b) was chosen as a method of data analysis, enabling in depth understanding and interpretation of the meaning of mothers' experiences. IPA was chosen due to its idiographic commitment and particular interest in sense-making, phenomenology and hermeneutics. three themes were generated reflecting the multifaceted nature of breast feeding experiences (i) 'Breast feeding: An unexpected trigger of intense embodied emotional sensations incongruent with view of self', (ii) 'Fulfilling maternal expectations and maintaining closeness with the child', (iii) 'Making sense of embodied emotional sensations essential to acceptance and coping'. breast feeding has the potential to trigger a range of conflicting cognitions and emotions in mothers that may impact on how mothers view themselves and relate to their children. increasing awareness about emotional breast feeding experiences and recognising the multifaceted, individual nature of difficulties around breast feeding enables professionals to offer mothers person-centred care and avoid making clinical decisions and

  5. Breast-feeding and inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, A; de Luca, U; Vaccaro, F; Valiante, A; Impagliazzo, N; Caracciolo, G

    1995-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the association between breast-feeding and inguinal hernia. The case group was significantly less often breast fed than control subjects (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.83) and exclusive breast-feeding was associated with a significant dose-response risk reduction. The association was not confounded by birth weight, maternal education, type of birth, number of other children in the family, or gender. Breast-feeding may represent a protective factor against inguinal hernia.

  6. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2014-06-01

    breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006-March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1-6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. thematic analysis of the data suggested was mostly considered the 'right thing to do,' preferable, natural, and 'supposedly healthier,' but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for 'thinking about yourself' was part of caesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breast-feeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following caesarean section. Some breast-feeding difficulty stemmed from 'mucus' expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be 'interested' in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breast feeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breast feed on the postnatal unit after their caesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. for the majority of mothers, breast feeding after a caesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breast-feeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after caesarean section childbirth. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Content Analysis of the Breast-Feeding Information Given by the Physicians in the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Shirley A.

    Twenty books, pamphlets and booklets given by South Bend-Mishawaka, Indiana obstetricians and family practice physicians to expectant mothers were studied to determine their supportiveness towards breast feeding. Only booklets with four or more paragraphs on infant feeding were used. Successful and unsuccessful breast feeding and supportive and…

  8. Early infant feeding practices of mothers attending a postnatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine feeding practices of mothers of infants 8 weeks of age or younger, attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study of mothers attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital using a standardised interview schedule. Results: A total of 150 mothers were ...

  9. [Breast-feeding, bottle-feeding, sucking habits and malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Medeiros-Bezerra, Priscila K; Moura, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at verifying the prevalence of nutritive (breast-feeding and bottle-feeding) and non-nutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in Brazilian preschool children. The study was a cross-sectional oral health survey of 342 children (196 boys and 146 girls) between the ages of 3 and 5 in Campina Grande, Brazil. The data was collected by interviews with the children's mothers or minders and by clinical examinations carried out by a calibrated examiner (kappa = 0,86). Descriptive statistics using the EPI-INFO Program (version 3.3) and Chi-square test at 0.05 probability level were produced. Sucking habit prevalence was very high in all groups, ranging from 70 % to 77,4 %. Malocclusion was present in 87 %, dummy use in 84,8 % and finger-sucking in 7,2 %. About 84,2 % of the children had a history of bottle-feeding and 79,9 % showed some evidence of malocclusion at the time of dental examination. There were significant differences for the following variables: sucking habits and malocclusion; breast-feeding time and sucking habits; breast-feeding time and malocclusion; type of feeding and sucking habits; and type of feeding and malocclusion. Dummy-sucking incidence was higher than that of finger-sucking in Brazilian children. Sucking habit incidence was higher in bottle-fed children than in breast-fed children. The relationship between incidence of habits and malocclusion was statistically significant.

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF BREAST FEEDING ORGANIZATION FOR CHILDREN WITH PERINATAL LESIONS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and/or chronic hypoxia is a leading cause of perinatal lesions of central nervous system. Severe consequences of this condition can be the reason of temporary withdrawal from breast-feeding started soon after birth. Study objectives included: scrutiny of lactation establishment, influence of various factors on lactation duration in mothers of children with perinatal lesions of CNS. Study included 86 pairs mother-child, with duration of 12 months. It has been shown that in cases where breast feeding was impossible, regular expression of breast milk with the help of breast pump in the early lactation period allows not only to organize breast feeding by the time of discharge from the hospital, but also to extend its duration almost to the normal one. Severity of perinatal CNS lesion does not correspond with the duration of lactation period of the mother.

  11. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding complemented by continuing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyzi, O; Güleçyüz, M; Dinçer, Z; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G

    1991-07-01

    The study, aiming to document the effect of continued support for mothers on frequency of exclusive breast feeding, was carried out by inclusion of breast feeding counselling in the context of well-baby care. One hundred and forty-six mothers who had been exposed to two educational sessions on breast feeding after delivery were given appointments to bring their baby to the paediatric hospital for well-baby care. The mother-infant pairs were followed by the same two residents for 4 months. Mean number of visits was six. A conscious effort was made during all visits to influence the mothers and their close relatives towards exclusive breast feeding. It was observed that in a large proportion of the infants, breast milk was being supplemented with water at the time of the first visit and no further effort was made to change this traditional behaviour. Comparison of the results with a group of mothers who had been exposed to similar educational sessions after delivery but without further support showed a striking increase in frequency of exclusive breast feeding (breast milk and water) in the supported group.

  12. Body image concerns during pregnancy are associated with a shorter breast feeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Rance, J; Warren, L

    2015-01-01

    breast feeding is affected by numerous psycho-social factors. Antenatal concerns such as embarrassment regarding public feeding and the impact of breast feeding upon breast shape are known to lead to artificial milk use. However, although work has explored the relationship between maternal weight and infant feeding, wider body image concerns have not been examined. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between maternal body image concerns during pregnancy upon intended and actual breast feeding duration. a two stage self report questionnaire completed during pregnancy and at six months post partum. mothers were recruited from local mother and infant groups, nurseries and online mother and infant forums. 128 pregnant women completed both stages. phase one: completion of a questionnaire exploring body image during pregnancy (concerns about stretch marks, weight gain and appearance) and planned breast feeding duration during the second/third trimester of pregnancy (body image, weight, intended duration) followed by a second questionnaire measuring actual breast feeding duration and breast feeding experiences. factor analysis revealed three primary body image concerns: pregnancy body image, prospective postnatal body image and dieting during pregnancy. Higher concerns on all three factors were associated with both intended and actual shorter breast feeding duration. Amongst mothers who stopped breast feeding before six months, those with higher body image concerns were more likely to report stopping due to embarrassment or the perceived impact upon their breast shape. The relationship was not explained by maternal weight, although a higher residual weight gain at six months was associated with a shorter breast feeding duration. mothers who are affected negatively by changes to their body during pregnancy may be less likely to plan to or initiate breast feeding potentially due to underlying issues such as embarrassment or perceived impact of

  13. Infant feeding options, other nonchemoprophylactic factors, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Kwasi; Kabaso, Mushota; Weaver, Mark A; Kasonde, Prisca; Mukonka, Victor; Bweupe, Maximillian; Mukundu, Jonathan; Mandala, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The role of antiretroviral drugs in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is well known. The objective of this study is to explore how nonchemoprophylactic factors, including infant feeding practices, mother's HIV status disclosure, mode and place of delivery, infant gender, and maternal age, are related to MTCT. The study analyzed program data of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from dried blood spot samples and selected client information from perinatally exposed infants aged 0 to 12 months. A total of 8237 samples were analyzed. In all, 84% of the mothers ever breast-fed their children. In instances where both mother and baby received intervention, the transmission rates of HIV were higher among those who are still breast-feeding after 6 to 12 months. Disclosure, location, and mode of delivery did not have an effect on the transmission rates of HIV when both mother and baby received prophylaxis. Nonchemoprophylaxis factors, especially breast-feeding, play a key role in perinatal transmission of HIV.

  14. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  15. Maternal intention to breast-feed and breast-feeding outcomes in term and preterm infants: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2000-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaizy, Tarah T; Saftlas, Audrey F; Morriss, Frank H

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effect of intention to breast-feed on short-term breast-feeding outcomes in women delivering term and preterm infants. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) for three states, Ohio, Michigan and Arkansas, during 2000-2003 were analysed. SAS 9·1·3 and SUDAAN 10 statistical software packages were used for analyses. Arkansas, Michigan and Ohio, USA. Mothers of recently delivered infants, selected by birth certificate sampling. Of 16,839 mothers included, 9·7% delivered preterm. Some 52·2% expressed definite intention to breast-feed, 16·8% expressed tentative intention, 4·3% were uncertain and 26·8% had no intention to breast-feed. Overall 65·2% initiated breast-feeding, 52·0% breast-fed for ≥4 weeks and 30·8% breast-fed for ≥10 weeks. Women with definite intention were more likely to initiate (OR = 24·3, 95% CI 18·4, 32·1), to breast-feed for ≥4 weeks (OR = 7·12, 95% CI 5·95, 8·51) and to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks (OR = 2·75, 95% CI 2·20, 3·45) compared with women with tentative intention. Levels of intention did not differ between women delivering preterm and term. Women delivering at breast-feeding (OR = 2·24, 95% CI 1·64, 3·06) and to breast-feed for ≥4 weeks (OR = 2·58, 95% CI 1·96, 3·41), but less likely to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks (OR = 0·55, 95% CI 0·44, 0·68), compared with those delivering at term. Women delivering between 34 and 36 weeks were less likely to breast-feed for ≥10 weeks than those delivering at term (OR = 0·63, 95% CI 0·49, 0·81). Prenatal intention to breast-feed is a powerful predictor of short-term breast-feeding outcomes in women delivering both at term and prematurely.

  16. Infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Chaponda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the nutritional, physiological and emotional benefits of breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers cannot practise exclusive breastfeeding for six months because of a range of influences on their feeding choice – thereby creating a caveat for morbidity in infants.Aim: This study explored factors influencing the infant feeding choice of HIV-positive mothers at a peri-urban hospital in Tembisa, South Africa.Methods: This study was qualitative and was conducted among 30 purposefully selected postnatal HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, Gauteng, from May to June 2011. In-depth interviews were conducted mainly in isiZulu and Sepedi which were then transcribed into English. An open coding system of analysis was used for thematic analysis.Results: Nurses significantly influenced the feeding choices of new mothers – sometimes with inconsistent information. The grandmothers of infants also influenced the new mothers’ feeding options, in some cases with the new mother coming under duress. Other relatives like the sisters and aunts of mothers appeared to significantly affect feeding choices. The time frames expressed for the initiation of a supplementary diet were as follows: before 1 month, at 1 month and at 4 months. The main reason was the belief that infants required more than breast milk as sustenance during this period.Conclusion: In the postnatal hospital setting of this study, the feeding choices of mothers were influenced by nursing personnel. Nursing personnel could marry the influential ‘authority’ they have with correct and consistent information, in order to change feeding behaviour. Significant ‘others’ like grandmothers and other relatives also influenced decisions on infant feeding. As such, family dynamics need to be considered when encouraging breastfeeding.

  17. Chinese women's experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R

    2018-02-01

    To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.

  18. REALIZING OF BREAST FEEDING IS NECESSARY OBJECTIVE OF A PEDIATRICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes several problems of breast feeding existing. The data on composition of breast milk in different groups of women, recommended terms of beginning and duration of breast feeding are presented. Authors discuss principles of effectiveness evaluation and advantages of prolonged breast feeding on the basis of comparative estimation of physical and psychical development and morbidity of children with different types of feeding. Methods of breast feeding optimization including modern electronic breast pump use are described.Key words: infants, breast feeding, breast pumps.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 86–91

  19. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Curious about extended breast-feeding? Know the benefits, the role breast milk plays ... baby beyond age 1 — also known as extended breast-feeding — you might have questions about the process. Get ...

  20. Newborn right-holding is related to depressive symptoms in bottle-feeding mothers but not in breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques; Bréjard, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    This study examines the relationships between infant holding preferences and maternal depression according to the newborn feeding mode. Links between depression and infant holding biases have been observed in mothers [Vauclair, J., Scola, C. (in press). Dépression, alexithymie et latéralisation dans la façon de porter un nouveau-né [Infant holding biases in relation to depression, alexithymia and laterality]. Annales Médico-psychologiques; Weatherill, R. P., Almerigi, J. B., Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., von Eye, A., & Harris, L. J. (2004). Is maternal depression related to side of infant holding? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 421-427] but the fact that breastfeeding has never been studied in relation to these two factors is surprising as breastfeeding has some influence on depression (e.g., [Mezzacappa, E. S., Guethlein, W., Vaz, N., & Bagiella, E. (2000). A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 71-79]) and must also affect holding biases. Mothers who just gave birth (N=100) were tested few days after delivery. Measures of handedness, infant holding-side preferences, and level of depressive symptoms expressed by mothers (assessed with the CES-D scale) were collected via questionnaires. Asymmetries in emotional perception were assessed via a Chimeric Figure Task and a Dichotic Listening Task. Results showed that breastfeeding (1) reduced left-side bias for holding newborns and (2) was associated with lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Moreover, holding biases were related to maternal depression in bottle-feeding but not in breastfeeding mothers, namely that holding on the right-side while bottle-feeding was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results were not due to hemispheric specialization as auditory and visual asymmetries were similar between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding mothers. The discussion emphasizes the striking role of the early

  1. [Breast-feeding: can health staff positively affect its duration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Casanova, M C; García Casanova, S; Pi Juan, M; Ruiz Mariscal, E; Parellada Esquius, N

    2005-04-15

    Mother's milk is the ideal meal for the baby during the first six months of life. A good health education (before and after birth) helps to prolong breastfeeding (BF). To know the prevalence of BF among a group of women and to study the relationship with health education. Observational and analytic study. Dr. Pujol i Capsada Primary Health Center (El Prat de Llobregat); Casagemes CAD's afterbirth group in Badalona, and Alba Lactancia Women's group. SUBJECTS OF THE STUDY: 135 women with babies born between the 1st of March 2002 and the 28th of February 2003. Mother's motivation for breast-feeding and the type of information she has got were evaluated. Breast-feeding period was measured from the second month of baby's life by means of a survey passed by nursing staff. The average BF period was of 160 days, 22% breastfed their babies for less than a week, and 14% between a week and a month. The main variables in relation with the increase of BF are: to want to breast-feed (P=.05); mother sleeping with the baby (P=.03); to receive assistance from nursing staff while in hospital (P=.01); not to receive additional meals in hospital (P=.02); no problems during the first month of life (P<.0001); to receive information from health center (P=.009). If the first contact mother-baby (bringing the baby close to the breast) lasts more than 30 minutes 51% give up BF before the first month; but if the first contact is before of 30 minutes only give up 20.8% (P=.002). The prevalence of BF increases among the women that got health education and support from the health professionals.

  2. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating mothers practicing exclusive breast-feeding on term infants. The cross sectional study was carried out between May 1st and 30th, 2005 at the University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City among ...

  3. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2005-05-30

    May 30, 2005 ... Breast-Feeding Mothers in Benin City, Nigeria. Okoeguale Michael Ibadin. 1*. , Chijindu Christopher Osubor. 2. , Peter Ajokpoghene. Onoberhie. 2. ABSTRACT. The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating ... preterm babies, especially if they are.

  4. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease.

  5. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, Josephine

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Design Content analysis. Subjects Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. Setting UK mass media. Main outcome measures Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Results Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with “ordinary” families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. Conclusions The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding. PMID:11073512

  6. Why do women stop breast-feeding? Results from a contemporary prospective study in a cohort of Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, R M; Davies, P S W

    2016-12-01

    Australian guidelines recommend infants be breast-fed for at least their first year of life; however, for a variety of reasons many mothers cease breast-feeding before this age. The objective of this study was to determine the reasons why women stop breast-feeding their infant completely, in relation to the age of the infant. Primiparous Australian women aged between 18 and 40 years underwent a self-administered questionnaire-based birth cohort study on infant-feeding attitudes, behaviours and feeding patterns. Data were extracted from the demographic questionnaire and from questionnaires administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of infant age between October 2010 and September 2011. Breast-feeding initiation in this cohort was 97%; however, by 52 weeks of infant age 46% of mothers had completely ceased breast-feeding. In those mothers who had ceased breast-feeding before 26 weeks the most common reason was 'I did not have enough milk'. In those mothers who had completely stopped breast-feeding between 26 and 52 weeks the most common reason reported as being very important in the decision to cease breast-feeding was 'My baby lost interest'. Maternal concerns regarding breast trauma, milk supply and infant satiety were central mediators of breast-feeding duration among these Queensland women. Further research into the antecedents of sucking pathologies and reasons for nipple trauma is indicated. Health professionals can assist women to recognise cues of hunger and satiety in their infants and understand the dynamics and natural history of breast-feeding to prolong breast-feeding relationships.

  7. The relative importance of social class and maternal education for breast-feeding initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2009-12-01

    To examine changes in breast-feeding take-up rates among young children in Scotland and to assess whether maternal education or occupation-based social class is a stronger and better predictor of breast-feeding take-up. Binary logistic regression models were developed from the first sweep of the Growing Up in Scotland longitudinal survey, for the two cohorts of children. A national representative survey for Scotland. A baby cohort of 5012 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2004 and May 2005, and a toddler cohort of 2732 singletons born over a 12-month period between June 2002 and May 2003. Mothers from more privileged social classes and those with more educational qualifications resulted as more likely to breast-feed. However, maternal education was a better and more robust predictor of breast-feeding take-up compared with social class. There were no significant differences in breast-feeding take-up between the two cohorts and only minor differences between mothers aged 20-29 years and those who stated an intention to bottle-feed prior to birth. The study suggests that the importance of maternal education in influencing breast-feeding has been somewhat overlooked in research based in more developed countries. The results indicate that, compared with occupation-related social class, maternal education is a more informative, accurate and useful lens through which to understand and explain patterns of breast-feeding take-up.

  8. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother's statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant's illness (only up to six months), mother's consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother's educational level, child's gender, place of birth, pregnancies' interval, mother's ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother's breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child's crying and discomfort. It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child's gender as far as cultural context and preference of a son is considered, observance of pregnancy

  9. Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Feldman, Talya; Ram, Anca; Gur, Eitan; Zubery, Eynat; Steiner, Evelyne; Latzer, Yael; Lock, James D

    2015-12-01

    Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 4. mothers' perception of infant feeding counselling in the context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    poor compliance by mothers and passive resistance. 11 resulting in stress, depression and burnout . These .... to be behaviour change especially in the community”. [nutritionist, 4 years in PMTCT]. In the same .... Therefore, mothers had to deal with pressure to mix the feed with other fluids and porridge: “I just used to.

  11. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  12. [The practice of breast feeding in rural communities of a semi-arid area of Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, A M; Prado, M da S; Freitas, M do C; Silva, R de C; Ramos, L B; Machado, A D

    1994-10-01

    A Research project in the establishment and duration of total and exclusive breast-feeding in rural communities of Cansação, BA, Brazil, is presented. It included 226 children, from zero to two years old, of families of peasants living on small-holdings in one of the driest and poorest regions of the Brazilian Northeast. The data were collected through questionnaires answered by mothers or any adult responsible for the child during 1988 and 1989. It relates to all children from these families who were two years of age at the time of the study. The survival time was the statistical method used to calculate the median duration of breast-feeding; 91.6% of the 226 children started to be breast-fed. This finding shows that the establishment of the breast-feeding was high. The median duration of total breast-feeding was of 90.28 days and exclusive breast-feeding presented a median duration of 0.1 day. Through the establishment of breast-feeding can be considered high, the median duration of total breast-feeding is extremely short and that of exclusive breast-feeding insignificant.

  13. Low-income mothers' feeding goals predict observed home mealtime and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, M H; Miller, A L; Appugliese, D P; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K L; Lumeng, J C

    2016-11-01

    Mothers' goals are important for health behavior change, and engagement in child obesity interventions. It is unknown if maternal feeding goals are associated with observed home mealtime or feeding practices. The objective of this study was to examine the association of four common feeding goals (restrict junk food, promote fruit or vegetable intake, promote autonomy in eating and prevent obesity) with mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 265) of children (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview about child feeding. A coding scheme was developed and reliably applied to identify mothers' feeding goals from transcripts. Mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices were reliably coded from home mealtimes and a laboratory eating protocol. Mothers completed a questionnaire and reported demographics. Participant weights and heights were obtained. Regression models were used to test the association of each feeding goal with observed maternal practices, controlling for covariates. The goal of restricting junk food was associated with the child always eating at a table (OR 2.87, 95% CI (1.39-5.96) p = 0.005), but not with the mother restricting junk food. The goal of promoting fruit or vegetable intake was associated with observationally promoting vegetables (OR 1.41, 95% CI (1.09-1.84), p = 0.01). The goals of promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not associated with any observed maternal home mealtime or feeding practices. While mothers' goals to restrict junk food and promote fruit or vegetable intake were associated with observed home mealtime and feeding practices, promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not. Increased understanding of why low-income mothers may not translate certain feeding goals into practices may inform childhood obesity interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  15. Postpartum Smoking Relapse and Breast Feeding: Defining the Window of Opportunity for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Chad A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Though many women spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, a large proportion relapse after delivery. Efforts aimed at reducing postpartum smoking relapse have been largely ineffective. Several studies have reported breast feeding as a primary factor influencing smoking abstinence duration. However, data on the potential role of breast feeding in smoking intervention efforts remain incomplete. The Ulm SPATZ Health Study cohort consists of 1006 newborns of 970 mothers recruited in the University Medical Center Ulm, Germany. Kaplan-Meier plots, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess differences in predominant and total breast-feeding duration stratified by smoking abstinence at 2 years and relapse period (by 6 weeks, 6 months, and 2 years postdelivery). Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to identify significant differences in demographic and lifestyle factors across smoking categories. Approximately 70% of previous smokers who initiated breast feeding relapsed within 2 years. Relapse by 6 months was significantly associated with noninitiation of predominant breast feeding. Total breast-feeding duration rates among abstaining mothers and those who relapsed after 6 weeks mirrored those of nonsmokers respectively up to 1 year and 3 months. Lower age and education were mostly associated with smoking by 6 weeks. First parity and having a nonsmoking partner were associated with abstinence up to 2 years. Interventions promoting breast feeding to incentivize continued smoking abstinence may be effective prior to weaning. Those promoting breast feeding longer than 6 months and partner smoking cessation may increase rates of long-term smoking abstinence lasting longer than 2 years postdelivery. Most mothers who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse within 6 months of delivery. Though interventions targeting new mothers have been largely unsuccessful, relapse is often delayed until after weaning and targeted breast-feeding

  16. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Shek, Lynette P; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-05-27

    Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We included 541 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97-5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22-4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04-2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60-4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61-3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05-5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  17. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a medical-psychological-pedagogical questioning of 85 mothers of premature infants demonstrate insufficient work of medical personnel in the sphere of preserving breast feeding in whole and in the children born with perinatal pathologies in particular; and the need of young women and their families in obtaining information on the benefits of breast feeding, training and assistance in the course of parental performance. The study resulted in formulation of recommendations on breast feeding support. It is important to establish the possibility to return to full breast feeding after enforced weaning and in the event of supplementary/mixed feeding. Results of the second study (n = 33 demonstrated that the use of special medical devices (pacifiers, feeding bottles developed on the basis of thorough research in the sphere of maternal breast sucking physiology in natural feeding termination risk group children helps to preserve children’s need therein and ensures efficient return of children to maternal breast feeding.

  18. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  19. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  20. Fathers' knowledge about and attitudes towards breast feeding in Manisa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşpınar, Ayten; Çoban, Ayden; Küçük, Mert; Şirin, Ahsen

    2013-06-01

    to determine the extent of knowledge fathers of newborns have about breast feeding and lactation and to examine their attitudes regarding breast feeding. a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Manisa Maternity and Children's Hospital. 203 fathers of newborn infants. although a wide majority of the participants (92.1%) expressed a desire to have their infants breastfed, it was found that only 58.6% discussed this with their partners. It was discovered that 88.7% of the fathers were happy to help with the housework so that their wives could breast feed while 57.6% stated that breast feeding would be psychologically beneficial to both the mother and the baby. Approximately half of the study subjects (48.8%) expressed an interest in attending an educational programme on breast feeding for fathers. The study also showed that the fathers' level of education, the type of family they were a part of and previously received education on lactation and breast feeding had an effect on their knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding (pfeeding and lactation was limited, leading to the conclusion that fathers may benefit from a supportive educational programme on breast feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  2. Evaluating the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breast-feeding rates: a multi-state analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) on breast-feeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education. Quasi-experimental study using data from five states (Alaska, Maine, Nebraska, Ohio, Washington) that participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 1999 to 2009. Using differences-in-differences models that included year and hospital fixed effects, we compared rates of breast-feeding initiation and duration (any and exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks) before and after BFHI accreditation between mothers who gave birth in hospitals that were accredited or became accredited and mothers from matched non-BFHI facilities. We stratified analyses into lower and higher education groups. Thirteen BFHI hospitals and nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities across five states in the USA. Mothers (n 11 723) who gave birth in BFHI hospitals and mothers (n 13 604) from nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities. Although we did not find overall differences in breast-feeding initiation between birth facilities that received BFHI accreditation compared with non-Baby-Friendly facilities (adjusted coefficient = 0·024; 95 % CI -0·00, 0·51), breast-feeding initiation increased by 3·8 percentage points among mothers with lower education who delivered in Baby-Friendly facilities (P = 0·05), but not among mothers with higher education (adjusted coefficient = 0·002; 95 % CI -0·04, 0·05). BFHI accreditation also increased exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks by 4·5 percentage points (P = 0·02) among mothers with lower education who delivered in BFHI facilities. By increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration among mothers with lower education, the BFHI may reduce socio-economic disparities in breast-feeding.

  3. Reasons for non-exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Monika A; Hamulka, Jadwiga

    2017-12-15

    Maternal sociodemographic, delivery- and infant-related factors as well as hospital practice are relevant for breast-feeding practice. The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and delivery-related factors that may affect exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) of infants aged 0-6 months in Poland. A total of 446 mothers (18-42 years old) of infants aged 0-6 months were interviewed using the computer-assisted Web interview method. The questionnaire collected information about maternal sociodemographic situation and anthropometrics, delivery-related factors, and infant feeding-related factors. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Predictors of non-exclusive breast-feeding (N-EBF) in the first 6 months of life were assessed on multivariate logistic regression. A total of 43% of mothers did not breast-feed exclusively (n = 191; N-EBF group) and 57% did breast-feed exclusively during the study period (n = 255; EBF group). After adjustment for other potential risk factors, the highest risk factors for N-EBF were maternal age breast-feeding knowledge (OR, 3.43; P ≤ 0.01), whereas the lowest risk was associated with pre-pregnancy intention to breast-feed (OR, 0.35; P ≤ 0.01), very good knowledge about breast-feeding (OR, 0.45; P ≤ 0.001) and maternal age 26-30 years (OR, 0.48; P ≤ 0.001). In a multivariate model, maternal education, employment status and preterm delivery were no longer statistically significant. Breast-feeding practice is influenced by a variety of factors, including sociodemographic and psychosocial conditions, maternal obesity and mode of delivery. Further work is needed to establish the role of education and prophylactic programs in modifying the aforementioned risk factors. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Socio-economic status and maternal BMI are associated with duration of breast-feeding of Norwegian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørset, Vilde K; Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Øverby, Nina C

    2018-01-23

    To explore whether there is an association between socio-economic status and maternal BMI and duration of any breast-feeding/exclusive breast-feeding among Norwegian infants at 4 and 5 months of age in 2016. Cross-sectional design. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Data concerning breast-feeding were collected by FFQ. Recruitment was done at child health-care centres and through Facebook in 2016. In total, 960 infants/parents registered for participating in the study Early Food for Future Health. A total of 715 infant/mother dyads completed the questionnaire when the child was between 5 and 6 months old. At 5 months of age, 81·0 % of infants were breast-fed and 16·4 % were exclusively breast-fed. Infants of highly educated mothers had higher odds of being breast-fed at 5 months compared with infants of mothers with less education. Infants of multiparous mothers had higher odds of being exclusively breast-fed for the first 5 months compared with infants of mothers with one child. Infants of mothers with overweight/obesity had reduced odds of both being breast-fed at all and being exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age compared with infants of mothers with normal BMI. Our results show that duration of breast-feeding varies with socio-economic status and maternal BMI in Norway. Targeting groups with low socio-economic status and mothers with overweight or obesity is important, as they are less likely to breast-feed according to recommendations.

  5. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramara, N S; Maputle, M S; Lekhuleni, M E

    2010-03-01

    HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: "Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?" Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301-318), to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4). Data were analysed according to Tesch's method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192) and De Vos (1998:343). Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies. The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers.

  6. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Ramara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: “Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?” Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301 -318, to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192 and De Vos (1998:343. Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers

  7. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  8. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  10. Effectiveness of CenteringPregnancy on Breast-Feeding Initiation Among African Americans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Hanson, Lisa

    2018-01-17

    While breast-feeding initiation rates for African American mothers are low, an innovative model of group prenatal care, CenteringPregnancy, holds promise to increase breast-feeding rates. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy versus individual prenatal care on breast-feeding initiation among African American mothers. Using a systematic approach and PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were used to search the literature. English-language studies, comparing CenteringPregnancy and individual prenatal care, including African American participants, and specifying breast-feeding initiation as an outcome were screened for inclusion. Study strength and quality were assessed and 7 studies were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breast-feeding initiation by 53% (95% confidence interval = 29%-81%) (n = 8047). A subgroup analysis of breast-feeding initiation among only African American participants was performed on 4 studies where data were available. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breast-feeding initiation by 71% (95% confidence interval = 27%-131%) (n = 1458) for African American participants. CenteringPregnancy is an effective intervention to increase breast-feeding initiation for participants, especially for African Americans. To close the racial gap in breast-feeding initiation, high-quality research providing specific outcomes for African American participants in CenteringPregnancy are needed.

  11. Predictors of breast milk macronutrient composition in Filipino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Largado, Fe; Power, Michael; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that breastfeeding has long-term effects on offspring biology and health, which has heightened interest in understanding the extent of variation in breast milk composition and its underlying determinants. Here, we report variation in milk macronutrient composition in a well-characterized cohort of young Filipino mothers and test underlying maternal predictors of this variation. Morning breast milk samples, anthropometrics, dietary recalls, and other interview data were collected in 102 Filipino young breastfeeding mothers (age range 24.6-25.4 years) living in Cebu City, Philippines. Milk samples were analyzed for protein, fat, sugar, and milk energy density. Regression models were used to test associations between milk macronutrient composition and maternal diet, body composition, breastfeeding duration, and feeding frequency. Consistent with past studies, milk fat and energy increased with duration of breastfeeding; there were no associations between maternal diet or percent body fat and milk composition with the exception of a modest, inverse association between maternal adiposity and milk sugar content. The relative lack of associations between maternal diet or body composition and milk composition at Cebu is consistent with past studies and suggests that milk composition may be buffered against fluctuations in maternal dietary intake or nutritional status. We speculate that the tendency for milk composition to vary between populations faced with different nutritional ecologies, but to show minimal responsiveness to intake during lactation, may enhance the reliability of milk composition as a stable intergenerational cue of typical local environmental quality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei Pang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91, tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower (2.22, 1.22–4.04, primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26 and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02. Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02, and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41. Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only.

  13. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  14. Relationship between breast milk feeding and atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, O; Iwama, M; Tabata, Y; Katsuyama, K; Sasai, Y; Nakagawa, M; Matsushita, A; Hossaka, K; Sato, J; Hidaka, Y; Uda, H; Nakamata, K; Yanagawa, H; Hosaka, K

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether or not the breast milk feeding has a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in 60 municipalities locating 10 selected prefectures during designated 2 months between October and December 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 3856 children (81.6% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 96.4% of children who participated them) were analyzed. After the adjustment for all potential confounding factors using unconditional logistic models, the risk of atopic dermatitis was slightly higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.40). Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.96-1.37) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.14, 95% CI; 0.95-1.35) showed odds ratios that were higher than unity without statistical significance. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly without statistical significance; the risk may be, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders.

  15. Mothers' attitudes and beliefs about infant feeding highlight barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rosen, Rochelle K; Strait, E Ashton; Raffucci, Gabriela; Holmdahl, Inga; Freeman, Joshua R; Muasau-Howard, Bethel T; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2015-09-01

    In American Samoa, initiation of breastfeeding is almost universal but exclusive breastfeeding, a promising target for obesity prevention, is short in duration. (1) To examine American Samoan mothers' feeding experiences and attitudes and beliefs about infant feeding and (2) to identify potential barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with American Samoan mothers at 16-32 days postpartum. Interviews focused on mother's knowledge and beliefs about infant feeding, how their infants were fed, why the mother had chosen this mode of infant feeding, and how decisions about feeding were made within her social surroundings. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted to identify salient themes in the data. Intention to exclusively breastfeed did not predict practice; most women supplemented with formula despite intending to exclusively breastfeed. The benefits of breastfeeding were well-recognized, but the importance of exclusivity was missed. Formula-use was not preferred but considered an innocuous "back-up option" where breastfeeding was not possible or not sufficient for infant satiety. Identified barriers to exclusive breastfeeding included: the convenience of formula; perceptions among mothers that they were not producing enough breast milk; and pain while breastfeeding. The important support role of family for infant feeding could be utilized in intervention design. This study identified barriers to exclusive breastfeeding that can be immediately addressed by providers of breastfeeding support services. Further research is needed to address the common perception of insufficient milk in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A research study of sources of support for bottle feeding in new mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Patricia; Barbour, Rosaline

    2007-06-01

    This paper asks if there is a difference in mothers' perceptions of the support they receive about bottle feeding from a range of professional and non-professional sources. The findings are put into the context of associated demographic characteristics. It forms part of a larger study, which was a longitudinal postal survey of 500 childbearing women across two health board regions in Scotland. Women were recruited at 34 weeks gestation by post. The results reported here are from further postal questionnaires at one and three months postnatally. Older women and those with higher education were more likely to initiate and maintain breast feeding, and less likely to introduce solid foods early. Younger women, who were mainly bottle feeding, were more likely to feel they had enough knowledge about feeding their infants than older women and were significantly more likely to feel that relatives were supportive about infant feeding. However, findings suggest that this confidence is largely dependent upon the support provided by relatives. Given the likelihood of misinformation and the potential for passing on inappropriate practices, this issue merits further examination. Health promotion strategies aimed at relatives of new mothers could, therefore, help to redress this and, thereby, promote more health advantages for the infants involved. However, there may be a large number of younger women who do not have knowledgeable support for infant feeding from relatives or friends and for whom access to health professionals for this information is restricted, possibly leading to poor infant-feeding decisions.

  17. 'Life does not make it easy to breast-feed': using the socio-ecological framework to determine social breast-feeding obstacles in a low-income population in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Gutierrez, Diana; Chantry, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Breast-feeding rates reflect sociodemographic discrepancies. In Mexico, exclusive breast-feeding under 6 months of age has deteriorated among the poor, rural and indigenous populations from 1999 to 2012. Our objective of the present study was to identify the main social obstacles to breast-feeding in a low-income population in Tijuana, Mexico. Qualitative study using a socio-ecological framework for data collection. Low-income communities in Tijuana, Mexico. Mothers (n 66), fathers (n 11), grandparents (n 27) and key informants (n 25). One hundred and twenty-nine individuals participated in the study: six focus groups (n 53) and fifty-one interviews among mothers, fathers and grandparents; and twenty-five interviews among key informants. Seven social themes were identified: (i) embarrassment to breast-feed in public; (ii) migrant experience; (iii) women's role in society; (iv) association of formula with higher social status; (v) marketing by the infant food industry; (vi) perception of a non-breast-feeding culture; and (vii) lack of breast-feeding social programmes. Socio-structural factors influence infant feeding practices in low-income communities in Tijuana. We hypothesize that messages emphasizing Mexican traditions along with modern healthy practices could help to re-establish and normalize a breast-feeding culture in this population. The target audience for these messages should not be limited to mothers but also include family, health-care providers, the work environment and society as a whole.

  18. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I

    2000-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities.

  19. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  20. Breast cancer and psychological distress: mothers' and daughters' traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this exploratory retrospective study was to assess the effects of breast cancer diagnosis upon the psychological distress of adult breast cancer patients and their mothers, particularly mothers who experienced past trauma. Four groups of mother-daughter dyads were evaluated using self-reporting measures of psychological distress [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], familial support (PFS), and adjustment to cancer (MAC, IES): breast cancer patients whose mothers were Holocaust survivors (group 1), breast cancer patients with non-traumatized mothers (group 2), healthy daughters of Holocaust survivor mothers (group 3), and a control group of healthy daughters with non-traumatized mothers (group 4). Distress levels of both mothers and daughters in group 1 were significantly higher than distress levels of mothers and daughters in the other three groups. Daughters' distress levels in all four groups were found to be significantly related to mothers' distress levels, with the highest correlation found in both groups of cancer patients. The factors of having a clinically distressed mother and being a second-generation daughter contributed the most to predicting the clinical distress of the daughter. The outcomes imply that the mother's traumatic past intensifies the distressing effect of cancer diagnosis upon both the patient and her mother. The findings concerning the impact of cancer diagnosis upon the patients' non-traumatized mothers were more ambiguous. The results support the idea that in the case of breast cancer patients, a complete psychological evaluation must include not only spouses and children but also the familial background of the patient and the history of the patients' mothers.

  1. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  2. [The use of psychotropic drugs during breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Maria; Kuśmierek, Maciej; Orzechowska, Agata; Błaszczyk, Justyna; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Breast milk is the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. In the United States around 500 000 cases of mental disorders affecting pregnant women are diagnosed each year. It is estimated that approximately 1/3 of these women need psychotropic drugs in a period of breast-feeding. Despite the serious consequences of depression and its well-known effect on a newborn, the women are still reluctant to begin pharmacological treatment. The fear of side effects unfortunately still plays an important role in making such a decision. It has been proved that all psychiatric drugs can transfer into breast milk, but their levels are very low or even negligible for the newborn. Most laboratory tests do not reveal an adequate sensitivity to detect these low concentrations. One have to remember that in case of any disturbing symptoms which may result from the use of these drugs, the only procedure is to discontinue breastfeeding immediately. The knowledge of these effects of particular groups of psychotropic drugs in breast-feeding mothers is essential for every practitioner. This knowledge should also be available not only to psychiatrists, but gynecologists and pediatricians as well. For this reason, it seems to be reasonable to summarize the results of previously published studies dealing with the topic. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL MODES FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF BREAST FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Lukoyanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of breast feeding when it is complicated due to mother and/or child health state is an important and difficult challenge. The application of bottles and nipples which contribute to imitation of the child’s suction process of mother’s breast is urgent to the lactation maintenance. The aim of the study was to perform comparative evaluation of different series bottles with nipples usage for artificial feeding of infants of the first months of life. The received results showed that the majority of children were more willingly to be fed with «Natural» series nipples, continuing to be breast-fed.

  4. The professionalising of breast feeding--where are we a decade on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Longman, Jo; Schmied, Virginia; Sheehan, Athena; Rolfe, Margaret; Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    This paper is an empirically informed opinion piece revisiting an argument published in Midwifery 10 years ago, that the increasing professionalisation of breast feeding was not supporting women in Australia in sustaining breast feeding. We present the last 10 years of primary research on the topic, explore major policy initiatives and the establishment and growth of lactation consultants in Australia to see if this has made a difference to sustained rates of breast feeding. We present an analysis of the only consistently collected national statistics on breast feeding and compare this with national and state level government data collections from the last decade. We have found that the considerable effort invested in trying to improve duration of breast feeding amongst women in Australia appears to have failed to improve sustained breast-feeding rates. We argue that this situation might be related to losing sight of the embodied nature of breast feeding and the relationships that must exist between the mother and baby, the knowledge and skills women quickly develop, and a loss of woman to woman support. We conclude that midwives have a major role in avoiding us reproducing similar, unintended, negative consequences to those resulting from increasing obstetrician managed normal birth. These include midwifery scrutiny and involvement in policy development and institutional practices and the design of services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Anthony, M Y; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Maternal breast milk may contain less nutrients than artificial formula milk but may confer important non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants. To determine the effect of feeding with formula milk compared with maternal breast milk on rate of growth and developmental outcomes in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - June 2007) and EMBASE (1980 - June 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to June 2007) (all accessed via OVID) and previous reviews including cross references. Randomised controlled trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus preterm human milk in preterm or low birth weight infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised trials of formula milk versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. This may relate to a perceived difficulty of allocating an alternative feed to an infant whose mother wishes to feed with her own breast milk. Maternal breast milk remains the default choice of enteral nutrition because observational studies, and meta-analyses of trials comparing feeding with formula milk versus donor breast milk, suggest that feeding with breast milk has major non-nutrient advantages for preterm or low birth weight infants.

  6. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and…

  7. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    The way a HIV+ mother feeds her baby affects the child's risk of: • Becoming infected with HIV. • Dying from other infections. ... who are HIV+, have high energy and nutrient needs and so must eat more healthy foods than usual. ... the normal cycle of 'suckle-sleep-cry-suckle- sleep' or has an abnormal cry and sleeping cycle.

  8. Prelacteal feeding practices among lactating mothers in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the cornerstone of adequate early infant nutrition. Despite the acknowledged ... is so, a prospective, cross-sectional study involving mothers with recent history of lactation was carried. ... The reasons for pre-lacteal feeding included perceived delayed lactation and the need to keep the ...

  9. Breast-feeding and Infant Hospitalization for Infections: Large Cohort and Sibling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ketil; Lundeby, Karen M; Brantsæter, Anne L; Haugen, Margaretha; Nakstad, Britt; Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Stene, Lars C

    2017-08-01

    Breast-feeding may protect against infections, but its optimal duration remains controversial. We aimed to study the association of the duration of full and any breast-feeding with infections the first 18 months of life. The Norwegian Mother and Child study (MoBa) is a prospective birth cohort which recruited expecting mothers giving birth from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed data from the full cohort (n = 70,511) and sibling sets (n = 21,220) with parental report of breast-feeding and infections. The main outcome measures were the relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization for infections from 0 to 18 months by age at introduction of complementary foods and duration of any breast-feeding. Although we found some evidence for an overall association between longer duration of full breast-feeding and lower risk of hospitalizations for infections, 7.3% of breast-fed children who received complementary foods at 4 to 6 months of age compared to 7.7% of those receiving complementary foods after 6 months were hospitalized (adjusted RR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.03). Higher risk of hospitalization was observed in those breast-fed 6 months or less (10.0%) compared to ≥12 months (7.6%, adjusted RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.31), but with similar risks for 6 to 11 months versus ≥12 months. Matched sibling analyses, minimizing the confounding from shared maternal factors, showed nonsignificant associations and were generally weaker compared with the cohort analyses. Our results support the recommendation to fully breast-feed for 4 months and to continue breast-feeding beyond 6 months, and suggest that protection against infections is limited to the first 12 months.

  10. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P care.

  11. Long-term efficacy of a tongue tie service in improving breast feeding rates: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Jennifer; Yardley, Iain; Upadhyaya, Manasvi

    2018-02-01

    Breast feeding rates in England at 3months of age are approximately 17% for exclusive breast-feeding and 55% for breast-feeds supplemented with formula. Tongue-tie (TT) in infants is cited as a significant cause of difficulty with maintaining breast-feeding. Early treatment and support can improve breast-feeding and allow infants to benefit from the many long-term benefits of breast-feeding. Our aim was to determine BF rates in infants 3months after attending our tongue-tie clinic (TTC). Institutional ethical approval and study approval were obtained. Patients attending the TTC from May to July 2016 were included. Telephone contact was made 3months postprocedure to establish current behaviour. Symptom resolution was recorded as complete resolution (CR), moderate resolution (MoR), or minimal resolution (MiR). Feeding pattern was either exclusively BF or combined breast and formula feeds or exclusively formula fed. 100 infants were included with complete follow-up data on 87 (87% response rate). Median age at release of TT was 17 (2-88) days without any recurrence. Status at 3months was CR (n=70, 80%); MoR (n=13, 15%), and MiR (n=4, 5%). 43 (49%) were exclusively BF, 36 (41%) were supplementing BF with some formula (2/3 by choice and 1/3 owing to insufficient milk production), and 8 (10%) were using only formula milk (7 by choice and 2 owing to ongoing feeding difficulties). Of the 17 mothers still experiencing symptoms, 5 were exclusively breast-feeding, and 8 were persisting with combined feeds. Infants attending our tongue-tie clinic achieved both higher exclusive breastfeeding and combined breast and bottle-feeding when compared to national breast-feeding data at 3months of age. This can facilitate the achievement of long-term breastfeeding, exposing infants and mothers to many of the associated benefits. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced risk of peanut sensitization following exposure through breast-feeding and early peanut introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Tracy J; Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Chan, Edmond S; Watson, Wade T A; Chooniedass, Rishma; Azad, Meghan B

    2018-02-01

    Recent trials have shown that avoiding peanuts during infancy increases the risk of peanut allergy; however, these studies did not address maternal peanut consumption. We sought to investigate the relationship between maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding, timing of direct peanut introduction, and peanut sensitization at age 7 years. Secondary analysis of a nested cohort within the 1995 Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study intervention study was performed. Breast-feeding and maternal and infant peanut consumption were captured by repeated questionnaires during infancy. Skin prick testing for peanut sensitization was performed at age 7 years. Overall, 58.2% of mothers consumed peanuts while breast-feeding and 22.5% directly introduced peanuts to their infant by 12 months. At 7 years, 9.4% of children were sensitized to peanuts. The lowest incidence (1.7%) was observed among children whose mothers consumed peanuts while breast-feeding and directly introduced peanuts before 12 months. Incidence was significantly higher (P breast-feeding but delayed introducing peanuts to their infant beyond 12 months (15.1%), or if mothers avoided peanuts themselves but directly introduced peanuts by 12 months (17.6%). Interaction analyses controlling for study group and maternal atopy confirmed that maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding and infant peanut consumption by 12 months were protective in combination, whereas either exposure in isolation was associated with an increased risk of sensitization (P interaction = .003). In this secondary analysis, maternal peanut consumption while breast-feeding paired with direct introduction of peanuts in the first year of life was associated with the lowest risk of peanut sensitization, compared with all other combinations of maternal and infant peanut consumption. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  14. Internet Use by First-Time Mothers for Infant Feeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-08-01

    Optimal nutrition during infancy has benefits to individuals and to society. Australian women actively seek health and nutrition information from a wide variety of sources and have extensive access to the Internet, but its efficacy in supporting recommendation-consistent infant feeding is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sources of infant feeding information used by first-time mothers and to describe breast and formula feeding patterns 6 months post birth associated with successful use of the Internet for breastfeeding support. Healthy women between 18 and 40 years of age in their first pregnancy were recruited to the Feeding Queensland Babies Study by convenience sampling in Brisbane, Australia, between June 2010 and March 2011. Participants completed a questionnaire online when their infants were 6 months of age and a demographic questionnaire. Health care providers, books, general Internet searches, family, and friends were common sources of breastfeeding information for women during infants' first 6 months. Information sources for infant formula were less often accessed. Of mothers who sought breastfeeding assistance on the Internet, those who found it unhelpful had lower odds of giving breast milk at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.5) and higher odds of giving formula (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5) compared with those who found the help they needed, adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Professional, print, and interpersonal information resources for infant feeding are widely accessed by mothers. Online breastfeeding information and support may help women to meet their breastfeeding intentions and to minimize formula use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Planning a Breast-Feeding Promotion Campaign. EAPRO Handbooks on Communication and Training No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office.

    The development of the communication component of a program promoting breast feeding to a variety of audiences through a variety of media is the focus of this paper. The introduction discusses groups, in addition to pregnant and lactating mothers, who should be involved and receive information. The paper then (1) identifies audiences--including…

  16. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed.

  17. Regular monitoring of breast-feeding rates: feasible and sustainable. The Emilia-Romagna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Borsari, Silvana; Verdini, Eleonora; Battaglia, Sergio; Cisbani, Luca; Sforza, Stefano; Cuoghi, Chiara; Basevi, Vittorio

    2017-08-01

    An efficient breast-feeding monitoring system should be in place in every country to assist policy makers and health professionals plan activities to reach optimal breast-feeding rates. Design/Setting/Subjects From March to June 2015, breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age were monitored in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region, using four questions added to a newly developed paediatric immunization database with single records for each individual. Data were collected at primary-care centres. Breast-feeding definitions and 24 h recall as recommended by the WHO were used. Direct age standardization was applied to breast-feeding rates. Record linkage with the medical birth database was attempted to identify maternal, pregnancy and delivery factors associated with full breast-feeding rates at 3 and 5 months of age. Data on breast-feeding were collected for 14044 infants. The mean regional full breast-feeding rate at 3 months was 52 %; differences between local health authorities ranged from 42 to 62 %. At 5 months of age, the mean regional full breast-feeding rate dropped to 33 % (range between local health authorities: 26 to 46 %). Record linkage with the birth certificate database was successful for 93 % of records. Total observations more than doubled with respect to the previous regional survey. The new monitoring system implemented in 2015 in Emilia-Romagna region, totally integrated with the immunization database, has proved to be feasible, sustainable and more efficient than the previous one. This system can be a model for other regions and countries where the vast majority of mothers obtain vaccinations from public health facilities and that already have an immunization database in place.

  18. The effect of predominant breast-feeding on the risk of obesity in Korean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hee Soon; Chu, Sang-Hui; Jekal, Yoon-Suk; Lee, Ja-Yin

    2015-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of predominant breast-feeding practices based on the criteria given by the World Health Organization and to identify the association between predominant breast-feeding during infancy and the development of obesity during preschool in South Korean children. This study employed a nonexperimental, retrospective study design. Five hundred and twenty-eight preschool children aged three to six years and their mothers were recruited. Twenty-seven percent of the participants engaged in predominant breast-feeding; on average they fed predominantly breast milk for the first 6.7 months. After adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, children who had mixed feeding were 1.68 times more likely to become obese than those who were predominantly breast-fed. In this study, it was identified that predominant breast-feeding has a positive effect on maintaining healthy body weight in Korean preschoolers. While encouraging predominant breast-feeding is only a part of the solution, it is an effective and important first step toward preventing preschool obesity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.

  20. Maternity hospital practices and breast feeding self-efficacy in Finnish primiparous and multiparous women during the immediate postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Katja S; Aho, Anna L; Hannula, Leena; Kaunonen, Marja

    2014-04-01

    to explore the relationship between maternity hospital practices and breast feeding self-efficacy. the data were collected using a cross-sectional survey. The study is a part of a larger longitudinal research and development project called 'Urban parenthood'. three urban maternity hospitals in Southern Finland. altogether 1400 questionnaires were given out and 573 primiparous and multiparous women completed the questionnaire within a week after childbirth. The response rate was 41%. early and successful initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in and exclusive breast feeding during the hospital stay were associated with higher maternal breast feeding self-efficacy in both primiparous and multiparous women. The reason (medical or non-medical), frequency or method (bottle or cup) for supplementation was not associated with breast feeding self-efficacy. breast feeding experiences during the immediate postpartum period have an association with breast feeding self-efficacy. Mothers who are not able to initiate breast feeding within an hour after birth or whose infants are supplemented during the hospital stay may benefit from additional support and breast feeding counselling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of mother-to-mother support on optimal breast-feeding: a controlled community intervention trial in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Impacto del apoyo entre las madres sobre la amamantación óptima: ensayo controlado de intervención comunitaria en la zona periurbana de la Ciudad de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Dearden

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact that a mother-to-mother support program operated by La Leche League Guatemala had on early initiation of breast-feeding and on exclusive breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. A population census was conducted to identify all mothers of infants Objetivos. Evaluar el impacto de un programa de apoyo entre las madres sobre el inicio temprano de la amamantación y la lactancia exclusivamente materna. El programa fue llevado a cabo por la organización "Liga la Leche" de Guatemala en la zona periurbana de la capital del país. Métodos. Tras un censo de población para identificar a todas las madres de cuatro comunidades con hijos menores de 6 meses, se les realizó una encuesta sobre sus prácticas de amamantación. Un año más tarde, entre noviembre de 2000 y enero de 2001, se repitieron el censo y la encuesta y se compararon las dos comunidades donde se realizó el programa de intervención (comunidades P con las dos comunidades de control (comunidades C. Resultados. En la segunda encuesta, 31% de las madres de las comunidades P dijeron haber recibido asesoramiento sobre la lactancia materna, 21% dijeron haber recibido una visita en su domicilio y 16% dijeron asistir a las reuniones de un grupo de apoyo. Las tasas de comienzo temprano de la lactancia materna fueron mayores en las comunidades P que en las comunidades C, pero esto ocurrió tanto antes como después de la realización del programa; además, los cambios a lo largo del tiempo en la iniciación temprana de la lactancia materna no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos tipos de comunidades. Las tasas de lactancia exclusivamente materna fueron similares en las comunidades P y C y no cambiaron significativamente a lo largo del tiempo. No obstante, entre las madres de las comunidades P que recibieron visitas a domicilio y asistieron a las reuniones de los grupos de apoyo, la tasa de lactancia exclusivamente

  2. The Biochemical Composition of the Breast Milk of Nigerian Mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values for total protein are most consistent with published figures, while potassium and cholesterol values 12.7 and 4.0mmol/l respectively are similar to published values. The breast milk of Nigerian mothers of Igbo ethnic extraction may not be said to be richer or poorer in biochemical content than those of mothers ...

  3. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-05-21

    Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are more likely to be effective if assumptions about what needs to change for the target behaviours to occur are identified. As such we explored the precursors of key obesity promoting infant feeding practices in mothers with low educational attainment. One-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews were developed around the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) framework and applied to parental feeding practices associated with infant excess or healthy weight gain. The target behaviours and their competing alternatives were (a) initiating breastfeeding/formula feeding, (b) prolonging breastfeeding/replacing breast milk with formula, (c) best practice formula preparation/sub-optimal formula preparation, (d) delaying the introduction of solid foods until around six months of age/introducing solids earlier than four months of age, and (e) introducing healthy first foods/introducing unhealthy first foods, and (f) feeding to appetite/use of non-nutritive (i.e., feeding for reasons other than hunger) feeding. The participants' education level was used as the indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Two researchers independently undertook thematic analysis. Participants were 29 mothers of infants aged 2-11 months. The COM-B elements of Social and Environmental Opportunity, Psychological Capability, and Reflective Motivation were the key elements identified as determinants of a mother's likelihood to adopt the healthy target behaviours although the relative importance of each of the

  4. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Turti; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; I. A. Belyaeva; E. P. Zimina; S. B. Lazurenko; M. D. Mitish; E. A. Bakovich; M. S. Rtichsheva; N. Y. Savvateeva

    2014-01-01

    The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a...

  5. Traço e estado de ansiedade de nutrizes com indicadores de hipogalactia e nutrizes com galactia normal Trazo y estado de ansiedad de mujeres lactantes con indicadores de hipogalactia y mujeres lactantes con galactia normal Trace and anxiety of nursing mothers with insufficient and normal breast feeding indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilva Marico Mizumoto Aragaki

    2006-09-01

    haber sido consecuencia de la corrección de la técnica de amamantamiento y apoyo a las mujeres lactantes.The objective of this study was to identify and compare the trace and the anxiety state on the 10th day postpartum and the anxiety state on the 30th day postpartum of primiparous and multiparous nursing mothers who present insufficient breast feeding indicators and nursing mothers with normal breast feeding, in order to verify the possible relationships between the anxiety state of the nursing mothers in those two moments with the insufficient breast feeding indicators presented. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, whose data has been gotten from 168 nursing mothers and their children by means of interviews in nursing consultations in the 10th and 30th day postpartum. The results obtained showed that primiparous and multiparous with insufficient breast feeding and primiparous with normal lactation presented higher anxiety state trace than the anxiety state on the 10th and 30th day postpartum. There was remission of the maternal signals of anxiety with the passing of time, which may be caused by the correction of the breast feeding technique and support to the nursing mothers.

  6. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  7. Support needs of breast-feeding women: views of Australian midwives and health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; Hall, Helen; Gilmour, Carole; Cant, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    to explore the views of midwives and maternal-child health nurses regarding factors that influence breast feeding initiation and continuation, focusing on how support for women could be improved to increase breast feeding duration. a focus group study. hospital or domiciliary (home-visiting) midwives and community-based maternal and child health (MCH) nurses in one region of Victoria, Australia. twelve MCH nurses and five midwives who provided supportive services to women in the immediate postnatal period attended one of three audio-recorded focus groups. Thematic findings were identified. four key themes were: 'Guiding women over breast-feeding hurdles', 'Timing, and time to care'; 'Continuity of women's care' and 'Imparting professional knowledge'. Given the a pattern of hospital discharge of mother and infant on day one or day two after birth, participants thought the timing of immediate postnatal breast-feeding support was critical to enable women to initiate and continue breast feeding. Community-based MCH nurses reported time gaps in uptake of new mother referrals and time-pressured face-to-face consultations. Both groups perceived barriers to continuity of women's care. health services subscribe to the Baby Friendly Health Initiative and government policies which support breast feeding, however providers described time pressures and a lack of continuity of women's care, including during transition from hospital to community services. there is a need to examine administration of service delivery and how domiciliary and community nurses can collaborate to establish and maintain supportive relationships with breast feeding women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxytocin administered during labor and breast-feeding: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fortea, Pedro; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Cazorla, Olga; Delgado-Ríos, M; González-Valenzuela, María J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between labor physiology and the onset of lactation leads to assess the potential correlation between oxytocin administration during labor and duration of breast-feeding. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study where patients given synthetic oxytocin during labor induction were considered as the exposed cohort, and patients not given oxytocin formed the non-exposed cohort. Four hundred of the 7465 children born at our maternity during 2006 were randomly selected. Information about breast-feeding was available for 316 of these children. Eventual confounding or adjustment factors were analyzed using stratified and multivariate analysis. Oxytocin was used for delivery of 189 (59.8%) newborns, multiplying the risk of bottle-feeding by 1.451 (95% CI 1.28-1.63). The best-fit regression model of oxytocin use effect on bottle-feeding included sex and gestational age of the newborn. The use of oxytocin also multiplies the risk of breast-feeding withdrawal at 3 months by 2.29 (95% CI 1.41-3.74). This effect is confounded by maternal age, being higher for mothers under 27 years. Oxytocin administration during labor had some impact on both onset and duration of breast-feeding, particularly in mothers under 27 years of age and newborns delivered at term. Clinical Study registered at U.S. NCT01951040.

  9. Individual and job-related variation in infant feeding practices among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tucker, Jenna; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.

  10. [Breast feeding in different income classes in the Municipality of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigulem, D M; Tudisco, E S

    1980-09-01

    The relationship between breast feeding and socioeconomic factors in children below 2 from different social classes in Sao Paulo, Brazil is analyzed. Of a total 200 children, 46 were malnourished and 31 belonged to the lower socioeconomic classes. 39% of mothers from the lower income families breastfed for 6 months, as compared to 13% of mothers from families with higher incomes 18% and 36% of mothers from the 2 classes did not breastfeed; mothers from the middle class breastfed for an average 28 days. The problem of protein-calorie malnutrition in young children is a growing one in Brazil, even in a relatively rich city such as Sao Paulo; one of the factors responsible for this problem is undoubtedly early weaning. Reasons given for early weaning in a group of 351 mothers were deficient amount of milk (49.6%), medical advice (11.1%), "bad" milk (14.3%), and only 1.4% because of occupation outside of the home. When interviewed about their opinion on the best type of milk for infants, 45% out of a group of 500 mothers indicated artificial milk, 37% maternal milk, and 16.2% cow's milk. Out of 492 mothers, 77% had 4 prenatal visits at a public health center, 11% had no prenatal visits, and 12% had 1-3 visits. Prenatal care does not influence attitude in favor of breast feeding; 45.5% of mothers who had not had any prenatal care breastfed for 6 months or more, as compared to 20% of those with 1-3 visits, and 17.5% of those with 4 visits. Those who delivered in a hospital tended to breastfeed more than those who delivered at home. It is obvious that not only mothers but health workers as well must be educated on the importance of breast feeding to fight infant malnutrition in Brazil.

  11. Breast feeding and early adolescent behaviour, self-esteem and depression: Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-11-01

    Breast feeding may contribute to neurological development and hence mental health. However, associations from Western populations are unclear, and most likely confounded by socioeconomic position (SEP), making evidence from other sociocultural settings valuable. We examined whether breast feeding was associated with early adolescent emotional and behavioural problems, self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a non-Western developed setting, where socioeconomic patterning of breast feeding differs from but other postnatal characteristics are similar to Western settings. The adjusted associations of breast feeding with emotional and behavioural problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter z-score at ~11 years (n=5598, 67% follow-up), self-reported self-esteem z-score at ~11 years (n=6937, 84%) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 z-score at ~13 years (n=5797, 70%) were examined using multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, 'Children of 1997'. Mothers from families with higher education tended to start but not sustain breast feeding, whereas migrant mothers tended to start and sustain breast feeding. Breast feeding for 3+ months had mostly null associations with Rutter score, self-esteem or depressive symptoms adjusted for sex, age, survey mode, SEP, parents' age, birth weight-for-gestational age, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure, although partial breast feeding for any length of time or exclusive breast feeding for <3 months was associated with poorer behaviour (higher Rutter z-score (0.10, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.16)) and lower self-esteem (-0.09, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04). In a non-Western developed setting, breast feeding was inconsistently associated with several early adolescent mental health measures suggesting a reflection of setting specific unmeasured confounding.

  12. PREVENTIVE ASPECTS OF BREAST MILK FEEDING IN PREMATURE INFANTS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Belyaeva; T. V. Turti; M. D. Mitish; E. P. Zimina; M. S. Rtishcheva; E. O. Tarzyan

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the issue of infant feeding. It is universally recognized that the best product for neonatal and infant feeding is breast milk. On the basis of the worldwide literature data, the authors give a detailed account of breast milk advantages from various (biological, clinical and psychological) perspectives. They convincingly demonstrate that knowledge of preventive and medical aspects of breast feeding benefits allows conducting effective educational programs regardin...

  13. [Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascoza, Karina Camilo; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Costa Júnior, Aderson Luiz; Moraes, Antônio Bento Alves de

    2011-10-01

    To identify variables potentially related with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in children assisted by interdisciplinary program on breast feeding promotion. Data were collected by a longitudinal study with 111 mothers who breastfeed their children until six months of age. Univariate analyses were used to assess factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment, and also multiple regression analyses. The mothers were divided in two groups: 57 mothers breastfeed, exclusively, their children until six months of age and 54 mothers introduced other kinds of food before this age. The following variables were found to be factors associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: pacifier use (OR 4,65; IC95% 1,66-12,99), social and economic high level (OR 11,46; IC95% 3,09-42,37) and mother's work (OR 2,44; IC95% 0,91-5,62). Pacifier use, social and economic high level and mother's work are associated with the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment.

  14. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Belyaeva; T. V. Turti; O. L. Lukoyanova; M. I. Ivardava; E. O. Tarzyan

    2014-01-01

    Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding...

  15. Infant feeding and nutritional status: the dilemma of mothers in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, K B; Simondon, F

    1995-03-01

    To describe infant feeding practices in rural Senegal in relation to age and nutritional status. The main hypothesis to be tested was whether mothers modulate feeding in response to growth and nutritional status of their infants. A cross-sectional survey using qualitative 24-h recalls and lifetime recalls to assess feeding practices, and using weight and recumbent length measurements to assess nutritional status. Three health clinics in the Fatick region, a rural area of Senegal, West Africa, covering a population of 26,600. All 2-10-month-old infants attending four immunization sessions in 1991 (n = 1174; 80% of convoked infants). Prevalence of feeding with additional food (gruel, family diet and food of animal origin), weight-for-length and length-for-age. All infants were breastfed. A supplement had been given the day before the survey to 10% of infants aged 2-3.9 months, 30% of infants aged 4-5.9 months and 45% of those aged 6-6.9 months. The main food items were watery millet gruel and family diet (millet or rice). Gruel was given in response to perceived breast-milk insufficiency. Animal products were seldom eaten at any age. Length-for-age and weight-for-length were significantly lower among infants supplemented with millet gruel, when adjusted for age; while no such relationship was found with family diet. Mothers preferentially fed gruel to small, thin infants.

  16. Prolonged demand breast-feeding and nursing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerheijm, K L; Uyttendaele-Speybrouck, B F; Euwe, H C; Groen, H J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the characteristics and to explore risk factors within a group of Dutch children breast-fed on demand over a prolonged period, whose mothers attended the meetings of La Leche League. Ninety-six children, 55 boys and 41 girls (mean age 28.8 months, SD 8.8), were examined. Most of the parents belong to a higher socio-economic working class. The examination included a questionnaire and dietary sheet, combined with the caries status of the child. On average the children were breast-feed for 21.5 months (SD 9.8). The mean age at which the parents started brushing the children's teeth was 11.7 months (SD 5.1). Fluoridated toothpaste (250 ppm fluoride) was used by 70% of the children. The children were divided into three groups according to their caries pattern: 1 caries-free; 2 caries, and 3 nursing caries. Dentine caries was found in 14 (14.5%) of the children, of which 9 (9.3%) met the criteria of nursing caries. The mean dmfs of all children examined was 1.2 (SD 4.8). Up to 18 months of age the breast was given significantly more frequently during the night and up to 24 months during the day time, to the children of the nursing caries group compared to the children in the other two groups. The children still being breast-fed at the time of investigation more frequently slept in their parents' bed. The children of the nursing-caries group used fluoridated dentifrices less often. The majority of children of the caries and nursing-caries groups did not receive fluoride from other sources. The results of the present study demonstrate that prolonged demand breast-feeding does not lead to a higher caries prevalence although comparison between the groups demonstrates that frequent breast-feeding and low additional fluoride use should be considered as contributing factors in the process of nursing caries.

  17. Infant safety with antipsychotic therapy in breast-feeding: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2008-04-01

    A relatively high number of women may suffer from psychotic symptoms at postpartum onset. Such symptoms may have devastating effects not only on the mothers but also on the later infant's well being. Children born to mothers with psychosis are at increased risk of physiologic, psychological, and personality development disturbance, whereas children born to mothers with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of early-onset psychiatric disorders. Hence, clinicians should consider it imperative to prevent or manage effectively psychotic and affective relapses in new mothers. To analyze the literature for information about the safety of first- and second-generation antipsychotics for breast-fed infants in order to individuate the safest treatment option for women who need such medications during puerperium. A computerized search was carried out on MEDLINE/PubMed/TOXNET (1950-January 2008). The following key words were used: breast-feeding, lactation, puerperium, psychotropic drugs, atypical antipsychotics, typical antipsychotics, and neuroleptics. No conclusions can be drawn about the risk/benefit profile of the majority of antipsychotic medications in breast-feeding. Hence, when clinicians are forced to start antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients, the choice of the safest option should be based on the general effectiveness profile of each agent, with 2 possible exceptions: clozapine (the drug should be considered contraindicated during breast-feeding because of its liability of inducing potential life-threatening events in the infant), and olanzapine (the drug seems to be associated with an increased risk of inducing extrapyramidal reactions in the breast-fed babies). Conversely, in patients who need to continue antipsychotic therapy during breast-feeding, it is suitable to maintain the previous pharmacologic regimen, if known as effective.

  18. Comparison of breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs before and after educational intervention for rural Appalachian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J

    2013-03-01

    Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.

  19. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  20. [Maternal body mass index and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driul, L; Forzano, L; Londero, A P; Fachechi, G; Liva, S; Marchesoni, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether maternal BMI influences breast-feeding practice in quality and duration A retrospective case-control study were included Fifty women with Body Max Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 considered overweigh and obese and fifty controls with BMIlactation integration. Obese women presented an elevated Body Max Index one year apart from childbirth and are correlated to maternal complications during breastfeeding. Maternal overweight and obesity is negatively correlated to duration and quality of lactation.

  1. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  2. A multipronged approach is associated with improved breast milk feeding rates in very low birth weight infants of an inner-city hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereddy, Narendra R; Talati, Ajay J; Smith, Ashley; Kudumula, Ravi; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2015-02-01

    Breast milk feeding has advantages over formula feeding in premature infants, but its use in them is low. We initiated measures in our inner-city hospital such as starting a dedicated lactation service, counseling the mothers prenatally and postnatally, educating hospital staff, and advocating with our state's Medicaid insurance to provide free home breast pumps. These measures were associated with improvement in our breast milk feeding rates in very low birth weight infants from 22% to 88% over 5 years. This article describes our multipronged approach and can help encourage and guide other units with similar demographics to improve their breast milk feeding rates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  4. Supporting breast-feeding women from the perspective of the midwife: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerts, Marlies; Westhof, Ellen; Bogaerts, Annick; Lemiengre, Joke

    2016-06-01

    In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants should be fed exclusively with breast milk until the age of six months. However, breast feeding rates remain lower than recommended. The crucial period for breast feeding support is the first two weeks after birth. During this period breast feeding support from the midwife is needed. The aim of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of midwives in their support of breast-feeding women, from their own perspective. Two researchers independently conducted a systematic and comprehensive literature search. Studies needed an empirical qualitative research design (1), had to focus on the role of the midwife in the support of the breast-feeding woman from the midwife's perspective (2), and had to be published between January 2005 and December 2014 (3) in order to be included. Language restrictions were English, Dutch, German and French. Eight qualitative research studies were included, using mainly focus group and in-depth interview studies, which were reported in 11 papers representing 231 midwives and 24 maternity nurses. All but one study concerned midwives working in hospital settings. A critical appraisal was performed of each study. Midwives value breast feeding education and breast feeding support as a significant part of their role as a postnatal midwife. However, the ways in which a midwife approaches and supports the breast-feeding woman vary. We distinguished two perspectives: 'the midwife as technical expert' and 'the midwife as a skilled companion'. The 'technical expert' midwife is mainly breast centred, focuses on techniques, uses the hands on approach and sees a woman as a novice. The 'skilled companion' midwife is woman centred, focuses on the mother - infant relationship and uses a hands off approach during the breast feeding support. The midwives working in a hospital setting face many barriers when performing breast feeding support, such as time restraints, which

  5. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  6. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  7. Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the breast-feeding dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Perre, P

    1995-08-01

    Human milk has been considered only recently as a source of transmission for the human immunodeficiency virus. The estimated postnatal transmission rate from mothers who acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection while lactating is 26% (95% confidence interval 13% to 39%) and may be in the range of 8% to 18% from mothers who were infected before becoming pregnant. Risk factors for postnatal transmission include maternal immune deficiency and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in milk. Some milk factors may be protective against postnatal transmission such as specific immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M and a molecule able to inhibit the binding of human immunodeficiency virus to CD4. In addition to its safety and its birth-spacing properties, breast-feeding provides immunologic protection and an ideal nutritional content to the infant. In a poor hygienic environment artificial feeding dramatically increases morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Consequently, according to our current knowledge the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund reasonably recommend continuing breast-feeding promotion in women living in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the primary causes of infant deaths such as in many developing countries. In settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are not the primary causes of infant deaths, such as in most of the settings in the developed world, the advisory group recommends against breast-feeding for mothers with proved human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

  8. Effect of a galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and prolactin secretion by mothers of preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalkaya, E; Aslandoğdu, Z; Özkoral, A; Topcuoğlu, S; Karatekin, G

    2018-01-01

    Poor breast milk production is the most frequent cause of breastfeeding failure in preterm babies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of herbal tea mixture containing stinging nettle (Natal, Hipp) on breast milk production and serum prolactin levels of mothers, and weight gain of preterm babies. We enrolled mothers and their babies who were less than 37 gestational week and less than 2000 g, fed with orogastric tube without any contraindication of enteral feeding in neonatal intensive care unit between November 2010 and June 2011. The mothers of treatment group (n = 32) were consuming commercially available herbal mixture tea for 1 week. The mothers control group (n = 21) received only the same advice on supportive measures as group I. Mothers in the placebo group (n = 32) were given fruit tea for 1 week. The daily breast milk production of mothers and weight gain of preterm babies were recorded. Also, serum prolactin levels of the mothers were measured. Increase of the milk production from the first to the seventh day was more prominent in mothers using herbal tea mixture. Increased rate in the amount of milk was 80% in the treatment, 34.3% in the placebo and 30% in the control group (P = 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference in weight gain of babies between the two groups, due to formula feeding in case of insufficient breast milk. Serum prolactin levels of the mothers at the beginning and on the seventh day showed no significant difference. In mothers with premature babies and who are treated in neonatal intensive care unit, consumption of galactogogue herbal tea will increase lactation and prevent lack of human milk without any adverse effect.

  9. [Anesthesia in the breast feeding period. Excretion of anesthetic agents and adjuvants into breast milk and potential pharmacological side-effects on the suckling infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Geldner, G; Wulf, H

    2003-10-01

    Whenever an anesthetic is needed during the breast feeding period, potential pharmacological side-effects imposed on the infant by any kind of anesthetic agent used during both general and regional anesthesia are in contrast to the potential beneficial effects of breast feeding for the infant and the mother. Despite an increasing knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of excretion of drugs and their metabolites through breast milk, information about most anesthetic drugs are still either inconclusive or contradictory. Often it is impossible to decide whether a certain substance that is potentially excreted through breast milk might be harmless or harmful for the breast-fed infant. In addition to that only few anesthetic agents and drugs used in conjunction with an anesthetic are officially approved for use during pregnancy and the period of breast feeding and for medico-legal reasons pharmaceutical companies generally advise against the use of any of those drugs during this period. However, based on the knowledge of pharmacological properties of commonly used anesthetic agents it is reasonable to assume that continuing breast feeding in the immediate postoperative period after a single anesthetic can be considered safe for the infant since no adverse effects caused by or secondary to the single use of those drugs can be expected. Provided there is a careful choice of anesthetic drugs, there is no need to consider that a single general or regional anesthetic is an indication to stop breast feeding. Even planned elective surgical procedures do not need to be postponed. No scientifically based interval between surgery under general or regional anesthesia and resumption of breast feeding can be recommended. Instead current opinion is that breast feeding can be resumed as soon as the mother feels physically and mentally capable to do so.

  10. [Breast feeding: an effective method to prevent breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, Maria J; González Jiménez, E; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C A; Mur Villar, N; García López, P A; Valenza Peña, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological tumor in young women in Western countries. Its profound implications for health and an increasingly early age of diagnosis have been carefully analyzed its causes and possible preventive measures, making their study in a primary goal of epidemiological research. We reviewed medical records pertaining to 504 female patients aged 19 to 91 years. All of them were diagnosed and treated for breast cancer between 2003-2008 at the Hospital Universitario "San Cecilio" of Granada (Spain). We found a significant correlation (p = 0.001) between the age of cancer diagnosis, length of breastfeeding, and the existence of personal and family history for cancer. By contrast, there were no statistically significant differences test (t-test) between the average age of diagnosis of cancer and having had offspring or not (t = 0.559, p = 0.576). Breastfeeding for periods of longer than six months, not only provides children with many health benefits, but may also protect the mother from serious diseases, such as breast cancer.

  11. [The gift of breast feeding--the practice of breast feeding in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan Kaluski, D; Leventhal, A

    2000-04-16

    Breast milk is the optimal food for infant growth and development, the prevention of infectious diseases and mother-child bonding. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is cost-effective both for the family and society as a whole. The Israeli Ministry of Health encourages breastfeeding as the exclusive source of nutrition for infants in the first 4-6 months of life, with gradual addition of complementary foods thereafter. The promotion of breastfeeding in Israel requires comprehensive national activity with involvement of all the stakeholders. This includes implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and joining the international "Baby Friendly Hospitals" project. Knowledge of breastfeeding should be spread, health professionals should be encouraged to become agents of change, support by breast counselors should be encouraged, post-delivery vacations from work should be prolonged and empowerment of women implemented.

  12. HIV TRANSMISSION BREAST-FEEDING AND HIV: AN UPDATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2004-11-02

    Nov 2, 2004 ... Breast pathology — mastitis, abscesses,. Subclinical mastitis as evidenced by increased breast-milk sodium levels cracked or bleeding nipples. Primary infection/new infection. Prolonged duration of breast-feeding —. Low maternal levels of vitamins B, C and E more than 6 months. Infant oral candidiasis.

  13. Breast-feeding patterns of ethnic groups in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fang; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lengxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding pattern of four main ethnic groups (the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang) living in rural western China. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. Forty-five counties in ten provinces in western China in 2005. A sample of 11 783 children younger than 36 months old (8960 Han, 1281 Uygur, 792 Tibetan and 750 Zhuang) and their mothers were recruited using a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling method. The rates of exclusive breast-feeding of children at 6 months of age in the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups were 11.6 %, 0.8%, 4.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The rates of any breast-feeding for children at 24 months of age were 8.5%, 25.7%, 3.0% and 4.3% in the four ethnic groups, respectively. After adjusting for related factors, Zhuang children had a higher odds ratio of exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months compared with Han children, whereas Uygur and Tibetan children had lower odds ratio (Zhuang: OR=1.291; 95% CI 1.006, 1.657; Uugur: OR=0.062; 95% CI 0.032, 0.121; Tibetan: OR=0.323; 95% CI 0.220, 0.475). Uygur children had a lower hazard ratio of discontinued breast-feeding compared with Han children, whereas Tibetan children had a higher hazard ratio (Uygur: HR=0.368; 95% CI 0.333, 0.408; Tibetan: HR=1.366; 95% CI 1.244, 1.500). The breast-feeding pattern differed among the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups. The results suggest that health education regarding the benefits of breast-feeding is needed in rural western China.

  14. Differences in breast-feeding initiation and continuation by maternal diabetes status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Chertok, Ilana; Bartley, Adam

    2015-03-01

    To examine (i) the prevalence of and associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by maternal diabetes status and (ii) the reasons for not initiating and/or continuing breast-feeding by maternal diabetes status. Secondary data analyses of a population-based cross-sectional study were conducting using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2009-2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by diabetes status. Thirty states and New York City, USA. Mothers of recently live-born infants, selected by birth certificate sampling. Among 72755 women, 8.8 % had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 1.7 % had pregestational diabetes mellitus (PDM). Breast-feeding initiation was similar among GDM and no diabetes mellitus (NDM) women (80.8 % v. 82.2 %, respectively, P=0.2), but continuation was lower among GDM (65.7 % v. 68.8 %, respectively, P=0.01). PDM women had lower initiation and continuation compared with NDM (78.2 %, P=0.03 and 60.4 %, Pdiabetes status may reflect differences in prenatal education, indicating the need for increased efforts among PDM women. Additionally, non-smoking women with PDM or GDM would benefit from additional breast-feeding education.

  15. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akiko; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-05-30

    Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers' indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers' perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the mother or child would not be

  16. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  17. Reconfiguring insufficient breast milk as a sociosomatic problem: mothers of premature babies using the kangaroo method in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Danielle; Cabral, Ivone Evangelista

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on Brazilian mothers who gave birth to premature babies who were discharged from hospital using the Kangaroo Mother Care Method. While mothers left the hospital breastfeeding exclusively, once back at home, they abandoned exclusive breastfeeding because of insufficient breast milk (IBM). In this project we explored how IBM was interpreted by mothers within their social context. Participatory research using the Creative Sensitive Method was done in the homes of mothers with family members and neighbours. We described the conflicting social discourse that influenced the mothers' perception of IBM and explored their sources of distress. At the hospital and Kangaroo ward, mothers considered that clinicians recognized they were experiencing IBM and thus supported them to overcome this problem. Back at home and in their community, other sources of stress generated anxiety such as: the lack of outpatient clinical support, and conflicting local norms to care and feed premature babies. These difficulties combined with economic constraints and discontinuity in models of health care led mothers to lose confidence in their breastfeeding capacity. Mothers, thus, rapidly replaced exclusive breastfeeding by mixed feeding or formula feeding. Our analysis suggests that IBM in our sample was the result of a socio-somatic process. Recommendations are proposed to help overcome IBM and corresponding contextual barriers to exclusive breastfeeding.

  18. CD4, viral load response, and adherence among antiretroviral-naive breast-feeding women receiving triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonji, Jully A; Zeh, Clement; Weidle, Paul J; Williamson, John; Akoth, Benta; Masaba, Rose O; Fowler, Mary G; Thomas, Timothy K

    2012-10-01

    Health benefits and survival of an exclusively breast-fed infant is dependent on the mother's health; thus, the need for antiretroviral (ARV) intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Achieving maternal health benefits from these regimens requires adherence to the treatments and close monitoring. We evaluated virologic, immunologic responses, and adherence among women receiving maternal triple ARV prophylaxis consisting of lamivudine/zidovudine and nevirapine or nelfinavir in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study. We analyzed baseline demographic data, trends in CD4 count, and viral load (VL) at enrollment (32-34 weeks gestation), delivery, 14 and 24 weeks postpartum among 434 women who remained in the study at 24 weeks postpartum. Adherence rates were determined using pill counts reinforced by self-report and drug calendar. We dichotomized adherence as ≥95% versus <95%. Among the 434 women, 84% (n = 366) had adherence ≥95%. The proportion of women with undetectable VL (<400 copies/mL) increased from 6% at baseline to 79%, and that of those with CD4 count <250 cells per microliter decreased from 23% (100) at baseline to 5% (22) at 24 weeks postpartum. In discrete-survival model, time to achieving VL suppression was associated with baseline VL <5.0 log copies per milliliter, parity ≥2, and use of nelfinavir- versus nevirapine-based ARV. Association between undetectable VL with duration of therapy (P < 0.0001) and adherence with suppression of VL (P = 0.001) was observed. High baseline VL and short exposure to ARVs for PMTCT are risk factors for failing to achieve undetectable VL. These findings support the new WHO guidelines for early initiation of ARV prophylaxis for PMTCT for maximal reduction of maternal VL.

  19. Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbratowska, Bogumila; Kazmierczak, Maria; Michalek, Justyna; Preis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Neonatal sucking behavior: comparison of perioral movement during breast-feeding and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Madoka; Mizuno, Katsumi; Tamura, Masanori

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare orofacial motion and mouth angle during breast-feeding and bottle feeding in normal infants. Thirteen normal infants were enrolled in the study, and feeding sessions were recorded using a digital video camera at 4 or 5 days following birth. The analysis was successfully performed for 12 infants during both breast-feeding and bottle feeding. Markers were placed at the lateral angle of the eye, the tip of the jaw, and the throat region. Jaw and throat region movements were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The angle of the mouth was also measured. Throat region movement was significantly larger than jaw movement in both breast-feeding (eye-throat region changes: 1.51 +/- 0.37 mm, eye-jaw changes: 0.91 +/- 0.31 mm, P bottle feeding (eye-throat region changes: 2.91 +/- 0.46 mm, eye-jaw changes: 1.77 +/- 0.33 mm, P feeding than those during bottle feeding (P feeding is larger than that during bottle feeding (P bottle feeding differ from those during breast-feeding. This partly results from the difference in the angle of the mouth during feeding.

  1. Breast feeding practices in the Black community | Ross | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed optimally. Women ...

  2. Attitude of Nursing Mothers In Edo State Towards Exclusive | Alutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that the literate nursing mothers were more positively disposed to exclusive breast-feeding than the illiterate. Secondly, practice of exclusive breast-feeding adversely affected by the nursing mothers\\' nature of work. The nurses and teachers were more favourably disposed to exclusive breast-feeding ...

  3. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  4. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity.

  5. Breast-feeding and the development of cows' milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, K M; Juntunen-Backman, K; Järvenpää, A L; Klemetti, P; Kuitunen, P; Lope, L; Renlund, M; Siivola, M; Vaarala, O; Savilahti, E

    2000-01-01

    Early feeding with cows' milk (CM) may cause cows' milk allergy (CMA). Breast milk contains many immune factors which compensate for the undeveloped defence mechanisms of the gut of the newborn infant. We studied the effect of supplementary CM feeding at the maternity hospital on the subsequent incidence of CMA, the effects of formula and breast feeding on the subsequent immunologic types of CMA, and the importance of immune factors present in colostrum in the immune responses of infants with CMA. In a cohort of 6209 infants, 824 were exclusively breast-fed and 87% required supplementary milk while in the maternity hospital: 1789 received CM formula, 1859 pasteurized human milk, and 1737 whey hydrolysate formula. The cumulative incidence of CMA, verified by a CM elimination-challenge test, was 2.4% in the CM, 1.7% in the pasteurized human milk and 1.5% in the whey hydrolysate group. Among these infants, exposure to CM at hospital and a positive atopic heredity increased the risk of CMA. Of the exclusively breast-fed infants, 2.1% had CMA. Risk factors for the development of IgE-mediated CMA were: exposure to CM at hospital, breast-feeding during the first 8 weeks at home either exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM and long breast-feeding. The content of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in colostrum from mothers of infants with IgE-mediated CMA was lower than from mothers of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA. In infants with CMA, TGF-beta1 in colostrum negatively correlated with the result of skin prick test and the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CM, but positively with infants' IgA and IgG antibodies to CM proteins. Feeding of CM formula at maternity hospital increases the risk of CMA, but exclusive breast-feeding does not eliminate the risk. Prolonged breast-feeding exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM during the first 8 weeks induces the development of Ig

  6. Cumulative risks and cessation of exclusive breast feeding: Australian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; van der Mei, Ingrid; Wills, Karen; Hansen, Emily; Nelson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cessation of exclusive breast feeding at each month up to 6 months and document key factors and cumulative risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding cessation for children aged from 0 to 6 months. Secondary analysis using a national representative sample of 22 202 mother and infant pairs derived from the 2010 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare cross-sectional survey, the Australian Infant Feeding Survey. Among breastfed infants, 49% had ceased exclusive breast feeding before they had reached 2 months of age. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, cessation of exclusive breast feeding was most strongly associated with partners preferring bottle feeding (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.69 to 20.6) or having no preference (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.42), regular dummy use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.39) and maternal obesity (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.35). Living within the most disadvantaged areas of Australia (quintile 1) was not strongly associated with cessation (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) compared with least disadvantaged areas. Having three risk factors significantly increased the risk of cessation by 31% (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.6). The prevalence of early cessation of exclusive breast feeding is alarmingly high with 50% of infants no longer exclusively breast fed by age 2 months. Given that not one factor is associated with cessation of exclusive breast feeding, the greatest public health impact is likely to be achieved when multiple risk factors are modified or prevented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-12-18

    Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Prospective cohort study. Norway, years 1999-2006. 53,934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  8. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, years 1999–2006. Participants 53 934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. Main outcome measure ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Results Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Conclusions Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. PMID

  9. [Breast feeding and weaning: a survey in rural communities of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandale-Toney, S; Rivera-Pasquel, M E; Kageyama-Escobar M de la, L; Tirado-Gómez, L L; López-Cervantes, M

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5,409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N) 21.4%, in the center (C) 7.6% and in the south (S) 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N), 67.6% (C) and 77.5% (S); in the second trimester, 67.2% (N), 40.9% (C) and 51.6% (S) had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  10. Bacterial Composition and Diversity in Breast Milk Samples from Mothers Living in Taiwan and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao-Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Lactation stage (months postpartum when the milk sample was collected and maternal body mass index did not influence the breast milk microbiota. Bacterial composition at the family level differed significantly among samples from the seven geographical regions. The five most predominant bacterial families were Streptococcaceae (mean relative abundance: 24.4%, Pseudomonadaceae (14.0%, Staphylococcaceae (12.2%, Lactobacillaceae (6.2%, and Oxalobacteraceae (4.8%. The microbial profiles were classified into three clusters, driven by Staphylococcaceae (abundance in Cluster 1: 42.1%, Streptococcaceae (Cluster 2: 48.5%, or Pseudomonadaceae (Cluster 3: 26.5%. Microbial network analysis at the genus level revealed that the abundances of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia were negatively correlated with those of the Gram-negative Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Pseudomonas. Milk from mothers who had undergone Caesarian section (C-section group had a significantly higher abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05 and a higher number of unique unclassified operational taxonomic units (OTUs (P < 0.001 than that from mothers who had undergone vaginal delivery (vaginal group. These findings revealed that (i geographic differences in the microbial profiles were found in breast milk from mothers living in Taiwan and mainland China, (ii the

  11. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J L

    2004-04-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing transfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  12. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, J

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  13. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers’ indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. Methods The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. Results The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers’ perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the

  14. ANTENATAL MATERNAL EDUCATION: ITS OUTCOME AND EFFECT ON PATTERNS OF BREAST-FEEDING IN KUMAON REGION OF UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM To assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast-feeding and to assess the effectiveness of antenatal maternal breast-feeding education for increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration. STUDY DESIGN A prospective clinical observational study performed for six-month period at a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. METHODS 150 healthy pregnant women attending ANC Clinic and their newborns admitted in Department of Paediatrics and Obstetrics & Gynaecology were included in our study. These women and their newborns are followed up at birth, after one month, three and six months. RESULTS The study shows that 65.71% of mothers had initiated first breast-feed within 1 hour of normal vaginal delivery while none had initiated after caesarean section. Within first 4 hours, 34.28% initiated breast-feed after normal vaginal delivery and 20.0% after caesarean section. EBF for six months was continued in 48.33% babies in the counselled group while only in 28.0% in the non-counselled group and the association was found to be highly significant (p value<0.01. The practice of bottle feeding (1.33%, top feeding (6.67%, episodes of diarrhoea (6.67% and ARI (6.67% are much lower in the counselled group as compared to non-counselled group (14.67%, 18.67%, 18.67% and 9.33% respectively. CONCLUSION More effective community approaches are needed in Kumaon region’s antenatal clinics to prepare expectant mothers to make informed decisions regarding breast-feeding and lactation management and to ensure early initiation and continuation of exclusive breast-feeding.

  15. Breast-feeding and postpartum maternal weight trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Laura; O'Higgins, Amy C; Cawley, Shona; Kennedy, Rachel; McCartney, Daniel; Turner, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether breast-feeding, and in particular exclusive breast-feeding, was associated with maternal weight and body composition changes at 4 months postpartum independently of other maternal variables. Prospective longitudinal study. Women were recruited in the first trimester after an ultrasound examination confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy. Weight and body composition were measured using advanced bio-electrical impedance analysis at the first antenatal visit and 4 months postpartum. Detailed questionnaires were completed on breast-feeding, socio-economic status, diet and exercise in addition to routine clinical and sociodemographic details. Large Irish university maternity hospital. Women who delivered a baby weighing ≥500 g between November 2012 and March 2014. At the postpartum visit, the mean weight was 70·9 (sd 14·2) kg (n 470) and the mean BMI was 25·9 (sd 5·0) kg/m2. 'Any breast-feeding' was reported by 65·1 % of women (n 306). Irish nativity (OR=0·085, Pbreast-feeding. At 4 months postpartum there was no difference in maternal weight change between women who exclusively breast-fed and those who formula-fed (+2·0 v. +1·1 kg, P=0·13). Women who exclusively breast-fed had a greater increase in percentage body fat at 4 months postpartum compared with women who formula-fed (+1·0 v. -0·03 %, P=0·02), even though their dietary quality was better. Exclusive breast-feeding was not associated with postpartum maternal weight or body fat percentage change after adjusting for other maternal variables. There are many reasons why breast-feeding should be strongly promoted but we found no evidence to support postpartum weight management as an advantage of breast-feeding.

  16. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices

  17. Addressing barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and programmatic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; LaCroix, Elizabeth; Dau, Hallie; Engmann, Cyril

    2017-12-01

    Despite numerous global initiatives on breast-feeding, trend data show exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates have stagnated over the last two decades. The purpose of the present systematic review was to determine barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in twenty-five low- and middle-income countries and discuss implications for programmes. A search of Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO was conducted to retrieve studies from January 2000 to October 2015. Using inclusion criteria, we selected both qualitative and quantitative studies that described barriers to EBF. Low- and middle-income countries. Following application of systematic review criteria, forty-eight articles from fourteen countries were included in the review. Sixteen barriers to EBF were identified in the review. There is moderate evidence of a negative association between maternal employment and EBF practices. Studies that examined EBF barriers at childbirth and the initial 24 h post-delivery found strong evidence that caesarean section can impede EBF. There is moderate evidence for early initiation of breast-feeding and likelihood of practising EBF. Breast-feeding problems were commonly reported from cross-sectional or observational studies. Counselling on EBF and the presence of family and/or community support have demonstrated improvements in EBF. Improving the counselling skills of health workers to address breast-feeding problems and increasing community support for breast-feeding are critical components of infant and young child feeding programming, which will aid in attaining the 2025 World Health Assembly EBF targets. Legislation and regulations on marketing of breast-milk substitutes, paid maternity leave and breast-feeding breaks for working mothers require attention in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. The infant-feeding practices of mothers enrolled in the prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    helping the mothers to understand the importance of post-delivery follow-up care for both themselves and the infants. Also, as the study revealed mixed feeding practice mostly among the mothers who made no choice of infant-feeding method before delivery and those who opted for EBF, better quality counselling targeted ...

  19. Mother-Child Touch Patterns in Infant Feeding Disorders: Relation to Maternal, Child, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Keren, Miri; Gross-Rozval, Orna; Tyano, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine mother and child's touch patterns in infant feeding disorders within a transactional framework. Method: Infants (aged 9-34 months) referred to a community-based clinic were diagnosed with feeding disorders (n = 20) or other primary disorder (n = 27) and were case matched with nonreferred controls (n = 47). Mother-child play…

  20. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

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    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  1. HIV/AIDS and infant feeding options: A qualitative study on mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore determined factors influencing infant feeding choices of HIV positive mothers enrolled in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission HIV clinics in ... More than half of the mothers (52.5%) were married in polygamous relationships and almost half of them (47.5 %) completed primary school education.

  2. Mothering with an Intellectual Disability: A Phenomenological Exploration of Making Infant-Feeding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Amanda; Aunos, Marjorie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mothers with intellectual disability are less likely than mothers without intellectual disability to breastfeed their infants, but there is little literature that addresses infant-feeding decisions among this population. This study explores experiences of mothers with intellectual disability in making and carrying out infant-feeding…

  3. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date.

  4. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  5. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

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    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  6. Early life factors associated with the exclusivity and duration of breast feeding in an Irish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast

  7. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... labeling. (b) Where a specific warning relating to use during pregnancy or while nursing has been...

  8. Effect of Postnatal HIV Treatment on Clinical Mastitis and Breast Inflammation in HIV-Infected Breast-feeding Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Sabrina; Westreich, Daniel; Hudgens, Michael G; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; Martinson, Francis; Zimba, Chifundo; Tegha, Gerald; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Pence, Brian W; King, Caroline C; Kourtis, Athena P; Msungama, Wezi; van der Horst, Charles

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning. Among 1472 HIV-infected women who delivered live infants between 2004 and 2007, we estimated cumulative incidence functions and sub-distribution hazard ratios (HR) of mastitis or breast inflammation comparing women in maternal ART (n = 487) or infant nevirapine (n = 492) groups to the standard of care (n = 493). Nutritional supplement groups (743 took, 729 did not) were also compared. Through 28-weeks post-partum, 102 of 1472 women experienced at least one occurrence of mastitis or breast inflammation. The 28-week risk was higher for maternal ART (risk difference (RD) 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 8.1) and infant NVP (RD 3.6, 95% CI 0.3, 6.9) compared to standard of care. The hazard of late-appearing mastitis or breast inflammation (from week 5-28) was also higher for maternal ART (HR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0, 22.6) and infant NVP (HR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5, 17. 5) compared to the standard of care. Mastitis or breast inflammation while breast-feeding is a possible side effect for women taking prophylactic ART and women whose infants take NVP, warranting additional research in the context of postnatal HIV transmission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. "Who wants to eat in a toilet?" A social marketing approach to breast-feeding in public places and at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Stevens, Terry; Cork, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    A public health project is described which used social marketing philosophy and techniques to find out how to help facilitate breast-feeding in public places and for mothers returning to work. As part of a strategy to increase local breast-feeding rates, Brighton and Hove Healthy City Partnership, representing the local Primary Care Trust, City Council and the business, academic and voluntary sectors, worked with a social marketing consultancy. The consultancy carried out a literature review and qualitative research that used creative engagement methods to consult with local people. The consultations were with key stakeholders, mothers, and groups traditionally less interested in the subject of breast-feeding, such as employers, elderly people, teenage boys, and fathers. The qualitative research generated in-depth insight and soundly-based, practical recommendations for facilitating breast-feeding. The social marketing approach helped to establish that any ensuing policies and practices would be acceptable to a wide range of the local population.

  10. Relactation, translactation, and breast-orogastric tube as transition methods in feeding preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Rebeca Raposo; Osório, Mônica Maria

    2009-11-01

    The transition from tube feeding to exclusive breastfeeding represents an important period for preterm babies because of their clinical fragility and immature development. This study describes this transition in preterm infants in relation to different feeding approaches: relactation, translactation, and breast-orogastric (OG) tube, considering the duration of the transition, weight gain in the transition, feeding-related problems, and breastfeeding status at discharge. This is a descriptive study of a series of 432 babies using retrospective data from the medical records at the IMIP Kangaroo Mother Care Unit, in the northeast of Brazil. At discharge, the percentage of babies who were exclusively breastfed in the relactation, translactation, and breast-OG tube groups were 85%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, with a satisfactory transition time and weight gain and with 1.6% of cases with feeding-related problems. The results showed that the relactation, translactation, and breast-OG tube seem to be efficient methods in the feeding transition of preterm infants.

  11. Active Duty Women's Perceptions of Breast-Feeding Support in the Military Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E; Drake, Emily; Yoder, Laura; Gibson, Mary; Litke, Carrie Ann

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current perceptions of breast-feeding support for active duty women serving in the U.S. Armed Forces. An online survey based on the Workplace Breastfeeding Support Scale (WBSS) was used to collect data from active duty military mothers. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software to evaluate active duty women's perceptions of breast-feeding support in the military. 318 active duty women participated in the online survey. The average WBSS scores for active duty women was 50.20 (SD = 15.75). Comparing WBSS scores and branch of service, women in the Army had significantly lower WBSS scores (M = 45.85) then women in the Air Force (M = 53.96, p < 0.001). Enlisted women had significantly lower scores (M = 47.12) than officers (M = 54.62, p < 0.001). Also noted were significantly lower scores of active duty women who were Hispanic (M = 44.30) and women who had lower levels of education (M = 46.90, p = 0.006). The Department of Defense may be able to improve breast-feeding rates for all active duty mothers by implementing and adhering to lactation policies and focusing support efforts for enlisted women in all branches of service. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. The potential role of breast-feeding and other factors in helping to reduce early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Lee S; Erwin, Katherine; Lense, Elizabeth; Hicks, James

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in US children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is particularly virulent and can interfere with a child's ability to eat, grow, speak, and communicate. Studies on whether breast-feeding or bottle-feeding are more likely to reduce ECC have proven inconclusive. The study population included 175 children, aged 1 to 5, receiving dental care at the Hughes Spalding Children's Hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participation included a dental exam, chart data abstraction, and a personal interview with the mother. Too few exclusively breast-fed children prevented the adequate study of breast-feeding. However, children exclusively bottle-fed for at least 1.5 years had more decayed or filled tooth surfaces than children breast-fed part of that time but well short of a year. No bottle at night nor juice at irregular times, the mother's brushing of her child's teeth, and adequate dental care in the mother seemed to reduce ECC. Our results suggest measures that might reduce ECC risk. Medical providers must discuss oral health with new mothers and educate them on the important role they play in keeping their babies' teeth healthy

  13. Feeding at the Breast and Expressed Milk Feeding: Associations with Otitis Media and Diarrhea in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Geraghty, Sheela R; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    To examine the associations of substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery with occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea in the first year of life. At 12 months postpartum, women (n = 813; 62% response) completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographics, infant occurrence of otitis media and diarrhea, and the timing of starting/stopping feeding at the breast, expressed milk, and formula. Women who intended to "bottle feed" exclusively were not recruited. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were conducted in the full sample (n = 491) and no-formula (n = 106) and bottle-only (n = 49) subsamples. Longer duration of expressed milk feeding was associated with increased odds of experiencing otitis media (6-month OR [OR6-month] 2.15, 95% CI 1.01-4.55) in the no-formula subsample. Longer durations of breast milk feeding (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92; 6-month incidence rate ratio [IRR6-month] 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.91), and feeding at the breast (OR6-month 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.89; IRR6-month 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88) were associated with less diarrhea, and longer formula feeding duration was associated with increased risk of diarrhea (IRR6-month 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.54) in the full sample. Substance fed and mode of breast milk delivery have different contributions to infant health depending on the health outcome of interest. Feeding at the breast may be advantageous compared with expressed milk feeding for reducing the risk of otitis media, and breast milk feeding compared with formula may reduce the risk of diarrhea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...... of breast feeding and subsequent diabetes risk....... for their post-natal health visitor records. These include data on birth weight, birth length, immunizations, and feeding habits. A total of 77 cases were re-identified. No differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics between these cases and those not identified. For each diabetic subject, two...

  15. Analysis of the Concept of Successful Breast-Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no comprehensive definition of successful breastfeeding that consequently leads to failure in identification of ineffective breastfeeding and clinical problems that, in turn, result in infants’ early hospitalization. The present study aimed to describe the concept of successful breastfeeding using Walker and Avant approach. Data sources: CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched for literature published between 1995 and 2015 using the term successful breast-feeding. Materials and Methods: To analyse the concept of successful breastfeeding in this study, Walker and Avant approach was used. Primary research was conducted by searching for “successful breastfeeding” and “infant”. Finally, 84 resources were selected as the sample. Then, the data were classified as characteristics, influencing factors, incidences, consequences, and empirical referents related to successful breastfeeding. Results: Four basic characteristics of successful breastfeeding, as an interactive process, included how to hold the infant while breastfeeding, how to put the breast in the infant’s mouth, sucking, and transmission of milk from mother to infant. Moreover, some events related to successful breastfeeding contain “infant’s posture during breastfeeding”, “physiology and anatomy of the breast”, and “physiology and anatomy of infant’s mouth”. The consequences were also “infant’s behaviour when s/he is full”, “leaving the breast”, “not responding to sucking reflex”, “seemingly calm infant”, and “lack of pain and discomfort in the breast”. Discussion and Conclusion: The study results revealed that determining the characteristics, events, and consequences of successful breastfeeding is very essential and important for both clinical application and nursing discipline purposes. In fact, precise definition of the concept of successful breastfeeding leads to identification of

  16. Use of common migraine treatments in breast-feeding women: a summary of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B Lee

    2013-04-01

    Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication "The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) - a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians treating migraine should discuss both acute and

  17. Use of Common Migraine Treatments in Breast-Feeding Women: A Summary of Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J.; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. Methods A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication “The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) – a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Results Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Conclusions Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians

  18. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  19. Acceptability and feasibility of infant-feeding options: experiences of HIV-infected mothers in the World Health Organization Kesho Bora mother-to-child transmission prevention (PMTCT) trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cames, Cécile; Saher, Aisha; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A; Cournil, Amandine; Meda, Nicolas; Simondon, Kirsten Bork

    2010-07-01

    In Burkina Faso, prolonged breastfeeding with introduction of ritual fluids from birth is a deep-seated norm. We explored HIV-infected mothers' views and experiences of the acceptability and feasibility of the World Health Organization's recommended infant-feeding options within a mother-to-child-transmission prevention trial. A qualitative study was conducted on 17 formula-feeding and 19 breastfeeding mothers, from a larger cohort of 51 eligible HIV-infected women, consenting to participate in separate focus group discussions in early post-partum. Mothers opted for breastfeeding essentially out of fear of family rejection. Most of them were afraid of denigration for disrespecting tradition if they formula-fed or being suspected of HIV infection. Achieving exclusive breastfeeding remained a difficult challenge as they engaged in a continuous struggle with close elders to avoid fluid feeding. Additional stress and fatigue were fed by their perception of a high transmission risk through breast milk. Exclusive formula-feeding seemed easier to implement, especially as formula was provided free of charge. Formula-feeding mothers more frequently had a supportive partner, a strong personality and lived in better socio-economic conditions than breastfeeding mothers (76% had education and electricity supply vs. 42%, respectively). Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months remains the most appropriate option for many HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. Its acceptability and feasibility urgently need to be improved by promoting it as the best feeding option for all infants. Other crucial interventions are the promotion of voluntary counselling and testing for couples, and greater partner involvement in infant-feeding counselling.

  20. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fahami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  1. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Turti; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; I. A. Belyaeva; E. P. Zimina; M. D. Mitish; E. A. Bakovich; N. Y. Savvateeva

    2014-01-01

    The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, ...

  2. The influence of eating disorders on mothers' sensitivity and adaptation during feeding: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Claire; Lalanne, Christophe; Murday, Nasha; Simoglou, Vassiliki; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2014-08-14

    Parents with past and current eating disorders (ED) have been shown to report troubles nourishing their infants. This could increase the risk of infant feeding problems linked to maternal anxiety and depression. It is not clear how mothers' eating difficulties before pregnancy and at the time of birth can affect infant's feeding. We aimed to specify the impact of eating disorders on mothers' adaptation and sensitivity to their offspring during feeding, by comparing a population of mothers with eating disorders and controls. Twenty-eight women agreed to participate in interviews and filmed mother-baby interactions. Pregnant women consulting at an obstetric unit for care follow-up were screened and tested for symptoms of eating disorders with the EDE-Q Questionnaire (Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire) and the EDE Interview (Eating Disorders Examination Interview). Infant functional troubles and mothers' sensitivity were investigated through the Symptom Check List. Reciprocal adaptation during feeding with their new-borns was filmed and analysed with the Chatoor Infant Feeding Scale. Before pregnancy, two women suffered from anorexia, three suffered from bulimia, three had binge eating symptoms and two were diagnosed with EDNOS (Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified). Mothers suffering from ED tended to show more difficult interactive patterns in terms of dyadic reciprocity when feeding their babies compared with mothers with no symptoms of eating disorders. In the interviews, other than the behavioural data gathered, ED mothers expressed feeling more dissatisfaction and uneasiness during feeding. Pregnancy seems to be an useful period for interviewing women on eating disorders, allowing for the design and implementation of prevention programmes based on mothers' narratives and infant/mother observations and treatment.

  3. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Chuproski Saldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  4. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Demario, Renata Léia; Brecailo, Marcela Komechen; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; De Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  5. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan: for activities to support child-rearing with breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Akiyo; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Eise; Miyake, Takeo; Harano, Satoru; Suzuki, Kenshu; Ibuka, Eiji; Tsutsui, Takako; YukoYamamoto; Ohida, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    Benefits of breast-feeding are not only limited to nutrition and sanitation in developing countries but also extend to cost-saving health care and alleviation of anxiety related to childrearing in developed countries. This study aims to elucidate factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan and use this information to achieve child-rearing support worldwide by promoting breast-feeding. This cross-sectional study used data from a survey conducted by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of the Japanese government, the First Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century. All subjects were infants (n=53,575) born in Japan in 2001 between January 10 and 17 and between July 10 and 17. According to the data, the exclusive breast-feeding rate in Japan during the first 6 months of life was 21.0%. We examined the factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Among the factors examined, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for exclusive breast-feeding was low for late childbearing, low birth weight infants, multiple births, smoking parents, living with grandparents, and feeling burdened by childrearing. The adjusted OR was high for factors that included sufficient childcare leave and consultation about childrearing with the spouse, a birth attendant and/or nurse, and a peer in a child-rearing circle. Exclusive breast-feeding is associated not only with medical factors but also with social factors. This study clarifies the necessity of social support to reduce the child rearing burden and a political system to promote paternal participation in childrearing and to improve the childcare leave system.

  6. Excessive weight gain during full breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Maria; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Breast-feeding is considered to offer optimal nutrition for healthy infant growth and development. Observational studies have linked breast-feeding to reduced obesity. CASE OBSERVATION: We observed an infant who was born macrosomic (4.56 kg) and showed excessive weight gain markedly exceeding the 97th percentile of weight during full breast-feeding. At the age of 4 months, the weight was greater than 11 kg. Clinical evaluation did not reveal any underlying pathology. After the introduction of complementary feeding and hence reduction of the breast milk intake, the excessive weight gain was attenuated and the slope of the percentile curve paralleled upper percentiles. Since this pattern suggested full breast-feeding as the driver of excessive weight gain, we analyzed the human milk composition at the infant age of 1 year and compared the results with published data on composition at this stage of lactation. The milk contents of lactose, fat, fatty acids, polar lipids, carnitine species, and insulin were similar to the reference data. The adiponectin content was increased. The most remarkable alteration was a high milk protein content (mean 1.25 g/dl, reference 0.8 g/dl). A very high protein supply in infancy has been previously shown to increase plasma concentrations of the growth factors insulin and IGF-1, weight gain, and later obesity. We speculate that interindividual variations in human milk adiponectin and protein contents may contribute to modulation of the growth of fully breast-fed infants and in this case may have contributed to excessive weight gain during full breast-feeding. This hypothesis merits being tested in future cohort studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  8. Mothers' experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, R; Ogilvie, D; Ong, K K

    2009-08-01

    Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. The literature on parents' experiences of bottle-feeding was systematically reviewed to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Relevant English-language papers, identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers, were systematically searched for and appraised. The included studies were analysed and synthesised using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13 263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met.

  9. Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants - a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, M; Mizuno, K; Murase, M; Nishida, Y; Itabashi, K; Mukai, Y

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the changes in feeding behaviour from 1 to 6 months of age. By comparing breast- and bottle-feeding, we intended to clarify the difference in longitudinal sucking performance. Sucking variables were consecutively measured for 16 breast-fed and eight bottle-fed infants at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. For breast-feeding, number of sucks per burst (17.8 +/- 8.8, 23.8 +/- 8.3 and 32.4 +/- 15.3 times), sucking burst duration (11.2 +/- 6.1, 14.7 +/- 8.0 and 17.9 +/- 8.8 sec) and number of sucking bursts per feed (33.9 +/- 13.9, 28.0 +/- 18.2 and 18.6 +/- 12.8 times) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age respectively showed significant differences between 1 and 6 months of age (p feed did not differ among different ages. Bottle-feeding resulted in longer sucking bursts and more sucks per burst compared with breast-feeding in each month (p bottle-fed infants.

  10. Birthright Denied: The Risks and Benefits of Breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephanie G.; Highland, Joseph H.

    This document compares the benefits and risks of breastfeeding in light of recent evidence that mothers' milk contains high levels of chemical contaminants. Information is presented on the occurrence and toxicity of agricultural and industrial chemicals found in breast milk and on the lead, industrial chemicals, nitrates, and bacterial…

  11. Breastfeeding Duration and Authoritative Feeding Practices in First-Time Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2016-08-01

    Longer breastfeeding duration appears to have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This effect may be partially mediated by maternal feeding practices during the first years of life. However, the few studies that have examined links between breastfeeding duration and subsequent feeding practices have yielded conflicting results. Using a large sample of first-time mothers and a newly validated, comprehensive measure of maternal feeding (the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire), this study examined associations between breastfeeding duration and maternal feeding practices at child age 24 months. Mothers (n = 458) enrolled in the NOURISH trial provided data on breastfeeding at child age 4, 14, and 24 months, and on feeding practices at 24 months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between breastfeeding duration and 5 nonresponsive and 4 structure-related "authoritative" feeding practices, adjusting for a range of maternal and child characteristics. The model showed acceptable fit (χ(2)/df = 1.68; root mean square error of approximation = .04, comparative fit index = .91, and Tucker-Lewis index = .89) and longer breastfeeding duration was negatively associated with 4 out of 5 nonresponsive feeding practices and positively associated with 3 out of 4 structure-related feeding practices. Overall, these results suggest that mothers who breastfeed longer reported using more appropriate feeding practices. These data demonstrate an association between longer breastfeeding duration and authoritative feeding practices characterized by responsiveness and structure, which may partly account for the apparent protective effect of breastfeeding on childhood obesity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Adherence to infant-feeding choices by HIV-infected mothers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-infected women. HIV-infected mothers in developing countries often face complex challenges which influence their choice of infant-feeding practice.1 .... of HIV infection in women of childbearing age, globally, is accounted ..... Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers and Children.

  13. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  14. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  15. What are mothers doing while bottle-feeding their infants? Exploring the prevalence of maternal distraction during bottle-feeding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Rebecca Pollack; Ventura, Alison K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which mothers engage in distracting activities during infant feeding. Mothers reported engaging in other activities during 52% of feedings; television watching was the most prevalent activity reported. Further research on the impact of distraction on feeding outcomes is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Smoking on Breast feeding Among Women Who Quit Smoking During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Heather M; Emery, Rebecca L; Bogen, Debra L; Levine, Michele D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding factors related to breast-feeding intention, initiation, duration, and weaning among women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy may inform interventions to increase breast-feeding rates among women who smoke. Women (N = 300) who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy and enrolled in a postpartum relapse prevention trial were interviewed about breast-feeding intention prior to delivery. Breast-feeding initiation, duration, reasons for weaning, and relapse to smoking were assessed at 12-weeks postpartum. The majority of pregnant former smokers intended to breastfeed (68%), and actual rates of breast feeding were higher (74%). Among women who initiated breast feeding, weaning before 2 months was common (41%). For most women (69%), smoking had no effect on breast-feeding decisions. Among the 31% of women who reported that smoking influenced their feeding decisions, 83% indicated that they did not smoke or decreased smoking frequency in order to breastfeed while 17% did not breastfeed or quit breast feeding in order to smoke. Women who decided to forgo breast feeding to smoke were significantly more likely to have a high school education or less (p breast feeding, and the majority report smoking did not influence feeding decisions. Importantly, among women for whom smoking did influence feeding decisions, most reported changing smoking behavior to enable breast feeding. Interventions to increase breast-feeding initiation and duration may decrease postpartum relapse and improve maternal and infant health. This study extends the literature on women's perception of the influence of smoking on breast feeding by assessing breast-feeding intent, initiation, duration, and reasons for weaning longitudinally among women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy. The results support a need for additional research to determine the effectiveness of breast feeding supports as a component of interventions to reduce postpartum smoking relapse.

  17. Heat Treatment of Expressed Breast Milk Is a Feasible Option for Feeding HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Children after 6 Months of Age in Rural Zimbabwe12

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H.; Madzima, Rufaro C.; Lawrence H Moulton; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at ∼6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted...

  18. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childbirth information received by mothers during antenatal period influences their satisfaction with the care during perinatal period. It is important for the midwives to know the type of information that satisfies their clients. This study found that the childbirth information that mothers received during antenatal period did not ...

  19. Using Social Network of TELEGRAM for Education on Continued Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding of Children among Mothers: a Successful Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghaffari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distanceeducation for mothers with suckling babies can have a high effect and more proponents due to short time of such mothers as well as other problems like bringing infant with themselves. Authors of this research have shared an experience on application of social network of Telegram for educational intervention in field of continued breast feeding and complementary feeding of children among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this research, social network of Telegram was employed to provide teachings associated with continued breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children to mothers based on the model of Center for Diseases Control of USA (CDC. 90 members, out of 125 mothers who were informed, became member of Telegram group voluntary with informed consent,namely that the participation rate was 72%. The Telegram group called "Mother’s love - Mother’s milk" was designed on August 2016 and has been active for 6 months until this date. The group has been active under the management of an experienced physician and consultation with a pharmacist. Results: Participants of this research reported cell phone, internet, physician, books, and journals as the most-used sources, respectively, to access to information about breast feeding and health of their children. Only five mother of group-member mothers were uneducated or had elementary education level. Also, it was determined that the higher percentage of women who joined Telegram group were housewives compared with the group who had no tendency to join group. 100% of members evaluated membership in Telegram group and subjects related to complementary feeding beneficial and 39 of 41 (95% participants in an E-survey, were satisfied with learning, and 35 members (85.4% were satisfied with teaching. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of social networks as potential educational field. Usage of this media, particularly among women groups under specific circumstance

  20. African American women's infant feeding choices: prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and narratives from a black feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.

  1. Breast feeding basic competence in primary care: Development and validation of the CAPA questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol-Pons Rn Ibclc, Anna; Aubanell-Serra ScB, Mercè; Vidal Rn, Mireia; Ojeda-Ciurana Rn, Imma; Martí-Lluch PhD, Ruth; Ponjoan PhD, Anna

    2016-11-01

    validated and reliable tools measuring the level of competence about breastfeeding amongst health professionals who attend mothers in primary care are scarce. to develop and validate a self-administered online questionnaire to assess basic competence about breastfeeding in the full range of health professionals attending lactating mothers in primary care. methodological study. the study was conducted in 33 primary care centers administered by the Catalan Health Institute (Institut Català de la Salut) in the Girona Region (northeast Spain). the questionnaire was sent to 398 health professionals who were likely to be in contact with breast feeding mothers. We included midwives, general practitioners, pediatric nurses (who provide care for children from birth to 14 years old), non-pediatric nurses (who provide care for patients older than 14 year), pediatricians, and gynecologists. The random sampling was stratified by discipline to ensure representativeness. the development and validation of the self-administered online questionnaire had five phases: (1) literature review, preparation of a draft for evaluation by an expert panel and pilot study; (2) design of a questionnaire based on observations from Phase 1; (3) questionnaire administration to a random sample of 398 health professionals, stratified by discipline; (4) re-testing after four weeks; and (5) assessment of construct validity using factor analysis and hypothesis-testing, comparing scores between professional groups and estimating effect size. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha and reproducibility by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The response rate was 69.3%. The final version of the questionnaire has 24 items. The uni-dimensionality of the questionnaire was confirmed by the factor analysis. The score differed significantly between professional groups (F=12.904; pnurses the lowest (111±14 points).The effect sized values ranged from 0.6 and 1.5. Cronbach alpha was 0.870 (95% CI

  2. The impact of prenatal education on behavioral changes toward breast feeding and smoking cessation in a healthy start population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Virginia A; Smith, Mark; Beasley, Yvonne; Brown, Haywood L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of prenatal education by case managers on 2 social determinants of health behaviors-breast feeding and smoking cessation-among participants enrolled in Indianapolis Healthy Start (IHS). Birth and death data up to 1 year for IHS clients were collected from Marion County vital records for births 20 weeks or greater. Case managers provide education on the health benefits for mothers and infants on breast feeding and smoking cessation to all clients. Data were analyzed for differences between the IHS participants and other Marion County births. Most participants (63%) were non-Hispanic blacks aged less than 25 years (56%), without a high school diploma or general education development (53%), and enrolled in Medicaid (91%). Program participants were more likely to initiate breast feeding than nonparticipants (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.61), and 22% continued to breast feed for 6 months. Hispanic women were more likely to breast feed for at least 6 months (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.32-9.58). Women with advanced education were more likely to have quit smoking, as were women who were breast feeding at hospital discharge. After controlling for education, IHS clients tended to be less likely to continue to smoke during the third trimester (OR, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.49-1.16), as were those with a first pregnancy (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.10, 0.98) and no other smokers in the home (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.74). Breast feeding and smoking cessation are modifiable risk factors that were impacted by behavioral interventions through case management education.

  3. Adherence to infant-feeding choices by HIV-infected mothers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study examined adherence to infant-feeding choices made by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers at a Nigerian tertiary hospital prior to implementation of the “rapid advice” guideline, i.e. the revised World Health Organisation principles and recommendations on infant feeding in the ...

  4. Does breast-feeding protect the child from Giardia lamblia infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent protozoa infections of the human small intestine. Although anyone can be infected by Giardia, women and children are more susceptible. Giardia infection can cause malnutrition, diarrhea and indigestion of fat. In this study, the effect of breast-feeding on the prevalence of Giardia among children is investigated. "nMethods: A total of 482 children, aged 6 to 24 months, from the urban areas of Semnan, Damghan and Garmsar in Iran, were enrolled in this survey. Each mother underwent an interview and filled out a questionnaire that included mother's age, family size, birth order of the child, age and sex of the child and type of milk consumed, among other variables. Then, each mother was given a sample container with 30cc of phenol alcohol formaldehyde (PAF and an applicator for sampling her child's stool. Each mother was trained to consecutively sample her child's stool for three days, to put the stool into the provided container using the applicator and to shake it until the sample and liquid appeared homogenous. The sample was examined using the direct method, using formalin-ether and thionine. Data was analyzed using the c2 test and

  5. Negotiating mothering against the odds: gastrostomy tube feeding, stigma, governmentality and disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gillian M; Scambler, Graham

    2006-03-01

    Using the findings of a small-scale qualitative investigation based on in-depth interviews with mothers attending a tertiary paediatric referral centre in London, this paper explores professional and parental discourses in relation to gastrostomy tube feeding and disabled children. Detailed accounts are given of women's struggles to negotiate their identities, and those of their children, within dominant discourses of mothering and child-centredness. Constructions of feeding practices as coercive conflict with normative expectations of 'good mothering' and the 'idealised autonomous' child. Although notions of 'stigmatised identities' featured in women's accounts of feeding children, both orally and by tube, stigma fails to explain why mothers are rendered culpable within expert discourses. Prevailing theories of stigma and coping are interrogated and judged to be more descriptive than explanatory. Felt stigma is posited as an aspect of governmentality.

  6. [Problem of exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child breast-fed by an alcohol-abusing mother in medico-legal opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Paweł; Zaba, Czesław; Tezyk, Artur; Wachowiak, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, the authors have noted an increasing amount of cases submitted for analysis in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, and addressing alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers. A question about the exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child by a breast-feeding mother under the influence of alcohol is posed by prosecution or the court, and the expectation is obtaining answers from forensic experts as to whether the situation fulfills the meaning of article 160 of the penal code, which would result in the mother bearing criminal liability. Difficulties that have arisen during the analysis of such cases have prompted the authors to analyze the problem of alcohol abuse by breast-feeding mothers in terms of medico-legal opinions.

  7. Assessment of infant feeding styles among low income African American mothers: comparing reported and observed behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Lisa M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Carby-Shields, Kenitra; Borja, Judith B.; Goldman, Barbara D.

    2007-01-01

    This study’s goal was to provide a detailed description of feeding styles adopted by a sample of African-American women in feeding their infants in North Carolina, and to examine the correspondence between reported and observed feeding styles. Cross-sectional semi-structured interview and videotaped data were gathered in the homes of 20 participating low-income mothers of infants aged 3-20 months. Feeding styles were characterized through a tailored coding scheme (the Infant Feeding Styles Vi...

  8. Breast-Feeding Tied to Lower Heart, Stroke Risk for Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or stroke later in life, versus women who bottle-fed their babies. How might breast-feeding help heart health? One theory holds that breast- ... who'd breast-fed, versus those who'd bottle-fed. It also appeared that the ... of breast-feeding per baby, the odds of cardiovascular trouble declined ...

  9. Maternal attitudes to breast feeding in the concept of the baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also the level of education attained had no influence (P>0.05). A high percentage of the mothers knew that expressed breast milk could be stored though; there was no statistical difference between the mothers, who indicated intention to store breast milk. (P>0.05). There was a progressive rise in proportion of mothers who ...

  10. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46.4%). It was found that none of the exclusively breastfed babies were stunted, malnourished or wasted. Mothers who earned higher income had less stunted malnourished and wasted infants than those who earned lower income. Education ...

  11. Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess how much of a public health problem emotional and instrumental feeding practices are, we explored the use of these feeding practices in a sample of Dutch mothers regarding their child’s food intake between main meals. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 359 mothers of primary school children aged 4–12 years. The questionnaires were completed online at home. Results Of the mothers, 29.5% reported using foods to reward, 18.1% to punish and 18.9% to comfort their child. Mothers most frequently offered energy-dense and nutrient-poor products such as candy in the context of emotional and instrumental feeding practices. The use of these practices was associated with a lower age of both mother and child and a higher educational level of the mother. Mothers living in neighborhoods with intermediate socioeconomic position used the practices less often than mothers from low and high socioeconomic position neighborhoods. Conclusions Our results show that mothers in our sample mainly used unhealthy products in the context of instrumental and emotional feeding practices. Research into the association between these practices and children’s dietary intake is warranted, since the use of unhealthy products in the context of these practices may not necessarily lead to an increased consumption of these products. Findings regarding the frequency of use of these practices among specific subgroups can be used to carefully determine the target population for interventions and tailor the content of interventions to specific target group characteristics. Besides examining associations between personal and family characteristics and the use of emotional and instrumental feeding practices, attempts should be made to understand parents’ reasons for using them. PMID:24533574

  12. Breast-feeding and weaning practices in Venda, 1990

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    348 Results ... Abstract A stratified randOlll cluster survey, using a struc- tured interview schedule, was perfonned to deter- tnine the prevalence, frequency and duration of breast-feeding alllong Venda lllothers as well as the foods that Venda children COllllllOnly ate in their first 2 years oflife. Nearly all children under. 2 years ...

  13. Protocol for a feasibility trial for improving breast feeding initiation and continuation: assets-based infant feeding help before and after birth (ABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Jenny; Clarke, Joanne; Johnson, Debbie; Trickey, Heather; Thomson, Gill; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sitch, Alice; Dykes, Fiona; Feltham, Max G; Darwent, Kirsty; MacArthur, Christine; Roberts, Tracy; Hoddinott, Pat

    2018-01-23

    Breast feeding improves the health of mothers and infants; the UK has low rates, with marked socioeconomic inequalities. While trials of peer support services have been effective in some settings, UK trials have not improved breast feeding rates. Qualitative research suggests that many women are alienated by the focus on breast feeding. We propose a change from breast feeding-focused interactions to respecting a woman's feeding choices, inclusion of behaviour change theory and an increased intensity of contacts in the 2 weeks after birth when many women cease to breast feed. This will take place alongside an assets-based approach that focuses on the positive capability of individuals, their social networks and communities.We propose a feasibility study for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the Assets feeding help Before and After birth (ABA) infant feeding service versus usual care. A two-arm, non-blinded randomised feasibility study will be conducted in two UK localities. Women expecting their first baby will be eligible, regardless of feeding intention. The ABA infant feeding intervention will apply a proactive, assets-based, woman-centred, non-judgemental approach, delivered antenatally and postnatally tailored through face-to-face contacts, telephone and SMS texts. Outcomes will test the feasibility of delivering the intervention with recommended intensity and duration to disadvantaged women; acceptability to women, feeding helpers and professionals; and feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing recruitment rates, willingness to be randomised, follow-up rates at 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months, and level of outcome completion. Outcomes of the proposed full trial will also be collected. Mixed methods will include qualitative interviews with women/partners, feeding helpers and health service staff; feeding helper logs; and review of audio-recorded helper-women interactions to assess intervention fidelity. Study results will

  14. A rare cause of hematemesis in newborn: fibrocystic breast disease of mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hatice Tatar; Eras, Zeynep; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2013-08-01

    Hematemesis in a healthy newborn is most often caused by swallowed maternal blood. Maternal blood due to fibrocystic breast disease in human milk has not previously been reported in the literature. We report here a newborn case with hematemesis in which the mother had fibrocystic breast disease, and we want to emphasize this rare entity. Physicians should be aware of this rare condition, and fibrocystic breast disease of the mother should be included in the differential diagnosis of newborns with hematemesis.

  15. Infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-07

    May 7, 2012 ... Conclusion: The findings were indicative of a lack of knowledge, and possibly resource limitations, to facilitate safe bottle-feeding practices. Acknowledgement of .... poor, average or good. Bottle-feed preparation ... was also analysed by the laboratory of Dairy Belle, Bloemfontein, for nutrient content using a.

  16. The significance of motherhood for adolescents whose mothers have breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmens, Donna A

    2009-09-01

    To describe adolescents' experiences of living with mothers with breast cancer. Qualitative. Northeastern United States. 11 adolescents aged 13-19 years whose mothers were diagnosed with breast cancer within a year prior to the study. With Van Manen's phenomenologic interpretive paradigm, multiple levels of analysis of transcribed semistructured interviews yielded common themes and a unique account and understanding of adolescents' lives when their mothers have breast cancer. Adolescent coping and maternal breast cancer. Five distinct themes were identified: life changed, turning to self, learning to be with my mother, needing to normalize, and speaking openly--the importance of communication. Study findings uncovered the powerful role mothers held in the adolescents' lives. The depth of the feelings and conflicts expressed by the adolescent participants, who appeared to be coping with their mothers' breast cancer, emphasizes the need to explore coping responses used in adolescent adjustment to maternal breast cancer. Given that all the adolescents reported some level of anxiety and conflict in their lives, further research should address factors that underlie their coping mechanisms. Study findings and insights underscore the significance of the maternal-adolescent relationship. Healthcare professionals need to ask more directed questions and develop interviewing and counseling skills to support mothers through this difficult illness. Adolescent children require support and guidance in coping with their mothers' breast cancer journey.

  17. Reproductive history, breast-feeding and risk of triple negative breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Etiology in Minorities (BEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Hines, Lisa M; Phipps, Amanda I; Koo, Jocelyn; Longacre, Teri A; Ingles, Sue A; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Slattery, Martha L; Wu, Anna H

    2018-01-13

    Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data from three population-based studies (558 TNBC and 5,111 controls) and examined associations of TNBC risk with reproductive history and breast-feeding. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression. For younger women, aged breast-fed compared to nulliparous women (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.12-3.63). For younger parous women, longer duration of lifetime breast-feeding was associated with a borderline reduced risk (≥24 vs. 0 months: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.26-1.04, P trend  = 0.06). Considering the joint effect of parity and breast-feeding, risk was increased two-fold for women with ≥3 full-term pregnancies (FTPs) and no or short-term (breast-feeding compared to women with 1-2 FTPs and breast-feeding ≥12 months (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.22-5.35). None of these associations were observed among older women (≥50 years). Differences in reproductive patterns possibly contribute to the ethnic differences in TNBC incidence. Among controls aged breast-feeding and ≥3 FTPs was highest for Hispanics (22%), followed by African Americans (18%), Asian Americans (15%) and non-Hispanic whites (6%). Breast-feeding is a modifiable behavioral factor that may lower TNBC risk and mitigate the effect of FTPs in women under age 50 years. © 2018 UICC.

  18. Breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility: what are the mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacker, A; Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Cable, N; Bartley, M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility and the possible mediating role of neurological and stress mechanisms. Secondary analysis of data from the 1958 and the 1970 British Cohort Studies. Longitudinal study of individuals born in Britain during 1 week in 1958 and 1970. 17 419 individuals participated in the 1958 cohort and 16 771 in the 1970 cohort. The effect of breast feeding on intergenerational social mobility from age 10/11 to age 33/34 was analysed after multiple imputations to fill in missing data and propensity score matching on a wide range of confounders measured in childhood (1958 cohort N=16 039-16 154; 1970 cohort N=16 255-16 361). Own Registrar General's Social Class (RGSC) at 33/34 years adjusted for father's RGSC at 10/11 years, gender and their interaction. Breastfed individuals were more likely to be upwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38; 1970 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) and less likely to be downwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 0.81 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90; 1970 cohort: OR 0.79 95% CI 0.71 to 0.88). In an ordinal regression model, markers of neurological development (cognitive test scores) and stress (emotional stress scores) accounted for approximately 36% of the relationship between breast feeding and social mobility. Breast feeding increased the odds of upward social mobility and decreased the odds of downward mobility. Consistent with a causal explanation, the findings were robust to matching on a large number of observable variables and effect sizes were alike for two cohorts with different social distributions of breast feeding. The effect was mediated in part through neurological and stress mechanisms.

  19. Breast-Feeding and Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R.; Stene, Lars C.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Cinek, Ondrej; Svensson, Jannet; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Memon, Anjum; Gimeno, Suely G.; Wadsworth, Emma J.K.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Goldacre, Michael J.; Radon, Katja; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C.; Chetwynd, Amanda; Karavanaki, Kyriaki; Brigis, Girts; Pozzilli, Paolo; UrbonaitĖ, Brone; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Sipetic, Sandra; Joner, Geir; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E.; Harrild, Kirsten; Benson, Victoria; Savilahti, Erkki; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Salem, Mona; Rabiei, Samira; Patterson, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for >3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75–1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for >2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81–1.07) or >3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I2 = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for >2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I2 = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. CONCLUSIONS The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies. PMID:22837371

  20. Breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility: what are the mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacker, A; Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Cable, N; Bartley, M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility and the possible mediating role of neurological and stress mechanisms. Design Secondary analysis of data from the 1958 and the 1970 British Cohort Studies. Setting Longitudinal study of individuals born in Britain during 1 week in 1958 and 1970. Participants 17 419 individuals participated in the 1958 cohort and 16 771 in the 1970 cohort. The effect of breast feeding on intergenerational social mobility from age 10/11 to age 33/34 was analysed after multiple imputations to fill in missing data and propensity score matching on a wide range of confounders measured in childhood (1958 cohort N=16 039–16 154; 1970 cohort N=16 255–16 361). Main outcome measures Own Registrar General's Social Class (RGSC) at 33/34 years adjusted for father's RGSC at 10/11 years, gender and their interaction. Results Breastfed individuals were more likely to be upwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38; 1970 cohort: OR 1.24 95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) and less likely to be downwardly mobile (1958 cohort: OR 0.81 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90; 1970 cohort: OR 0.79 95% CI 0.71 to 0.88). In an ordinal regression model, markers of neurological development (cognitive test scores) and stress (emotional stress scores) accounted for approximately 36% of the relationship between breast feeding and social mobility. Conclusions Breast feeding increased the odds of upward social mobility and decreased the odds of downward mobility. Consistent with a causal explanation, the findings were robust to matching on a large number of observable variables and effect sizes were alike for two cohorts with different social distributions of breast feeding. The effect was mediated in part through neurological and stress mechanisms. PMID:23798701

  1. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  2. Mother's breast milk supplemented with donor milk reduces hospital and health service usage costs in low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2016-09-01

    to compare hospital and health service usage costs of feeding low-birthweight (LBW) infants predominantly with their mother's milk, supplemented with donor milk, with donor milk and preterm formula. prospective matching study. tertiary public perinatal centre, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and donor human milk bank. 100LBW infants (Group I) fed predominantly with their mother's milk from the first hour of life, supplemented (mainly for the first week of life) with donor milk, were matched on a 1:1 basis with 100LBW infants (Group II) who were fed with donor milk for the first 3 weeks of life followed by preterm formula until hospital discharge. Individualised targeted fortification of human milk was implemented in both study groups. the costs of hospitalisation, doctor visits and prescription drugs for viral infections until 8 months of age were calculated for each infant. Infants fed predominantly with their mother's milk had significantly shorter hospital stays and lower hospitalisation costs. In Group I infants, the duration of enteral gavage feeding was shorter, resulting in significantly lower costs. Up to 8 months of age, Group I infants experienced fewer episodes of viral infections, and the cost of each doctor visit and drug prescription was lower for these infants. feeding LBW infants predominantly with their mother's milk reduces hospital and health service usage costs. feeding LBW infants predominantly with their mother's milk, supplemented with donor milk, followed by exclusive breast feeding seems to result in potential savings in hospital and health service usage costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S

    2013-11-01

    Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behavior of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviors (i.e., restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs. Hispanic), and if they were associated with the BMI of their 4-year-old offspring. Responses to the "restriction" and "pressure to eat" variables of the Child Feeding Questionnaire were compared between 51 white middle-income mothers and 49 Hispanic low-income mothers. Mothers from both groups gave predominantly "neutral" ratings in their self-reports of feeding practices. However, relative to the Hispanic mothers, white mothers indicated significantly less restriction and pressure to eat. Higher child BMI was predicted by male gender and being Hispanic. The utility of maternal feeding practices in predicting child overweight is discussed, and the significant association between the conceptually different constructs of restriction and pressure to eat is examined.

  4. Breast-feeding improves gut maturation compared with formula feeding in preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kostan W; de Vaan, Loes; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Derikx, Joep P M

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is higher in formula-fed babies than in breast-fed babies, which may be caused by breast-feeding-induced gut maturation. The effect of breast-feeding on gut maturation has been widely studied in animal models. This study aimed to assess the effects of breast-feeding on intestinal maturation in prematurely born babies by evaluating postnatal changes in urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels, a specific enterocyte marker. Gut maturation in 40 premature babies (breast-fed and 19 were formula-fed infants. Urinary I-FABP levels as the measure of gut maturation were measured at 5, 12, 19, and 26 days after birth. In breast-fed infants, there was a significant increase in median urinary I-FABP levels between 5 and 12 days after birth (104 [78-340] pg/mL to 408 [173-1028] pg/mL, P = 0.002), whereas I-FABP concentration in formula-fed infants increased between 12 and 19 days after birth (105 [44-557] pg/mL, 723 [103-1670] pg/mL, P = 0.004). Breast-fed babies had significantly higher median urinary I-FABP levels at postnatal day 12 (P = 0.01). The time course of the postnatal increase in urinary I-FABP levels reflecting gut maturation was significantly delayed in formula-fed babies, suggesting a delayed physiological response in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants.

  5. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  6. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  7. Mothers literacy status and its association with feeding practices and PEM among 1-5 year aged children in southern part of India, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of PEM in children aged 1 to 5 years and to study the association of mothers educational status with feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 1 to 5 years. Methods: A cross sectional study of 600 children of 1-5 year age group in urban slums of Mysore city was carried out with cluster random sampling method. The data was collected by using a predesigned and pretested proforma. Assessment of the nutritional status was done by clinical examination and anthropometry. WHO child growth standards, 2006 reference data were used to classify malnutrition. Results: Among 600 children examined, 285 (47.5% were males and 315 (52.5% were females. Exclusive breast feeding was given in 295 (49.2% of children. Pre lacteal feeds and top milk feeds were given in 123 (20.5% and 108 (18% of children respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 31.3%, 42.2% and 14.2% respectively. About 12.8% of mothers were illiterate and this was significantly associated with feeding practices and nutritional status of children. Conclusions: Mothers literacy status plays important role in feeding practices of their children which inturn is an important factor in determining the nutritional status of child

  8. The impact of sociodemographic and health-service factors on breast-feeding in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix A; Eastwood, John; Page, Andrew; Efe-Aluta, Oniovo; Anago-Amanze, Chukwudi; Kadiri, Eshioramhe A; Ifegwu, Ifegwu K; Woolfenden, Sue; Agho, Kingsley E

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to examine the impact of sociodemographic and health-service factors on breast-feeding in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries with high diarrhoea mortality. The study used the most recent and pooled Demographic and Health Survey data sets collected in nine SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality. Multivariate logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between sociodemographic and health-service factors and breast-feeding in SSA countries. Sub-Saharan Africa with high diarrhoea mortality. Children (n 50 975) under 24 months old (Burkina Faso (2010, N 5710); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013, N 6797); Ethiopia (2013, N 4193); Kenya (2014, N 7024); Mali (2013, N 3802); Niger (2013, N 4930); Nigeria (2013, N 11 712); Tanzania (2015, N 3894); and Uganda (2010, N 2913)). Overall prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) and early initiation of breast-feeding (EIBF) was 35 and 44 %, respectively. Uganda, Ethiopia and Tanzania had higher EBF prevalence compared with Nigeria and Niger. Prevalence of EIBF was highest in Mali and lowest in Kenya. Higher educational attainment and frequent health-service visits of mothers (i.e. antenatal care, postnatal care and delivery at a health facility) were associated with EBF and EIBF. Breast-feeding practices in SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality varied across geographical regions. To improve breast-feeding behaviours among mothers in SSA countries with high diarrhoea mortality, breast-feeding initiatives and policies should be context-specific, measurable and culturally appropriate, and should focus on all women, particularly mothers from low socio-economic groups with limited health-service access.

  9. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, therefore, various functional digestive disorders (aerophagias, regurgitations, flatulence, colics. It is important to ensure proper latching of the baby to the breast, as it is conductive of effective sucking, and recover complete breast feeding in the event of temporary supplementary and mixed feeding. The article presents results of a trial conducted at the FSBI Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Use of special medical products (nipples, phials developed on the basis of thorough study of maternal breast sucking physiology in the breast feeding termination risk group children (n = 33 allows maintaining children’s need in breast feeding and promotes effective breast feeding recovery.Key words: breast feeding, aerophagia, neonates, premature children, causes of weaning, special medical products (phials, nipples.

  10. Influences on Infant Feeding: Perceptions of Mother-Father Parent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Thullen, Matthew J; Davis, Alexandra N; Sethi, Tarunjot K

    The purpose of this study was to examine interrelational-, organizational-, and community-level influences on how coparents collaborate about infant and toddler feeding. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed mother-father parent dyads to explore the potential influences on infant and toddler feeding. Participants were purposively recruited from two Midwest, rural, university-system pediatric clinics. Thematic analysis was used to code the data. Mother-father dyadic interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview schedule. Twenty-four mother-father dyads who had a child between the ages of 6 and 36 months were interviewed together. Major themes include interpersonal factors (peer behavior reinforcement, dyad and important others infant feeding conflict, conflict resolution proactiveness), organizational factors (healthcare provider infant-feeding support, workplace flexibility), and community factors (public perception on breastfeeding and social media influence). Community-based collaboration can be a platform for mother-father dyads, researchers, public health nurses, and other healthcare providers to proactively create interventions that include opportunity for building coparenting skills and infant-feeding knowledge that promote team management of common early childhood feeding challenges.

  11. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than usual. Continue to nurse or feed on demand. Nursing mothers need not worry — breastfeeding stimulates milk production and your supply of breast milk will adjust to your baby's demand for it. Is My Newborn Getting Enough to ...

  12. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  13. Childbirth information feeds for first time Malawian mothers who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore imply that childbirth Education Program should also incorporate issues of adolescence through tailor made training programs. Studies in the developed countries are consistent with the results of this study as they also show that teenage mothers are at great risk for pregnancy, labor and postpartum complications8 ...

  14. Difficult choices: Infant feeding experiences of HIV-positive mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... The study is based on interviews and follow-up of 20 HIV-positive mothers during the last part of pregnancy, delivery and the first six ..... delivery, exit interviews after post-test counselling in the pMTCT clinic, and participant ..... confidence and self-determination. In this study only the women who were ...

  15. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  16. Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2010-08-01

    In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.

  17. Association of breast-feeding and feeding on demand with child weight status up to 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Thijs, C.; Stafleu, A.; Buuren, S. van; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of childhood overweight are unclear. This study examines the association of breast-feeding with weight gain in the first year, and body mass index (BMI) and overweight up to 4 years. In addition, we

  18. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2016-09-28

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors.

  19. Relationship between the Infant Feeding Preferences of Chinese Mothers' Immediate Social Network and Early Breastfeeding Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Tarrant, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between support from members of a mother's social network and breastfeeding continuation is receiving increased attention. The objectives of this study were to describe the infant feeding preferences of Chinese mothers' immediate social network and to examine the association between these preferences and early breastfeeding cessation. In total, 1172 mother-infant pairs were recruited from 4 public hospitals in Hong Kong and followed prospectively for 12 months or until breastfeeding stopped. Over 40% of participants' partners preferred breastfeeding and half had no infant feeding preference. Only about 20% of participants' mothers or mothers-in-law preferred breastfeeding, and less than 10% reported that all of the 3 significant family members (partner, mother, and mother-in-law) preferred breastfeeding. The partner's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding (odds ratio [OR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-4.71) or having no preference (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.16-2.30) was strongly associated with higher odds of stopping breastfeeding before 1 month. For every additional family member who preferred breastfeeding, the odds of stopping breastfeeding was reduced by almost 20% (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97). However, living with a parent-in-law (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.02-2.07) was also a predictor of early breastfeeding cessation. Knowing someone who had breastfed for ≥ 1 month (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97) or having been breastfed as a child (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-0.98) significantly lowered the odds of early breastfeeding cessation. The infant feeding preferences of mothers' immediate social network are significantly associated with breastfeeding continuation. Prenatal breastfeeding education programs should involve significant family members to promote breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; Fontannaz, Patric; Masserey Elmelegy, Isabelle; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Marmet, Cynthia; Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Thakkar, Sagar K; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Vynes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2016-11-10

    Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and with time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future.

  1. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giuffrida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA, phospholipids (PL, and gangliosides (GD play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD and with time of flight (TOF mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA, mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA, and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future.

  2. Infant feeding practices: realities and mind sets of mothers in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A; Mkhatshwa, H

    2007-10-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants in developing countries are at lower risk of HIV transmission than mixed-fed infants. Ethno-graphic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across South Africa, Namibia and Swaziland to understand how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling. Despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, very early mixed-feeding remains the norm; traditional conceptualisations of 'water as life' and 'milk as a fluid' are holding up against current PMTCT education, with milk considered liquid 'drink' rather than 'real food'. This aggravates an 'insufficient milk syndrome' where disempowered mothers perceive their breastmilk, and themselves, as deficient - 'not good enough'. Infant feeding is embedded within traditional relationships of intimacy; both relatives and breadwinner have influence and even authority over options and modes of infant feeding. In patriarchal and violent societies, traditional power differentials prohibit easy or complete HIV disclosure or condom negotiation; HIV status remains hidden from most partners and relatives. This context of secrecy means that the traditional advice and authority, which the mothers feel they dare not disregard, is often blind to the mother and her infant's HIV status and survival needs.

  3. Mothers' perception of the use of banked human milk for feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-18

    May 18, 2015 ... awareness and perception of breast milk banking. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 29.8 ± 5.5 years with. 46.5% having some form of terti- ary education and 48.5% having ... awareness of human milk banking and its acceptance among ..... may be worth evaluating in the future. Coutsoudis et.

  4. Is use of nifurtimox for the treatment of Chagas disease compatible with breast feeding? A population pharmacokinetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Altcheh, Jaime; Panchaud, Alice; Ito, Shinya

    2010-03-01

    Women with Chagas disease receiving treatment with nifurtimox are discouraged from breast feeding. Many patients who would receive treatment with nifurtimox live in extreme poverty, have limited access to resources such as clean water and baby formula and may not have safe alternatives to breast milk. We aimed to estimate, using limited available pharmacokinetics data, potential infant exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk. Original nifurtimox plasma concentrations were obtained from published studies. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modelling with NONMEM V.VI. A total of 1000 nifurtimox plasma-concentration profiles were simulated and used to calculate the amount of drug that an infant would be exposed to, if breast fed 150 ml/kg/day. Breast milk concentrations on the basis of peak plasma levels (1361 ng/ml) and milk-plasma ratio were estimated. We calculated infant nifurtimox exposure of a breastfed infant of a mother treated with this drug to be below 10% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose, even if milk-plasma ratio were overestimated. Simulation led to similar estimates. Risk for significant infant exposure to nifurtimox through breast milk seems small and below the level of exposure of infants with Chagas disease receiving nifurtimox treatment. This potential degree of exposure may not justify discontinuation of breast feeding.

  5. Pediatricians', obstetricians', gynecologists', and family medicine physicians' experiences with and attitudes about breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Inés; Berkeley, Lizabeth; Mulla, Zuber D; Byrd, Theresa; Nuwayhid, Bahij; Handal, Gilbert; Akins, Ralitsa

    2012-05-01

    Investigate physicians' breast-feeding experiences and attitudes using a survey based on two behavioral theories: theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the health belief model (HBM). There were 73 participants included in the investigation. These participants were resident and faculty physicians from pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and family medicine at a university campus, located on the US-Mexico border. The sample was reduced to 53 and 56 records for the attitude and confidence variables, respectively. Physicians answered a survey about their breast-feeding experiences and attitudes to learn about intention and ability applying constructs from TRA and HBM. An attitude scale, confidence variable (from self-efficacy items), and a lactation training index were created for the analysis. Analysis of the association between physicians' breastfeeding experiences and their attitudes revealed physicians are knowledgeable about breast-feeding and have positive attitudes towards breast-feeding. They did not seem to remember how long they breast-fed their children or whether they enjoyed breast-feeding, but they wanted to continue breast-feeding. Physicians cite work as a main reason for not continuing to breast-feed. Physicians' attitudes toward breast-feeding are positive. They are expected to practice health-promotion behavior including breast-feeding; however, physicians' breast-feeding rates are low and although they are knowledgeable about breast-feeding their training lacks on didactic depth and hands-on experience. If physicians learn more about breast-feeding and breast-feed exclusively and successfully, the rates in the United States would increase naturally.

  6. Mothers' feeding behaviors in infancy: Do they predict child weight trajectories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkevich, Eugene; Leid, Lucy; Pryor, Katherine; Wei, Ying; Huberman, Harris; Carnell, Susan

    2015-12-01

    To determine associations between mothers' feeding behaviors in infancy and children's weight from infancy through to toddlerhood in urban, low-income, minority families and to explore the contribution of concerns about infant eating/weight. One hundred sixty-nine mother-infant dyads (88% African-American) were recruited from an inner city pediatric practice. Questionnaires measuring restrictive feeding, pressuring to eat, and concerns about infant overeating/weight and undereating/weight were administered, and infants weighed and measured, at 6-12 months. Anthropometric data up to 30 months were obtained from multiple (8.9 ± 2.6) well-child visits, with 84% completing 11 visits. Higher pressuring was associated with lower weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) over the period from baseline out to 30 months and higher restriction with higher child WLZ over the same period. Pressuring and concern about infant undereating/weight were independently associated with WLZ, but the relationship between restrictive feeding and WLZ was reduced by accounting for concern about infant overeating/weight. Child weight trajectories were not influenced by feeding behavior. Mothers restricted heavier infants and pressured leaner infants to eat, and the relationship between restriction and higher infant weight was mediated by concern about infant overeating/weight. Correcting misperceptions and discussing feeding with mothers reporting concern may help prevent excessive early weight gain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Child Feeding Scale in Turkish Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Polat, PhD, RN

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides evidence of the CFS's validity and reliability. The scale has potential applications for use in research. The CFS can be used to assess aspects of child-feeding perceptions, attitudes, and practices and their relationships to children's developing food acceptance patterns, the control of food intake and obesity.

  8. [Knowlege about breast feeding advantages among primiparas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejewski, Andrzej; Urbaniak, Tomasz; Baczyk, Grazyna; Cichocka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the only way to nourish newborns and toddlers and it enables them to have an optimal health condition and growth. Both a child and a mother draw a lot of profits from breastfeeding. Woman's milk is perfectly balanced as far as quantity and quality is concerned. It has specific generic nourishment that ensures optimal psychological emotional and physical development of a child. Breastfeeding also protects infants from immunological problems and infections. Having the skills and knowledge about breastfeeding is the main factor that enables a smooth process of lactation. All the medical staff and midwives especially are obliged to promote breastfeeding and they should provide information as well as emotional and technical support for mums through the whole period of lactation. The aim of this thesis was to examine the level of knowledge about breastfeeding among first-time mothers. The research was carried out from August till October 2011 in birthing rooms of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Hospital for Medical University by the name of K. Marcinkowskiego in Poznań and Obstetrician Wing in Provincial Complex Hospital in Leszno. 101 randomly chosen pregnant women in labor were questioned. An anonymous survey was used as an analytic tool. The survey was specifically created for this research and it contained 30 questions. Majority of responders (98%) declared a will for breastfeeding. Also majority of women (94%) knew that their milk contains all the needed ingredients for proper development of their young. According to the pregnant women in labor (98%) breastfeeding is a key element in establishing an emotional connection with the child. Most of the responders knew the influence of breastfeeding on child's health. Minority of the questioned women (14%) attended birthing courses. The responders were equipped in knowledge on various levels. It proves the necessity of sys- tematic and planned education for women. The system of lactation counseling

  9. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  10. Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of Dhaka city: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Hoque, Md Asirul; Alam, Md Safiul

    2014-03-01

    Improper complementary feeding (CF) practice is one of the main reasons for malnutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than two years. In this context, using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this study assessed the CF practices among mothers in four selected slums (Tejgoan, Rayerbazar, Beribadh, and Jafrabad) of Dhaka city. This descriptive study, conducted during January-June 2010, included 120 mother-child pairs from the selected slums. Samples were selected conveniently, and the sociodemographic profiles of mothers in the four slums were similar. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 14.68 +/- 5.55 months. A questionnaire, developed following the guidelines of WHO for CF practices, was used for collecting data. Twenty-seven (23%) mothers were exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their children. Among non-EBF mothers, 15 (16%) started CF after the recommended time. At 6-8 months of age, 2 (40%) of the EBF and 12 (67%) of the non-EBF mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. In both the groups--9-11 months of age--about 70% mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. The frequency of CF was acceptable (3 times a day) in 13 (81%) of the EBF and 32 (56%) of the non-EBF children at 12-23 months of age. Complementary foods given by 24 (89%) of the EBF and 86 (93%) of the non-EBF mothers to their children were not adequate in energy contents. Two (7%) EBF and 16 (17%) non-EBF mothers did not wash their hands after defaecation. Three (11%) EBF and 24 (26%) non-EBF mothers did not properly clean their hands and utensils before feeding. Nine (33%) EBF mothers did not wash their children's hands. Fifty (54%) non-EBF mothers also did not do this. Feeding with psychosocial care practices was not perfect in either of the groups. The findings showed that, according to the WHO guidelines, the CF practices among mothers of children aged less than two years were very poor in the selected slums of

  11. Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Infant Feeding: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria Helena; Tavares Machado, Marcia Maria; Mezzavilla, Raquel S

    2017-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and timely introduction of appropriate solid foods are important determinants of weight status in infancy and later life stages. Disparities in obesity rates among young children suggest that maternal feeding practices during the first 2 years of life may contribute to these disparities. Brazilians are a growing immigrant group in the United States, yet little research has focused on parental beliefs and behaviors affecting the health of Brazilian immigrant children in the United States. Research aim: This study aimed to explore beliefs and infant-feeding practices of Brazilian immigrant mothers in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with Brazilian immigrant mothers. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and themes categorized using the socioecological model. Twenty-nine immigrant Brazilian mothers participated in the study. Analyses revealed that all participants breastfed their infants. The majority initiated breastfeeding soon after childbirth. However, most mothers did not exclusively breastfeed. They used formula and human milk concomitantly. Family and culture influenced mothers' infant-feeding beliefs and practices in early introduction of solid foods. As the number of children in the United States growing up in families of immigrant parents increases, understanding influences on Brazilian immigrant mothers' infant-feeding practices will be important to the development of effective interventions to promote healthy infant feeding and weight status among Brazilian children. Interventions designed for Brazilian immigrant families should incorporate an understanding of social context, family, and cultural factors to develop health promotion messages tailored to the needs of this ethnic group.

  12. Pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breast-feeding: a cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.

  13. Urinary Iodine Excretion of Lactating Mothers Predicts the Iodine Content of Their Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhadul Hoque Mollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine is essential for normal growth, mental development and survival of infants. Bangladesh is an iodine deficient region. Breast milk is the only source of iodine for exclusively breast-fed infants. Routine measurement of breast milk iodine concentration is very difficult in our country due to some social and religious barriers. So, we designed this study in our population using urinary iodine as the indicator for assessing iodine status. Objectives: To assess the iodine status of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants and to propose a method on how to predict the iodine concentration in breast milk. Materials and Methods: This observational analytical study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka with active cooperation of Kumudini Women’s Medical College Hospital, Mirzapur, Tangail involving fifty lactating mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Early morning urine and breast milk samples were collected in dry and clean plastic container free from any chemical contamination. All statistical analyses were done by using SPSS (Statistical Programme for Social Science 12 version software package for windows. Results: The median (range urinary iodine concentration of lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants were 225.25 μg/L (61.50-530.00 and 225.75 μg/L (100.50-526.50. 96% (48 mothers had no biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE ≥100μg/L, only 4% (2 mothers had mild biochemical iodine deficiency (UIE 50-99μg/L. There was no biochemical deficiency of breast-fed infants. The median (range breast-milk iodine concentration was 157 μg/L (54.50-431.50 which was more than three times of recommended minimum concentration (50 μg/L. Iodine in breast milk of lactating mothers positively correlated with their urinary iodine excretion (P<0.01. Infant’s urinary iodine positively correlated with iodine concentration in breast milk (P<0.01 and also

  14. Breast feeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether breast feeding is related to subsequent risk of breast cancer. DESIGN--Population based case-control study designed primarily to investigate the relation between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer; data obtained from questionnaires administered by interviewers, general practitioner notes, and family planning clinic records. SETTING--11 health regions in Britain. SUBJECTS--Women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 36 living in the defined study areas. One control per case, matched for age, was selected from the list of the case's general practitioner. 755 case-control pairs were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of breast feeding each liveborn infant; timing of return of menses; hormone use; other risk factors for breast cancer. RESULTS--Risk of breast cancer fell with increasing duration of breast feeding (relative risk = 0.94 per three months' breast feeding; test for trend p = 0.026) and with number of babies breast fed (relative risk = 0.86; test for trend, p = 0.017). Breast feeding each baby for longer than three months conferred no additional benefit. Breast feeding was more strongly negatively associated with risk of breast cancer than duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (chi 2 test for trend, p = 0.69). Hormonal suppression of lactation was unrelated to risk of breast cancer (relative risk = 0.96 per episode of suppressed lactation; test for trend, p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that breast feeding protects against the development of breast cancer in young women. PMID:8343660

  15. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  16. [Breast feeding in premature babies: development-centered care in Palestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Batran Ahmed, S M; Padilla López, C A; Guisado Barrilao, R; Gómez García, C

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its important role in the initiation of breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact benefits both mothers and their babies. To inform all mothers of premature babies about the importance of skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding in order to foment a closer bond between mother and child (development-centered care). A prospective cohort study was conducted in various hospitals on the West Bank in Palestine during 2008-2011. The universe was made up of an estimated average of 2,500 childbirths per year in each hospital. All of the subjects in the sample population of n = 252 babies had a gestational age of less than 37 GWs, and had weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth. For health reasons, they were hospitalized in neonatal care units. The results obtained showed that in Palestine, young women tend to breastfeed their babies and have skin-to-skin contact with them more often than older mothers. Once the new mothers were informed of the advantages of these practices, they showed greater interest in learning how to care for their babies in the neonatal care units. Breastfeeding premature babies as well as having skin-to-skin contact with them was made possible by informing and teaching new mothers about the advantages of this type of infant care. This research has had widespread impact and has been very well received by the female population in the country. This is the first study of its kind to be carried out in Palestine.

  17. Breast milk composition in a cohort of pre-term infants' mothers followed in an ambulatory programme in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, N; Ruiz, J G

    2007-12-01

    Describing preterm breast milk evolution and composition according to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in a cohort of mothers cared for in an ambulatory Kangaroo Mother Care Program (KMCP) in a developing country. A cohort involving 113 mothers who delivered 'healthy' preterms adequate for GA was assembled. Mothers received intensive breastfeeding support before discharge. Samples of both fore- and hind milk were obtained at entry into KMCP and weekly thereafter, until term. Composition was described according to PNA and postconceptional age (PCA). Protein concentration varied inversely with both PCA and PNA. Fat concentration was consistently higher in hind milk than in fore milk samples of the same feed. Lactose increased steadily with PCA. Calcium/phosphorus ratios were stable, close to 2:1 and content of both was similar in samples of different PCA and PNA. Minerals concentration could be inadequate for preterms. Protein concentration decreases steadily to mature milk levels by the third week of PNA, regardless of birth GA. Therefore, from the third week of PNA onwards, protein content could be insufficient to satisfy needs of preterms born at 32 weeks or less. Feeding hind milk could increase caloric density and fat intake to better meet preterms' nutritional needs.

  18. Mother-daughter communication about breast cancer risk: interpersonal and biological stress processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kate L; Andreotti, Charissa; Yull, Fiona; Grau, Ana M; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Women with a personal or maternal history of breast cancer experience psychological stress in relation to breast cancer risk, and adolescent and young adult daughters are particularly at risk for experiencing stress related to their mothers' history of breast cancer. The current study examined interpersonal and biological stress responses during a laboratory-based communication task about breast cancer risk in 32 mother-daughter dyads and explores whether certain communication styles between mothers and daughters are associated with increased stress reactivity during the task. Five saliva samples were collected from each participant to determine cortisol baseline levels, reactivity to, and recovery from the task. Negative maternal communication was associated with higher cortisol levels in daughters. In addition, maternal sadness was correlated with lower levels of daughters' cortisol at all time points with the exception of baseline measures. Implications for understanding the psychobiology of stress in women at risk for breast cancer are highlighted.

  19. Japanese mothers' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes assessed by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Madoka; Binns, Colin W; Katsuki, Yoko; Ouchi, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    This study describes Japanese mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale (IIFAS). A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 mothers was conducted in Japan in 2007. The participants were recruited at the free health checks conducted for infants at 18 months of age. The survey was self-administered using the Japanese version of the IIFAS. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise sample characteristics and IIFAS score followed by multiple logistic regression to identify association between total IIFAS score and breastfeeding duration. While the IIFAS showed that the majority recognized some benefits of breastfeeding, their overall knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding were neutral and more positive towards the use of infant formula. It is important to provide accurate prenatal education that focuses on methods and long-term benefits of infant feeding to mothers, family and health professionals.

  20. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  1. A feeding education program to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Dévieux, Jessy G; Théodore, Harry; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Antillus, Lynda; Cadot, Ionie; Pape, Jean William; Malow, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    In Haiti, as in most of the developing world, vertical transmission of HIV from infected mother to infant through postpartum breastfeeding remains a significant mode of transmission. As part of their prevention of mother-to-child transmission program, the Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers developed a feeding education program in which over 83% of the HIV-positive pregnant women who were eligible to participate, enrolled. Bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compare feeding choices of the 290 women who participated in the feeding education program to 58 who did not. Of those who participated, 91.7% chose to use replacement formulas for their newborns, while 75.9% of those who did not participate chose replacement feeding. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, analyses revealed that the no education group was less likely to adopt replacement feeding and more likely to use mixed feeding (OR=0.31, p=0.004; and OR=2.74, p=0.05, respectively). This suggests that a targeted and culturally appropriate education program can be effective in encouraging replacement feeding, even in those countries where breastfeeding is the norm.

  2. COMPONENTS OF SUCCESS ON THE PATH TO PROLONGATION OF THE BREAST-FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kachalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a perfect nutrition for infants during their first year of life. Despite the enormous significance of breast feeding for the formation of children health, its prevalence is still very low. Careful doctors’ attention to every woman, consulting on the issues of breast feeding will help to overcome its inadequate prevalence and prolong its duration to the maximum. Advantages of the breast feeding, including situations when a child requires supplementary bottle feeding, are described in this article. Selection of appropriate nipples and bottles, for one thing, will help to reduce children’s anxiety, associated with colic, and, in the second place, will contribute to maintaining of the breast feeding, if the process of suction from bottles is analogous to the process of feeding from mother’s breast.

  3. effect of measles antibodies in the breast milk and sera of mother on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    And this could explain the role of mother - child factor as it affects measles seroconversion after vaccination. This study was therefore designed to determine the relationship between the measles antibody in the breast milk and sera of mothers and its effect on the seroconversion of their children after measles vaccination.

  4. A pacifier-activated music player with mother's voice improves oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Olena D; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Lulu; Stark, Ann R; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to test the hypothesis that mother's voice played through a pacifier-activated music player (PAM) during nonnutritive sucking would improve the development of sucking ability and promote more effective oral feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants between 34 0/7 and 35 6/7 weeks' postmenstrual age, including those with brain injury, who were taking at least half their feedings enterally and less than half orally, were randomly assigned to receive 5 daily 15-minute sessions of either PAM with mother's recorded voice or no PAM, along with routine nonnutritive sucking and maternal care in both groups. Assignment was masked to the clinical team. Ninety-four infants (46 and 48 in the PAM intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. The intervention group had significantly increased oral feeding rate (2.0 vs. 0.9 mL/min, P stress or growth.

  5. A comparison of infant and toddler feeding practices of mothers with and without histories of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Bentley, Margaret E; Hamer, Robert M; Hodges, Eric A; Ward, Dianne S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-07-01

    This preliminary study surveyed the feeding practices of mothers with eating disorder histories through evaluation of mothers' reported feeding styles, child diet composition and restrictive special approaches to feeding. For this non-randomised cohort study, 25 mothers with eating disorder histories and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group and child sex. Mothers were compared on self-reported feeding style using the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire and on child diet composition and special feeding approaches using a modified version of the Toddler Diet Questionnaire from the Women, Infants, and Children program. Mothers with eating disorder histories scored lower on the restrictive feeding style subscale than controls. No significant differences were detected between groups in child diet including the percentage of mothers who breastfed, duration of breastfeeding, age at solid food introduction, daily number of meals or snacks or daily frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or protein foods. Mothers with eating disorder histories were more likely to report taking a restrictive special approach to feeding such as limiting processed foods or feeding organic foods only. Although mothers with eating disorder histories may not differ greatly from control mothers in terms of child diet composition (smaller effects may not have been detected due to limited sample size), they may be more likely to take restrictive special approaches to feeding which mirror dietary rules common in individuals with eating disorders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-08-29

    Objective  To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants  72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures  Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results  Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; Pbreast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; Pbreast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially influenced by postpartum amenorrhea (% mediated was 34% (95% confidence interval 15% to 59%) for total breast feeding and 57% (27% to 82%) for exclusive breast feeding). Conclusion  Among women who experienced at least one pregnancy that lasted at least six

  7. [Breast-feeding (part IV): Therapeutic uses, dietetic and addictions--guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, L; Chantry, A A

    2015-12-01

    To describe the practical aspects of the use of the most commonly prescribed drugs during the postpartum period, the dietetic measures and the management of breast-feeding in case of addictive behaviors. Review of the literature between 1972 and May 2015 from the databases Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and international recommendations of learned societies. The precaution to stop breast-feeding when drugs are necessary is not justified in many situations (professional consensus). Aspirin at antiaggregant dose is allowed during breast-feeding while high doses are not recommended; NSAIDs with short half-life can be used (professional consensus). Precautions are needed in cases of use of morphonics (professional consensus). There is no justification to delay the initiation of breast-feeding in case of locoregional or general analgesia or for caesarean section. Antibiotic treatment does not justify discontinuing breast-feeding (professional consensus). Anxiolytics of the class of antihistaminic sedating H1 such as hydroxyzine (Atarax®) should not be prescribed in case of breast-feeding (professional consensus). Imaging does not justify to stop breast-feeding (professional consensus). Tobacco consumption is discouraged but is not a contraindication to breast-feed (professional consensus). It is recommended to avoid the consumption of alcohol (professional consensus). In case of occasional and moderate consumption of alcohol, delaying breast-feeding for a minimum of two hours is recommended (professional consensus). Cocaine consumption is a contraindication of breast-feeding (professional agreement), and breast-feeding is not recommended in case of cannabis use (professional consensus). Few drug treatments are not compatible with breast-feeding that can be continued in most of the cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Effect of a hospital policy of not accepting free infant formula on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Yw; Fong, Daniel Yt; Lee, Irene Ly; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Wu, Kendra M; Bai, Dorothy L; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy My; Chan, Noel Pt; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of public hospitals in Hong Kong not accepting free infant formula from manufacturers on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration. Prospective cohort study. In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. Two cohorts of breast-feeding mother-infant pairs (n 2560). Cohort 1 (n 1320) was recruited before implementation of the policy to stop accepting free infant formula and cohort 2 (n 1240) was recruited after policy implementation. Participants were followed prospectively for 12 months or until they stopped breast-feeding. The mean number of formula supplements given to infants in the first 24 h was 2·70 (sd 3·11) in cohort 1 and 1·17 (sd 1·94) in cohort 2 (Pbreast-fed during the hospital stay increased from 17·7 % in cohort 1 to 41·3 % in cohort 2 (Pbreast-feeding cessation was significantly lower in cohort 2 (hazard ratio=0·81; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·90). Participants who non-exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay had a significantly higher risk of stopping any or exclusive breast-feeding. Higher levels of formula supplementation also increased the risk of breast-feeding cessation in a dose-response pattern. After implementation of a hospital policy to pay market price for infant formula, rates of in-hospital formula supplementation were reduced and the rates of in-hospital exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding duration increased.

  9. [Breast-feeding during the first month of life in Cordoba city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrouni, L; Sabulsky, J; Reyna, S; Quiroga, D

    1996-03-01

    In the foregoing investigation breast-feeding during the first 30 days of life was studied in a representative sample of 620 babies born and settled down in the city of Cordoba Argentina. To analyse this information, the classification of breastfeeding suggested by the WHO/UNICEF was used. The results reveal that being a month old, 26% of the babies had complete breastfeeding 60% had partial breastfeeding and the remaining 14% did not have it at all. Among the children with complete breast-feeding, 21% was exclusive and 5% was prevailing. 18% of the babies were exposed to breastfeeding before an hour and a half after they were born, the average number of nursings a day was 7.3 (D.S. 1.9) taking less than 15 minutes to reach the 57%; and with a free-demanding timetable in 44%. The children with partial breast-feeding were classified into low, medium, and high being 20%, 54%, 22% respectively. The average age in which another milk was introduced was 3.7 days, and the main reasons were "insufficient mother milk", and "the child's hunger". Among the children with artificial lactation, 87% were once exposed to breastfeeding, the weaning took place during the 4 days in average (D.S. 5.6) and in an abrupt way in 55% of them. The Health personnel helped supporting the introduction of lacteal formula in 68% of the children with partial lactation and in 42% of the cases of complete abandon of natural breastfeeding.

  10. Efficacy and Maternal Comfort of Sequential versus Simultaneous Breast Expression by Mothers of Critically III Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Altun Köroğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Expressed breast milk is beneficial for infants in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU when direct breastfeeding is not possible. Breast expression with manual or electric breast pumps is promoted for the initiation and maintenance of lactation in this critical period. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and maternal comfort of sequential versus simultaneous breast expression in newly delivered mothers whose infants were admitted to NICU. Materials and Methods: Thirty five mothers were followed prospectively for milk expression either sequentially (n=21, group 1 or simultaneously (n=14, group 2 with breast pumps for 10 days. The total amount of milk expressed per day and per each period was recorded together with the duration of breast expression. The mothers’ impressions about the easiness and comfort of the procedure, and their satisfaction with the amount of milk were evaluated with a questionnaire at the end of the study. Results: The amounts of expressed milk per day and per each expression period were similar in both groups. However, time spent for each expression period was significantly lower in the simultaneous breast expression group. Mothers in this group gave higher scores with regard to ease of use when compared to mothers in the sequential expression group (4.36±0.50 vs. 4.00±0.44, p=0.046. The mothers graded both methods with similar scores in all other parameters. Conclusion: Simultaneous breast expression is time saving while both simultaneous and sequential breast expression are similarly efficient for milk production, and both methods are helpful and tolerable in promoting breastfeeding for NICU mothers.

  11. Breast is best: Positive mealtime interactions in breastfeeding mothers from Israel and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netalie Shloim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined mealtime interactions to assess whether they varied according to maternal body mass index, country and mode of feeding in 41 Israeli and UK mother–infant dyads. Feeding behaviours were coded using the Simple Feeding Element Scale. Significantly, more UK mothers breastfed during the filmed meal compared to Israeli mothers. Mealtime interactions did not vary according to maternal body mass index or country. Women who breastfed (as opposed to those who bottle fed or fed solids provided fewer distractions during the meal, a more ideal feeding environment and fed more responsively.

  12. Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Boh Boi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lu, Yi; Chong, Yap Seng; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; He, Hong-Gu

    2017-11-01

    The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study. A private maternal and children's hospital in Singapore. Mothers (n=227) with breast engorgement within 14days after delivery. The mothers were randomly assigned into either cold cabbage leaves, cold gel packs, or the control group. Pain, hardness of breasts, and body temperature were measured before treatment. Two sets of post-test assessments were conducted at 30min, 1h, and 2h after the first and second application. The duration of breastfeeding was measured up to 6 months. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the data. Mothers in the cabbage leaves and gel packs groups had significant reductions in pain at all post-intervention time points compared to the control group, starting from 30min after the first application of cabbage leaves (mean difference=-0.38, p=0.016) or gel packs (mean difference=-0.39, p=0.013). When compared to the control group, mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at all post-intervention time points, and mothers in the gel packs group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at two time points (1h and 2h after the first and second application, respectively). Mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in pain (mean difference=-0.53, p=0.005) and hardness of breasts (mean difference=-0.35, p=0.003) at 2h after the second application compared to those in the gel packs group. Both interventions had no impact on body temperature. There was no significant difference in the durations of

  13. Colic, "overfeeding", and symptoms of lactose malabsorption in the breast-fed baby: a possible artifact of feed management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolridge, M W; Fisher, C

    1988-08-13

    Curtailing the time for which a baby feeds at the first breast, in order to encourage intake from the second breast, may maximise milk production by the mother. With escalation of this situation a point may be reached at which the infant, because of the constraint of his stomach capacity, is unable to consume sufficient calories at a feed, since foremilk is lower in calories than hindmilk. The result will be symptoms of hunger (crying, fretfulness) and maybe even failure to thrive. The low fat content of the diet may cause rapid gastric emptying. This in turn may lead to lactose reaching the small bowel in concentrations that may tax the infant's lactase potential, with resulting diarrhoea. A simple change in breastfeeding patterns may alleviate some instances of undernutrition or diarrhoea.

  14. HABITS AND ATTITUDES OF MOTHERS OF INFANTS IN RELATION TO BREASTFEEDING AND ARTIFICIAL FEEDING IN 11 BRAZILIAN CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Mauro Batista de; Cardoso, Ary Lopes; Lazarini, Tamara; Mosquera, Elaine Martins Bento; Mallozi, Márcia Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between habits and attitudes of mothers and the types of milk offered to their children in their first two years of life. Retrospective study including 773 interviews of mothers from 11 Brazilian cities with children under 2 years of age. Interviews were conducted in 11 cities of Brazil. The following factors were analyzed: breastfeeding method planned during pregnancy and the method actually applied after birth; type(s) of milk(s) used on the day of the interview and earlier; age at which the child was introduced to whole milk; and source of advice used to choose a certain type of milk. Breast milk was offered to 81.7% of infants during their first six months of life, to 52.2% of infants during their second semester (p<0.001) and to 32.9% of infants during their second year of life (p<0.001). In contrast, cow's milk consumption increased from 31.1 to 83.8% (p<0.001) and 98.7% (p=0.05), respectively, for these three age groups. Infant (15.0%) and follow-on (also known as toddler's) (2.3%) formulas were used by a much smaller number of infants than whole cow's milk. Most mothers were not prescribed whole cow's milk. Pediatricians were the health care professionals who most often recommended infant formulas. Rates of breastfeeding in Brazil remain below recommended levels. Brazilian mothers often decide to feed their infants with whole cow's milk on their own initiative. The use of infant formulas after weaning is still too low.

  15. Pumping human milk in the early postpartum period: its impact on long-term practices for feeding at the breast and exclusively feeding human milk in a longitudinal survey cohort1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most American mothers who feed human milk (HM) now use pumps to produce some of the HM they feed. Pumping is nationally recommended, but associations between pumping and HM-feeding durations are unknown. Objectives: We examined whether and how the pumping frequency and types of reasons for pumping between 1.5 and 4.5 mo postpartum are associated with HM-feeding durations. We classified pumping reasons as nonelective [e.g., because of a difficulty feeding at the breast (FAB)] or elective (e.g., to produce HM to mix with solids). We hypothesized that women who pumped more frequently or nonelectively would have shorter HM-feeding durations. Design: We used data from 1116 mothers in a longitudinal cohort who fed and pumped HM 1.5–4.5 mo postpartum. We used χ2 and Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the survival of any HM feeding, exclusive HM feeding, and FAB. Results: Compared with mothers who pumped for elective reasons, mothers who reported one nonelective reason had greater hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.21) or exclusive HM (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.20) and of stopping FAB (HR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.77, 2.42). Mothers who pumped most frequently had the highest mean hazards of stopping feeding any HM (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.68, 1.93) and feeding exclusive HM (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26). Hazards of stopping FAB varied across the year. Compared with the least-frequent pumpers, the most-frequent pumpers had a 2.6-fold higher hazard of stopping FAB at 3 mo postpartum and a 1.7-fold higher hazard at 6 mo postpartum. Conclusions: Nonelective pumping reasons and higher pumping frequency were associated with shorter HM-feeding durations. Mothers who report that they use a breast pump for reasons related to either employment or FAB difficulty and their infants may be more vulnerable to risks associated with a shorter HM-feeding duration. PMID:27009751

  16. Feeding beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers. Validation of a modified version of the child feeding questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hong; Mallan, Kimberley M; Mihrshahi, Seema; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-09-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) developed by Birch et al. (2001) is a widely used tool for measuring parental feeding beliefs, attitudes and practices. However, the appropriateness of the CFQ for use with Chinese populations is unknown. This study tested the construct validity of a novel Chinese version of the CFQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Participants included a convenience sample of 254 Chinese-Australian mothers of children aged 1-4 years. Prior to testing, the questionnaire was translated into Chinese using a translation-back-translation method, one item was reworded to be culturally appropriate, a new item was added (monitoring), and five items that were not age-appropriate for the sample were removed. Based on previous literature, both a seven-factor and an eight-factor model were assessed via CFA. Results showed that the eight-factor model, which separated restriction and use of food rewards, improved the conceptual clarity of the constructs and provided a good fit to the data. Internal consistency of all eight factors was acceptable (Cronbach's α: .60-.93). This modified eight-factor CFQ appears to be a linguistically and culturally appropriate instrument for assessing feeding beliefs and practices in Chinese-Australian mothers of young children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV

  18. Effect of using HIV and infant feeding counselling cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaniyi Olusegun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive mothers on safer infant and young child feeding (IYCF options is an important component of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV, but the quality of counselling is often inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine the effect the World Health Organization HIV and infant feeding cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers by health workers about safer infant feeding options. Method This was a un-blinded cluster-randomized controlled field trial in which 36 primary health facilities in Kafue and Lusaka districts in Zambia were randomized to intervention (IYCF counselling with counselling cards or non- intervention arm (IYCF counselling without counselling cards. Counselling sessions with 10 HIV positive women attending each facility were observed and exit interviews were conducted by research assistants. Results Totals of 180 women in the intervention group and 180 women in the control group were attended to by health care providers and interviewed upon exiting the health facility. The health care providers in the intervention facilities more often discussed the advantages of disclosing their HIV status to a household member (RR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.11, 1.92]; used visual aids in explaining the risk of HIV transmission through breast milk (RR = 4.65, 95% CI [2.28, 9.46]; and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers (all p values Conclusion The addition of counselling cards to the IYCF counselling session for HIV positive mothers were a valuable aid to counselling and significantly improved the quality of the counselling session.

  19. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  20. [Effects of an Individual Breast-feeding Promotion Program for Married Immigrant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyoung; Moon, So Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of an individual breast-feeding promotion program to address breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice for married immigrant women. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used (experimental group=16, control group=17). The intervention consisted of 3 phases: (1) Within 2 hours of delivery - individual breast-feeding training through video/verbal/practical training education and demonstration (2) After 1~2 days - group training using video, model doll, and breast models (3) After 7 days - family visit, counseling, retraining and reinforcement training. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests with the SPSS program. Married immigrant women who participated in the individual breast-feeding program scored high in knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practice compared to the control group. The results indicate that the individual breast-feeding program is very effective in increasing breast-feeding knowledge, attitude, method and rate of practicing breast feeding for married immigrant women. So, nurses are encouraged to aggressively utilize individual breast-feeding programs to help married immigrant women, who are exposed to vulnerability due to various situations.

  1. Comparison Of Prevalence Of Postpartum Depression Symptoms Between Breastfeeding Mothers And Non-breastfeeding Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tashakori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a relationship between infant feeding method and maternal postpartum depression (PPD. This study was carried out in an Iranian population to compare the prevalence of PPD symptoms between breast feeding and non-breast feeding mothers for first time.Methods: Four health centers in Ahvas were selected by random sampling in 2009. At first 78 non-breast feeding mothers at two months postpartum were recruited in the study and then 78 breast feeding mothers were recruited through random sampling. They were re-assessed in six months postpartum period. Demographic and obstetric data questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS were used.Results: There was a significant difference in prevalence of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale positive between breast feeding (2.5% and non- breast feeding mothers (19.4% (p=0.004.Conclusion: Infant feeding method may be related to maternal mood disorder and breast feeding mothers are less depressed. Breastfeeding may decrease PPD.

  2. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...

  3. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  4. Realities, difficulties, and outcomes for mothers choosing to breastfeed: primigravid mothers experiences in the early postpartum period (6-8 weeks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; Spencer, Rachael; Walsh, Denis

    2014-01-01

    to develop an understanding of primiparous women's experiences and challenges of breast feeding in the early postpartum period at two BFI accredited hospitals in the East Midlands in the UK that has lower rates of sustained breast feeding. a hermeneutic or interpretive phenomenology study was conducted across two hospitals in the East Midlands, UK. 22 primigravid women completed a daily written diary maintained for six weeks post birth. In addition, interviews were conducted with 13 women, nine who had completed a diary and four who did not return a diary but wanted to be interviewed, providing 26 different women's perspectives on their breast feeding experiences either from a diary or interview. three main themes emerged from the interviews and written diaries: (1) mothers experience a 'roller coaster' of emotions in relation to trying to establish breast feeding, (2) mothers perceive health care professionals as the 'experts' on breast feeding and (3) mothers had difficulties in breast feeding their infants in public, including in front of family and family and when away from their homes. women were ill prepared for the realities of breast feeding despite their antenatal intention to breast feed. Mothers had a preconceived idea that breast feeding would be 'natural' and without difficulty. When problems occurred, they perceived this to be a breast feeding problem and so choose artificial milk. Mothers require ongoing support to breast feed, especially in the early postpartum period, but more realistic messages about breast feeding need to be included. there is a clear need for antenatal education to focus on preparing women for the realities of breast feeding, including newborn behaviour, which may affect women's perceptions of breast feeding. Local health care professionals need to draw upon national breast feeding strategies but develop a localised approach in order to address the regional variance. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights

  5. Breast feeding is associated with postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Costello, Tracy J.; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Wetter, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between breast feeding and postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy and who were participating in a randomized clinical trial of an intervention designed to prevent postpartum relapse. Methods: A total of 251 women were enrolled in the intervention between 30 and 33 weeks postpartum and were followed through 26 weeks postpartum. Participant characteristics were assessed at the prepartum baseline visit, any breast feeding was assessed at 8 weeks postpartum, and smoking abstinence was assessed at 8 and 26 weeks postpartum. Results: Although 79.1% of participants intended to breast feed, only 40.2% reported breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum. Characteristics associated with breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum included Caucasian race/ethnicity, greater education, higher household income, and being married/living with a significant other. Logistic regression analysis indicated that breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was significantly associated with smoking abstinence at 8 weeks postpartum, odds ratio (OR) = 7.27 (95% CI = 3.27, 16.13), p Breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was also associated with abstinence at 26 weeks postpartum after controlling for smoking status at 8 weeks postpartum, OR = 2.64 (95% CI = 1.14, 6.10), p = .02. Discussion: Encouraging breast feeding among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy may facilitate postpartum smoking abstinence while increasing adherence to current infant feeding guidelines. PMID:20713441

  6. Drinking-water quality, sanitation, and breast-feeding: their interactive effects on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, J; Popkin, B; Briscoe, J

    1994-01-01

    The promotion of proper infant feeding practices and the improvement of environmental sanitation have been two important strategies in the effort to reduce diarrhoeal morbidity among infants. Breast-feeding protects infants by decreasing their exposure to water- and foodborne pathogens and by improving their resistance to infection; good sanitation isolates faecal material from the human environment, reducing exposures to enteric pathogens. Taken together, breast-feeding and good sanitation form a set of sequential barriers that protect infants from diarrhoeal pathogens. As a result, breast-feeding may be most important if the sanitation barrier is not in place. This issue is explored using data from a prospective study of 2355 urban Filipino infants during the first 6 months of life. Longitudinal multivariate analyses are used to estimate the effects of full breast-feeding and mixed feeding on diarrhoeal disease at different levels of sanitation. Breast-feeding provides significant protection against diarrhoeal disease for infants in all environments. Administration of even small portions of contaminated water supplements to fully breast-fed infants nearly doubles their risk of diarrhoea. Mixed-fed and weaned infants consume much greater quantities of supplemental liquids, and as a result, the protective effect of full breast-feeding is greatest when drinking-water is contaminated. Similarly, full breast-feeding has stronger protective effects among infants living in crowded, highly contaminated settings.

  7. Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breast feeding has been recommended worldwide as optimal feeding option for human infants. Despite its numerous advantages, most lactating mothers are not practicing it. Objective: To assess the knowledge of rural women of exclusive breast feeding, to determine their practices of it and factors ...

  8. Artificial milk-feeding women's views of their feeding choice in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Louise; Begley, Cecily; Clarke, Michael; Carroll, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Objective: despite the well-documented benefits of breast feeding to both mother and child, breast-feeding initiation rates in Ireland are the second lowest in Europe. This study set out to explore the views of women from low socio-economic groups in Ireland on their choice to feed their infants artificial milk, and to elicit factors that may encourage these women to breast feed in the future. Design: a qualitative descriptive approach was used. Methods: data were collected throu...

  9. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonia, Kimberly; Twells, Laurie; Halfyard, Beth; Ludlow, Valerie; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet

    2013-07-12

    Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the "cultural norm" in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants. The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers.

  10. Essential fatty acids in breast milk of atopic mothers: comparison with non-atopic mothers, and effect of borage oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, C; Houwelingen, A; Poorterman, I; Mordant, A; van den Brandt, P

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate whether levels of n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) in human breast milk are related to the mother's atopic constitution, and whether a decreased level can be restored by gamma-linolenic acid supplementation. Cross-sectional study and dietary supplementation trial. 20 atopic mothers and 20 non-atopic mothers (controls), all lactating. General population. The atopic mothers were randomly assigned to low (n=10) or high (n=10) dosage oral supplementation with oral borage oil for one week (230 or 460 mg gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) per day). Essential fatty acid composition of the breast milk total fat fraction, determined by gas liquid chromatography. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was lower in breast milk of atopic mothers compared with non-atopic mothers (0.39 wt% vs 0.46 wt%, difference -0.07% wt% (95% confidence limits -0.13, -0.01 wt%; PLeeuwarden, The Netherlands).

  11. Uso do copinho no alojamento canguru Cup-feeding in kangaroo mother care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Passos Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o manejo das mães no uso do copinho e analisar os aspectos que interferem para administração dessa técnica. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de 30 binômios mãe/bebê. O estudo desenvolvido foi transversal de correlação. Foram realizadas coletas nos prontuários das mães e do bebê, executada uma observação das mães ofertando a dieta no copinho e aplicado um questionário com perguntas sobre o uso do copo. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio do programa software estatístico, SPSS 13.0. Aplicou-se testes de estatística descritiva, mais especificamente a distribuição das freqüências e das percentagens relativas de cada dado observado. Em relação à associação entre as variáveis estudadas foram utilizados os seguintes testes: teste Qui-Quadrado, com nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: to evaluate cup feeding manipulation by mothers of low weight preterm infants' and to analyze the aspects that interfere in the correct use of this technique. METHODS: a cross-section correlation study was conducted. The sample included 30 pairs of mothers and babies. Data collection was based on patient' charts; interviews with the newborn' mothers and observing a diet offered in a cup feeding by mothers. The analysis of the results was based on the Software Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0. We used descriptive statistical techniques through the distribution of the frequencies and the relatives percentages of each observed data. The Chi-square test and the Sperman Correlation Coeficient were used to analyze association between the variables (p<0.05. RESULTS: there is a significant relation between the babies' posture, the cup feeding, the volume given and the health professional guidance about cup feeding. CONCLUSION: mothers can manipulate the cup feeding, however, they need healthy professional guidance on this technique (cup feeding and the milk's volume; mainly in relation to the care with

  12. Parental feeding behaviours and motivations: a qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Cooke, L; Cheng, R; Robbins, A; Wardle, J

    2011-01-01

    Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children’s eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents’ motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity prevention. The present study obtained interview and diary data on specific feeding behaviours and underlying motivations from 22 mothers of predominantly healthy weight 3–5 y olds in the UK. Parents described a wide range of efforts to promote or restrict intake that were largely motivated by practical and health considerations and only rarely by concern about weight. There was also evidence for instrumental feeding, rules surrounding meal-time, child involvement, and parental flexibility in relation to feeding. Almost all parents described responding to children’s appetitive traits, consistent with growing evidence for genetically-influenced individual differences in children’s appetite. These findings suggest that in order to engage parents of currently healthy weight children, obesity prevention advice should aim to satisfy their primary motivations (practicality, health), and be framed as helping parents to respond sensitively and appropriately to different children’s characteristics. PMID:21884741

  13. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  14. Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N Theresa; Raine, Kim D; Dayle, Jutta B; Anderson, Bonnie; Battaglia, Noreen

    2003-03-18

    Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about "food insecurity," that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets.

  15. OXYTOCIN LEVEL AND BREAST ENGORGEMENT IN PRIMIPARA MOTHER WITH POSTPARTUM BLUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Larasati Sugeng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum is a great moment for most the woman, but for some of them is a frightening moment. Postpartum blues makes woman avoiding their baby. Whereas lactation process needs to be done in early postpartum period. The aim of this study is analyzing the oxytocin level and breast engorgement incident in primipara mother with postpartum blues in Obtetry & Gynecology Department of Dr. M Soewandhie Hospital of Surabaya. Method: This study was used cross sectional design. Population were primiparas and samples were 41 primiparas choosen by random sampling according to inclusion criteria. The independent variable was postpartum blues, dependent variables were breast engorgement and oxytocin level. The instruments used were Kennerly & Gath Postpartum Scale, and Six-point Engorgement Scale. Data were analyzed with Spearman Test and Mann Whitney Test using α<0,05. Result: The result shown that the oxytocin level change comparing the postpartum blues in p=0,002 and increasing breast engorgement incident comparing to postpartum blues in p=0,000. Discussion: There was difference of oxytocin level between postpartum blues mother and not postpartum blues mother and increasing of breast engorgement incident to postpartum blues mother comparing to not postpartum blues mother. Dr. M. Soewandie hospital of Surabaya needs to arrange a standard in service of treating laboring mother in case of reducing stress during delivery process and manage ward situation comfortly.

  16. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  17. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A.; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the

  18. Infant feeding and maternal attitudes among mothers of low-income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, J D; Milo, T; Collins, T R

    1983-08-01

    Demographic variables, maternal attitudes, knowledge, practices, and support systems were examined in a sample of 50 women attending a public health clinic for well baby visits. Black women were nonsystematically selected an approached as they were waiting for their babies. Because the number of white women attending the clinic was small, an effort was made to include all of them. Data were obtained through individual interviews conducted by a trained interviewer. A questionnaire was constructed to obtain demographic information, information regarding prenatal awareness, delivery, mother infant interaction in the hospital, nutrition and infant care during the 1st year of life, and attitudes. 68% of the women were black and 32% were married. Most unmarried mothers lived with parents (50%), other relatives (26.5%), or ex husbands/boyfriends (5.9%). The mean educational level of 11.8 years was higher than anticipated for studies of public health department clinic populations. Teenagers made up 38% of the sample. 74% of the women reported family incomes below $8000. 64% had more than 1 child. Only 2 mothers in the sample had attended childbirth classes. 2/3 of the mothers recalled receiving no prior information about labor and delivery procedures and medications. Practices during the 1st few days after delivery indicate that only 20% of the mothers held their babires in the 1st hour after delivery and none of the mothers had the baby rooming in with them. 54% of the babies spent some time in the high risk nursery. This limited the mothers' opportunities to interact with and feed them. Only 3 of the mothers breastfed their babies for any length of time. 2 of them decided to breastfed because that was the best nutrition for the baby, and 1 did so because her mother had breastfed. The most common reasons given for bottlefeeding were not wanting to nurse (43.5%) and inconvenience (26.1%). Only 13% mentioned the necessity of back to school/work as a reason for not

  19. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  20. Perceived Infant Feeding Preferences of Significant Family Members and Mothers' Intentions to Exclusively Breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueffelmann, Rebecca E; Racine, Elizabeth F; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Coffman, Maren J

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding intention is a significant predictor of initiation and duration. The decision to breastfeed may be influenced by the opinions of family and friends. This study aimed to examine the relationship between maternal perception of the infant feeding preferences of the baby's father and the maternal grandmother and the woman's intention to breastfeed. This study analyzed data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II (2005-2007). The sample included 4690 women, of whom approximately 82% were white, 67% were married, 68% were multiparous, and 66% had some college education or beyond. In adjusted analyses, the odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks postpartum were higher among mothers who perceived that the baby's father or the maternal grandmother preferred exclusive breastfeeding (vs preferred other feeding) (fathers: odds ratio [OR] = 7.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20-8.92; maternal grandmothers: OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 2.01-2.99). Mothers in each of the racial/ethnic groups examined were more likely to intend to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks postpartum if they perceived that the expectant father preferred exclusive breastfeeding (vs preferred other feeding methods) (white: OR = 7.67; 95% CI, 6.25-9.41; black: OR = 11.76; 95% CI, 4.85-28.51; Hispanic: OR = 7.01; 95% CI, 3.44-14.28; other: OR = 7.51; 95% CI, 3.39-16.67). These results suggest that significant family members should be counseled on the benefits of breastfeeding and the risks of formula feeding along with pregnant mothers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of natural and emotional stress of labor on lactation and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitraki, Marina; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Manav, Bachar; Gioka, Theodora; Koutlaki, Nikoletta; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Galazios, Georgios

    2016-02-01

    The amount of stress experienced by both the mother and fetus during labor and delivery varies considerably and is likely to be different in primiparous and multiparous women as well as in those who receive analgesia during labor and those who do not receive. In this study, we explored relations between stress during birth experience and lactogenesis of 100 women, who experienced vaginal delivery in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of University Hospital of Alexandroupolis. Stress hormones (cortisol and glucose) were measured in serum (cord and maternal blood) immediately after delivery. Moreover, breast-feeding frequency on day 4, the time when the subjects first felt fullness in the breasts, milk volume on day 4 postpartum and duration of labor were recorded. Also, we recorded maternal exhaustion score during labor and positive and negative affects, posttraumatic stress score and mother-infant bonding rate, with the use of questionnaires. There were significant intercorrelations among the outcome variables. Mothers who experienced pain, exhaustion and negative feelings in a stressful and long labor had delayed onset of lactation. These results indicate that primiparity, long labor, stress to the mother and fetus during labor and delivery, negative affects and high score of posttraumatic stress are risk factors for delayed lactogenesis.

  2. Impact of music therapy on breast milk secretion in mothers of premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Jayamala; Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri

    2015-04-01

    The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother's saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn't. Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in mothers who are stressed because of their neonates being admitted in

  3. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  4. Evaluating a bilingual video to improve infant feeding knowledge and behavior among immigrant Latina mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinmann, Roberta; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Hartel, Diana; Rosenberg, Terry J

    2010-10-01

    Childhood obesity is recognized as a major health problem in the United States and is occurring at ever younger ages. While most prevention efforts are aimed at school-age children, this project focuses on the caregivers of children from 0 to 24 months of age. This study is an evaluation of an educational English/Spanish infant feeding video, distributed for home viewing at one New York City Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) center (video group) but not at three others (comparison group). Baseline, 3 and 6 month infant feeding knowledge and behavior surveys were conducted. For this report, analyses are restricted to Latina immigrant mothers. The video and comparison group mothers were similar in age, education, and parity. The video group was more likely to speak Spanish at home, and had lower knowledge scores at baseline. At the 6 month follow-up, knowledge increased for both groups, but the video group showed a greater increase in knowledge between baseline and 6 months: in ordered logistic regression analyses the video group had a 1.7 times greater score increase at each outcome level. The video group also showed positive changes in behavior-later age at first solid feeding was observed in the video group. We found that an inexpensive, low-intensity video intervention can positively impact maternal knowledge and behavior related to infant feeding among immigrant Latinas. Attention should be given to intervening early with high-risk populations.

  5. Breast-feeding counselling mitigates the negative association of domestic violence on exclusive breast-feeding duration in rural Bangladesh. The MINIMat randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    To determine if exclusive breast-feeding counselling modifies the association of experience of any lifetime or specific forms of domestic violence (DV) on duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). In the MINIMat trial pregnant women were randomized to receive either usual health messages (UHM) or usual health messages with breast-feeding counselling (BFC) in eight visits. During pregnancy (30 weeks), lifetime experience of any or specific forms of DV was measured. Infant feeding practice information was collected from 0 to 6 months at 15 d intervals. Matlab, Bangladesh. Pregnant and postpartum women (n 3186) and their infants. Among women in the UHM group, those who had experienced any lifetime DV exclusively breast-fed for a shorter duration than women who did not experience any lifetime DV (P=0·02). There was no difference, however, in duration of EBF among women in the BFC group based on their experience of any lifetime DV exposure (P=0·48). Using Cox regression analysis, there was an interaction of exposure to any lifetime DV, sexual violence and controlling behaviour, and counselling group with duration of breast-feeding at or before 6 months (P-interaction≤0·08). Among the UHM group, experience of any lifetime DV, sexual violence or controlling behaviour was associated with fewer days of EBF (Pbreast-feeding counselling programmes could assist this vulnerable group towards better infant feeding practices.

  6. Effect of Breast-Feeding and Maternal Holding in Relieving Painful Responses in Full-Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Hala M; Shuriquie, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.

  7. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  9. [Do breast-feeding and "diet" milks have any preventive or curative effect in the management of atopic dermatitis in children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D

    2005-01-01

    A) The preventive interest of infants' food in the onset of atopic dermatitis. Measures of prevention of atopic dermatitis concern predisposed children. Most studies agree on the protective effect of breast feeding for at least 3 to 4 months, compared with industrial milk products, on the onset of atopic dermatitis. Partial breast feeding is not protective. There is no preventive effect of breast feeding on the onset of atopic dermatitis in the absence of a family history of atopy. However, a few studies have raised the question of the aggravation of eczema during prolonged breast feeding. The "breast fed" group is probably not a homogenous group. Mothers' milk contains IgA, TGFb-type cytokines and long-chain polyinsaturated fatty acids that may play an important part in the acquisition of tolerance to food and the prevention of atopic dermatitis. The administration of a protein hydrolysate is preferable in terms of prevention of an allergy to a formula based on cow's milk, but does not provide any benefit compared with breast feeding. The preventive effect on atopic dermatitis of a casein hydrolysate is greater than that of a partial hydrolysate, which itself is greater than a formula based on cow's milk. In conclusion, the first preventive measure is breast feeding for 3 to 4 months, associated with intensive protein hydrolysate in the case of mixed feeding. In the absence of breast feeding, intensive hydrolysate is recommended in children at high risk. B) The curative interest of infants' food in the management of atopic dermatitis. The curative interest implies the responsibility of food in the triggering-off or maintenance of atopic dermatitis. This concerns non-diversified infants exhibiting severe or moderate eczema concomitant to digestive disorders. In such cases, the diagnosis of food allergy should be evoked. If the infant is fed on industrial milk, a test diet should be proposed with a hydrolysate or based on amino acids, followed by the re

  10. Case-control study of breast milk calcium in mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Pettifor, John M; Fischer, Philip R; Okolo, Selina N; Prentice, Ann

    2006-07-01

    Despite similarly low calcium intakes and normal vitamin D status, only some Nigerian children develop nutritional rickets. We hypothesized that mothers with children who had developed rickets might have lower breast-milk calcium concentration than mothers with normal children and compared the breast-milk calcium concentration of mothers who had had children with rickets with those who had not (controls). We collected breast milk from 35 Nigerian mothers who had previously had children with nutritional rickets. For each case mother, we collected breast milk from three matched control mothers at the same stage of lactation (+/-4 weeks) who had had no children with rickets. Data were collected about parity, stage of lactation, and the infant's intake. The mother's bone density was measured. The mean breast milk calcium concentration of mothers of children with rickets (4.30+/-1.24 mmol/L) was less than that of control mothers (4.65+/-1.03 mmol/L; P=0.034 in multivariate regression controlling for duration of lactation and resumption of menses). Forearm bone mineral content was significantly related to breast milk calcium concentration (r=0.20) after adjusting for height, weight, and bone area (P=0.028). Reduced breast-milk calcium concentration may contribute to a reduced calcium intake in infancy and predispose children to nutritional rickets.