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Sample records for breast feeding early

  1. Risk factors for early termination of breast feeding in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, E R; Issler, R M; Justo, E B; Seffrin, C F; Hartmann, R M; Carvalho, N M

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to identify possible factors related to the duration of breast feeding. Two hundred and thirty-eight mothers who had delivered normal single babies with birth weights greater than 2.5 kg and had initiated breast feeding were randomly selected at the maternity hospital, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, and followed by mail questionnaires until termination of breast feeding, or until the end of the first year. If no reply was received, telephone contact or home visits were made. The group of mothers who stopped breast feeding prior to the end of the third month was compared with those who extended breast feeding beyond three months with respect to socioeconomic, biological, environmental, medical and psychological factors. The variables with a significant coefficient of association with early termination of breast feeding were maternal education, past experience with breast feeding, help of a maid, help with housework provided by a relative, breast feeding orientation during prenatal care and encouragement from the husband. These factors act simultaneously, with interactions among them.

  2. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  3. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BREAST-FEEDING, CO-SLEEPING, AND SOMATIC COMPLAINTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elisabeth Maria; Lusher, Joanne Marie; Banbury, Samantha; Chandler, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The central aim of this study was to expand a limited body of knowledge on the complex relationship between breast-feeding, co-sleeping, and somatic complaints in early childhood. An opportunity sample of 98 parents from the general population with children aged 18 to 60 months consented to participate in the study. Each parent completed a series of questionnaires measuring somatic complaints, sleep problems, co-sleeping, breast-feeding, and demographic factors. Findings indicated that co-sleeping was associated with increased somatic complaints and that breast-feeding associated with decreased somatic complaints. Co-sleeping also was found to be associated with an increase in sleep problems. Boys demonstrated significantly higher levels of sleep problems than did girls. These findings highlight the relationship between co-sleeping during early childhood, which could have implications for prevention, treatment, and intervention regarding somatic complaints and sleep problems in early childhood.

  4. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  5. [Duration of breast feeding after mandatory early discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, O

    1993-08-23

    A trial arrangement for mandatory early discharge for all normal multiparae was started in 1990 and the duration of breastfeeding was investigated by a questionnaire. 89 mothers who stayed at the hospital were compared to 113 mothers who were discharged within 24 hours after delivery. The latter group was also compared to 122 early discharged mothers who delivered 14-17 months after the trial arrangement had started. The three groups were comparable in all aspects. After four weeks a large proportion of the later discharged mothers were still breastfeeding compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001). This difference disappeared later, hence when comparing the total duration of breastfeeding no differences were found between the three groups.

  6. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C. M.; Panter-Brick, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  7. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  8. Effect of prolonged breast-feeding on risk of atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Choi, Won-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yum, Hye Yung; Son, Dong Koog

    2014-01-01

    The effect of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopic disease remains controversial. This study is an investigation of the effect of breast-feeding on current atopic dermatitis (AD) among Korean children. This cross-sectional study of children's histories of current AD and environmental factors was completed by the subjects' parents. The subjects included 10,383 children aged 0-13 years in Seoul, Korea, in 2008. The diagnostic criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were applied in this study. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, maternal education, smoking in the household, relocation to a new house within 1 year of birth, and parental history of atopic disease. After adjustment for confounders, age and duration of maternal education were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of AD. Among subjects aged ≤5 years, the prevalence of AD was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (p feeding among children >5 years of age. Regardless of parental history of atopic diseases, breast-feeding >12 months was a significant risk factor for AD. The effect of breast-feeding differed by age group. Prolonged breast-feeding increased the risk of AD in children <5 years of age, regardless of parental history of atopic diseases.

  9. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  10. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  11. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  12. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  13. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  14. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  15. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  16. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...... to breast-feed are interrelated, and therefore, analyzing true causal effects presents a number of methodologic challenges....

  17. [Main sociocultural aspects related to breast feeding in Malinalco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza Ogazón, A; Andrade Contreras, M D

    1991-06-01

    The present paper discusses data related to some sociocultural aspects on breast-feeding behavior among a group of women from a rural community in Mexico called Malinalco. A sample of 225 mothers with children aged less than 60 months, was selected. Several home visits were done in order to fill up a questionnaire, as well as to follow direct interviews according to some selected variables to the deepened, such as: schooling, occupation, place of children deliveries, breast-feeding behavior beliefs on breast-feeding abandonment, weaning practices, etc. The results showed that there is no relation between breast-feeding practices, income and school years; nevertheless, there is a certain tendency on early abandonment of breast-feeding in women with higher level of schooling. Some local beliefs about breast-milk production were detected, as well as some remedies to stimulate milk production and to cure certain breast-feeding problems. Data on weaning age and the commonest weaning food products are presented. The importance that cultural dimension has on breast-feeding studies is discussed, as well as the relevance of recognizing "the changes of concepts" within the process of cultural development itself, in order to understand them better and to propose solutions to the generated problems.

  18. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  19. Duration of breast feeding and language ability in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Robinson, Monique; Li, Jianghong; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy over whether increased breast-feeding duration has long-term benefits for language development. The current study examined whether the positive associations of breast feeding on language ability at age 5 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort, were still present at age 10 years. The Raine Study is a longitudinal study of 2868 liveborn children recruited at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Breast-feeding data were based upon information prospectively collected during infancy, and were summarised according to four categories of breast-feeding duration: (1) never breast-fed, (2) breast-fed predominantly for 6 months. Language ability was assessed in 1195 children at the 10 year follow-up (mean age = 10.58 years; standard deviation = 0.19) using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R), which is based around a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Associations between breast-feeding duration and PPVT-R scores were assessed before and after adjustment for a range of sociodemographic, obstetric and psychosocial covariates. Analysis of variance revealed a strong positive association between the duration of predominant breast feeding and PPVT-R at age 10 years. A multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for covariates and found that children who were predominantly breast-fed for >6 months had a mean PPVT-R score that was 4.04 points higher than children who were never breast-fed. This compared with an increase of 3.56 points at age 5 years. Breast feeding for longer periods in early life has a positive and statistically-independent effect on language development in middle childhood.

  20. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Pemberian asi eksklusif merupakan salah satu upaya dalam menurunkan kematian bayi dan neonatal. Namun, prevalensi asi eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai hubungan inisiasi menyusu dini dan penggunaan botol/dot dengan praktek asi eksklusif pada bayi di bawah usia 6 bulan di Indonesia. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2013. Sub-sampel adalah bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan. Dari 7226 bayi dibawah usia 6 bulan, 6397 memiliki data yang lengkap untuk dilakukan analisis. Analisis dilakukan dengan regresi Cox. Hasil: Dari 6397 responden, 44% mendapatkan asi eksklusif. Inisiasi menyusu dini, penggunaan botol, pelayanan kesehatan pasca persalinan, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi berhubungan dengan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. Anak yang mendapat inisiasi menyusu dini 66% lebih besar kemungkinan untuk memperoleh asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak memperoleh inisiasi menyusu dini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI: 1,45 – 1,90]. Anak yang menggunakan dot/kempeng memiliki kemungkinan 71% lebih rendah untuk asi eksklusif bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang tidak menggunakan dot/kempeng (RRa = 0,29; 95% CI: 0,25 – 0,34. Kesimpulan: Inisiasi menyusu dini dapat meningkatkan pemberian asi eksklusif, sedangkan penggunaan dot dapat menurunkan praktek pemberian asi eksklusif. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Kata kunci: asi eksklusif, inisiasi menyusu dini, dot  Abstract Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is a intervention to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. However,the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia remains low. The aim of the study was identify the association of early initiation and bottle-feeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice among infant less than six month in Indonesia. Methods: This study was a part of Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS 2013

  1. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  2. Awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of children with severe acute malnutrition at stabilization centre Multan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding is the most natural way of feeding the infants and help to reduce child mortality and morbidity and millions of deaths could be prevented each year if mothers were aware of benefits of exclusive breast feeding for 4 -6 months and early initiation of breast feeding. In current study, awareness regarding breast feeding and complementary feeding in mothers of severely malnourished children was evaluated. The results showed that 99% mothers considered breast milk safe and effective but practically only 23% babies were breast fed while 77% were bottle fed. According to 58% mothers, there should be a early initiation of breast feeding, while 57% were un aware of the facts that clostrum should be given while 43% (43/100 of then considered it unhealthy and non effective. The current awareness reveals that most of the mothers prefer to give commercially available foods for their infants instead of breast feeding. This situation is alarming regarding child health and there is need to educate the mothers especially about the beneficial and health curing effects of breast feeding.

  3. Food intakes in a group of breast-feeding and not breast-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Muratore, M C; Peltran, A; Cresi, F; Mostert, M; Oggero, R

    2000-01-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breast milk composition is still an open question. An important issue is whether mothers who are breast feeding modify, respect to before lactation, food intake to satisfy the increased requirements.

  4. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  5. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  6. The breast-feeding dilemma and its impact on HIV-infected women and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Vo, P

    1999-07-01

    The rate of HIV transmission via breast-feeding ranges from 14% to 26%, depending on the timing of maternal infection. In settings where infant mortality rates from infectious diseases and malnutrition are low and relatively safe alternatives to breast-feeding are available, HIV-infected mothers should be advised not to breast-feed. Where breast-feeding by HIV-infected mothers and bottle-feeding both present serious risks of mortality, changing the conditions in which families live so that safe feeding alternatives become available must be a top priority. At the same time, these mothers need information about the relative risks and benefits of breast-feeding, early weaning, wet-nursing, and formula feeding. This article reviews the available research data and discusses critical gaps in current knowledge.

  7. Breast Feeding Practices in Urban Community of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sunil, Jay Padodara, Patel Sushil, Gharat Vaibhav, Patel Swati, Choksi Vivek, Desai Toral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breast feeding practices adopted in terms of duration, frequency and exclusiveness of breast feeding and weaning have great impact on complete physical, mental and psycho-social development of the child. The objective of conducting the study is to evaluate the breast feeding practices adopted by women in urban community, and s to study factors affecting time of initiation of breast feeding, age of weaning, and food given to the baby other than breast milk. The current cross sectional study conducted among 200 women reveal that 70% of mothers were able to start breast feeding within first hour of life after normal delivery. Out of 26 complicated deliveries, 6 mothers were able to start breast feeding within 4 hours of life. The major reasons for delay in starting of breast feeding were uneasiness to mother and not having adequate breast milk. Exclusive breast feeding was practiced by 50% of the mothers for first six month of life. The common reason given by mother for not giving exclusive breast feeding were no knowledge of exclusive breast feeding (40% and not having adequate breast milk(35%. This study emphasizes the need of breast feeding education programme regarding the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the age of weaning.

  8. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  9. Breast-Feeding May Not Lead to Smarter Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164308.html Breast-Feeding May Not Lead to Smarter Preschoolers But study ... 2017 MONDAY, March 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Breast-feeding may not make kids sharper or better behaved ...

  10. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  11. Breast feeding practice among medical women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Sadoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health care workers are important in the promotion, protection and support of breast feeding. Their ability to do this may be influenced by their knowledge, personal experiences and work. Patients and Method: The breast feeding experience of 36 female medical doctors who had babies within the preceding two years and had resumed work was evaluated using a semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Result: All respondents knew that babies should be exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life but only 60% knew that breast feeding should continue until two years. The exclusive breast feeding rate for the studied doctors was 11.1%. Before their babies were six months old, about 75% of respondents had resumed work whilst over 50% had started taking calls. Most could not breast feed during working or call hours. Alternative feeds during working or call hours included expressed breast milk in 34.4% and infant formula in 21.9%. Feeding bottle was the major method (77.4% for feeding these alternatives. Work schedule was rearranged to allow breast feeding in only 27.3% of respondents. Conclusion: Failure to carry out exclusive breast feeding, the use of infant formula and feeding bottles (rather than cup feeding are practices that may be inimical to the practice of breast feeding in society in general. The suboptimal breast feeding experience in these doctors and the identified knowledge deficits may limit their effectiveness in promoting and supporting breast feeding among their patients and communities. Female medical personnel should be empowered to carry out optimal feeding of their own infants.

  12. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  13. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  14. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Is a Feed-Forward Translational Coactivator of Transforming Growth Factor β Early Protransforming Events in Breast Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, Lindsey; Mestel, Celine; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Schneider, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is overexpressed early in breast cancers in association with disease progression and reduced survival. Much remains to be understood regarding the role of eIF4E in human cancer. We determined, using immortalized human breast epithelial cells, that elevated expression of eIF4E translationally activates the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway, promoting cell invasion, a loss of cell polarity, increased cell survival, and other hallmarks of early neoplasia. Overexpression of eIF4E is shown to facilitate the selective translation of integrin β1 mRNA, which drives the translationally controlled assembly of a TGF-β receptor signaling complex containing α3β1 integrins, β-catenin, TGF-β receptor I, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smad2/3. This receptor complex acutely sensitizes nonmalignant breast epithelial cells to activation by typically substimulatory levels of activated TGF-β. TGF-β can promote cellular differentiation or invasion and transformation. As a translational coactivator of TGF-β, eIF4E confers selective mRNA translation, reprogramming nonmalignant cells to an invasive phenotype by reducing the set point for stimulation by activated TGF-β. Overexpression of eIF4E may be a proinvasive facilitator of TGF-β activity.

  15. Breast-feeding: nature's contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1985-01-01

    Our ancestors achieved the lowest rate of reproduction of any living mammal by the postponement of puberty until well into the 2nd decade of life, a maximal probability of conception of only about 24% per menstrual cycle even when ovulation had commenced, a 4-year birth interval as a result of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding, and sharply declining fertility during the 4th decade of life, leading to complete sterility at the menopause. This pattern of reproduction was ideally suited to the prevailing lifestyle of the nomadic hunter-gatherer. The postponement of puberty resulted in a prolonged period of childhood dependency, thus enabling parents to transmit their acquired experience to their offspring. Long birth intervals were essential for a woman who had to wander 1000 or more miles each year in search of food, because she could not manage to carry more than 1 child with her at a time. The lifestyle of comparatively recent times of a settled agricultural economy made possible subsequent rural and urban development, but this transition from nomad to city dweller also stimulated fertility. The cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals led to the development of permanent housing, where the mother could leave her baby in a safe place while she worked in the field. The resultant reduction in mother-infant contact coupled with the availability of early weaning foods reduced the suckling frequency, thereby eroding the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding and decreasing the birth interval. The model conquest of disease eventually led to rapid rates of population growth. In the developed countries of Europe and North America, reproduction was subsequently held in check by the use of artificial forms of contraception, but this has yet to take place in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. For a developing country, contraceptives are expensive, may be culturally unacceptable, and carry health risks. Breastfeeding is 1 form of

  16. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  17. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  18. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina Moura

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01. Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward breast-feeding in public: SJSU students (56.8% felt social pressures to not breast=feed in public, and PUC-Campinas students (54.3% expressed personal constraint. SJSU students emphasized convenience, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, immunological factors as advantages of breast-feeding. PUC-Campinas students considered protection as an advantage of formula, feeding. Concerning causal factors for breast feeding failure, SJSU students cited negative social pressure and biological problems, and PUC-Campinas students mentioned, lack of information. In conclusion, it is necessary to improve the curricula, if we expect future nutrition professionals to have adequate knowledge to promote and choose breast feeding successfully.

  19. The Impact of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Short-Term Breast-Feeding Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeni; Schutte, Nicola S.; Brown, Rhonda F.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Price, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy for breast-feeding may contribute to success in breast-feeding. This study aimed to increase breast-feeding self-efficacy and actual breast-feeding through an intervention based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. A total of 90 pregnant women participated in the study. The women who were assigned to a breast-feeding…

  20. Attitudes of medical and nursing personnel to breast feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Dutta, A K; Narayanan, I; Mullick, D N

    1987-10-01

    Medical staff from the department of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology (50 doctors and 50 nurses) were interviewed in an assessment of attitudes towards and knowledge of breast feeding. 98% of the doctors and nurses believed that breast feeding was better than artificial feeding. However, 32% of the nurses believed that commercial powder milk is preferable for use with a preterm baby. Most of the 100 believed that a newborn baby should receive boiled water for the 1st feed. All of the doctors and 94% of the nurses agreed that the newborn should be given the opportunity for a breast feed within the 1st 12 hours following birth. While most of the doctors and nurses generally supported breast feeding, they also did not believe that the 1st feed should be breast milk, and nearly 1/3 of the nurses advocated commercial milk for preterm babies. 86% of the nurses and 70% of the doctors believed that breast feeding ought to continue for 1 year. Even though a general awareness and understanding of breast feeding existed among the medical personnel interviewed, there are still areas in which staff could be re-educated and re-directed.

  1. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce the risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes. Improved health. Research suggests that the longer breast-feeding continues and the more breast milk a baby drinks, the better a mother's health ...

  2. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  3. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  4. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Wang; Chong Li; Fadi Li; Xiaojuan Wang; Xiaoxue Zhang; Ting Liu; Fang Nian; Xiangpeng Yue; Fei Li; Xiangyu Pan; Yongfu La; Futao Mo; Fangbin Wang; Baosheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal...

  5. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  6. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  7. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  8. Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, David; Kozlovsky, Pavel; Blum, Omry; Laine, Andrew F; Po, Ming Jack; Botzer, Eyal; Dollberg, Shaul; Zelicovich, Mabel; Ben Sira, Liat

    2014-04-08

    How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola complex to induce a peristaltic-like extraction mechanism. Breast-feeding is a dynamic process, which requires coupling between periodic motions of the infant's jaws, undulation of the tongue, and the breast milk ejection reflex. The physical mechanisms executed by the infant have been intriguing topics. We used an objective and dynamic analysis of ultrasound (US) movie clips acquired during breast-feeding to explore the tongue dynamic characteristics. Then, we developed a new 3D biophysical model of the breast and lactiferous tubes that enables the mimicking of dynamic characteristics observed in US imaging during breast-feeding, and thereby, exploration of the biomechanical aspects of breast-feeding. We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that latch-on to draw the nipple-areola complex into the infant mouth, as well as milk extraction during breast-feeding, require development of time-varying subatmospheric pressures within the infant's oral cavity. Analysis of the US movies clearly demonstrated that tongue motility during breast-feeding was fairly periodic. The anterior tongue, which is wedged between the nipple-areola complex and the lower lips, moves as a rigid body with the cycling motion of the mandible, while the posterior section of the tongue undulates in a pattern similar to a propagating peristaltic wave, which is essential for swallowing.

  9. 21 CFR 201.63 - Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pregnancy/breast-feeding warning. 201.63 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.63 Pregnancy/breast... during pregnancy or while nursing has been established for a particular drug product in a new...

  10. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women.

  11. Breast-feeding success among infants with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Shelton, Kathleen C; Lowe, Nancy D; Knafl, Kathleen A; Houck, Gail M

    2012-08-01

    Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005; American Association of Family Physicians, 2008; Association of Women's Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 2005; Canadian Paediatric Society, 2005; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2008; World Health Organization, 2009). In comparison to standard commercial formula, human breast milk has a lower concentration of protein and a lower content of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). For infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), these attributes of human breast milk make it ideal as a base source of nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and duration of breast-feeding and corresponding Phe levels of breast-fed and formula-fed infants with PKU in the caseload of a pediatric metabolic clinic at an urban tertiary-care medical center. Charts were reviewed for infants diagnosed with PKU beginning with 2005 and ending with 1980, the year no further breast-feeding cases were identified in the PKU population. During the first year of life, most of the infants, whether breast-fed or formula-fed, had similar mean Phe levels. However, the frequency distributions revealed that more breast-fed infants with PKU had Phe levels within the normal range (120-360 μmol/L) and were less likely to have low Phe levels (<120 μmol/L) than formula-fed infants with PKU. Further research is needed to understand how mothers manage breast-feeding in the context of PKU.

  12. Resurgence of nutritional rickets associated with breast-feeding and special dietary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edidin, D V; Levitsky, L L; Schey, W; Dumbovic, N; Campos, A

    1980-02-01

    Ten cases of nutritional rickets seen over a 10-month period are reviewed. The salient clinical features are summarized, and the striking association with unsupplemented breast-feeding, fad diets, and lack of immunizations is discussed. The importance of recognizing such associated practices for purposes of early diagnosis and intervention is stressed.

  13. Breast-feeding: knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nutrition majors

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A sample of, forty-five undergraduate nutrition majors from San Jose State University (SJSU) in the United States and forty-six from Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas) in Brazil completed a 9uestionnaire elaborated to compare their' breast feeding experience, knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that 44.4% of SJSU and 80.4% of PUC-Campinas .students had been breast-fed (p=0.01). Although students intended to breast-feed, both groups had a negative attitude toward b...

  14. Isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that developed after breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare, even in endemic areas. There are few reports of breast hydatid cysts. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that was identified as a painless breast lump that had increased in size just after completion of breast feeding and was present with a painful breast mass after 25 years. This may indicate the possibility of retrograde passage of an Echinococcus granulosus egg through lactating ducts during breast feeding, liberation of an embryo that penetrates ductal mucus and enters the breast tissue and then develops into a hydatid cyst. When a patient comes from an area with little healthcare and where hydatid cysts are epidemic, and if this disease was indicated by radiologic or serologic examination, total mass excision without spillage is the best diagnostic and treatment. PMID:27194680

  15. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  16. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoxian; Xia, Bin; Ge, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Early transition from breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits may be related to occlusofacial abnormalities as environmental factors. Previous studies have not taken into account the potential for interactions between feeding practice, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal traits. This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3–6-year-old childre...

  17. Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana

    2014-06-01

    Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period.

  18. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  19. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Flax, Valerie L

    2016-10-14

    The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux) in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005-2007), data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  20. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  1. Effect of early breast feeding on the extrauterine growth of very low weight premature infants in NICU%早期母乳喂养对 NICU 住院早产极低体重儿宫外生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉美; 冯燕妮; 杨松媚; 林梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early breast feeding on the growth and feeding related adverse events of very low birth weight premature infants.Methods According to the ways of feeding,the very low birth weight premature in-fants were divided into early breast feeding group and premature milk feeding group.The former group were fed with maternal breast milk from the opening of milk to the volume of maternal breast milk increasing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,and then were fed with premature milk until they left hospital. The latter group were fed with premature milk until they left hospital.The change of weight,length,head circumference,etc of two groups during their hospitalization were monitored.In addition,the rate of growth,the time of recovering to the weight of born,application time of intravenous nutrition and time of the volume increas-ing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,the days of hospitalization,the incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation upon leaving hospi-tal and the adverse events related to feeding during hospital stay between two groups were compared.Results No statistically significant difference was found in the growth rate of weight,length,head circumference,the time of recovering to the weight of born,application time of intravenous nutrition and time of the volume increasing to 100 ml·kg-1 ·d-1 ,and the incidence rate of extrauterine growth retardation upon leaving hospital between the two groups(P>0.05).The incidence rate of adverse events such as feeding intolerance,neonatal necrotizing ulcerative colitis( NEC)and the incidence of infection of breast feeding group was lower than that of the premature milk feeding group,and the hospital stay was shorter as well,so difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P0.05)。母乳组喂养相关不良事件即喂养不耐受、新生儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)及感染发生率较早产奶组低,住院时间短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论早期

  2. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF EARLY BREAST CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the breast is one of the commonest cancers occurring in female and accounts for 1/3rd of all the malignant diseases occurring in them. It is mainly a disease of the developed countries and accounts for 1,00,000 deaths annually. Breast carcinoma is classified as Early breast cancer, Locally advanced breast cancer and Metastatic breast cancer. By definition early stage breast cancer constitutes breast tumors of clinical stages I, IIa and T2N1M0. Early breast cancer is the one diagnosed by mammography. Women when approaches at this stage, they can go for breast conservation surgery. Not all women are candidates for this approach, and some require mastectomy as part of their treatment. AIM To observe the incidence of early breast carcinoma with particular reference to the time taken by the patients to seek medical advice after the symptoms have developed i.e. the average time taken by the patients to seek medical advice, their appropriate management and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 years from Oct-2012 to Oct-2014 in 30 female patients aged between 25-65 years who were presented with lump in breast of size ≤5cms with or without pain, with or without lymph nodes to the outpatient department. All the patients were thoroughly asked about history, examined clinically, investigated, staged and managed by surgery either Breast Conservation Surgery or Modified Radical Mastectomy. Postoperative complications were recorded and followed up regularly. RESULTS The incidence of early breast cancer in this study was 0.98% with peak age incidence between 40-60 years and duration of symptoms <6 months in 18 patients. Breast Conservation Surgery + axillary dissection + Radiotherapy was done in 23%. Prognosis was good in these patients with no local recurrence and death. CONCLUSION The prognosis of early stage breast carcinoma patients in this study was good. To have long term tumor free and

  4. Understanding adolescent mothers' feelings about breast-feeding. A study of perceived benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A

    1988-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the benefits and barriers accruing to breast-feeding as perceived by pregnant adolescents, and to establish whether these perceptions distinguished between adolescent mothers who chose to breast versus bottle feed. Surveys were completed by 254 young women attending prenatal clinics. Overall, 19.3% indicated their intent to breast-feed. When categorized by intended method of infant feeding (breast versus bottle), breast-feeding mothers cited more benefits and fewer barriers associated with that method of infant feeding. Overall, perceived benefits were more successful than perceived barriers in distinguishing between the groups of respondents. For those interested in promoting breast-feeding among adolescent mothers, our data support an emphasis on the diverse benefits of this method of infant feeding. Our results also suggest the usefulness of peer role models in correcting misinformation and encouraging breast-feeding among adolescent mothers.

  5. A STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG POST- NA TAL MOTHERS ATTENDING GOVT MATERNITY HOSPITAL AT HYDE RABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  6. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  7. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  8. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...

  9. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Ting; Nian, Fang; Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Fei; Pan, Xiangyu; La, Yongfu; Mo, Futao; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and increased the amylase and carboxymethylcellulase activities of rumen micro-organisms. RNA-seq analysis revealed 225 differentially expressed genes between the rumens of breast milk- and starter feed-fed lambs. These DEGs were involved in many metabolic pathways, particularly lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and included HMGCL and HMGCS2. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that ruminal bacterial communities were more diverse in breast milk-than in starter feed-fed lambs, and each group had a distinct microbiota. We conclude that early starter feeding is beneficial to rumen development and physiological function in lambs. The underlying mechanism may involve the stimulation of ruminal ketogenesis and butanoate metabolism via HMGCL and HMGCS2 combined with changes in the fermentation type induced by ruminal microbiota. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rumen development in sheep. PMID:27576848

  10. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  11. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  12. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  13. Association of breast-feeding and feeding on demand with child weight status up to 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Thijs, C.; Stafleu, A.; Buuren, S. van; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breast-feeding on the development of childhood overweight are unclear. This study examines the association of breast-feeding with weight gain in the first year, and body mass index (BMI) and overweight up to 4 years. In addition, we exam

  14. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part...

  15. [Breast feeding: importance of supportive counseling to the working mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta Noy, S; Paz Guzmán, P; Masalán, P

    1998-07-01

    This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother--Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile--has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been studied is formed by 82 mothers attended in the Support Consultation during March '95/September '95 period and from which a number of 30 people were taken as a sample. The impact of this consultation was evaluated with an instrument employed during an interview to each mother. Data were statistically analyzed with EPIINFO, the Kaplan-Meier survival method and the Mantel-Haenszel test to compare curves of survival. During data analysis authors found that mothers are mainly young adults, stable couples, first-time mothers, with technical and/or professional educational level, chiefly working as office clerks with full-time jobs and having a significant difference between existing minimum salary and the maximum one they earn. The results of this investigation lead us to the conclusion that mothers obtained an exclusive breast-feeding and ideal weaning age. The power of resolution of the Consultation--according to mothers--was satisfactory. The support given to the mother after her reincorporation to work is the most significant intensifier factor in relation with the increase in the probability of keeping on breast-feeding. In conclusion, the Consultation has good impact.

  16. Breast versus bottle: correlates of adolescent mothers' infant-feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1987-05-01

    Since the 1970s, breast-feeding as the preferred method of infant feeding has increased in overall popularity. However, certain populations, particularly poor, young, black, and less-educated women, have been slow to adopt this method. This prospective study was undertaken to identify factors relating to the choice of infant-feeding method among inner-city adolescents. Two hundred fifty-four pregnant adolescents completed a questionnaire supplying information regarding attitudes toward and knowledge about breast-feeding, social support, personal experience, and other variables hypothesized to correlate with their choice of infant-feeding method. Of the total sample, 17% said they were "probably" or "definitely" going to breast-feed their babies. Analyses revealed adolescents most likely to intend to breast-feed were those who perceived more benefits to breast-feeding, who desired more knowledge about it, who were themselves breast-fed, who reported supportive social environments, and who perceived relatively fewer barriers to breast-feeding their infants. Specific interventions based upon these findings are proposed. We conclude that adolescent mothers are interested in breast-feeding their babies and that interventions are feasible to increase breast-feeding within this population.

  17. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  18. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  19. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  20. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NOURISHING MOTHERS ABOUT BREAST FEEDING, ATTENDING URBAN HEALTH CENTRE: A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  1. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  2. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  3. Predictors of breast-feeding in a developing country: results of a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sahab, B; Tamim, H; Mumtaz, G; Khawaja, M.; Khogali, M.; Afifi, R; Nassif, Y; Yunis, KA; National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network (NCPNN)

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the paediatrician. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Predictors of breast-feeding significant at the bivariate level were tested at 1 and 4 ...

  4. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  5. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Third International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer afforded a further opportunity for scientists from all over the world to come together and present important papers concerning breast cancer and early diagnosis procedures. The symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultra-sonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and significant contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist.

  6. A comparative analytic study of knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding in primi and multipara women at a tertiary care centre in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthan Patel

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Efforts need to be made to help mother to initiate feeding early specially in caesarean section. Women need to be made aware of benefits of breast feeding and proper techniques. Health care providers and nursing staff should be encouraged to actively participate in proper counselling and training of mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(10.000: 4403-4407

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding at a tertiary care centre in the government medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Deshmukh

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Efforts need to be made to help mother to initiate feeding early specially in caesarean section. Women need to be made aware of benefits of breast feeding and proper techniques. Health care providers and nursing staff should be encouraged to actively participate in proper counseling and training of mothers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1912-1915

  8. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  9. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified.

  10. Evaluation of nomograms in early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Since the introduction of the sentinel node biopsy in the treatment of early breast cancer, the axillary lymph node dissection became the norm in case of sentinel node métastatic. Although it is associated with an important risk of nervous complications of the upper limb and lymphoedema. The use of scores or abacuses, allowed the deletion of axillary lymph node dissection on patients with good pronostic. Scores and abacuses were developed to estimate the risk of invasion ...

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis investigating breast feeding and childhood wheezing illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Allen, C Wendy; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B

    2011-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between breast feeding and wheezing illness. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between breast feeding and wheezing in children aged over 5 years and to discover possible sources of heterogeneity. An electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted from January 2000 to June 2010. In addition, reference lists from relevant publications were searched. Birth cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies were included if they measured any breast feeding or exclusive breast feeding for 3 or 4 months. Wheezing illness, including asthma, was identified based on symptoms, reported diagnosis or objective criteria. Thirty-one publications were identified for meta-analysis. There was no association found between any or exclusive breast feeding and wheezing illness, although there was a high level of heterogeneity between the studies. Subgroup analysis revealed that any breast feeding slightly lowers the odds of wheeze (pooled odds ratio 0.92 [0.86, 0.98]) but slightly increases the odds of asthma defined by specific criteria (pooled odds ratio 1.10 [1.00, 1.22]). This meta-analysis does not provide evidence that breast feeding is protective against wheezing illness in children aged 5 years and over. The difference in the effects of breast feeding according to the nature of the wheezing illness highlights the importance of the heterogeneity of illness phenotypes.

  12. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  13. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies that underpin our current practice are discussed briefly.

  14. Role of the World Health Organization in the Promotion of Breast-Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sterken, Elisabeth

    1990-01-01

    In response to the global decline in breast-feeding initiation and duration rates, the World Health Organization has produced several documents to assist governments and health professionals to reverse the trend. The WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes addresses the detrimental influence of promotional methods by the infant formula industry. The recent WHO/UNICEF statement Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-feeding has been prepared to increase the awarenes...

  15. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  16. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  17. THYROID HORMONE PROFILE IN EARLY BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renija Valiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour in women worldwide. The relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease is a controversy. Many of the studies showed hypothyroidism as the commonly found thyroid abnormality in breast cancer. [1] There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid and breast cancer in patients with iodine deficiency. This ability of iodine to reduce the risk of breast cancer is attributed to the ability of iodine and its compounds to induce apoptosis so that appropriate cell death occurs. Instead, in the absence of optimum level of iodine in the body the transformed cells continue to grow and divide resulting in cancer. AIMS 1. To find out the association of thyroid hormones and breast cancer in early breast cancer patients. 2. To find out the association of thyroid peroxidase antibodies in early breast cancer patients. Settings Cases: 82 breast cancer patients in early stage who attended the breast clinic. Controls: 82 age matched controls (Between 25-80 years. Design: Case control study. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this study, investigated for thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH and thyroid peroxide antibody level in 82 early breast cancer patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS 16. RESULTS Statistically significant low T4 and high TSH in breast cancer patients, along with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody. CONCLUSION Compared to hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism was found to be clinically significant in breast cancer patients

  18. Computerized Analysis of Breast Thermograms for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Asmita Wakankar; G. R. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women. Early detection of breast cancer is the key to improve survival rate. Malignant tumors causes localized temperature increase on breast surface which shows as hot spot and vascular patterns in breast infrared thermograms. Thermographic detection of breast cancer primarily depends on the visual analysis of these patterns by physicians, which is hard to provide objective and quantitative analysis. This paper proposes computerized anal...

  19. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women...... with a psychiatric disease, we asked the Danish Psychiatric Society, the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Danish Paediatric Society and the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology to appoint members for the working group. A comprehensive review of the literature was hereafter conducted. RESULTS...... and carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  20. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  1. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Roganovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p < 0.001, while the difference between breast tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p = 0.20. 

  2. [Health care personnel's opinion on the breast-feeding pattern in the Mexican rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J E; Mojarro Dávila, O; Hernández, D

    1991-01-01

    This paper surveys the health care personnel's knowledge and opinion about the physiology of the mother milk production and the issues that occur when it is stopped at an earlier moment. From an inquire carried out in 1984 on 155 doctors and nurses and 48 midwives that render their services to the rural population of Mexico, it was found that the majority of the health care personnel recognized breast-feeding as the best nurture for the child. Nevertheless, this personnel is against having a long breast-feeding period. More than half of the doctors and nurses commented that the breast-feeding period must be stopped when the child has diarrhea, which is contrary to the international health agencies opinion. The majority of the health care personnel recommends the introduction of complementary food to children under three months old and suggests a quick stop of the breast-feeding period. From these data it is shown that the health care personnel has little knowledge about the breast-feeding role as an element that increases the period of amenorrhea and its value as a natural contraceptive. The relation between breast-feeding and amenorrhea and infertility is inaccurate, that is why it is concluded that it is necessary to have training for the health care personnel in some physiological aspects of breast-feeding that are of prime importance. If the health care personnel has a better knowledge about breast-feeding, these influencing agents to decrease the incidence and value of breast-feeding will turn into strong promoters of such a healthy practice.

  3. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  4. [Early oral feeding versus classic oral feeding after appendicectomy for acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi Assamoi, B F; Yenon, K S; Lebeau, R; Traore, M; Akpa-Bedi, E; Kouassi, J C

    2010-01-01

    The appendectomies for acute appendicitis are the most frequent surgical interventions (43.6%) in our service. The recent studies demonstrated the feasibility and the economical gain of the early oral feeding vs. classic oral feeding, after elective digestive surgery. We wanted to spread these results therefore to the appendectomy for acute appendicitis. It is about a prospective survey carrying on 110 patients also left in two groups, and comparing the classic postoperative oral feeding vs. the early postoperative oral feeding on one year. The two groups were comparable and the studied parameters were : the length of the postoperative ileus, the hospitable morbidity, the length of the hospitalization and the cost of the hold in charge. The length of the postoperative ileus was not different in the two groups as well as the morbidity. The difference of the median length of hospitalization in the two groups was not meaningful. The cost of the hold in charge was meaningfully more elevated in the group with classic postoperative feeding. In conclusion, the early postoperative oral feeding in our survey doesn't reduce the length of the postoperative ileus and don't drag a morbidity anymore that the classic oral feeding. However if it doesn't shorten the length of the hospitalization, it drags a reduction of the cost of the hold in charge. There is a gain therefore precociously to nourish the patients after appendectomy for acute appendicitis.

  5. Antibiotics and breast-feeding: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Allison M; Reed, Michael D; Blumer, Jeffrey L

    2002-01-01

    Continuous breast-feeding, an integral component of the postpartum period, is often threatened upon maternal initiation of antibiotics. The real risk of antibiotic use while breast-feeding must be carefully analysed with regard to all the variables that influence the extent of antibiotic distribution into breast milk, including breast milk composition, physicochemical properties of the antibiotic (molecular weight, lipid solubility, pH, protein binding), length of feeding, and maternal disposition. In addition, infant disposition, including ability to absorb, metabolize, eliminate, and tolerate any amounts of antibiotic, must also be considered prior to maternal administration of antibiotic. The milk to plasma (M/P) ratio is a frequently quoted parameter used to predict drug distribution into breast milk. However, its utility is questionable and often fraught with misinterpretation. An alternative approach when the amount of antibiotic concentration in breast milk is known (through clinical trials) is to calculate an estimated or expected infant drug exposure factoring in known/expected milk consumption, drug concentration and bioavailability. In this review, the following antibiotic classes and current literature regarding their distribution into breast milk are critically reviewed: beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. In the majority of instances, these antibiotics do not distribute into breast milk in sufficient concentrations to be of any clinical consequence in the breast-feeding infant.

  6. Blood-Based Biomarkers of Early-Onset Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0214 TITLE: Blood -based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nasim Ahmadiyeh...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blood -based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1...While the normal breast is the ideal tissue in which to study this phenomenon, gene expression profiling of blood lymphocytes has been successfully

  7. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  8. Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, G; Berti, M; De Nisi, M; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.

  9. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    . Mothers were divided into two groups, based on breast-feeding duration: those who breast-fed for less than 3 months and those who did so for three months or more. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding. RESULTS: One-hundred and twelve mothers (42.3% abandoned breast-feeding early. Risk factors were: poor maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, odds ratio (OR 5.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.67-20.67; mothers with no previous breast-feeding experience OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66-5.36; mothers planning to breast-feed their babies for less than 3 months (OR 16.24, 95% CI 5.37-49.12; and mothers with no access to breast-feeding facilities at work (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONS: The main factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding were the maternal ones. The only work-related factor associated with short duration of breast-feeding was the absence of breast-feeding facilities. It is probable that maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, previous breast-feeding experience, and the availability of facilities at work for breast-feeding affect the maternal decisions on breast-feeding duration.

  10. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival.......02). Children aged 12-35 months who were not breast fed had a 3.5 times higher mortality (1.4 to 8.3) than breast fed children. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of breast feeding are not restricted to infancy. Though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than...... were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea...

  11. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  12. Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Misek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breast cancer control will be greatly aided by early detection so as to diagnose and treat breast cancer in its preinvasive state prior to metastasis. For breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, early detection does allow for increased treatment options, including surgical resection, with a corresponding better patient response. Unfortunately, however, many patients' tumors are diagnosed following metastasis, thus making it more difficult to successfully treat the malignancy. There are, at present, no existing validated plasma/serum biomarkers for breast cancer. Only a few biomarkers (such as HER-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor have utility for diagnosis and prognosis. Thus, there is a great need for new biomarkers for breast cancer. This paper will focus on the identification of new serum protein biomarkers with utility for the early detection of breast cancer.

  13. Breast feeding practices and associated factors in Bhaktapur District of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study among lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding is a major determinant of survival, future nutrition and health status of children. Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. It is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF is superior to non-exclusive breast-feeding with a protective effect against both morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to explore the breast feeding practice and affecting factors in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2007 in a rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Total 333 lactating mothers having a child less than 6 months were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was performed in Statistical Pakage of Social Science-13 version applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 333 mothers (mean age ± standard deviation 24.68 ± 4.16 years, majority (76.6% were 20-30 years. Almost 83.0% were Hindus, 25.8% illiterate, 62.8% house-wives and 53.5% from joint family with low economic status. About 48.0% had a baby of 2-4 months, 86.0% avoided pre-lacteal feeding, 87.1% fed colostrums, 27.9% fed the first milk within half an hour and 55.0% practiced exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. Child′s age, education, religion, occupation, family type and knowledge level were significant (P < 0.05 factors affecting to breast feeding. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of women initiated breast-feeding early after birth, the prevalence of EBF for 6 months was very low and a large portion had poor practice of breast feeding. Education, relationship of mother with a family member and level of knowledge were found most significant factors. Appropriate measures such as public awareness and effective counseling will support

  14. Does frenotomy improve breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to critically examine the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of tongue-tie division in infants with ankyloglossia, using the new grades of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) rating system. A clinical question was structured according to patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome, as follows: in infants with poor breast-feeding and ankyloglossia (patient), does frenotomy (intervention), compared to lactation support alone (comparison), improve feeding (outcome)? An electronic literature search was systematically conducted from databases including PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Igaku Chuo Zasshi), CINAHL, and Cochrane Library using the key words "ankyloglossia," "tongue-tie," "frenotomy," and/or "breast-feeding" in English and equivalent terms in Japanese. The literature search yielded four randomized clinical trials, and 12 observational studies for analysis. The quality of the literature was rated in regard to the two most important outcomes (sucking/latching, and nipple pain) and five less important outcomes (milk supply/milk production, continuation of breast-feeding, weight gain, adverse events, and dyad distress) in accordance with the GRADE system. Evidence levels of the most important outcomes were rated either A (strong evidence) or B (moderate evidence), and less important outcomes were rated C (weak evidence); every outcome consistently showed a favorable effect of frenotomy on breast-feeding. The literature review supported an overall moderate quality of evidence for the effectiveness of frenotomy for the treatment of breast-feeding difficulties in infants with ankyloglossia. No major complications from frenotomy were reported.

  15. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  16. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Chen, Xiao-hong; Jiang, Da-yong; Cheng, Long; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic.

  17. Early myocardial deformation abnormalities in breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, B.F.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Haan, A.F.J. de; Korte, C.L. de; Bellersen, L.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Kapusta, L.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of 2D myocardial strain (rate) imaging in the detection of early subclinical cardiotoxicity in breast cancer survivors treated with an anthracycline-based chemotherapeutic regimen. 57 adult breast cancer survivors were analyzed 1 year after therapy. All patients underwent biomar

  18. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development.

  19. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  20. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N Gadhavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  1. Two nursing mothers treated with zonisamide: Should breast-feeding be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Oi, Asako; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Fujimura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, is excreted into breast milk, but information regarding the safety of breast-feeding while using this drug is limited. We present the cases of two nursing mothers, taking 300 and 100 mg/day zonisamide. At 5 days after delivery, the milk concentrations and relative infant doses of the drug were 18.0 and 5.1 μg/mL, and 44 and 36%, respectively. In the first case, the mother fed colostrum and continued partial breast-feeding thus reducing the relative infant dose to 8%. The neonatal serum concentration of zonisamide declined to below the limit of detection at day 34 after birth. In the second case, the mother breast-fed partially until 2 weeks postpartum. No adverse effect was observed in the infants. These findings suggest that mothers taking zonisamide should not breast-feed exclusively, but may not have to avoid partial breast-feeding, with significant caution regarding adverse effects in infants.

  2. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  3. Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation: New standard in early breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Noorie; Lee, Sea Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) has been proved effective and safe and even better for late or acute radiation toxicity for early breast cancer. Moreover, it improves patient convenience, quality of life and is expected to be advantageous in the medical care system by reducing overall cost. In this review, we examined key randomized trials of HF-WBI, focusing on adequate patient selection as suggested by the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) guideline and the radiobiologic aspects of HF-WBI in relation to its adoption into clinical settings. Further investigation to identify the current practice pattern or cost effectiveness is warranted under the national health insurance service system in Korea.

  4. IMPACT OF BREAST-FEEDING EDUCATION ON NUTRITIONAL AWARENESS OF MOTHERS IN SOUTH TERRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Djazayery

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrition education on knowledge of mothers concerning breast-feeding in Giassi Charity Health Centre in the south of Tehran, Yaftabad. Breast-feeding and nutritional awareness of 104 randomly selected mothers was assessed before and after a one-month breast-feeding course (Three 90-minutes' sessions per week. The proportion of the mothers with high awareness before the course was 0.0% and increased to 83% after the course. In this study the effect of such independent variables as mothers’ age and age at the first pregnancy, their education, number of children and physiological status, as well as family income on their nutritional awareness was determined. Statistical analysis (of both total score and individual question score changes showed the nutrition education course to have had a positive impact on mothers’ nutritional knowledge and awareness (P<0.001, confidence limits 99.9%.

  5. Determinants of Breast Feeding Practices in Urban Slums of a Taluka Headquarter of District Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varshney Amit M, Kumar Dinesh, Patel Mahendra, Singh Uday S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical and public health experts advocate breastfeeding as the best method of feeding young infants for a wide variety of reasons. Increasing urbanization and rising slum population is a ground reality even in the smaller towns of developing world. There are reports of improper child feeding practices in urban slums. The present study was undertaken to understand the determinants of breast feeding practices in urban slums of a small town (taluka head quarter, tire-IV in district Anand of Gujarat state. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre of Pramukhswami Medical College. Out of six served areas two were selected by using simple random sampling. After taking consent, the mothers of all children between the ages of 0-2 years were interviewed using pretested questionnaire. Results: Of the 75 mothers interviewed 4(5% did not have any antenatal checkups (ANC and 73 (97.3% had institutional deliveries. Of the 71 mothers who had ANC only 28(39.4% were counselled about breastfeeding. Prevalence of pre-lacteal feeding, exclusive breast feeding (EBF and bottle feeding was 17(22.7%, 37(46.7% and 10(13.3% respectively. Maternal education beyond 7th grade and antenatal counselling about breastfeeding were associated with increased EBF and decreased pre-lacteal feeds. Conclusions: Breast feeding practices though better than national average was far from satisfactory. Female literacy continues to be an important factor in child rearing practices. The breast feeding counselling services need great deal of improvement in all healthcare settings.

  6. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  7. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  8. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING BREAST FEEDING, A PICTURE IN EAST KHASI HILLS DISTRICT OF MEGHALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and deve lopment. A child who is breast fed has greater chances of survival than a child who is art ificially fed. The low prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding increase the risk of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide, suboptimal breastfeeding still accounts for deaths of 1.4 million children a ged less than five years . AIM OF THE STUDY : 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices reg arding breast feeding among women 2. To study the factors influencing breast feeding practic es among women residing in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross sectional study conduct ed within the field practice area of NEIGRIHMS, two of which were urban- Nongmynsong and Pynthorbah and one rural area-Tynring. The study per iod was conducted from October 2012- December 2012 (three months duration. A total of 1 35 women were interviewed during the period. In the respective areas the households were s elected using simple random sampling after obtaining a list of all the households in the respective area from the ANM. In the selected household all the females available who have a chil d between 1-2 year of age were interviewed. Data analysis was done by descriptive analysis and a nalytical statistics by using Chi Square test using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS & OBSERVATION: Out of 135 families visited, 70 (51.9% families were nuclear families. With respect to feed ing practices; 80 (59% mothers had given Exclusive Breast Feeding for a period of 6 months. 7 4 (55% of mothers had knowledge on colostrums and 109 (80.75% of mothers had given co lostrum to their babies . 42 (31.1% mothers had initiated BF within 1 hour . The variables which were found to be associated wit h breast feeding are the mother

  9. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  10. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  11. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  12. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  13. 产前产后护理对初产妇母乳分泌及喂养的临床影响观察%Observation of prenatal postpartum nursing on clinical effects of early maternal breast milk secretion and feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产前产后护理对初产妇母乳分泌及喂养的临床影响。方法选取在产前5~7天入院待产的初产妇68例作为研究对象,根据产妇的入院顺序分为观察组和对照组,各34例,对照组产妇给予常规护理服务,观察组给予优质护理干预。结果观察组产妇乳汁分泌的时间以及母乳喂养情况明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在对初产妇实施护理的过程中,产前、产后的优质护理的运用,可提高母乳喂养的成功率,具有显著的效果,值得临床推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of prenatal care on primipara postpartum breast milk secretion and feeding.Methods From 5 to 7 days of admission in prenatal primipara 68 cases as the research object, according to the order of admission were divided into observation group and control group, each group of 34 cases of pregnant women, the control group were given routine care, antenatal and postpartum, the patients in observation group were given prenatal, postpartum quality nursing intervention.Results The observation group maternal milk secretion time and breast feeding is signiifcantly better than the control group, with statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). Conclusion In the implementation of the nursing process of early maternal, prenatal, postnatal quality care use, can improve the success rate of breastfeeding, has a signiifcant effect, worthy of promotion.

  14. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  15. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  16. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society.

  17. OUTCOME OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER ELECTIVE COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS

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    Sushant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Outcome of early oral feeding after elective colonic anastomosis . STUDY DESI G N: Descriptive case series . PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY : Department of Surgery Mata Gujari Medical C ollege, Kishanganj, Bihar, India. From June 2012 - March 2014. METHODOLOGY: De tailed preoperative ev aluation of the selected patients was done. Patients with malignancies, heart disease, poor general conditions, distal loop obstructions were excluded from the series. In selected patient’s proper history, physical examination and base line investigations were done. Limited bowel preparation was done in all the patients. Postope ratively 15 - 50 ml of sips was allowed 2 hourly after recovery form anesthesia . Free oral fluid intake was allowed on postoperative day - 1 , semisolids on day - 2 and day - 3 as tolerated and full oral diet allowed on day - 4. In case of two episodes of vomiting and absence of bowel sounds , patients were kept nil by mouth and nasogastric tube was inserted . RESULTS : Total 68 pat ients were selected, out of which 46(67.64% were males and 22(32.36% females (M.F2.09 : 1 . The age range was from 28 year to 76 year wi th mean age of 47.5 +2.4 year . Passage of first flatus was observed between 2 to 6 days (mean 2.8 days , and the time of first passage of stool was 3 - 8 days (mean 4.6 days. Twelve (17.64% patients did not tolerate feeding . Intolerance to feed results into vomiting and abdominal distension. Postoperative complications included wound infection (10.29% , electrolyte imbalance (4.41%, respiratory tract infections (2.94%, anastigmatic leaks (1.47% and wound dehiscence (1.47% . The hospital stay was 3 - 8 day ( M ean 5.4 day . CONCLUSION : Early oral feeding after elective colonic surgery was safe and well tolerated by majority of the patients.

  18. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    De, G.; Batty, G.D.; Deary, I J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are co...

  19. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Autoantibodies to αS1-casein are induced by breast-feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Petermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1 was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. METHODS: 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37 or were not (n = 25 breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies by a commercial ELISA. RESULTS: IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum, but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. CONCLUSION: We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood.

  1. [Skin to skin contact and breast-feeding after birth: not always without risk!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsse, P.R.; Semmekrot, B.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin-to-skin contact after birth is propagated to facilitate breast-feeding and mother-child bonding. We describe two term infants with sudden unexpected postnatal collapse (SUPC) during skin-to-skin contact. The infants were found with abnormal colour, hypotonia and apnoea, in a prone position on t

  2. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  3. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  4. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  5. Early versus on-demand nasoenteric tube feeding in acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, O.J.; Brunschot, S. van; Santvoort, H.C. van; Besselink, M.G.; Bollen, T.L.; Boermeester, M.A.; Dejong, C.H.; Goor, H. van; Bosscha, K.; Ali, U. Ahmed; Bouwense, S.; Grevenstein, W.M. van; Heisterkamp, J.; Houdijk, A.P.; Jansen, J.M.; Karsten, T.M.; Manusama, E.R.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Schaapherder, A.F.; Schelling, G.P. van der; Schwartz, M.P.; Spanier, B.W.; Tan, A.; Vecht, J.; Weusten, B.L.; Witteman, B.J.; Akkermans, L.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Ramshorst, B. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Study, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early enteral feeding through a nasoenteric feeding tube is often used in patients with severe acute pancreatitis to prevent gut-derived infections, but evidence to support this strategy is limited. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing early nasoenteric tube feeding wit

  6. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  7. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  8. Early breast cancer in the elderly: assessment and management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrand, Gilles; Terret, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is a common tumour in the elderly and management of early disease in particular is a major challenge for oncologists and geriatricians alike. The process should begin with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), which should be undertaken before any decisions about treatment are made. The important role of co-morbidities and their effect on life expectancy also need to be taken into account when making treatment decisions. The primary treatments for early breast cancer are surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Unfortunately, lack of a specific literature relating to early breast cancer in the elderly means formulating an evidence-based approach to treatment in this context is difficult. We have developed a new approach based on the CGA and comprehensive oncological assessment. This approach facilitates the development of an individualized oncogeriatric care plan and follow-up based on several considerations: the average patient's life expectancy at a given age; the patient's co-morbidities, level of dependence, and the impact of these considerations on diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as life expectancy; and the potential benefit-risk balance of treatment. In the elderly patient with breast cancer, the standard primary therapy is surgical resection (mastectomy or breast-conserving therapy). While node dissection is a major component of staging and local control of breast cancer, no data are available to guide decision-making in women aged >70 years. Primary endocrine therapy (tamoxifen) should be offered to elderly women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer only if they are unfit for or refuse surgery. Trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors as primary therapy for infirm older patients with ER-positive tumours. Breast irradiation should be recommended to older women with a life expectancy >5 years, particularly those with large tumours, positive lymph nodes

  9. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  10. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  11. Early retirement and non-employment after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among...

  12. About The Breast-Feedıng Attitudes And Behavıour Of The Mothers That Gave Bırt In Hospitals In Trabzon

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİTBAŞ, Çağla; KAHRİMAN, İlknur; BULUT, Kıymet YEŞİLÇİÇEK ÇALIK Hacer KOBYA

    2012-01-01

    Breast-feeding, impact on health baby and mother biologic and emotional as well as healthy growth and development of baby. This research was carried out as descriptive to determine the breast-feeding attitudes and behaviour of the mothers.The sample is composed of 405 mothers. Data were collected by using a questionnaire constructed by the researcher and The validity and reability of assessment scale breast feding was carried out by Arslan. The average breast feeding attitude points of the mo...

  13. Constructing compatibility: managing breast-feeding and weaning from the mother's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Irurita, Vera F

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to analyze the maternal process of managing the later stages of established breast-feeding and, ultimately, weaning the child from the breast within a Western Australian context. Data were analyzed from 33 participants' interview transcripts, field notes, 9 postal questionnaires from fathers, and individual and discussion group interviews with child health nurses. A common social problem of incompatible expectations was revealed. All participants faced a dilemma in the management of their experience when personal expectations were in opposition to others' expectations. A process of Constructing Compatibility by Adapting Focus was adopted to compensate for this incompatibility.

  14. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Daegling

    Full Text Available Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods.

  15. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Langfeldt, B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. With 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Milk feeding, solid feeding, and obesity risk:a review of the relationships between early life feeding practices and later adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma; Mitchell, Gemma L.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health issue with associated ill-health consequences during childhood and into later adolescence and adulthood. Given that eating behaviors are formed during early childhood, it is important to evaluate the relationships between early life feeding practices and later child adiposity. This review describes and evaluates recent literature exploring associations between child weight and the mode of milk feeding, the age of introducing solid foods and caregivers’ soli...

  17. Conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowble, B L; Orel, S G; Jardines, L

    1993-07-01

    In selected patients with early-stage breast cancer, conservative surgery and radiation represent an alternative equal to mastectomy in terms of local recurrence, distant metastasis, survival, and long-term complications. Patients with early-stage breast cancer who are candidates for conservative surgery and radiation include those whose primary tumor is less than 4 to 5 cm in size without evidence of gross multicentricity or diffuse microcalcifications. Patients with an extensive intraductal component may be appropriate candidates provided that margins of resection are negative. Young age is not a contraindication to the conservative treatment. A preexisting history of collagen vascular disease or prior mantle irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a contraindication to conservative surgery and radiation because of the potential for severe complications. An additional contraindication is the pregnant woman in whom delivery cannot be accomplished before the initiation of radiation. Mammography is essential in the pretreatment evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of the conservatively treated patient. The goal of the pretreatment mammogram is to assess the extent of disease in the ipsilateral breast as well as to evaluate the contralateral breast. In patients who present with microcalcifications, a postbiopsy mammogram before radiation is essential to document complete removal of all malignant-appearing microcalcifications. Mammography is an essential part of the follow-up program in order to detect a recurrence in the treated breast as well as a cancer in the contralateral breast cancer. The optimal interval for follow-up mammography has not been determined, although programs employing mammography on a yearly basis after treatment have been associated with the detection of early recurrences and excellent survival after salvage mastectomy for these recurrences.

  18. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Becquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 2001-2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition or severe events (hospitalization or death. Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate. The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995-1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47% were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.38; p = 0.43. The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14% and short-term breast-fed children (15% (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75-1.91; p = 0.44. An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the

  19. Biochemical monitoring of pregnancy and breast feeding in five patients with classical galactosaemia - and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Schadewaldt; H.W. Hammen; L. Kamalanathan; U. Wendel; M. Schwarz; A.M. Bosch; N. Guion; M. Janssen; G.H.J. Boers

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and postpartal metabolic control was monitored biochemically in five patients (22-38 years of age) with clinically, enzymatically, and genotypically established classical galactosaemia and good dietary compliance. Three of the patients performed breast feeding of their newborns.

  20. Early breast cancer detection using techniques other than mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    X-ray mammography is the only imaging method currently available with any proven efficacy for screening to detect early-stage, clinically occult breast cancer. Sonography has a limited role in the differentiation of cystic from solid masses and as a guide for aspiration and preoperative localization of selected breast lesions. Computed tomography has a more limited role to determine the spatial orientation of a lesion detected only in the lateral mammographic position. All other imaging methods should be considered experimental at this time.

  1. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Sang Jun [Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10{approx}16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13{approx}179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy ({<=}6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks.

  2. [Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isilia Aparecida

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women demonstrated to be conditioned and highlighted by the conditions the women encounter in their domestic, professional, and study settings. The physical setting and the relations among their relatives, superiors and peers exerts a strong influence on their determination to keep on breastfeeding.

  3. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  4. Economic impact of breast-feeding-associated improvements of childhood cognitive development, based on data from the ALSPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2016-01-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic benefits of improved cognitive development related to being breast-fed. Breast-feeding rates were assessed in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Educational attainment was assessed at age 16 years with higher attainment defined as gaining five General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) passes at a high grade. The economic benefit of being breast-fed was calculated in a decision model using a child's educational attainment and the corresponding expected value of average income in later life. There was a positive association between being breast-fed and achieving higher educational attainment, which remained significant, after adjustment for possible confounders: being breast-fed £33·6 million over the working life of the cohort. Therefore, breast-feeding promotion is likely to be highly cost-effective and policymakers should take this into consideration.

  5. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Manash P.; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Aims: We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged < 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. Material and Methods: A total of 43...

  6. Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Zahra

    2005-09-01

    Atopy can be defined as the genetically determined risk to develop allergic disease. Avoidance of one specific allergen may decrease the risk for sensitization against this allergen, but it will not affect atopy. Our aim was to investigate if exclusive breast-feeding is associated with atopic dermatitis during the first 5 years of life. Data on 200 children were taken from parental-administered questionnaires from a case control study in Birjand - Iran (recruited 2003) comprised of a case (100 children with atopic dermatitis) and a control (100 normal children) subgroup. Outcomes were physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis (AD) and itchy rash. Data were analyzed by using SPSS package, Chi square and Exact Fisher tests.Thirty-four of the case and 50 of control group were exclusively breast-fed, whereas 6 of the case and 2 of control group were exclusively cow milk-fed. These differences were statistically significant. (P less than 0.05). Duration of breast-feeding in case and control group was different. These differences were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Duration of cow's milk formula feeding in case and control group was different, but these differences were not statistically significant. (P=0.6) Positive family history of allergy in case and control group was 63% and 23% respectively and this difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). These findings support the hypothesis that exclusive breast-feeding is a protective factor for development of atopic dermatitis if compared with conventional cow's milk formula.

  7. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  8. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rothfus

    2012-04-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  9. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    % of patients aged 40 or younger in 77B had regular menses throughout chemotherapy, the corresponding percentage was 37 in 82B and 47 in 89B. The DBCG in collaboration with a Swedish and a Dutch centre participating in the DBCG trial 89B compared CMF with ovarian ablation in premenopausal high-risk breast...... are not clinically useful by themselves as other chemotherapy regimens have been more efficacious, and knowledge is still lacking regarding the benefits from adding ovarian suppression to chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. The results from the DBCG 77B and 82C are in accordance with other large adjuvant trials...... adjuvant trials demonstrated that patients with either TOP2A or centromere 17 aberrations, but not with HER2 amplification, benefit from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Anthracyclins have additional distinct biological mechanisms; and results from the DBCG 89D suggested that tumours...

  10. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  11. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future.

  12. A randomized controlled trial evaluating early versus traditional oral feeding after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of early oral feeding after colorectal operations. METHODS: A total of 199 patients underwent colorectal surgery and were randomly assigned to early feeding (n = 99 or a regular diet (n = 100. Patients’ characteristics, diagnoses, surgical procedures, comorbidity, bowel movements, defecation, nasogastric tube reinsertion, time of tolerance of solid diet, complications, and length of hospitalization were assessed. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and comorbidity. In the early feeding group, 85.9% of patients tolerated the early feeding schedule. Bowel movements (1.7±0.89 vs. 3.27±1.3, defecation (3.4±0.77 vs. 4.38±1.18 and time of tolerance of solid diet (2.48±0.85 vs. 4.77±1.81 were significantly earlier in the early feeding group. There was no change between the groups in terms of nasogastric tube reinsertion, overall complication or anastomotic leakage. Hospitalization (5.55±2.35 vs. 9.0±6.5 was shorter in the early feeding group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that early oral feeding after elective colorectal surgery was not only well tolerated by patients but also affected the postoperative outcomes positively. Early postoperative feeding is safe and leads to the early recovery of gastrointestinal functions.

  13. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake.

  14. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  15. How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy at an early age has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents. Postulated mechanisms underlying this phenomenon include alterations in the relative dynamics of hormone and growth factor-initiated cell fate-determining signaling pathways within the hierarchically organized mammary gland epithelium. Recent studies in epithelial cell subpopulations isolated from mouse and human mammary glands have shown that early pregnancy decreases the proportion of hormone receptor-positive cells and causes pronounced changes in gene expression as well as decreased proliferation in stem/progenitor cells. The changes include downregulation of Wnt and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. These new findings highlight the importance of cell-cell interactions within the mammary gland epithelium in modulating cancer risk and provide potential targets for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  16. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  17. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  18. Breast-feeding, nutritional status, and other prognostic factors for dehydration among young children with diarrhoea in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G; Fuchs, S C; Kirkwood, B R; Lombardi, C; Barros, F C

    1992-01-01

    Early identification of children at high risk of diarrhoea-associated dehydration would be of great value to health care workers in developing countries. To identify prognostic factors for life-threatening dehydration, we carried out a case-control study among under-2-year-olds in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cases were 192 children admitted to hospital with moderate or severe dehydration, while controls were children matched to controls by neighbourhood and age, who experienced nondehydrating diarrhoea in the week preceding the interview. The following variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of dehydration, after adjustment for age and other confounding variables: absence of the father from the home; low paternal education level; young age; maternal age 25-29 years or less than 20 years; mother of mixed race; high birth order; short birth interval; low birth weight; stunting, underweight and wasting; lack of breast-feeding; presence of other under-5-year-olds in the home; families with 4-5 members; lack of antenatal care; less than three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus or poliomyelitis vaccine; previous admission to hospital; use of medicines during the fortnight prior to the episode; and living in an unclean home. The associations were particularly strong (P less than 0.001) for the child's age, birth weight and other anthropometric indicators, birth interval, and feeding mode. In terms of their sensitivity and specificity, however, these prognostic factors were not as effective as early signs and symptoms for predicting the outcome of the episode.

  19. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    informatics, immunology , benign cancer , prognostic studies, baseline diagnostics, heatmaps, ROCurves 2 Major Activities 1. Production of IMS arrays...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  20. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Oncological Sciences, The Immunology Institute, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA 3Department of...cell 13, 58-68. Joyce, J. A., and Pollard, J. W. (2009). Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis. Nature reviews Cancer 9, 239-252. Kaplan, R. N...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0365 TITLE: Macrophage Functions in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina

  1. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  2. 乳旁加奶在母乳喂养中的应用%Application of the Breast Milk in the Breast Feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨使用乳旁加奶器混合喂养对母婴的影响。方法选择400组新生儿及其母亲随机分为观察组和对照组各200组。观察组以纯母乳喂养为基础,适时采用乳旁加奶器混合喂养方法,对照组实施纯母乳喂养。结果观察组的母亲睡眠状况、胎便排泄持续时间、每天排尿次数及新生儿睡眠质量,新生儿生理性黄疸消退时间均优于对照组,母乳达充足时间无差别。结论:母乳是新生儿最理想的天然食品,但在早期乳量不足的情况下,适时采用乳旁加奶的方法,可提高母亲及新生儿的睡眠质量、预防新生儿脱水、增加小便次数、促进大便排出,新生儿黄疸消退较快,更有利于新生儿的生长。%Objective Margin milk is mixed with milk feeding ef ects on maternal and infant.Methods Select 400 newborns and their mothers were randomly divided into observation group and control group 200 each set. Observation group based on pure breast-feeding, timely adopt next to the milk and milk mixed feeding method, the control implementation of exclusive breastfeeding.Results Observation group's mother sleep duration, meconium excretion, micturition number every day, and neonatal sleep quality,Neonatal physiological jaundice faded time were superior to control group, there was no dif erence in the breast milk of time.Conclusion Breast milk is a new student the most ideal natural food, but in the case of insuf icient early milk volume, timely adopt the method of near the milk white, to improve the quality of mothers and newborns sleep, prevent dehydration, to increase the number to urinate, and promote defecate eduction, neonatal jaundice subsided quickly, more conducive to the growth of newborns.

  3. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding.

  4. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz Suzely A; Zina Livia; Saliba Nemre; Saliba Orlando

    2008-01-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers ...

  5. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  6. 产前互动式培训对母乳喂养率及喂养技巧的影响%Effect of prenatal interactive training on breast feeding rate and the skill of breast feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佐卿; 姚春花; 郑雪芳; 罗彦明

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To explore the relationship between prenatal interactive training and breast feeding rate and the skill of breast feeding. Methods: 100 healthy full -terra primiparous women who received prenatal interactive training were selected as observation group, and 100 healthy full -term primiparous women who did not received prenatal interactive training at the same time were selected as control group, the primiparous women in the two groups both received postpartum personalized education of breast feeding knowledge, the grasp situation of neonatal breast feeding skills and the success rate of breast feeding in the two groups were observed. Results; There was significant difference in correct grasp situation of neonatal breast feeding skills between observation group and control group ( P < 0. 05 ) , the rate of breast feeding in observation group and control group were 95% and 67% , respectively, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: Prenatal interactive training in hospital and personalized publicity and education can improve the grasp situation of breast feeding skills and the success rate of breast feeding effectively.%目的:探讨产前互动式培训与母乳喂养率及喂养技巧的关系.方法:将参加产前互动式培训的100名健康足月妊娠初产妇设为观察组,未参加产前互动式培训的100名同期健康初产妇设为对照组,两组产妇均接受产后个性化哺乳知识教育,观察两组产妇产后新生儿喂养技巧掌握情况和母乳喂养成功率的差异.结果:观察组产妇与对照组产妇对母乳喂养技巧正确掌握情况差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),同时观察组与对照组母乳喂养率分别为95%和67%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:产前互动式培训和住院个性化宣教能有效提高产妇母乳喂养技巧的掌握和母乳喂养成功率.

  7. Breast feeding: reflection on the role of father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Bernarda Riveros Jeneral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to reveal the feelings experienced by fathers during breastfeeding. Methodology: it is a descriptive and qualitative research. Fifteen parents who had at least two children and experiences in breastfeeding processing Sorocaba were interviewed. The interviews were recorded at Santa Lucinda's Hospital. The data organization was carried out using the Collective Subject Discourse. Reports were grouped into core ideas, totaling twenty-four speeches, among the most cited: little involvement in the breastfeeding process, knowledge of the importance of breastfeeding, satisfaction with the process of breastfeeding, feelings of abandonment and frustration, guidance received from other (lay, ignorance about the process of breastfeeding and its importance, lack of guidance from professionals about breastfeeding knowledge about breastfeeding technique, negative and positive experiences in the process of breastfeeding, fear and grief against the weaning process and reflecting on the breastfeeding process. Results: the results shows that during this period, fathers demonstrates satisfaction and interest in participating with breastfeeding process, but also feel left out for being an intimate act between mother-child which is also not encouraged by health professionals in monitoring pre-birth. Conclusion: nurse's guidance is essential, either during the prenatal or postpartum period, because of the importance of incentives and guidance on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for the continuity of this process during the first six months of life and to decrease the incidence of early weaning process.

  8. Neoadjuvant endocrine treatment in early breast cancer: An overlooked alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, P A; van Dam, V C N; Altintas, S; Papadimitriou, K; Rolfo, C; Trinh, X B

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) has moved from being reserved for elderly and frail non-chemotherapy candidates to a primary systemic modality in selected patients with hormone sensitive breast cancer. Neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in patients with hormone receptor positive, HER-2 negative early breast cancer is proven to be an effective and safe option; it is associated with a higher rate of breast conserving surgery (BCS), may reduce the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and enables a delay of surgery for medical or practical reasons. Clinical responses range from 13% to 100% with at least 3 months of NET. Methods of assessing response should include MRI of the breast, particularly in lobular tumours. In studies comparing tamoxifen with aromatase inhibitors (AI), AI proved to be superior in terms of tumour response and rates of BCS. Change in Ki67 is accepted as a validated endpoint for comparing endocrine neoadjuvant agents. Levels of Ki67 during treatment are more closely related to long-term prognosis than pretreatment Ki67. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy provides a unique opportunity for studies of endocrine responsiveness and the development of new experimental drugs combined with systemic hormonal treatment.

  9. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term.

  10. Health education for early detection of breast cancer in blind women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of blind women about the risk factors for breast cancer and whether they look for early detection of this cancer. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with 72 blind women distributed in focus groups. Data were collected through interviews. Results: few participants had knowledge about one or more risk factors for breast cancer, but most practiced early detection. Health education was developed using breast kits and demonstration of breast self-examination. It was obtained qualitative improvement of knowledge of the participants about breast cancer, its risk factors and early detection practices. In addition, participants demonstrated breast self-examination confidently. Conclusion: we need to develop in a harder manner educational activities to clarify about breast cancer risk factors and the importance of periodically carrying out breast self-examination, clinical examination and mammography.

  11. Normalising the Breast: Early Childhood Services Battling the Bottle and the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Judith; Bartle, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Normalising practices as a tool for controlling the body and bodily processes have been well-documented using Foucault's theories, including debates around breastfeeding. In this article we explore how the ideas of "normalisation" of the bottle-feeding culture of infants in New Zealand early childhood settings has become the accepted…

  12. Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breast-feeding in Peruvian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R A; Howanitz, P J; Oski, F A

    1981-10-01

    Serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin concentrations were measured in seven Peruvian infants, who ranged in age from 7.5-12.0 months (mean: 9.3 months), who had been exclusively breast-fed all their lives. No infant had evidence of iron deficiency as reflected by a reduced serum ferritin, or an increased erythrocyte porphyrin. Mean serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin values in these seven infants were similar to those of 40 nonanemic, noniron-deficient U.S. infants who ranged in age from 9 to 12 months, on a mixed diet. These findings illustrate that exclusively breast-feeding an infant for at least 9 months of life meets the iron requirements of the full-term infant.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of 3DCRT versus IMRT in whole breast irradiation of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The counseling regarding the treatment option is an important objective in the management of early stages breast cancer. In this study, we attempt to compare and analyze the dosimetric aspects of 3DRT over IMRT in the whole breast radiotherapy.Methods and Materials:  Both right and left sided computed tomography simulations of 14 women with early stage breast cancer were used for our retrospective study to compare the 3DCRT and IMRT. The dose prescribed was 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast PTV. The PTV was defined by adding unequal margins to the directional safety margin status of each lumpectomy cavity (i.e., medial, lateral, superior, inferior and deep margins measured from the tumor front after the examination of the surgical specimen: 2, 1.5, and 1 cm for resection margins < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and > 2cm, respectively. And than modified so that it was no longer closer than 3mm to the skin surface and was no deep than the lung –chest interface. The prescribed dose delivered in 5 fractions per week schedule. Treatment plans were compared for target minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose, conformity index, heterogeneity index and doses to organs at risk were compared and analysed.Results: The target coverage was achieved with 90% prescription to the 95% of the PTV. Conformity to the PTV was significantly higher with 3DCRT technique than IMRT. 3DCRT technique seems better in sparing critical organs parameters like lung V20 and Mean, heart, V25, Maximum, both lungs V20, Mean and Dose to the Normal Healthy tissue.Conclusion: We conclude from our study that treatment technique selection for whole Breast irradiation is an important factor in sparing the adjacent normal structures and in determining the associated risk. 3DCRT produces better conformity and heterogeneity indices of the target volume, also reduces dose to OARs the 3DCRT reduces the risk of radiation induced heart diseases

  14. Time trends in axilla management among early breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondos, Adam; Jansen, Lina; Heil, Jörg;

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined time trends in axilla management among patients with early breast cancer in European clinical settings. Material and methods EUROCANPlatform partners, including population-based and cancer center-specific registries, provided routinely available clinical cancer registry data...... for a comparative study of axillary management trends among patients with first non-metastatic breast cancer who were not selected for neoadjuvant therapy during the last decade. We used an additional short questionnaire to compare clinical care patterns in 2014. Results Patients treated in cancer centers were...... younger than population-based registry populations. Tumor size and lymph node status distributions varied little between settings or over time. In 2003, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) use varied between 26% and 81% for pT1 tumors, and between 2% and 68% for pT2 tumors. By 2010, SLNB use increased to 79...

  15. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Barros de Arruda Telles; Rívea Inês Ferreira; Luiza do Nascimento Cezar Magalhães; Helio Scavone-Junior

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 gr...

  16. Early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding improve patients' rehabilitation after colorectostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhou; Xiao-Ting Wu; Ye-Jiang Zhou; Xiong Huang; Wei Fan; Yue-chun Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen patients submitted to operations associated with colorectostomy from January 2004 to September 2005 were randomized to two groups: In experimental group (n = 161), the nasogastric tube was removed after the operation from 12 to 24 hours and was promised immediately oral feeding; In control group (n = 155), the nasogastric tube was maintained until the passage of flatus per rectum.Variables assessed included the time to first passage of flatus, the time to first passage of stool, the time elapsedpostoperative stay, and postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage, acute dilation of stomach,wound infection and dehiscense, fever, pulmonary infection and pharyngolaryngitis.RESULTS: The median and average days to the first passage of flatus (3.0±0.9 vs 3.6± 1.2, P<0.001), the first passage of stool (4.1± 1.1 vs 4.8± 1.4 P<0.001)and the length of postoperative stay (8.4± 3.4 vs 9.6±5.0, P<0.05) were shorter in the experimental group than in the control group. The postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage (1.24% vs 2.58%), acute dilation of stomach (1.86% vs 0.06%)and wound complications (2.48% vs1.94%) were similar in the groups, but fever (3.73% vs 9.68%, P<0.05),pulmonary infection (0.62% vs 4.52%, P<0.05) and pharyngolaryngitis (3.11% vs 23.23%, P<0.001) were much more in the control group than in the experimental group.CONCLUSION: The present study shows that application of gastrointestinal decompression after colorectostomy can not effectively reduce postoperative complications.On the contrary, it may increase the incidence rate of fever, pharyngolaryngitis and pulmonary infection.These strategies of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing

  17. NIPPLE AREOLA COMPLEX INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AND LATE CARCINOMA BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz

    2015-08-01

    be concluded that nipple areola complex sparing mastectomy is an attractive and safe procedure for early breast cancer

  18. Supraclavicular recurrence after early breast cancer: a curable condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders N; Møller, Susanne; Steffensen, Karina D;

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node recurrence after early breast cancer appears to be worse than for other loco-regional recurrences, but better than for distant metastases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between different types of salvage...... recurrence. Salvage treatment types as well as other factors were related to response and survival. The median follow-up time for progression after SR was 25 months. Complete remission was 76% among patients receiving excision surgery, 67% with combined loco-regional and systemic therapy, and 48...

  19. Breastfeeding and allergic disease: a multidisciplinary review of the literature (1966-2001) on the mode of early feeding in infancy and its impact on later atopic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odijk, J.; Kull, I.; Borres, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Strategies to prevent children from developing allergy have been elaborated on the basis of state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature regarding pets and allergies, building dampness and health, and building ventilation and health. A similar multidisciplinary review of infant...... feeding mode in relation to allergy has not been published previously. Here, the objective is to review the scientific literature regarding the impact of early feeding (breast milk and/or cow's milk and/or formula) on development of atopic disease. The work was performed by a multidisciplinary group...... concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms...

  20. Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery--what are the issues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdominal...

  1. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  2. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  3. Mixed messages about the meanings of breast-feeding representations in the Australian press and popular magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A M

    1999-03-01

    The popular press is an influential medium for the communication of messages and meanings about health and lifestyle issues (Lupton 1993). Through language and images, the print media present selected phenomena, events and issues to readers. The choice and connections between works used can impress upon the reader specific images of the world and the attitudes toward the presented issues and ideas (Nunan 1993). Discourse analysis is used in this study to examine representations of breast feeding in articles published in the Australian press and popular magazines over a six-month period. Discourse analysis is a method of inquiry that focuses on sociocultural and political contexts in which communication occurs (Lupton 1992). Discourses revealed mixed messages and meanings. Breast feeding was seen as natural and the best way of feeding but also as problematic in practice. Dominant ideologies of power and persuasion were also evident. The media portrayed predominantly negative views about breast feeding. Such discourses may influence decisions to breast feed and have wider implications for midwives in their roles as supporters and educators of women and their families.

  4. Nectar feeding by the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Gadawski, R M

    1994-07-01

    Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week of life. Blossoms of P. pensylvanica shielded for 24 h from foragers produced an average of 0.14 mg of sugar (approximately 2.3J). This nectar was avidly sought by both sexes of Ae. provocans; > 97% of the blossoms were visited by mosquitoes in the first few days of blooming. Young adult mosquitoes were found on blossoms at all hours of the day and night; feeding on P. nigra was strongly eocrepuscular, whereas on P. pensylvanica feeding was much less strongly periodic. Adults foraged for nectar in an energy-conserving, pedestrian strategy, devoting 56% (females) and 68% (males) of their time on blossoms to nectar feeding during foraging bouts that lasted a median of 5.3 min. Both sexes sought nectar soon after emergence--males before they had completed hypopygial rotation or swarmed, and females before mating or host seeking. Female Ae. provocans sought nectar in all stages of oogenesis, but primarily at the initiation of a gonotrophic cycle. Energy stores in the crop averaged 18J per female, with a distribution that depended on gonotrophic age and parity.

  5. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  6. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, Marissa C.; de Munck, Linda; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jobsen, Jan J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Linn, Sabine C.; Poortmans, Philip; Strobbe, Luc J. A.; Siesling, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving surgery

  7. The prognostic relevance of estimates of proliferative activity in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, B V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knoop, A;

    2003-01-01

    clinicopathological parameters at diagnosis in early breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumour specimens from 365 consecutively treated breast cancer patients were immunostained for MIB-1 and evaluated under the microscope using systematic random sampling accomplished by the CAST-grid system. RESULTS...... and number of mitoses included in the analysis, MIB-1 estimates showed no independent prognostic impact. CONCLUSIONS: High MIB-1 estimates did not add independent prognostic information at diagnosis when evaluated together with classical prognostic markers of early breast cancer....

  8. Alimentos complementares e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em lactentes até 12 meses de vida em Itapira, São Paulo, 1999 Complementary feeding and factors associated to breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among infant up to 12 months of age, Itapira, São Paulo, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celene Aparecida Ferrari Audi

    2003-03-01

    , pacifiers and maternal characteristics, was assessed through multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: the average age of the mothers was of 25,5 years old, 41% were primiparae and 51,7% of the deliveries were through C-sections. The average weight at birth was of 3.223g. It was noted that 98,1% of the infants were breast-fed during the first 30 days, but there was an early introduction of tea, water and other types of milk. Exclusive breast-feeding prevalence was of 64,8% in the first month dropping to 45% in the second month and 30,1% between four and six months. At twelve months 61,6% of the infants were breast-fed. Variables associated to weaning were: the use of pacifiers (OR 5,58; CI95%: 3,94 -7,89, low birth weight (OR 2,74; CI95%: 1,46 - 5,13 hospital of birth (OR 1,76; CI95%: 1,22 - 2,52. The reason for exclusive breast-feeding interruption in the first six months was the use of pacifiers (OR 4,41; CI95%: 2,57 - 7,59 and C-section births (OR 1,78; CI95%: 1,09 - 2,91. CONCLUSIONS: prevalence of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding is still far from the WHO current recommendations.

  9. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  10. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  11. Effects of early feeding and exogenous putrescine on growth and small intestinal development in posthatch ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P; Xu, J; Chen, W; Tangara, M; Qi, Z L; Peng, J

    2010-02-01

    1. Effects of early feeding with a diet containing added putrescine on duck intestinal development and growth performance were examined by a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two different feeding times (6 and 48 h) and two levels of putrescine (0 and 025%). 2. A significant main effect of early feeding on increasing body weight (BW) was observed from hatch to 35 d, whereas dietary putrescine had no significant effect on BW. 3. In the first week posthatch, enhanced small intestinal weight and intestinal density (weight of intestinal tissue/unit length of intestine), increased villus length and reduced crypt depth were observed in the early feeding group, while no effect was observed when putrescine was added to the diet. 4. Maltase and sucrase activity and protein/DNA ratio in jejunum were increased by early feeding in the first week, while decreased by putrescine supplementation. 5. In conclusion, early feeding methods have great potential for small intestine development and thereafter enhanced the growth performance of ducks, but dietary putrescine used during this period should be used cautiously to avoid toxicity.

  12. Prognostic factors of second primary contralateral breast cancer in early-stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, ZHENG; SERGENT, FABRICE; BOLLA, MICHEL; ZHOU, YUNFENG; GABELLE-FLANDIN, ISABELLE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic outcome of early-stage breast cancer (pT1aN0M0) and to identify prognostic factors for secondary primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC). A total of 85 patients with mammary carcinomas were included. All patients had undergone breast surgery and adjuvant treatment between January 2001 and December 2008 at the Central Hospital of Grenoble University (Grenoble, France). The primary end-points were disease-free survival and secondary CBC, and the potential prognostic factors were investigated. During a median follow-up of 60 months, 10 of the 85 patients presented with secondary primary cancer, of which six suffered with CBC. No patient mortalities were reported. The rates of CBC were 2.35, 3.53 and 7.06% at one, two and five years, respectively. The cumulative univariate analysis showed that microinvasion and family history are potential risk factors for newly CBC. The current study also demonstrated that secondary CBC was more likely to occur in patients with microinvasion or a family history of hte dise. In addition, the systematic treatment of secondary CBC should include hormone therapy. PMID:25435968

  13. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  14. Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding: Effects of Health Promotion Intervention in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDOCHI M NWOSU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Low level of knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding have been reported in Nigeria especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study is to identify factors contributing to low knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding (E B F in rural communities of Abia State, Nigeria and apply health promotion intervention (H P I to address these factors in order to increase knowledge and practice of E B F. METHOD: A quasi-experimental study design was used. Four communities formed the unit of allocation to experimental and control groups for the purpose of introducing health promotion intervention. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting the study sample. A sample size of 400 households out of 1978 enumerated from the four communities was used for the survey, two as experimental and two as control. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire that was interviewer administered. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Chi-square statistic was used in determining statistical significance. Analysis of knowledge and practice of EBF was taken before and after H P I and compared in both experimental and control groups.\\ RESULT: The results indicated increase in knowledge of E B F from 28(14% to 200(98.5%. Correspondingly, practice of E B F increased from 21 (10% to 162(80% in the experimental group. No significant increase was made in the control group both in knowledge and practice of EBF. Factors contributing to low level of practice of EBF in the study area included low level of knowledge about ten steps to successful breast feeding, illusory fears about EBF, ignorance, resistance to change, cultural imperatives and medical reasons. Health promotion intervention directed at the rural women helped to scale up the practice of EBF to 70% within nine months. CONCLUSION: The study recommends health promotion intervention as a proven method for scaling up knowledge and practice of EBF in

  15. Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heung Lae; Kim, Cheo Ljin; Park, Sung Kwang; Oh, Min Kyung; Lee, Jin Yong; Ahn, Ki Jung [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range 43.8-129.4 months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for Tis and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had 1-3 lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close ({<=}2 mm) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy (41.4-60.4 Gy) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0

  16. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Hoekstra, M.O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Smit, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting

  17. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Kerkhof, M.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Gerritsen, J.; Aalberse, R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors-the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy-might partly explain the conflicting re

  18. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry.

  19. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros de Arruda Telles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723 with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9% and G4 (19.4%. Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively. Chances of non-breastfed children (G1 with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p < 0.01. When comparing bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2, 3-4 years (OR = 7.6 and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0, p < 0.01. It may be suggested that breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence. Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  20. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  1. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  2. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  3. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding-A clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... and changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians.......This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself...

  4. CADe tools for early detection of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Lauria, A; López, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S

    2004-01-01

    A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcifications and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. Our collaboration, among italian physicists and radiologists, has built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images and has developed a Computer Aided Detection (CADe) system for the automatic analysis of mammographic images and installed it in some Italian hospitals by a GRID connection. Regarding microcalcifications, in our CADe digital mammogram is divided into wide windows which are processed by a convolution filter; after a self-organizing map analyzes each window and produces 8 principal components which are used as input of a neural network (FFNN) able to classify the windows matched to a threshold. Regarding massive lesions we select all important maximum intensity position and define the ROI radius. From each ROI found we extract the parameters which are used as input in a FFNN to distinguish betwee...

  5. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  6. Early feeding practices and development of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Gideon; Penagos, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing efforts to prevent food allergies in children, IgE-mediated food allergies continue to rise in westernized countries. Previous preventive strategies such as prolonged exclusive breastfeeding and delayed weaning onto solid foods have more recently been called into question. The present review discusses possible risk factors and theories for the development of food allergy. An alternative hypothesis is proposed, suggesting that early cutaneous exposure to food protein through a disrupted skin barrier leads to allergic sensitization and that early oral exposure of food allergen induces tolerance. Novel interventional strategies to prevent the development of food allergies are also discussed.

  7. NIR fingerprint screening for early control of non-conformity at feed mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Abbas, Ouissam; Lecler, Bernard; Hogrel, Patrick; Dardenne, Pierre; Baeten, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this work was to devise a complete procedure based on chemometrics and the use NIR spectroscopy at the entrance of a feed mill to provide early evidence of non-conformity and unusual ingredients and thus help to achieve cost-savings. The procedure was validated at laboratory level and was adapted for application at the Cargill Animal Nutrition feed mill. The study focused on the characterisation of pure soybean meal with the aim of creating an early control system for detecting and quantifying any unusual ingredient that might be present in the soybean meal, such as melamine, cyanuric acid or whey powder (milk serum). The study results showed that the use of NIR, combined with some simple chemometric tools based on distances and residuals from regression equations, is appropriate for authenticating important feed products (in this case, soybean meal) and detecting the presence of abnormal samples or impurities in both the laboratory and at the feed mill.

  8. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p 20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p 2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy strategies should be explored further in young patients with large and high-risk tumors to reduce the risk of TR. PMID:27158571

  9. Effect of unrestricted bottle-feeding on early postoperative course after cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Key; Lee, Taik Jong; Chae, Soo Wook

    2009-09-01

    Although bottle-feeding after cheiloplasty is widely accepted, postoperative feeding regimen after palatoplasty is still controversial. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the effect of bottle-feeding on early postoperative course after palatoplasty in a relatively homogeneous group of patients. Eighty-two consecutive patients with nonsyndromic cleft palate undergoing 2-flap palatoplasty by a single surgeon were randomized to feeding from a bottle with the usual nipple (G1, N = 42) or to feeding with a spoon, cup, or syringe (G2, N = 40). Complication rates, postoperative sedative use, oral intake for the first 6 days, and relative weight gain at 1 and 2 months were compared. There were no significant complications such as bleeding or respiratory problem. The overall complication rate including wound dehiscence and oronasal fistula was similar in G1 and G2 (11.9% versus 12.5%, P = 1.000) as was postoperative sedative use and mean daily oral intake for the first 5 days. Mean intake on the sixth day was significantly higher in G1. There were no significant between-group differences in relative weight gain after 1 and 2 months. In conclusion, bottle-feeding had no adverse effect on the early postoperative course after palatoplasty including complication rate, oral intake, and weight gain. These findings suggest that an unrestricted feeding regimen is appropriate immediately after palatoplasty.

  10. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results We documented 2830 cases of breast...

  11. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II tri...

  12. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same breast is low. Yet, even if breast cancer does recur in the same breast, that does not reduce a woman's chances for a healthy recovery. As was already noted, the chance of survival is not affected by the choice of surgery. ...

  13. CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity in women with breast cancer associated with early death, breast cancer-specific death, and increased risk of a second breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Weischer (Maren); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.L. Hopper (John); P. Hall (Per); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); P. Devilee (Peter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Cox (Angela); G.G. Giles (Graham); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Lindblom (Annika); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Mannermaa (Arto); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); E.M. John (Esther); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Flyger (Henrik); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Q. Wang (Qing); T.A. Muranen (Taru); R.R. van Hien (Richard); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.C. Southey (Melissa); K. Czene (Kamila); J.A. Knight (Julia); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); J.M. Collee (Margriet); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); G. Severi (Gianluca); F. Marme (Federick); S. Margolin (Sara); J.E. Olson (Janet); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A. Miron (Alexander); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Shah (Mitul); C. Blomqvist (Carl); A. Broeks (Annegien); M.E. Sherman (Mark); K. Phillips (Kelly); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); G. Glendon (Gord); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); A.B. Ekici (Arif); K. Leunen; M. Kriege (Mieke); S.S. Cross (Simon); L. Baglietto (Laura); C. Sohn (Christof); X. Wang (Xing); V. Kataja (Vesa); A.L. Børresen-Dale (Anne Lise); A. Meyer (Andreas); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); S.E. Bojesen (Stig)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. Patients and Methods: From 22 studies participating in the Breast C

  14. CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygosity in Women With Breast Cancer Associated With Early Death, Breast Cancer-Specific Death, and Increased Risk of a Second Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pharoah, Paul

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS From 22 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...

  15. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  16. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health.

  17. Early feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M; Becker, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for ß cell autoimmunity, clinical type 1 diabetes, or both. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...... in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is an international, randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial designed to answer the question of whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula in infancy will decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes later in childhood. In our pilot study, weaning to a highly...... recruited 5606 newborn infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and enrolled 2159 eligible subjects who carried a risk-conferring HLA genotype. All recruited mothers were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6-8 mo with a minimum study formula exposure time of 2 mo...

  18. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and mobilisation...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  19. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  20. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  1. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  2. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  3. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  4. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  5. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants

    OpenAIRE

    Grewen, Karen M.; DAVENPORT, RUSSELL E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT...

  6. New and chronic use of hypnotics after diagnosis with early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine use and investigate factors associated with use of hypnotics the first year after a diagnosis with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective registry based cohort study linking clinical data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group with the National Prescription Drug...... Database and other health and administrative registries. We included 26 082 women diagnosed with early breast cancer as first time primary cancer during 1996-2006. Use of hypnotics was measured as redeemed prescriptions in the first year after diagnosis of early breast cancer. Prior use of hypnotics.......21-1.42)] and use of antidepressants the year before breast cancer diagnosis [HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.85-2.10)]. CONCLUSION: This study detected a group of patients at great risk for initiating and increasing use of hypnotics and preventive and prophylactic mechanism should be investigated and initiated when this group...

  7. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadtaghi Rajabi Mashhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein          (hs-CRP, as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group.   Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction.   Conclusion:  The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding.

  8. Estimated radiation dose to breast feeding infant following maternal administration of 57Co labelled to vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Kay M; Sawyer, Laura J; Evans, Martyn J

    2005-09-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast feeding infant was calculated. Milk samples were collected from every feed in the first 24 h, and at approximately 48 and 72 h post-administration. The absorbed dose to the infant's liver (the organ receiving the highest dose) was calculated to be 0.23 mGy. The effective dose to the infant was calculated to be 0.025 mSv, which is considerably lower than the current regulatory limit of 1 mSv. The Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee advise that the first feed, at approximately 4 h after administration, be discarded. The data show that this was unwarranted, and that the peak concentration of Co in the breast milk occurred at around 24 h.

  9. From folklore to scientific evidence: breast-feeding and wet-nursing in islam and the case of non-puerperal lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-12-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the "power structures" that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition.

  10. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  11. Patterns of breast and bottle feeding and their association with dental caries in 1- to 4-year-old South African children. 1. Dental caries prevalence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G J; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Fatti, L P; Richardson, B D; Sinwel, R E; Hargreaves, J A; Williams, S

    1993-12-01

    In order to study associations between breast and bottle feeding and dental caries a questionnaire on feeding habits was completed by trained interviewers for 1,263 children aged 1 to 4 years from five South African communities. Of these, 73 to 94 per cent had been breast fed for mean periods of 9 to 16 months. The types of infant feeding practised (breast, bottle or mixed) varied little within the groups although each group differed significantly from the others for the preferred feeding practice. Using responses to a dietary interview the children were subdivided into those breast fed for 12 months or longer (n = 546), those who had mixed breast and bottle feeding (n = 527) and those who were bottle fed only (n = 190). Caries prevalence increased with the age of the child, more in bottle fed than other groups. Within all feeding groups caries prevalence was lowest among white children and in social class I. The dmfs and dmft scores showed irregular patterns and were significantly influenced by feeding group and the interaction between race and social class.

  12. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2011-01-01

    : A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with poorer...

  13. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  14. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: sashasenthi@msn.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Chua, Boon H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  15. The 10-Year Local Recurrence and Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhen Wang; Ruiying Li

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the local recurrence and the role of whole breast radiotherapy for early breast cancer treated by conservative surgery.METHODS From April 1990 to December 2000, 49 patients with early primary breast cancer were treated by conservative surgery in our hospital. The cases were comprised of Stage 0, 1; Stage Ⅰ, 31; and Stage Ⅱa,17. Forty cases underwent quadrantectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection, and the other 9 cases had lumpectomy alone. Irradiation, which was received by 39 patients, was administered by using low tangential half fields with 6 MV X-ray to decrease the pulmonary irradiative volume.The dose to the whole breast was 45 Gy/22~23f/4.5W, then a 15 Gy boost dose was delivered to the tumor bed by an electron beam. The other patients underwent an irradiated regional field according to postoperative pathology.RESULTS All patients were followed-up for 10 years or more. The 10year local recurrence rates, distant metastasis rates and survival rates were 6.1%, 4.1% and 98.0% respectively. All of the 3 patients who had a local recurrence had infiltrative carcinomas and negative lymph nodes.The 10-year local recurrence rate was higher (2.6% vs. 20.0%) with nonpostoperative whole breast radiotherapy, but the statistical difference was not marked because of the low number of cases. All of the recurrent lesions localized within 3 cm of the primary lesion.CONCLUSION Original recurrence of the tumor was the main type of local recurrence. Radiotherapy after conservative surgery is very essential.After conservative surgery it is feasible that irradiation can be delivered alone to the neighboring region of the tumor bed. Partial breast radiotherapy can substitute for whole breast radiotherapy.

  16. Feeding pattern a dual risk? otitis media (OM and early childhood caries (ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sangeetha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Otitis media (OM and Early childhood caries (ECC and their coexistence in children with a history of faulty feeding patterns. Method: Children aged 5 years and below were recruited at random from dental and medical hospitals. Parents of these children were posed with questions about the feeding methods, feeding patterns such as duration, frequency, position, burping, specific childhood illness etc. Children (120 were examined for ECC by a Paedodontist and OM by an Otolaryngologist and were segregated into three groups i.e. Control group, ECC group and OM group respectively. The ECC group was sub grouped into ECC only and ECC&OM group. The OM group was also similarly sub grouped into OM group and OM&ECC group. Collected data were tabulated and subjected for statistical analysis using Pearson Chi – square test. Results: Prevalence of ECC, OM, and their coexistence increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Overall Prevalence of their coexistence in children was 51.25%. Significant percentages (25% of children in the OM group were fed in supine position. Children fed on demand (47.5% experienced ECC. overall 85% (p=.017 of children had coexistence of ECC&OM fed on demand and during bed time. Significant numbers of children who were burped occasionally after feeding (35% or were not burped at all (12.5% were affected with both ECC and OM. Conclusion: Prevalence of their coexistence was higher in children with OM. Significant association existed between on demand feeding and ECC; supine feeding position and OM. Risk factors in common for both the disease were combined feeding position, on demand, bed time feeding and occasionally burping.

  17. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II trials and three randomized phase three trials evaluating concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant of breast cancer. In patients with early breast cancer having positive lymph nodes, phases III clinical trials showed that CCRT improved local control after conservative breast surgery. However, these randomized trials used non-standard regimen: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF or fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FNC. In addition, in phases II clinical trials, concurrent use of taxanes and anthracycline with standard whole-breast irradiation showed high rate of toxicity: Pulmonary toxicity with taxane; and cardiac and skin toxicity with anthracycline. Consequentely, CCRT is not be used in practice because of concerns of toxicity with the standard drugs (anthracyclines and taxanes and radiation. Anthracyclines with partial breast irradiation (PBI was feasible according to one phase I clinical trial, and should be investigated in randomized clinical trials. Concurrent Trastuzumab plus radiotherapy is safe and can be used in HER2-positive breast cancer; in this case, cardiac volume sparing and patient selections for internal mammary chain irradiation are highly recommended. The present paper aimed to review the current data evaluating the efficacy and safety of CCRT in early breast cancer.

  18. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  19. The Relationship between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Breast Cancer Early Detection: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is prevalent. Concurrently, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with early detection techniques widely available. This paper examined the overlap between participation in allopathic breast cancer early detection activities and CAM use. Methods. A systematic review examined the association between breast screening behaviors and CAM use. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and NCCAM databases and gray literature between 1990 and 2011. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Results. Nine studies met the search criteria. Four focused on CAM use in women at high breast cancer risk and five on average risk women. CAM use in women ranged from 22% to 82% and was high regardless of breast cancer risk. Correlations between CAM use and breast cancer early detection were not strong or consistent but significant relationships that did emerge were positive. Conclusions. Populations surveyed, and measures used to assess CAM, breast cancer screening, and correlates, varied widely. Many women who obtained allopathic screening also sought out CAM. This provides a foundation for future interventions and research to build on women’s motivation to enhance health and develop ways to increase the connections between CAM and allopathic care.

  20. Effect of feeding according to energy balance on performance, nutrient excretion, and feeding behavior of early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, E; Barbosa, L F; Bueno, P; Scagion, L; Kaniyamattam, K; Greco, L F; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate 2 feeding strategies for early lactation cows on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Fifty-eight Holsteins cows were blocked by parity and production during the pretreatment period and then randomly assigned at 21 d postpartum to a control diet [n=29; 16.2% crude protein, 1.64 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L)), 22% starch, and 19% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or a diet with caloric density manipulated weekly (precision diet; n=29; 16.2% crude protein; 1.59 to 1.68 NE(L); 18 to 26% starch; and 16 to 22% forage NDF) to promote a calculated positive energy balance of 5 Mcal/day. Diets were fed as total mixed rations and precision cows had their diets adjusted individually once a week, by feeding additional grain supplementation from 0 to 25% of daily dry matter (DM) offered, according to the energy balance of the preceding week. Energy balance was calculated daily and then averaged weekly. The study lasted from wk 3 to 19 postpartum, and nutrient digestibility, rumen fluid composition, urinary output, estimates of microbial protein synthesis, and feeding behavior were evaluated between wk 9 and 13 postpartum. Compared with controls, precision cows had similar DM intake (24.3 kg/d), but NE(L) intake tended to be greater primarily between wk 4 and 8 postpartum. Yields of milk (45.2 vs. 41.9 kg/d), milk components, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.0 vs. 40.8 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (43.4 vs. 40.2) were all greater for precision than control cows, resulting in greater energy-corrected milk production per kilogram of diet DM consumed (1.79 vs. 1.72). Precision cows produced more milk calories per kilogram of metabolic weight (0.227 vs. 0.213 Mcal of NE(L)/kg), although the amount of consumed calories partitioned into milk (82.3%) and measures of energy status did not differ between treatments throughout the study. Glucose concentrations were greater throughout the day in precision cows

  1. The Investigation of Pregnant women' Cognition about Breast Feeding%孕妇对母乳喂养认知情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳秋; 孙美农

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims at knowing about the pregnant women's cognition about breast feeding , the feeding plan for infant and the requirements of breast feeding knowledge , in order to provide basis for clinical to have breast feeding health education . Methods We had an investigar~ tion on 190 pregnant women from obstetrical department outpatient service using a self-designed questionnaire . The main contents of the questionnaire include general materials , breast feeding plan postpartum , breast feeding cognition , knowledge source and the ways and timing of hoping to get breast feeding knowledge . Results There are 159 pregnant women planning to choose pure breast feeding; the average score of breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women is 8 .34+6 .42 , which is quite low; the score and the age and gestational age appears low positive correlation; the situation of taking the initiative for getting breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women from different gestational age and different culture degree has statistical difference ( P<0 .05 ); pregnant women's initiative of getting breast feeding knowledge are different , whose knowledge score has statistical difference ( P<0.05); 70% pregnant women hope to get propaganda and education from medical staffs; 66 .3% of them hope to learn certain knowledge about breast feeding during second trimester . Conclusions The cognition situation about breast feeding of pregnant women is not optimistic . The requirements of propaganda and education from medical staffs are amount . Medical staffs should develop effective breast feeding health education for pregnant women , for laying a foundation to improve the rate of pure breast feeding postpartum .%目的 了解孕妇母乳喂养知识的认知情况,对婴儿的喂养计划及对母乳喂养知识的需求情况,为临床进行母乳喂养方面的健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对产科门诊就诊的190名孕妇进行调查.问卷的主要内容

  2. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  3. Early childhood feeding: assessing knowledge, attitude, and practices of multi-ethnic child-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Alvarez, Karina P

    2010-03-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for shaping and influencing feeding and lifestyle behaviors that have implications for future weight and health. With more women in the workforce, families have become reliant on child care. Thus, the child-feeding relationship has become a shared responsibility between the parent and child-care provider. Little is known about the impact of child-care providers on development of early childhood feeding behaviors and subsequent risk for obesity, especially in the Hispanic ethnic group. This research examined child-feeding attitudes, practices, and knowledge of multi-ethnic home-based and center-based child-care providers. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of 72 providers, 50 of whom completed a pre- and post-test on child-feeding knowledge after receiving a 90-minute class based on Satter's division of responsibility feeding model during the spring of 2008. Results indicate many providers had practices consistent with this model. However, substantial differences were reported by Hispanic providers, who were statistically more likely to encourage children to finish meals before dessert, prepare foods they perceived as well-liked by children, coach children to eat foods perceived as appropriate, and not eat with children during meals. A substantial increase in knowledge from 73% correct at pretest to 82% at post-test was noted, with a substantial increase in knowledge on five of 13 questions. However, knowledge was not always congruent with behavior. This study points to differences among providers based on ethnicity, and strongly recommends recruiting Hispanic child-care providers to participate in educational programs and community efforts to prevent obesity.

  4. [Government actions for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America. Future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Documentary research carried out in 2009 aims to document the regulatory framework and existing programs for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to establish the most important challenges for the containment of the epidemic in the region. The governments of the region have developed diverse efforts and initiatives to confront the rise in mortality due to said cause, including early detection, treatment and research strategies. Despite advances in the early detection of breast cancer, the challenge remains to link efforts to ensure continuity of care (diagnostic confirmation, treatment and monitoring) in order to achieve higher efficiency, effectiveness and benefits for women with this disease.

  5. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lump and worry that someone might question their masculinity. This could also delay diagnosis and reduce a ... useful for screening men with a strong family history of breast cancer and/or with BRCA mutations ...

  6. Primary radiotherapy after tumour excision as an alternative to mastectomy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browde, S.; Nissenbaum, M.M. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1983-09-28

    A conservative approach to the management of breast cancer is gaining acceptance. The evidence from many retrospective and prospective studies indicates that breast-preserving surgery and radiation therapy give results equal to those of mastectomy. Relapse affecting the breast alone has been shown not to be detrimental to survival, while the psychological benefits to the patients have been gratifying. A prospective study of early breast cancer treated by conservative surgery and radiation was commenced at the Johannesburg Hospital in 1980. The results in 57 patients are reported. So far there have been 2 cases of local recurrence. In the majority of cases satisfactory cosmetic results were achieved. It is considered that lumpectomy with axillary dissection to establish nodal status followed by irradiation is the treatment of choice for stage l and ll carcinoma of the breast.

  7. Gestational age, mode of birth and breastmilk feeding all influence acute early childhood gastroenteritis: a record-linkage cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Jason P; Simpson, Judy M; Bowen, Jenny R.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Roberts, Christine L; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in childhood. Clinical studies have implicated caesarean section, early birth and formula feeding in modifying normal gut microbiota development and immune system homeostasis in early life. Rates of early birth and cesarean delivery are also increasing worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of the mode and timing of birth and breastmilk feeding with AGE hospitalisati...

  8. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic.

  9. Survival after early-stage breast cancer of women previously treated for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Johansen, Christoffer; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this nationwide, register-based cohort study was to determine whether women treated for depression before primary early-stage breast cancer are at increased risk for receiving treatment that is not in accordance with national guidelines and for poorer survival. Material...... and Methods We identified 45,325 women with early breast cancer diagnosed in Denmark from 1998 to 2011. Of these, 744 women (2%) had had a previous hospital contact (as an inpatient or outpatient) for depression and another 6,068 (13%) had been treated with antidepressants. Associations between previous...... treatment of depression and risk of receiving nonguideline treatment of breast cancer were assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We compared the overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and risk of death by suicide of women who were and were not treated for depression before...

  10. Effects of Herceptin on circulating tumor cells in HER2 positive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-L; Yao, Q; Chen Y Wang, J-H; Wang, H; Fan, Q; Ling, R; Yi, J; Wang, L

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the changes in peripheral blood circulating tumor cells in HER2-positive early breast cancer before and after Herceptin therapy, and to explore the effects of the HER2 gene and Herceptin on circulating tumor cells. CK19 mRNA expression in peripheral blood was evaluated by qRT-PCR as an index of circulating tumor cells in 15 cases of HER-2-positive breast cancer and 18 cases of HER2-negative breast cancer before, and after chemotherapy as well. Ten cases of HER2-positive breast cancer continued on Herceptin therapy for 3 months after chemotherapy, and their peripheral blood was again drawn and assayed for CK-19 mRNA expression. Preoperatively, all cases of HER2-positive cancer were positive for CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood, but 6 cases of HER2-negative breast cancer were positive (33.3%), where there was a substantial difference between the two groups. After 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, CK19 positive rates in cases of HER2-positive and -negative breast cancer reduced by 93.3 and 11.1%, respectively, with a significant difference still existing. After 3 months of Herceptin therapy, expression of CK19 mRNA declined considerably in 10 cases of HER2 positive breast cancer (113.66 ± 88.65 vs 63.35 ± 49.27, P = 0.025). HER-2 gene expression closely correlated with circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of early breast cancer patients. Moreover, Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody for HER2, can reduce the number of circulating tumor cells, which can be an early predictive factor for Herceptin therapy effectiveness against breast cancer.

  11. The effect of early post cesarean feeding on women’s satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Adeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Satisfaction and postoperative care of women who undergo cesarean section is an important aspect and demand due attention. Hunger and thirst are frequently encountered after cesarean delivery. These increase distressing symptom and unsatisfaction. The aim of this paper was to detect the effect of early post cesarean feeding on mothers' satisfaction.Materials and methods: This study was a controlled trial. The research population was women delivering by cesarean section in Ommolbanin hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The samples consist of 82 women randomly assigned in two groups of study and control. The study group started oral fluids 4 hours after surgery, followed by regular diet after return of bowel sounds. The control group started oral fluids 12 hours after surgery and solid food was allowed after defecation. The groups were compared about satisfaction rate before discharge with VAS scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher exact test, Kruskal walis test, t test and Mann Whitney.Results: The mean of women's satisfaction was 96.2 in early feed group and 56.7 in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.000.Conclusion: this study showed that early feeding increases women's satisfaction. It is a safe, easy and enforceable intervention that can be usual in surgical units.

  12. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  13. Exposures in early life: associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, M-H; Marian, C; Shields, P G; Potischman, N; Nie, J; Krishnan, S S; Berry, D L; Kallakury, B V; Ambrosone, C; Edge, S B; Trevisan, M; Winston, J; Freudenheim, J L

    2013-04-01

    There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case-control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case-case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case-case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15-6.82, for ⩽2.5 v. 2.6-2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.39, for ⩾1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14-6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ⩾1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.

  14. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Health professionals in the United States. Participants: 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results: We documented 2830 cases of b...

  15. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the kyoto consensus conference.

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P.; INAMOTO, TAKASHI; BENSON, JOHN R.; Forbes, John F.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F. R.; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; KLIMBERG, V. SUZANNE

    2011-01-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent ...

  16. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  17. Early oral sensory experiences and feeding development in children with CHARGE syndrome: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Marche, Darlene M; Blake, Kim; Rashid, Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    Children with CHARGE syndrome commonly experience feeding and swallowing problems. Difficulties may be associated with congenital structural anomalies, motor impairment, and/or oral sensory impairment. For many children with CHARGE syndrome, the introduction of functional oral feeding is delayed and there are often long-term feeding complications. Oral aversion or defensiveness is a frequent serious issue; however, it is uncertain whether this is a primary sensory disorder or secondary to delayed and/or negative oral sensory and feeding experiences. This article examines in detail the early oral sensory and feeding experiences of five children with CHARGE syndrome, through a review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Findings indicate variable early oral sensory experiences in this group of children, with all of the children having some difficulty or delay in the development of oral feeding and swallowing. The nature of these difficulties and the potential contributory factors are discussed.

  18. p53 and survival in early onset breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentile, M; Bergman Jungeström, M; Olsen, K E;

    1999-01-01

    The p53 protein has proven to be central in tumorigenesis by its cell cycle regulatory properties and both gene mutations and protein accumulation have been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The present study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic significance of gene mutations......, p53 protein accumulation and of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the TP53 locus in young (age breast cancer patients. In total, gene mutations were found in 21 of the 123 patients (17%), LOH in 20 of the 47 informative cases (43%) and protein accumulation in 47 of the 102 available cases...... in this as well as other studies, p53 protein accumulation is frequently found in young breast cancer patients, but this protein overexpression appears to be of minor significance for survival. Nevertheless, the present report also suggests that specific mutations contribute substantially to tumour aggressiveness....

  19. Multidisciplinary approach of early breast cancer: The biology applied to radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azria David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early breast cancer treatment is based on a multimodality approach with the application of clinical and histological prognostic factors to determine locoregional and systemic treatments. The entire scientific community is strongly involved in the management of this disease: radiologists for screening and early diagnosis, gynecologists, surgical oncologists and radiation oncologists for locoregional treatment, pathologists and biologists for personalized characterization, genetic counselors for BRCA mutation history and medical oncologists for systemic therapies. Recently, new biological tools have established various prognostic subsets of breast cancer and developed predictive markers for miscellaneous treatments. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of biological tools in the locoregional management of early breast cancer.

  20. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group.

  1. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heily [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Presbyterian Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  2. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    that symptoms and problems reported by cancer patients may have causes other than cancer, and thus constitutes a good justification for the use of data from general population studies when interpreting data from cancer patients. The levels of anxiety and depression of low-risk breast cancer patients were found...... chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed...

  3. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging.

  4. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  5. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  6. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  7. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  8. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    279-84, 1999 Feb. 6. Ramachandra S. Machin L. Ashley S. Monaghan P. Gusterson BA. Immunohistochemical distribution of c-erbB-2 in in situ breast...kidney cell line 293 (ATCC). The AdEasy system was pro- vided by Dr. Bert Vogelstein at The Johns Hopkins University. Additional vector amplification

  9. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  10. Sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and serum HER2 in the early detection of recurrence of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ann Christina; Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jacobsen, Erik Hugger;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer.......The aim of this project was to investigate the sensitivity of CA 15-3, CEA and HER2 in the early diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer....

  11. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age hormones and ER(+)/PR(+) disease. These data suggest a positive association between high concentrations of early pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association.

  12. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF. Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results: Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p 0.050. Conclusions: EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge.

  13. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.;

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  14. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  15. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for early breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Farah J; Nasr, Rihab; Talhouk, Rabih

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter. It also examines the challenges that lie ahead in their use as biomarkers. Noteworthy, this review addresses miRNAs reported in patients with early breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical procedures or distant metastasis (unless indicated otherwise). In this context, miRNA that are mentioned in this review were significantly modulated using more than one statistical test and/or validated by at least two studies. A standardized protocol for miRNA assessment is proposed starting from sample collection to data analysis that ensures comparative analysis of data and reproducibility of results.

  16. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  17. SAFETY OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER TRANSHIATAL ESOPHAGECTOMY : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding is the best means of nutrition in surgical patients. There arc many reports on early oral feeding after lower gastrointestinal {(il operations but data regarding upper Gl procedures is rather scant. This limited study rocuses 011 early removal of nasogastric tube and start of oral diet after transhiatal csophagcctomy. We prospectively evaluated 13 consecutive patients (8 males. 5 females with esophageal cancer who had undergone rranshiatal csophngcctomy from March 100 I to September :lOrn. Nasogustric tube was removed on post-op day 1 and clear liquids started on day 3. Diet was advanced to son regular in tile next 5 days if the patients tolerated it. Mean age of patients was 63 years."nMenu body weight and serum albumin level were 57.9 kg and 3.73 gr/dl., respectively. Tumor pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 11 cases and adenocarcinoma in I. Location oftumor was at the lower third of the esophagus in 11 cases and middle third in one. All patients ill the study group tolerated tile protocol well. Only one patient had nausea after oral intake, without vomiting. We had one neck wound infection and OIlC pulmonary infection. There was no anastomotic leakage or fistula. A group of I( esophageal cancer patients undergoing trnnshiuta! csophagcctomy in the same period ""'('I'C used as the control group. One anastomotic leakage occurred in control group. We had no significant complication. Early nasogastric tube removal and oral feeding seems to be safe in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transhiatal csophagcctcmy.

  18. An investigation of plasma and salivary oxytocin responses in breast- and formula-feeding mothers of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewen, Karen M; Davenport, Russell E; Light, Kathleen C

    2010-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide increasingly studied in relation to human social interactions, affiliation, and clinical disorders. Studies are constrained by use of invasive blood draws and would benefit from a reliable salivary OT assay. Our goals were to examine feasibility of salivary OT measurement, compare salivary to plasma OT responses in 12 breast- and 8 formula-feeding mothers, and assess the degree of correlation between plasma and salivary OT. Using a commercial EIA kit, we measured OT in 5 saliva and 7 plasma samples in a protocol designed to elicit changes in OT (Rest, Infant Interaction, Stress, Feeding). Breast-feeders had higher OT levels than formula-feeders across all conditions in plasma (+36%) and saliva (+23%). OT levels and ranges were similar in saliva and plasma, with slightly greater variance in saliva. Concurrently sampled plasma and salivary OT were correlated at end of Baseline Rest (r=+.59, p=.022) and Post-Stress Recovery (r=+.59, p=.025). These data suggest that salivary OT assay is feasible, and will be of value where plasma samples are not possible. Validation with larger samples is needed.

  19. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, Olga, E-mail: olga.vujovic@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Cherian, Anil [Station Health Centre, Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, Moray (United Kingdom); Dar, A. Rashid [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Department of Biometry, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  20. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.

  1. Surgical management for early-stage bilateral breast cancer patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jian Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China.This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014.A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5% suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC, and 296 (2.0% suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC. Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC.Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options.

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

  3. The development of undernourished children: an experimental study on early feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pollitt, Ernesto; Durnin, John; Aitchison, Tom; Husaini, Mahdi; Jahari, Abas; Schürch, Beat

    2013-01-01

    The study was a randomized clinical tria! involving two cohorts (12 and 18 months) of nutritionally at risk Jndonesian children and three types of supplementary feeding: high energy and micronutrients; skimmed milk and micronutrients; and skimmed milk. The hypothesis of the study was that high energy and micronutrient supplements given early to children could delay on physical growing and mental development. The results showed that a combined energy and micronutrient supplement given for ayea...

  4. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter;

    1995-01-01

    unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...

  5. An early history of human breast cancer:West meets East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-He Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer.

  6. Dietary Seaweed and Early Breast Cancer: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Sasaoka T, Kimura I. Effect of green tea on blood glucose levels and serum proteomic patterns in diabetic (db/db) mice and on glucose metabolism in...Institute 1998;90:1637-1647. Massion AO, Teas J, Hebert JR, Wertheimer MD, Kabat-Zinn J. Meditation, melatonin , and breast/prostate cancer...Massion AO, Teas J, Hebert JR. Meditation, melatonin , & cancer. Melatonin in Psychiatric & Neoplastic Disorders. Shafii M & Shafii S, Eds

  7. Breast feeding rate and its influencing factors in Haidian District of Beijing%北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the breast feeding status in Haidian District and explore its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for improvement of infant nutrition .Methods A self-designed questionnaire survey was carried out among 580 mothers or caregivers , who took their babies aged 0-4 months for health care in child early department center of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital in the period of January to December in 2012.Results The pure breast feeding rate of mothers with senior middle school education or lower was significantly higher than that of the mothers with vocational high school education or higher (χ2 =4.192,P<0.05).The rate of breast feeding was different among mothers with different occupation , and that was highest among unemployed women (χ2 =9.631,P<0.05). The rate of pure breast feeding of eutocia was higher than that of dystocia (χ2 =5.631,P<0.05).The rate of pure breast feeding of women with normal breast development was higher than that of women with abnormal breast development (χ2 =48.275, P<0.05).Conclusion Education , occupation , obstetrical way as well as breast development are the major influencing factors of breast feeding .Intervention program should be implemented by maternal and child health care workers .%目的:了解北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养情况,探讨影响母乳喂养的相关因素,为改善婴儿营养提供依据。方法采用随机抽样的方法,抽取在北京市海淀妇幼保健医院儿童早期发展中心进行健康检查的0~4个月龄婴儿580例,用自行设计的母乳喂养状况调查表,了解2012年1月至12月产妇母乳喂养情况。结果母亲高中文化程度以下较中专文化程度以上纯母乳喂养率高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.192,P<0.05)。不同职业的母乳喂养率差异有统计学意义,其中全职妈妈的母乳喂养率最高(χ2=9.631,P<0.05)。顺产组的纯母乳喂养率高于剖宫产组

  8. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  9. Huge malignant phyllodes breast tumor: a real entity in a new era of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Errico, Valentina; Travaglini, Roberto; Voulaz, Emanuele; Alloisio, Marco

    2015-02-27

    Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare tumor of the breast. It occurs in females in the third and fourth decades. The difficulty in distinguishing between phyllodes tumors and benign fibroadenoma may lead to misdiagnosis. Lymph node involvement is rarely described in phyllodes tumors; for this reason, sentinel node biopsy may be warranted. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman affected by huge tumor of the right breast with ulceration in the skin with a rapid tumor growth and with omolateral axillary metastasis.

  10. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  11. Clinical analysis of early breast cancer%早期乳腺癌临床分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛陈毅; 倪启超

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve early det ection and diagnosis of breast cancer.Methods:Retrospective clinical analysis was done of the ages of onset of breast cancer, early diagnosis, histological types and surgical methods.Results:162 cases were clinically cured with early breast cancer, and the follow-up results showed that the 1-year and the 3-year sur-vival rates were 100% and 97.5%.Conclusion: Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer depend primarily on clini-cians who can detect≤2cm milk block, with the combination of ultrasound and mammography.%目的:提高乳腺癌早期发现、早期诊断水平。方法:回顾性临床分析乳腺癌发病年龄、早期诊断方法、病理组织类型和手术方法。结果:162例早期乳腺癌均临床治愈出院,159例患者获随访,1年、3年生存率分别为100%、97.5%。结论:乳腺癌早期发现、早期诊断主要取决于临床医师检出≤2cm的乳块,辅以彩超和钼靶联合检查。

  12. Orthostatic function and the cardiovascular response to early mobilization after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg Müller, Rasmus; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Early postoperative mobilization is essential for an enhanced recovery, but it can be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, characterized by signs of cerebral hypoperfusion, such as dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and ultimately syncope. Orthostatic intolerance is frequent after major surgical proced...... breast cancer surgery....

  13. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation vs conventional whole-breast radiotherapy in early breast cancer: A case-control study of disease control, cosmesis, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadasadawala Tabassum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI using various approaches is being increasingly employed for selected women with early breast cancer (EBC. Aims: To conduct a case-control study comparing disease control, cosmesis, and complications in patients with EBC undergoing APBI using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy vs those receiving conventional whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT. Settings and Design: Women with EBC fulfilling the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS criteria were selected as ′cases′ if treated with APBI or as ′controls′ if offered WBRT during the period from May 2000 to December 2004. Materials and Methods: APBI patients were treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR to a dose of 34 Gy/10#/6-8 days. WBRT was delivered to the whole breast to a dose of 45 Gy/25# followed by tumor bed boost, either with electrons (15 Gy/6# or interstitial brachytherapy (HDR 10 Gy/1#. Results: At the median follow-up of 43.05 months in APBI and 51.08 months in WBRT there was no difference in overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, late arm edema, and symptomatic fat necrosis between the two groups. However, APBI resulted in increase in mild breast fibrosis at the tumor bed. Telangiectasias were observed in three patients of the APBI group. The cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the APBI group as compared to the WBRT group (P = 0.003. Conclusions: This study revealed equivalent locoregional and distant disease control in the two groups. APBI offered better overall cosmetic outcome, though at the cost of a slight increase in mild breast fibrosis and telangiectasias.

  14. Influence of Early Quantitative Feed Restriction on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan; CHAN Long

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of early quantitative feed restriction on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred 8-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to four groups randomly, with 50 broilers each. At the age of 8 days the broilers were restricted to 90%, 80% or 70% of the ad libitum intake for 7 days. When the restricion was finished, all birds received feed ad libitum again. The results showed that diet restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and daily gain during the restriction period (P <0.05). The birds restricted to 90% of the ad libitum intake showed the occurring of growth compensation in the 3rd week. The birds restricted to 80% and 70% of the ad libitum intake had growth compensation in the 4th week. No significant differences between the effects of the restriction and the control on final body weight,growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics (P >0.05).

  15. Development of a Compact Wide-Slot Antenna for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Featuring Circular Array Full-View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar type antenna printed on a high permittivity Rogers’ substrate is proposed for early stage microwave breast cancer detection. The design is based on a p-shaped wide-slot structure with 50 Ω microstrip feeding circuit to eliminate losses of transmission. The design parameters are optimized resulting in a good reflection coefficient at −10 dB from 4.5 to 10.9 GHz. Imaging result using inhomogeneous breast phantom indicates that the proposed antenna is capable of detecting a 5 mm size cancerous tumor embedded inside the fibroglandular region with dielectric contrast between the target and the surrounding materials ranging from 1.7 : 1 to 3.6 : 1.

  16. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  17. A case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) after breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Kiryuu, Takuji; Maeda, Sunao; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kawaguchi, Shimpei

    2001-03-01

    A case of BOOP occurring after radiotherapy for breast cancer was reported. TBLB and BAL were performed at the time of diagnosis. This case suggested that radiographic changes began in the irradiated area, then later spread to non-irradiated areas. In this article, we discussed the peculiary radiographic image, pathological manifestation, BAL characteristics and clinical course in this sequela. (author)

  18. The evolving role of the dynamic thermal analysis in the early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhab, M; Al Sarakbi, W; Mokbel, K

    2005-01-01

    It is now recognised that the breast exhibits a circadian rhythm which reflects its physiology. There is increasing evidence that rhythms associated with malignant cells proliferation are largely non-circadian and that a circadian to ultradian shift may be a general correlation to neoplasia. Cancer development appears to generate its own thermal signatures and the complexity of these signatures may be a reflection of its degree of development. The limitations of mammography as a screening modality especially in young women with dense breasts necessitated the development of novel and more effective screening strategies with a high sensitivity and specificity. Dynamic thermal analysis of the breast is a safe, non invasive approach that seems to be sensitive for the early detection of breast cancer. This article focuses on dynamic thermal analysis as an evolving method in breast cancer detection in pre-menopausal women with dense breast tissue. Prospective multi-centre trials are required to validate this promising modality in screening. The issue of false positives require further investigation using molecular genetic markers of malignancy and novel techniques such as mammary ductoscopy. PMID:15819982

  19. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older women with early breast cancer – a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is an analytical tool increasingly implemented in clinical practice. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older people; however, most evidence-based research is aimed at younger patients. Methods A systematic review of literature was carried out to assess the use of CGA in older breast cancer patients for clinical decision making. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Results A total of nine useful full text article results were found. Only five of these were exclusively concerned with early breast cancer; thus, studies involving a variety of cancer types, stages and treatments were accepted, as long as they included early breast cancer.The results comprised a series of low sources of evidence. However, all results shared a common theme: the CGA has a use in determining patient suitability for different types of cancer treatment and subsequently maximizing the patient’s quality of life. Conclusions There is not yet sufficient high level evidence to instate CGA guidelines as a mandatory practice in the management of breast cancer, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. More studies need to be conducted to cement current work on the benefits of the CGA. An area of particular interest is with regard to treatment options, especially surgery and chemotherapy, and identifying patients who may be suitable for these treatments.

  20. Breast Cancer: subgroups specific blood-biomarkers for early / predictive diagnosis and personalized treatment — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast-conserving lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy has been shown to be an alternative strategy, competitive to mastectomy, in preventing mortality caused by breast cancer. However, besides negative short-term effects (blood flow disturbances, painful erythema, etc.) breast irradiation causes severe long-term side-effects (leucopenia, anemia, breast edema, fibrosis, increase of angiosarcoma, leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes). Therefore, the identification of individual susceptibility to radiation and improved patient-specific radiotherapy planning are highly desirable for personalised treatment in breast cancer. Why early and predictive diagnosis is crucial for long-term outcomes of breast cancer? Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women with an average incidence rate of 10-12 per 100 women. In 2005, breast cancer led to 502,000 deaths worldwide. Advanced stages of breast cancer lead to the development of metastasis predominantly in the lymph nodes, bone, lung, skin, brain, and liver. Although breast-MRI is currently the most sensitive diagnostic tool for breast imaging, its specificity is limited resulting in a negative impact for surgical management in approximately 9 % of cases. Early diagnosis has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial, enabling significantly enhanced therapy efficiency and possibly full recovery.

  1. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  2. Adaptive Randomization of Neratinib in Early Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John W.; Liu, Minetta C.; Yee, Douglas; Yau, Christina; van 't Veer, Laura J.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Paoloni, Melissa; Perlmutter, Jane; Hylton, Nola M.; Hogarth, Michael; DeMichele, Angela; Buxton, Meredith B.; Chien, A. Jo; Wallace, Anne M.; Boughey, Judy C.; Haddad, Tufia C.; Chui, Stephen Y.; Kemmer, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Henry G.; Liu, Minetta C.; Isaacs, Claudine; Nanda, Rita; Tripathy, Debasish; Albain, Kathy S.; Edmiston, Kirsten K.; Elias, Anthony D.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Pusztai, Lajos; Moulder, Stacy L.; Lang, Julie E.; Viscusi, Rebecca K.; Euhus, David M.; Haley, Barbara B.; Khan, Qamar J.; Wood, William C.; Melisko, Michelle; Schwab, Richard; Lyandres, Julia; Davis, Sarah E.; Hirst, Gillian L.; Sanil, Ashish; Esserman, Laura J.; Berry, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Background I-SPY2, a standing, multicenter, adaptive phase 2 neoadjuvant trial ongoing in high-risk clinical stage II/III breast cancer, is designed to evaluate multiple, novel experimental agents added to standard chemotherapy for their ability to improve the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR). Experimental therapies are compared against a common control arm. We report efficacy for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib. Methods Eligible women had ≥2.5 cm stage II/III breast cancer, categorized into 8 biomarker subtypes based on HER2, hormone-receptor status (HR), and MammaPrint. Neratinib was evaluated for 10 signatures (prospectively defined subtype combinations), with primary endpoint pCR. MR volume changes inform likelihood of pCR for each patient prior to surgery. Adaptive assignment to experimental arms within disease subtype was based on current Bayesian probabilities of superiority over control. Accrual to experimental arm stop at any time for futility or graduation within a particular signature based on Bayesian predictive probability of success in a confirmatory trial. The maximum sample size in any experimental arm is 120 patients, Results With 115 patients and 78 concurrently randomized controls, neratinib graduated in the HER2+/HR− signature, with mean pCR rate 56% (95% PI: 37 to 73%) vs 33% for controls (11 to 54%). Final predictive probability of success, updated when all pathology data were available, was 79%. Conclusion Adaptive, multi-armed trials can efficiently identify responding tumor subtypes. Neratinib added to standard therapy is highly likely to improve pCR rates in HER2+/HR2212; breast cancer. Confirmation in I-SPY 3, a phase 3 neoadjuvant registration trial, is planned. PMID:27406346

  3. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN VANDALE-TONEY

    1997-09-01

    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  4. Role of Ovarian Function Suppression in Premenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historically, endocrine therapy for breast cancer began with ovarian ablation (OA) for the treatment of premenopausal patients. After the identification of estrogen receptors and the development of many antiestrogens, tamoxifen has been approved and used as the standard endocrine therapy for hormonal receptor (HR)-positive premenopausal patients to date. With the development of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, the paradigm of endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer began to change from OA to ovarian function suppression (OFS). To date, the indication for OFS was limited to those premenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer who were unable to use tamoxifen as the primary adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, following the definitive demonstration of the therapeutic role of OFS added to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor after chemotherapy in large randomized trials, such as Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial or Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial, the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines for the use of endocrine therapy in premenopausal HR-positive breast cancer were recently updated to recommend OFS in high-risk patients who required adjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, the role of OFS to protect ovarian function during chemotherapy in premenopausal women has remained controversial, and some evidence showing the protective effect of OFS on the ovaries during chemotherapy as well as its therapeutic effect for breast cancer in premenopausal women with HR-negative breast cancer was recently published. Further evaluation is necessary to determine its exact role. In conclusion, the role of OA or OFS has been evolving, not only to improve the efficacy of breast cancer treatment, but also to preserve ovary function. OFS remains a main strategy for premenopausal women with HR-positive early breast cancer, though its exact role should be determined in further studies. PMID:28053622

  5. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  6. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z......Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  7. Preoperative Single Fraction Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palta, Manisha; Yoo, Sua; Adamson, Justus D.; Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several recent series evaluating external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) have reported adverse cosmetic outcomes, possibly related to large volumes of normal tissue receiving near-prescription doses. We hypothesized that delivery of external beam PBI in a single fraction to the preoperative tumor volume would be feasible and result in a decreased dose to the uninvolved breast compared with institutional postoperative PBI historical controls. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with unifocal Stage T1 breast cancer were identified. Contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance images were loaded into an Eclipse treatment planning system and used to define the target volumes. A 'virtual plan' was created using four photon beams in a noncoplanar beam arrangement and optimized to deliver 15 Gy to the planning target volume. Results: The median breast volume was 1,713 cm{sup 3} (range: 1,014-2,140), and the median clinical target volume was 44 cm{sup 3} (range: 26-73). In all cases, 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume. The median conformity index was 0.86 (range: 0.70-1.12). The median percentage of the ipsilateral breast volume receiving 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose was 3.8% (range: 2.2-6.9) and 13.3% (range: 7.5-20.8) compared with 18% (range: 3-42) and 53% (range: 24-65) in the institutional historical controls treated with postoperative external beam PBI (p = .002). The median maximum skin dose was 9 Gy. The median dose to 1 and 10 cm{sup 3} of skin was 6.7 and 4.9 Gy. The doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung were negligible. Conclusion: Preoperative PBI resulted in a substantial reduction in ipsilateral breast tissue dose compared with postoperative PBI. The skin dose appeared reasonable, given the small volumes. A prospective Phase I trial evaluating this technique is ongoing.

  8. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  9. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  10. Association of breast feeding practice with worm infestation in children aged 0 -24 months in Calabar South Local Gov-ernment Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Ekabua; Kufre Ekabua; Martin Meremeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Reduction in child morbidity and mortality require improved knowledge about hygiene,baby feed-ing and childrearing practices,especially by mothers in low resource nations.The objectives of the study were to compare the prevalence of worm infestation between exclusively and non-exclusively breast -fed children and to determine the age at which exclusively breast -fed children child could be significantly infested with worms. Method:Systematic sampling of 196 mother-infants pairs was done.A pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Fresh stool samples collected from the children were examined using the cellophane thick faecal smear technique of Kato -Katz.Results:The difference in preva-lence of worm infestation within 6 months of age was not significant between the exclusively and non-exclusively breast feed children.Age of significant worm infestation for exclusively breast -fed infants was 13 months. Mother's educational level significantly influenced their de-worming practices.Conclusion:This study showed that breast milk does protect children in the first year of life against worm infestation;but the burden of infesta-tion becomes significant after 12 months of age.Mothers should be taught to de -worm their children from 13 months of age.

  11. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  12. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, S

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  13. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality...... populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have...... to be lower than those from the general population sample. After careful consideration we concluded that this finding was probably incorrect. The most important explanations were thought to be the wording of some HAD Scale items as well as two mechanisms that are not specific to the HAD Scale, the "selective...

  14. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation......, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires......, chemotherapy was associated with more impact on HRQL during the treatment period; only hot flushes/sweats were more pronounced in the ovarian ablation group. Thus, from an overall "HRQL perspective" ovarian ablation or suppression may be preferable. However, younger women may preserve their premenopausal...

  15. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  16. 母乳喂养与儿童哮喘的关系%Correlation between breast-feeding and childhood asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉双; 金哲英; 王玉凤; 马印慧; 汪俊红

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究母乳喂养对儿童哮喘的影响.方法 对6个月到4岁的164例哮喘儿童和1763名非哮喘儿童进行问卷调查,收集母乳喂养情况,并分析母乳喂养与儿童哮喘的关系.结果 1927名儿童中母乳喂养<4月组的儿童有818例(42.4%),母乳喂养≥4月组的儿童有1109例(57.6%).母乳喂养≥4月组的儿童哮喘发生率显著低于母乳喂养<4月组(x2=6.456,P=0.011),同时母乳喂养可以降低儿童发生哮喘的危险(OR=1.512;95%CI:1.097-2.083).进一步分析发现:年龄<3岁组、女性儿童组、孕周≥37周组、体重<2500 g组、出生时母亲年龄≥30岁组以及父母亲没有过敏史组的儿童母乳喂养≥4月组的哮喘发生率均明显低于母乳喂养<4月组(P<0.05),其他各组的儿童哮喘发生率差异均没有显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 母乳喂养可能减少感染和特应性变态反应,因此可以明显降低儿童的哮喘发生率.%Objective To investigate the effects of breast-fecding on childhood asthma. Methods 164 children with asthma and 1763 children without asthma in 6 months to 4 years of age were investigated by questionnaire. The data of breast-feeding was collected,and analyzed the correlation between breast-feeding and childhood asthma. Results There were 818(42. 4% ) children in breast-feeding <4 months group and 1109 (57.6%) children in breast-feeding≥ 4 months group among 1927 children. The incidence of childhood asthina in breast-feeding ≥4 months group was lower than that in breast-feeding <4 months group (x2 =6.4.56, P=0.011), and breast-feeding could reduce the risk of childhood asthma ( 0R = 1.512; 95% CI: 1. 097~2. 083 ). Further analysis showed that children in age <3 years, female children, gestational age≥37 weeks, weight <2500 g, mother's age≥30 years or parents without allergic history group had lower incidence of asthma by breast-feeding ≥4months than that by breast-feeding < 4 months ( P

  17. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  18. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production...

  19. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  20. [Evaluation of a diet and nutritional status of breast feeding women on the basis of a questionnaire study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, H; Rudzka-Kańtoch, Z; Dylag, H; Strucińska, M; Klemarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    The subjects were 120 breast-feeding mothers whose children were admitted for outpatient or inpatient treatment at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw, between March, 1998 and July, 1999. A special nutritional questionnaire was elaborated with the aim to evaluate subjects' nutritional status as well as their diet. All subjects completed the questionnaire and then selected parameters of their nutritional status and diet were evaluated. For 43 of the women under study it was the first month of lactation, for 33--the fourth month, for 23--the sixth and 21 women had been breast-feeding for more then six months. The subjects were of different age, coming from both urban and rural areas. In the studied group the nutritional status, i.e. body mass indices (BMI) before pregnancy, at the end of pregnancy and during lactation were within the normal range. 65 of the subjects had changed their diet due to pregnancy and 52 due to lactation. Women declared to be used to eating 3-4 meals per day. Having additional snacks was declared by 62.5%. Liquids' intake was on average about 2.5 l/24 hr, range 2-31. Average daily energy intake--2938 kcal/12,980 kJ, the lowest--in a diet of a mother with diabetes, the highest--in a diet of a vegetarian mother. The proportion of protein in energy intake was 15.1%, whereas fat--36.3%. Dietary practices of women under study in the period of lactation were well adjusted to nutritional recommendations for this group, as evidenced by indices of nutritional status (i.e. BMI). Among 120 women, 71 were taking supplementary preparations of vitamins and minerals. It turned out that a level of some vitamins in a daily food intake together with supplementation was definitely too high.

  1. Breast feeding increases vasoconstriction induced by electrical field stimulation in rat mesenteric artery. Role of neuronal nitric oxide and ATP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanco-Rivero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate in rat mesenteric artery whether breast feeding (BF affects the vasomotor response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS, participation by different innervations in the EFS-induced response and the mechanism/s underlying these possible modifications. METHODS: Experiments were performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old, divided into three groups: Control (in oestrous phase, mothers after 21 days of BF, and mothers that had recovered their oestral cycle (After BF, in oestrous phase. Vasomotor response to EFS, noradrenaline (NA and nitric oxide (NO donor DEA-NO were studied. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS and phosphorylated nNOS (P-nNOS protein expression were analysed and NO, superoxide anion (O(2(.-, NA and ATP releases were also determined. RESULTS: EFS-induced contraction was higher in the BF group, and was recovered after BF. 1 µmol/L phentolamine decreased the response to EFS similarly in control and BF rats. NA vasoconstriction and release were similar in both experimental groups. ATP release was higher in segments from BF rats. 0.1 mmol/L L-NAME increased the response to EFS in both control and BF rats, but more so in control animals. BF decreased NO release and did not modify O(2(.- production. Vasodilator response to DEA-NO was similar in both groups, while nNOS and P-nNOS expressions were decreased in segments from BF animals. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding increases EFS-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries, mainly through the decrease of neuronal NO release mediated by decreased nNOS and P-nNOS expression. Sympathetic function is increased through the increased ATP release in BF rats.

  2. [Abnormalities in behavior in the oral and cervical area: reassurance breast-feeding. Considerations on sudden infant death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudin, R G; Khalef, M

    1993-01-01

    The oral zone reflects the relational modalities of the child: the sensorimotor physiological and psychological behaviour is established according to the development of the facial sphere and its aero-digestive crossroads. In the baby, the mandibular equilibrium and position and the dimensions of the lower part of the face essentially depend upon praxic activities, which drive the mandibular and hyoid displacements. During the period of immaturity, the lingual area is brought into movement with each "sucking-swallowing" action that characterises breast-feeding: the mandibulo-hyoid swing is subordinate to the pharyngo-lingual complex. The analysis of this psycho-motor behaviour reveals imperfect and upsetting "mimics" that modify the balance of the jaw and of the hyo-lingual area during swallowing, which is the second phase of the reassurance breast-feed. The lingual ptosis causes congestion of the airways. These lax children, with a receding chin, are deformed by their oral habits. The clinical picture evidences the constitutional hyperlaxity by examining the parental group -the same facial dystrophies, the same habits resulting in various disorders of general or cervical statics. At the level of the temporomandibular joint, the dysfunction is also accompanied by claudication by mandibulo-hyo-lingual tipping. The general and cervical statics of the baby are thus affected in the course of sleep. It is during paradoxical sleep that the baby's head tips on to the thorax, due to the resultant atonia of the neck muscles. The head, insufficiently supported on its cervical pillar accentuates the asphyxial mechanism provoked by the tipping of the lingual area on the epiglottis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...... preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants...

  4. AGR3 in breast cancer: prognostic impact and suitable serum-based biomarker for early cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Antonopoulos, Wiebke; Hartmann, Arndt; Schrauder, Michael G; Fasching, Peter A; Anzeneder, Tobias; Tannapfel, Andrea; Ergönenc, Yavuz; Knüchel, Ruth; Rose, Michael; Dahl, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Blood-based early detection of breast cancer has recently gained novel momentum, as liquid biopsy diagnostics is a fast emerging field. In this study, we aimed to identify secreted proteins which are up-regulated both in tumour tissue and serum samples of breast cancer patients compared to normal tissue and sera. Based on two independent tissue cohorts (n = 75 and n = 229) and one serum cohort (n = 80) of human breast cancer and healthy serum samples, we characterised AGR3 as a novel potential biomarker both for breast cancer prognosis and early breast cancer detection from blood. AGR3 expression in breast tumours is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor α (Pbreast tumours (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.186, 95% CI: 1.008-4.740, Pbreast cancer patients (n = 40, mainly low stage tumours) compared to healthy controls (n = 40). To develop a suitable biomarker panel for early breast cancer detection, we measured AGR2 protein in human serum samples in parallel. The combined AGR3/AGR2 biomarker panel achieved a sensitivity of 64.5% and a specificity of 89.5% as shown by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics. Thus our data clearly show the potential usability of AGR3 and AGR2 as biomarkers for blood-based early detection of human breast cancer.

  5. Long-term prognosis of patients with local recurrence after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Voogd (Adri); F.J. van Oost (F.); E.J.T. Rutgers (Emiel); S. Elkhuizen (Sylvia); A.N. van Geel (Albert); L.J.E.E. Scheijmans (L. J E E); M.J.C. van der Sangen (Maurice); G. Botke (G.); C.J.M. Hoekstra (C. J M); J.J. Jobsen (Jan); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); M.F. von Meyenfeldt (Maarten); J.M. Tabak (J.); J.L. Peterse (J.); M.J. Vijver (Marc ); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); G. van Tienhoven (Geertjan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the long-term prognosis of 266 patients considered to have isolated local recurrence in the breast following conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The median follow-up of the patients still alive after diagnosis of local relapse was 11.2 years. At

  6. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  7. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Practice, Controversies, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Cesar Augusto; Camp, Melissa; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Harvey, Susan; Wright, Jean; Stearns, Vered

    2015-11-01

    Research in the fields of surgical, medical, and radiation oncology has changed the landscape of neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer, yet many areas of controversy still exist. When considering whether a patient is a candidate for neoadjuvant therapy, ideally the initial assessment should be multidisciplinary in nature and should include clinical, radiographic, and pathologic evaluation. Optimization of systemic therapy is dependent upon identifying the patient's breast cancer subtype; the best approach may include targeted agents, as well as the determination of eligibility for enrollment into clinical trials that incorporate novel therapeutics or predictive biomarkers. This article will review a variety of surgical and radiation-based strategies for management of early-stage breast cancer, including surgical options involving the breast and axilla, and the role of radiation based on response to systemic therapy. Key areas of controversy include the ideal systemic treatment for different breast cancer subtypes, the surgical and radiotherapeutic approaches for management of the axilla, and the role of pathologic response rates as a surrogate for survival in drug development.

  8. Quasi-multistatic MIST beamforming for the early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Martin; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2010-04-01

    Microwave imaging via space-time (MIST) beamforming has been shown to be one of the most promising imaging modalities for detecting small malignant breast tumors. This paper outlines two modifications to the MIST system developed by Hagness for the early detection of breast cancer, resulting in a quasi-multistatic MIST beamformer (multi-MIST). Multistatic MIST beamforming involves illuminating the breast with an ultrawideband (UWB) signal from one antenna while collecting the reflections at an array of antennas, as opposed to traditional monostatic MIST beamforming where only the transmitting antenna records the reflections from the breast. In order to process the multistatic data, traditional data-adaptive artifact removal algorithms have to be modified to accommodate signals from all antennas. Also, the MIST beamforming algorithm, which spatially focuses the signal and compensates for frequency-dependent propagation effects, has to be modified. The algorithms are tested on a 2-D anatomically accurate finite-difference time-domain model of the breast. The multi-MIST beamformer described here is shown to offer an improved signal to clutter ratio when compared to the traditional monostatic MIST beamformer.

  9. Improvements of postburn renal function by early enteral feeding and their possible mechanisms in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zong-Cheng Yang; De-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of early enteral feeding (EEF) on postburn impairments of renal function and their possible mechanisms.METHODS: Wistar rats with 30 % of total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn were adopted as the experimental model. The effects of EEF on the postburn changes of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), endotoxin levels in portal vein, water contents of renal tissue, and blood concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Ct), as well as the changes of clearance of creatinine (CCr) were dynamically observed within 48 h postburn.RESULTS: EEF could significantly improve gastric mucosal acidosis, reduce portal vein endotoxin levels and water contents of renal tissue, as well as blood concentrations of TNF<α after severe burns (P<0.01). The postburn elevations of BUN and BCr were not found to be recovered by EEF.However, the CCr in EEF group was greatly increased by 4.67-fold compared with that of the non-feeding burned control (16.43±2.90 vs. 3.52±0.79, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: EEF has beneficial effects on the improvement of renal function in severely burned rats, which may be related to its increase of splanchnic blood flow,decrease of the translocation of gut-origin endotoxin and the release of inflammatory mediators.

  10. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  11. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  12. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  13. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  14. Circulating micro-RNAs as potential blood-based markers for early stage breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Schrauder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718. RESULTS: Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to

  15. [Surgical treatment of breast neoplasms in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshuk, Ie V; Drozdov, V M; Neĭman, A M; Zotov, O S; Zakhartseva, L M; Anikus'ko, M F; Zaĭchuk, V V; Sydorchuk, O I

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of literary data and own investigation results for the modern surgical methods of treatment of mammary gland cancer in early stages was performed. Indexes of patients survival after surgical removal of mammary gland (MG) and quadranthectomy did not differ. Preservation of MG constitutes great social and psycho-emotional significance for women-patients.

  16. Preference for subcutaneous or intravenous administration of trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (PrefHer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivot, Xavier; Gligorov, Joseph; Müller, Volkmar;

    2013-01-01

    Subcutaneous trastuzumab has shown non-inferior efficacy and a similar pharmacokinetic and safety profile when compared with intravenous trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. We assessed patient preference for either subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab...

  17. Risk of pacemaker implantation subsequent to radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark, 1982-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehammar, Jens Christian; Videbaek, L.; Brock Johansen, J.

    2015-01-01

    -stage breast cancer in Denmark from 1982 to 2005. By record linkage to the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Registry information was retrieved on pacemaker implants subsequent to radiotherapy. Rate ratios (RR) of pacemaker implantation for left versus right sided breast cancer were calculated. Results: Among 18......,308 women treated with radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, 179 women had a pacemaker implanted subsequent to radiotherapy, 90 in 9,315 left sided and 89 in 8,993 right sided breast cancers. The unadjusted RR was 1.02 (0.76-1.36 95% CI, p=0.91) and the RR adjusted for year, age and time since...

  18. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  19. Proficient Feature Extraction Strategy for Performance Enhancement of NN Based Early Breast Tumor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khondker Jahid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra Wideband is one of the promising microwave imaging techniques for breast tumor prognosis. The basic principle of tumor detection depends on the dielectric properties discrepancies between healthy and tumorous tissue. Usually, the tumor affected tissues scatter more signal than the healthy one and are used for early tumor detection through received pulses. Feedforward backpropagation neural network(NN was so far used for some research works by showing its detection efficiency up to 1mm (radius size with 95.8% accuracy. This paper introduces an efficient feature extraction method to further improve the performance by considering four main features of backpropagation NN. This performance is being increased to 99.99%. This strategy is well justified for classifying the normal and tumor affected breast with 100% accuracy in its early stage. It also enhances the training and testing performances by reducing the required duration. The overall performance is 99.99% verified by using thirteen different tumor sizes.

  20. Identification of early breast cancer patient cohorts who may benefit from lapatinib therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Horick, Nora; Smith, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    with HER2+ early breast cancer not treated with trastuzumab. We performed subgroup analyses and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) calculations using patient and tumour associated predictors. Hormone receptor negative (HR-) patients on lapatinib had a significantly prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) compared......In resource-constrained environments many patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ early breast cancer are currently not offered adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. For patients who might be able to receive the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib (e.g. after patent expiration...... 5 years) was between 5.9 (node positive patients patients (e.g. 15.6 for DFS at 4 years in HERA). In a subgroup analysis of the adjuvant TEACH trial, we show...

  1. Similar Survival With Breast Conservation Therapy or Mastectomy in the Management of Young Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Usama, E-mail: usama.mahmood@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Morris, Christopher; Neuner, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koshy, Matthew [Department of Cellular and Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Kesmodel, Susan; Buras, Robert [Department of Surgery, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chumsri, Saranya; Bao Ting; Tkaczuk, Katherine [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Feigenberg, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival outcomes of young women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) or mastectomy, using a large, population-based database. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, information was obtained for all female patients, ages 20 to 39 years old, diagnosed with T1-2 N0-1 M0 breast cancer between 1990 and 2007, who underwent either BCT (lumpectomy and radiation treatment) or mastectomy. Multivariable and matched pair analyses were performed to compare overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Results: A total of 14,764 women were identified, of whom 45% received BCT and 55% received mastectomy. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 0.5-17.9 years). After we accounted for all patient and tumor characteristics, multivariable analysis found that BCT resulted in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.04; p = 0.16) and CSS (HR, 0.93; CI, 0.83-1.05; p = 0.26) similar to that of mastectomy. Matched pair analysis, including 4,644 BCT and mastectomy patients, confirmed no difference in OS or CSS: the 5-, 10-, and15-year OS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 92.5%, 83.5%, and 77.0% and 91.9%, 83.6%, and 79.1%, respectively (p = 0.99), and the 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 93.3%, 85.5%, and 79.9% and 92.5%, 85.5%, and 81.9%, respectively (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Our analysis of this population-based database suggests that young women with early-stage breast cancer have similar survival rates whether treated with BCT or mastectomy. These patients should be counseled appropriately regarding their treatment options and should not choose a mastectomy based on the assumption of improved survival.

  2. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  3. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  4. Pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone predicts for loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Richard A; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea.......Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea....

  5. Interleukin-6 receptor in spindle-shaped stromal cells, a prognostic determinant of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovsky, Vivian; Martinez, Leandro Marcelo; Calcagno, María de Luján; Davies, Kevin Mauro; García-Rivello, Hernán; Wernicke, Alejandra; Feldman, Leonardo; Giorello, María Belén; Matas, Ayelén; Borzone, Francisco Raúl; Howard, Scott C; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    Spindle-shaped stromal cells, like carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, influence tumor behavior and can serve as parameters in the clinical diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of early breast cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the clinicopathological significance of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) receptors (Rs) 2 and 4 (TRAIL-R2 and R4), and interleukin-6 R (IL-6R) in spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, as prognostic determinants of early breast cancer patients. Receptors are able to trigger the migratory activity, among other functions, of these stromal cells. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis for the expression of these receptors in spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, of primary tumors from early invasive breast cancer patients, and analyzed their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that the elevated levels of TRAIL-R2, TRAIL-R4, and IL-6R in these stromal cells were significantly associated with a higher risk of metastatic occurrence (p = 0.034, 0.026, and 0.006; respectively). Moreover, high expression of TRAIL-R4 was associated with shorter disease-free survival and metastasis-free survival (p = 0.013 and 0.019; respectively). Also, high expression of IL-6R was associated with shorter disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival (p = 0.003, 0.001, and 0.003; respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that IL-6R expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and metastasis-free survival (p = 0.035). This study is the first to demonstrate that high levels of IL-6R expression in spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, could be used to identify early breast cancer patients with poor outcomes.

  6. Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and Therapeutic Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    CYP1B1 ), each overexpressed in >90% of invasive breast cancers but rarely found in normal tissue -- may fill this gap. Such targets, if found at...hTERT and CYP1B1 provide an opportunity for both early detection and cancer vaccination. Objective/Hypothesis: We hypothesize that immunologic responses...in ductal lavage fluid from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers The last year has been spent studying genetic polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and biomarkers for tumour angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Ashley M.; Shastry, Manu; Endozo, Raymondo; Ell, Peter J. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel [University College London, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Malhotra, Anmol; Davidson, Timothy; Kelleher, Tina; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. [Breast Unit, Royal Free Hospital, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A. [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Tumour angiogenesis is an independent and strong prognostic factor in early breast carcinoma. We performed this study to investigate the ability of {sup 18}F-FDG to detect angiogenesis in early breast carcinoma using PET/CT. Twenty consecutive patients with early (T1-T2) breast carcinoma were recruited prospectively for 18F-FDG PET/CT. The PET/CT data were used to calculate whole tumour maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub mean}). All patients underwent subsequent surgery without prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The excised tumour underwent immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD105 and glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1). The SUV{sub max} showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.60, p = 0.005; GLUT1: r = 0.21, p = 0.373; VEGF: r = -0.16, p = 0.496. The SUV{sub mean} showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.65, p = 0.002; GLUT1: r = 0.34, p = 0.144; VEGF: r = -0.18, p = 0.443 {sup 18}F-FDG uptake is highly significantly associated with angiogenesis as measured by the immunohistochemistry with CD105 for new vessel formation. Given that tumour angiogenesis is an important prognostic indicator and a predictor of treatment response, {sup 18}F-FDG PET may have a role in the management of primary breast cancer patients even in early-stage disease. (orig.)

  8. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest

  9. A pilot study to investigate the role of the 26S proteasome in radiotherapy resistance and loco-regional recurrence following breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadl, Dalia; Hodgkinson, Victoria C; Long, Ervine D; Scaife, Lucy; Drew, Philip J; Lind, Michael J; Cawkwell, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy is a currently accepted method for managing patients with early stage breast cancer. However, approximately 7% of patients may develop loco-regional tumour recurrence within 5 years. We previously reported that expression of the 26S proteasome may be associated with radio-resistance. Here we aimed to analyse the 26S proteasome in a pilot series of early breast cancers and correlate the findings with loco-regional recurrence. Fourteen patients with early breast cancer who developed loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of completing breast conserving therapy were selected according to strict criteria and compared with those from 14 patients who were disease-free at 10 years. Decreased expression of the 26S proteasome was significantly associated with radio-resistance, manifested as the development of a loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of breast conserving therapy (p = 0.018). This small pilot study provides further suggestion that the 26S proteasome may be associated with response to radiotherapy.

  10. Filling the Gap for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Follow-Up: An Overview for Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Bero, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Earlier detection and newer treatments now make breast cancer highly survivable, and breast cancer survivors are the largest female cancer survivor group in the United States. With earlier detection, more women are being diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and need follow-up care. With the increasing number of breast cancer survivors, there is a projected shortage in the workforce of oncology specialists to care for these women. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that breast cancer follow-up care can be provided by an oncologist or primary care provider, as long as the primary care provider has spoken to the oncologist about appropriate follow-up care. Several studies have shown that primary care providers and oncologists have comparable outcomes for follow-up care of women with early-stage breast cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) are considered the gold standard for breast cancer treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are clear and straightforward. Using knowledge of the NCCN Guidelines, primary care providers can fill the gap for follow-up care of women with early-stage breast cancer.

  11. Media representations of early human development: protecting, feeding and loving the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2013-11-01

    The public profile of neurodevelopmental research has expanded in recent years. This paper applies social representations theory to explore how early brain development was represented in the UK print media in the first decade of the 21st century. A thematic analysis was performed on 505 newspaper articles published between 2000 and 2010 that discussed early brain development. Media coverage centred around concern with 'protecting' the prenatal brain (identifying threats to foetal neurodevelopment), 'feeding' the infant brain (indicating the patterns of nutrition that enhance brain development) and 'loving' the young child's brain (elucidating the developmental significance of emotionally nurturing family environments). The media focused almost exclusively on the role of parental action in promoting optimal neurodevelopment, rarely acknowledging wider structural, cultural or political means of supporting child development. The significance of parental care was intensified by deterministic interpretations of critical periods, which implied that inappropriate parental input would produce profound and enduring neurobiological impairments. Neurodevelopmental research was also used to promulgate normative judgements concerning the acceptability of certain gender roles and family contexts. The paper argues that media representations of neurodevelopment stress parental responsibility for shaping a child's future while relegating the contributions of genetic or wider societal factors, and examines the consequences of these representations for society and family life.

  12. [Effects of infant feeding practice on eczema during early childhood in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X Q; Zhu, G W; Zheng, Z Q; Yang, Y; Gong, C D; Deng, S S; Wu, Q L; Peng, Y M

    2016-12-02

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of eczema in early childhood and effect of infant feeding practice on eczema by different regions of China with diverse climate and dietary patterns. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012 in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou. The parent or guardian of the children aged between 2.5 to 3.5 years attending routine health visit in the chosen communities were invited to complete a modified questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC). Logistic regression model was used to analyze of the family history of allergy, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods and other potential confounders. Result: A total of 2 242 children were interviewed, 750 from Shanghai, 716 from Hohhot, and 776 from Fuzhou. The prevalence of eczema in early childhood was significantly different among Shanghai (16.9%, 95%CI 16.87-16.93), Hohhot (34.5%, 95%CI 34.46-34.54)and Fuzhou (44.3%, 95%CI 44.26-44.34). The difference was statistically significant between 3 groups (χ(2)=72.05, Pchildhood is various among three cities. The relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Fuzhou is different from that in Shanghai and Hohhot. The role of climate and dietary patterns on prevalence of eczema needs further studies.

  13. Whole breast irradiation vs. APBI using multicatheter brachytherapy in early breast cancer – simulation of treatment costs based on phase 3 trial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harat, Maciej; Makarewicz, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A recent large phase 3 trial demonstrated that the efficacy of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the treatment of early breast cancer is non-inferior to that of whole breast irradiation (WBI) commonly used in this indication. The aim of this study was to compare the costs of treatment with APBI and WBI in a population of patients after conserving surgery for early breast cancer, and to verify if the use of APBI can result in direct savings of a public payer. Material and methods The hereby presented cost analysis was based on the results of GEC-ESTRO trial. Expenditures for identified cost centers were estimated on the basis of reimbursement data for the public payer. After determining the average cost of early breast cancer treatment with APBI and WBI over a 5-year period, the variance in this parameter resulting from fluctuations in the price per single procedure was examined on univariate sensitivity analysis. Then, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated to verify the cost against clinical outcome. Finally, a simulation of public payer’s expenditures for the treatment of early breast cancer with APBI and WBI in 2013 and 2025 has been conducted. Results The average cost of treatment with APBI is lower than for WBI, even assuming a potential increase in the unit price of the former procedure. There was no additional health benefit of WBI and the calculation of cost-effectiveness was based on the absolute difference in overall local control rate. However, this difference (0.92% vs. 1.44%) was fairly minimal and was not identified as statistically significant during 5 years. Conclusions The use of APBI as an alternative to WBI in the treatment of early breast cancer would substantially reduce healthcare expenditures in both 2013 and 2025, even assuming an increase in the price per single APBI procedure.

  14. Options for early breast cancer follow-up in primary and secondary care - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart Frances

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both incidence of breast cancer and survival have increased in recent years and there is a need to review follow up strategies. This study aims to assess the evidence for benefits of follow-up in different settings for women who have had treatment for early breast cancer. Method A systematic review to identify key criteria for follow up and then address research questions. Key criteria were: 1 Risk of second breast cancer over time - incidence compared to general population. 2 Incidence and method of detection of local recurrence and second ipsi and contra-lateral breast cancer. 3 Level 1–4 evidence of the benefits of hospital or alternative setting follow-up for survival and well-being. Data sources to identify criteria were MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, ZETOC, Health Management Information Consortium, Science Direct. For the systematic review to address research questions searches were performed using MEDLINE (2011. Studies included were population studies using cancer registry data for incidence of new cancers, cohort studies with long term follow up for recurrence and detection of new primaries and RCTs not restricted to special populations for trials of alternative follow up and lifestyle interventions. Results Women who have had breast cancer have an increased risk of a second primary breast cancer for at least 20 years compared to the general population. Mammographically detected local recurrences or those detected by women themselves gave better survival than those detected by clinical examination. Follow up in alternative settings to the specialist clinic is acceptable to women but trials are underpowered for survival. Conclusions Long term support, surveillance mammography and fast access to medical treatment at point of need may be better than hospital based surveillance limited to five years but further large, randomised controlled trials are needed.

  15. Elevated nuclear S100P expression is associated with poor survival in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Adam; Łacko, Aleksandra; Ekiert, Marcin; Jagoda, Ewa; Wysocka, Teresa; Matkowski, Rafał; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Györffy, Balázs; Lage, Hermann; Surowiak, Paweł

    2013-04-01

    S100P - low molecular weight acidic protein has been shown to be involved in processes of proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, multidrug resistance and metastasis in various human malignancies. In breast cancer, S100P expression is associated with immortalization of neoplastic cells and aggressive tumour behaviour, indicating that this protein may have adverse prognostic value. We analyzed nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of S100P in 85 stage II breast cancer patients with a median follow up of 17 years. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on paraffin sections of primary tumours, using monoclonal antibodies against S100P. We also studied prognostic value of S100P mRNA expression using the KM plotter which assessed the effect of 22,277 genes on survival in 2422 breast cancer patients. Moreover, the relationship was examined between expression of S100P in cells of four breast cancer cell lines and their sensitivity to the 11 most frequently applied cytotoxic drugs. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that higher expression of nuclear S100P (S100Pn) was typical for cases of a shorter overall survival and disease-free time. KM plotter analysis showed that elevated S100P expression was specific for cases of a relapse-free survival and distant metastases-free survival. No relationship could be documented between expression of S100P and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to cytostatic drugs. We demonstrated that a high S100Pn expression level was associated with poor survival in early stage breast cancer patients. Since preliminary data indicated that expression of S100P was up-regulated by activation of glucocorticoid receptor and several agents manifested potential to activate or inhibit S100P promoter activity, this protein might become a therapy target and warrants further studies with respect to its prognostic, predictive and potentially therapeutic value.

  16. Risk of docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy among 1,725 Danish patients with early stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, L; Knoop, A S; Jensen, M-B;

    2013-01-01

    Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) can lead to sub-optimal treatment in women with early breast cancer. Here, we compare the frequency of dose reduction as a result of PN in two different adjuvant regimens. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group READ trial we included 1......,725 patients with early stage breast cancer who randomly were assigned to three cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by three cycles docetaxel (D100) or six cycles of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel (D75). Eligible patients completed chemotherapy, received docetaxel, and provided information...

  17. Current situation of early diagnosis of breast cancer%乳腺癌早期诊断现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博

    2013-01-01

    The early diagnosis of breast cancer is very important to treatment and prognosis.With the progresses of breast cancer researches,various biomarkers have been introduced,meaningful for early detection of breast cancer and micrometastases.%早期诊断乳腺癌对合理选择治疗方案和改善预后意义重大.随着乳腺癌分子生物水平研究的不断进展,多种生物标志已引入临床,有助于早期发现乳腺癌和微转移.

  18. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  19. Primary health care nurses’ knowledge practice and client teaching of early detection measures of breast cancer in Ibadan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of breast cancer is vital to effective management and outcome of breast cancer. It has been suggested that women given information and instruction about breast self- examination and breast awareness by health care professionals demonstrated higher knowledge and confidence and tend to practice breast self-examination more than those who received information from other sources. Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) have been recommended as Early Detection Measures (EDM) for developing countries. This study evaluated Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses’ knowledge, practice and client teaching of EDM of breast cancer. Methods A descriptive study that utilized stratified random method to select PHC settings for the study. Data was collected from 120 trained nurses in selected settings. This represented 66.3% of total population of PHC nurses (181) in Ibadan. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire that explored the bio data of participants, knowledge, practice and client teaching of EDMs of breast cancer. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Oyo State Ministry of Health, Nigeria. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.4±7.5 years. About half (52.2%) were double qualified (Registered Nurse and Midwife). Only 23 (20.0%) of the participants considered painless lump as an early sign of breast cancer while 47 (40.9%) considered pain as an early sign. BSE was listed as EDM of breast cancer by 80.9% of the participants while 40% and 30% listed CBE and mammogram respectively. Only eight (7.9%) have had a mammogram. The logistic regression of client teaching on four variables showed that for every increase in knowledge of breast cancer the odds of client teaching significantly increased by 7.5% (95% CI = 1.27 - 1.125). There were also significant relationships between knowledge of EDM, practice of BSE and client teaching. Conclusions It is vital that

  20. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  1. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  2. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Early Discontinuation in Aromatase Inhibitor-Treated Postmenopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Kunal C.; Snyder, Claire F.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Seewald, Nicholas J.; Flockhart, David A.; Skaar, Todd C.; Desta, Zereunesay; Rae, James M.; Otte, Julie L.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Storniolo, Anna M.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Stearns, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early discontinuation of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is common and leads to poor outcomes but is challenging to predict. In the Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics trial, a high rate of early discontinuation due to intolerance was observed. We hypothesized that early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) predict AI discontinuation and that biochemical factors are associated with changes in PROs. Patients and Methods. Postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole completed questionnaires at baseline and serially over 24 months to assess overall quality of life (EuroQOL Visual Analog Scale [VAS]); mood; and multiple symptoms, including a musculoskeletal symptom cluster. A joint mixed-effects/survival model was used to estimate the effect of the change in PROs on AI discontinuation. Associations between biochemical factors and change in PROs were examined. Results. A total of 490 patients were analyzed. Worsening of EuroQOL VAS and the musculoskeletal cluster were associated with the highest risk for early discontinuation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72–2.81; p = .015]; HR, 4.39 [95% CI, 2.40–8.02; p < .0001], respectively). Pharmacokinetics and estrogen metabolism were not consistently associated with change in PRO measures. No clinically significant differences in any PRO between AIs were observed. Conclusion. Changes in PROs early during AI therapy were associated with treatment discontinuation. Identification of these changes could be used to target interventions in patients at high risk for early discontinuation. Implications for Practice: Early changes in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) can predict nonpersistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy. If used in clinical practice, PROs might identify women at highest risk for early discontinuation and allow for interventions to improve tolerance before significant toxicities develop

  3. Identification of inherited genetic variations influencing prognosis in early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Collins, Andrew; Khan, Sofia; Politopoulos, Ioannis; Gerty, Sue; Blomqvist, Carl; Couch, Fergus J; Nevanlinna, Heli; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana

    2013-03-15

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have begun to investigate associations between inherited genetic variations and breast cancer prognosis. Here, we report our findings from a GWAS conducted in 536 patients with early-onset breast cancer aged 40 or less at diagnosis and with a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years (SD = 1.96). Patients were selected from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer. A Bonferroni correction for multiple testing determined that a P value of 1.0 × 10(-7) was a statistically significant association signal. Following quality control, we identified 487,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for association tests in stage 1. In stage 2, 35 SNPs with the most significant associations were genotyped in 1,516 independent cases from the same early-onset cohort. In stage 2, 11 SNPs remained associated in the same direction (P ≤ 0.05). Fixed effects meta-analysis models identified one SNP associated at close to genome wide level of significance 556 kb upstream of the ARRDC3 locus [HR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-1.96; P = 9.5 × 10(-7)]. Four further associations at or close to the PBX1, RORα, NTN1, and SYT6 loci also came close to genome-wide significance levels (P = 10(-6)). In the first ever GWAS for the identification of SNPs associated with prognosis in patients with early-onset breast cancer, we report a SNP upstream of the ARRDC3 locus as potentially associated with prognosis (median follow-up time for genotypes: CC = 4 years, CT = 3 years, and TT = 2.7 years; Wilcoxon rank-sum test CC vs. CT, P = 4 × 10(-4) and CT vs. TT, P = 0.76). Four further loci may also be associated with prognosis.

  4. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  5. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  6. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  7. Cytokines, Fatigue, and Cutaneous Erythema in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliana De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5% patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.05. After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001 was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026. A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  8. Preferences for oral versus intravenous adjuvant chemotherapy among early breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishitobi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Ishitobi,1 Kazuyo Shibuya,2 Yoshifumi Komoike,1 Hiroki Koyama,1 Hideo Inaji1 1Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, 2Department of Nursing, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate preferences for oral versus intravenous adjuvant chemotherapy among early breast cancer patients (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000004696. Patients and methods: Eighty-two postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy were asked about their preferred route of administration of chemotherapy and the reason. Women also answered questions about their physical and psychological status and quality of life during chemotherapy. Results: Patients who had received oral chemotherapy preferred it more frequently than those who had received intravenous chemotherapy (100% versus 37%, respectively, chi-square =15.5; P<0.001. Patients who preferred the same route of administration of chemotherapy as they had previously received showed a significantly better psychological status during chemotherapy compared with those who preferred a different route. Conclusion: Our study showed that preferences for oral and intravenous chemotherapy strongly depended on the actual prior administration of chemotherapy and patients' own experiences during chemotherapy. Keywords: breast cancer, adjuvant, chemotherapy, patient preference, oral, intravenous

  9. A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robinson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrew RobinsonNorthern Ontario School of Medicine, Regional Cancer Program of Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Exemestane is a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, which has proven to be a useful drug in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been performed or are currently underway using exemestane as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women, which will be the indication reviewed here. A relative reduction in risk of breast cancer recurrence or death of 24% has been shown with exemestane compared with tamoxifen when given after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen. This corresponded to a 3.3% absolute reduction in recurrence or death at the end of 5 years, for a number needed to treat of 30. The main use of exemestane in the adjuvant setting is as an alternative to tamoxifen, and toxicities are discussed in relation to tamoxifen toxicities. In general, patients receiving exemestane experience less hot flashes and more arthralgias in comparison to tamoxifen, while there is also a reduction in venous thromboembolic events and vaginal bleeding. Patients on exemestane as a group do not appear to have a significantly changed quality of life in comparison to tamoxifen, while having a statistically significant benefit in preventing breast cancer recurrence.Keywords: breast cancer, exemestane, adjuvant

  10. Cytokines, fatigue, and cutaneous erythema in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Agolli, Linda; Visco, Vincenzo; Monaco, Flavia; Muni, Roberta; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Campanella, Barbara; Valeriani, Maurizio; Minniti, Giuseppe; Osti, Mattia F; Amanti, Claudio; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Brunetti, Serena; Costantini, Anna; Alfò, Marco; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Marchetti, Paolo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5%) patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  11. Neoadjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer: the clinical utility of pertuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollamudi J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jahnavi Gollamudi,1,* Jenny G Parvani,2,* William P Schiemann,3 Shaveta Vinayak3,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients harbor tumors that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. HER2 amplification and hyperactivation drive the growth and survival of breast cancers through the aberrant activation of proto-oncogenic signaling systems, particularly the Ras/MAP kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. Although HER2-positive (HER2+ breast cancer was originally considered to be a highly aggressive form of the disease, the clinical landscape of HER2+ breast cancers has literally been transformed by the approval of anti-HER2 agents for adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Indeed, pertuzumab is a novel monoclonal antibody that functions as an anti-HER2 agent by targeting the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER2 receptor; it is also the first drug to receive an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in neoadjuvant settings in early-stage HER2+ breast cancer. Here, we review the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of HER2 in breast cancer, as well as summarize the landmark preclinical and clinical findings underlying the approval and use of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, the molecular mechanisms operant in mediating resistance to anti-HER2 agents, and perhaps to pertuzumab as well, will be discussed, as will the anticipated clinical impact and future directions of pertuzumab in breast cancer patients. Keywords: breast cancer

  12. A decision-analytic model for early stage breast cancer: lumpectomy vs mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükdamgaci-Alogan, G; Elele, T; Hayran, M; Erman, M; Kiliçkap, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to construct a decision model that incorporated patient preferences over differing health state prospects and to analyze the decision context of early stage breast cancer patients in relation to two main surgical treatment options. A Markov chain was constructed to project the clinical history of breast carcinoma following surgery. A Multi Attribute Utility Model was developed for outcome evaluation. Transition probabilities were obtained by using subjective probability assessment. This study was performed on the sample population of female university students and utilities were elicited from these healthy volunteers. The results were validated by using Standard Gamble technique. Finally, Monte Carlo Simulation was utilized in Treeage-Pro 2006-Suit software program in order to calculate expected utility generated by each treatment option. The results showed that, if the subject had mastectomy, mean value for the quality adjusted life years gained was 6.42; on the other hand, if the preference was lumpectomy, it was 7.00 out of a possible 10 years. Sensitivity analysis on transition probabilities to local recurrence and salvaged states was performed and two threshold values were observed. Additionally, sensitivity analysis on utilities showed that the model was more sensitive to no evidence of disease state; however, was not sensitive to utilities of local recurrence and salvaged states. The decision model was developed with reasonable success for early stage breast cancer patients, and tested by using general public data. The results obtained from these data showed that lumpectomy was more favourable for these participants.

  13. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  14. Effect of early feed restriction on reproductive performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Reproductive performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was evaluated following feed restriction (100, 85, and 70% of ad libitum) between 2 to 5 wk of age with three replicates of 12, 2-wk-old chicks per replicate. Body weight, feed conversion, and leucocyte distribution were measured during feed restriction. After experimental feed treatment, BW, age at first egg, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were evaluated from five replicates of two females and one male per treatment. Feed-restricted female chicks had lower BW from 3 to 5 wk of age, but male weights were depressed only during the most severe restriction at 4 and 5 wk. No treatment differences were observed among BW within a sex from 6 to 13 wk. Body weights at first egg were significantly heavier for females fed 70% ad libitum than for birds on other treatments. Fertility, age at first egg, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight were unaffected by feed restriction. Although hatchability was unaffected by feed restriction, percentage of late dead and total dead embryos were significantly reduced in eggs from restricted quail. Thirty quail fed 70% of ad libitum control intake had significantly increased egg specific gravity. Feed restriction increased the percentage of heterophils and basophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, whereas the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Feed can be restricted to 85 or 70% of ad libitum feed intake from 2 to 5 wk of age without detrimentally affecting reproductive parameters between 6 to 13 wk of age.

  15. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 99mTc-MIBI BREAST IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长才; 金少津; 邹强; 朱汇庆; 王红鹰; 梁春立

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find an effective, sensitive, specific and noninvasive diagnostic method of breast cancer. Methods: 109 masses of 102 patients with breast lesions smaller than 2 cm in diameter were divided into three groups to undergo 99mTc-MIBI imaging and compared with the results of pathology examination. 20 cases without breast lesions were selected as control. Abnormal condensation of 99mTc-MIBI in the breast reaching 10% higher than that in the counterpart of the healthy breast was regarded as positive. Results: Of 32 breast cancers, positive imaging appeared in 25. Negative imaging were found in 31 of 38 benign breast lesions. Of 39 occult breast lesions, positive imaging appeared in 6 and 3 of them were breast cancer, 2 of 3 patients with slightly increased 99mTc-MIBI imaging threshold were breast cancer also. No positive imaging was found in the control group. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99mTc-MIBI was 88.4%, 89.2%, 88.0%, 75.0% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI imaging had higher sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. It could provide useful information for the diagnosis of clinically suspected breast cancer.

  16. 婴幼儿龋病与喂养方式的关系%Feeding practices of infants and toddlers and early childhood caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱文彦; 胡建军; 欧阳喈

    2001-01-01

    目的 了解婴幼儿龋病的发生与喂养方式的关系。方法 对1178例8~54个月婴幼儿进行了龋病流行情况调查并对200例24~35个月的婴幼儿的母亲作问卷调查,获得有效问卷186份,其中患龋儿童92例,无龋儿童94例。结果 有母乳喂养经历的婴幼儿患龋率高于人工喂养的,但无统计学上的差异,而母乳喂养超过12个月的儿童中,患龋率随时间的延长而增高。有母乳喂养经历的婴幼儿入睡时含有乳头的比例明显高于人工喂养的,同时随母乳时间的延长,婴幼儿入睡时含有乳头的比例增大,具有统计学意义。且含有乳头入睡的婴幼儿患龋率(72.67%)明显高于不含乳头入睡的(36.67%)。结论 婴幼儿期的喂养方式对婴幼儿龋病的发生有一定的影响,在提倡母乳喂养的同时,还应对母亲进行婴幼儿口腔健康知识的宣传,来预防婴幼儿龋病的发生。%Objective.This study investigated the pattem of infants and toddlers feeding associated with early childhool caries.Methods.1178 children aged 8 months to 54 months in Changchun were screened for caries.186 children aged 24~35 months (92 with caries and 9 4 caries-free) were selected for questionnaire concerning the childhood nursing practice that was obtained form the parents.Results.Child ren who had been breast-fed had higher prevalence of caries than those with bott le-fed,but those differences failed to reach statistical significance.Children who breast-fed more than 12 months tended to have higher prevalence of caries as along as prolonged breast-feeding.We also found that prevalence of caries was significantly correlated with habite of sucked nipple when children was sleeping. Conclusion.The pattern of infant feeding is strongly related to early childhool caries.There is a need for development of educational and prevention programs targeting mothers and infants and for research on effective

  17. Polymeric composite devices for localized treatment of early-stage breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Soboyejo, Wole

    2017-01-01

    For early-stage breast cancers mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for new treatment strategies that can enhance the use of lumpectomy by eliminating residual cancer cells with limited side effects to reduce local recurrence. Although, various radiotherapy-based methods have been developed, residual cells are found in 20–55% of the time at the first operation. Furthermore, some current treatment methods result in poor cosmesis. For the last decade, the authors have been exploring the use of polymeric composite materials in single and multi-modal implantable biomedical devices for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, the concept and working principles of the devices, as well as selected results from experimental and numerical investigations, are presented. The results show the potential of the biomedical implants for cancer treatment. PMID:28245288

  18. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  19. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  20. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  1. Nosocomial colonization due to imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidemiologically linked to breast milk feeding in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina MAMMINA; Paola DI CARLO; Domenico CIPOLLA; Alessandra CASUCCIO; Matilde TANTILLO; Maria Rosa Anna PLANO; Angela MAZZOLA; Giovanni CORSELLO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We describe a one-year investigation of colonization by imipenem-resistant, metallo-β-1actamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the University Hospital of Palermo, Italy. Methods: A prospective epidemiological investigation was conducted in the period 2003 January to 2004 January. Rectal swabs were collected twice a week from all neonates throughout their NICU stay. MBL production by imipenem-resistant strains of P aeruginosa was detected by phenotypic and molecular methods. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was carried out on all isolates of P aeruginosa. The association between risk factors and colonization by imipenem-resistant, imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates and other multidrug-resistant Gram negative (MDRGN) organisms was analyzed for variables present at admission and during the NICU stay. Data analysis was carried out by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Twenty-two of 210 neonates were colonized with imipenem-resistant, MBL-producing P aeruginosa isolates and 14 by imipenem-susceptible P aeruginosa isolates. A single pulsotype, named A, was shared by all imipenem-resistant isolates. Colonization by P aeruginosa of pulsotype A was positively correlated with breast milk feeding and administration of ampicillin-sulbactam, and inversely correlated with exclusive feeding by formula. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, birthweight of more than 2500 g and breast milk feeding were independently associated with an increased risk of colonization by MBL-producing P aeruginosa. Conclusion: The results strongly support an association between colonization by a well-defined imipenem-resistant, MBL producing P aeruginosa strain and breast milk feeding. Such a study may highlight the need for implementation of strategies to prevent expressed breast milk from becoming a vehicle of health care-associated infections.

  2. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  3. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

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    Boutayeb Saber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD, the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30 and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95. The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat

  4. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

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    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  5. [Breast feeding in Puerto Rico: traditional patterns, national trends and future strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rican society has gone through profound transformations during the past 50 years. Industrialization and the incorporation of women into the labor force have been accompanied by medicalization of the reproductive process and a progressive reduction in the prevalence of breastfeeding as the cultural norm for nutrition of infants. The data base for 1990 places Puerto Rico significantly below Latin America and the United States in the percentage of breastfed infants. The authors report their experience in the promotion of breastfeeding during the last 5 years. The principal negative factors which hinder the beginning and maintenance of successful breastfeeding are of a social nature. The orientation of physicians towards technology underrates the benefits of breastfeeding. The marketing strategies of the corporations which manufacture artificial milk continuously violate the International Code for Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and disfigure the community's perception on the benefits of breastfeeding. The lack of social and legal support for the breastfeeding working mother frequently prevents her from carrying out successful breastfeeding for the recommended period of time. Strategies are presented for the overturn of the existent barriers which have reduced breastfeeding in Puerto Rico to the present precarious levels.

  6. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The pur

  7. Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Armah, Ernestina; Sarpong, Theresa; Quansah, Dan Yedu; Amankwaa, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) has been described as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women especially in the developing world including sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Delayed presentation and late diagnosis at health facilities are parts of the contributing factors of high BC mortality in Africa. This review aimed to appraise the contributing factors to delayed breast cancer presentation and diagnosis among SSA women. Methods Five databases encompassing medical and social sciences were systematically searched using predefined search terms linked with breast cancer presentation and diagnosis and sub Saharan Africa. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. Quality of quantitative and qualitative articles were assessed using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality appraisal checklist. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the qualitative studies to integrate findings. Results Fourteen (14) quantitative studies, two (2) qualitative studies and one (1) mixed method study merited inclusion for analysis. This review identified low knowledge of breast cancer among SSA women. This review also found lack of awareness of early detection treatment, poor perception of BC, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fear as factors impacting African women’s health seeking behavior in relation to breast cancer. Conclusion Improving African women’s knowledge and understanding will improve behaviors related to breast cancer and facilitate early presentation and detection and enhance proper management and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:28192444

  8. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

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    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Weir, Lorna [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  9. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  10. A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    Exemestane is a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, which has proven to be a useful drug in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been performed or are currently underway using exemestane as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women, which will be the indication reviewed here. A relative reduction in risk of breast cancer recurrence or death of 24% has been shown with exemestane compared with tamoxifen when given after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen. This corresponded to a 3.3% absolute reduction in recurrence or death at the end of 5 years, for a number needed to treat of 30. The main use of exemestane in the adjuvant setting is as an alternative to tamoxifen, and toxicities are discussed in relation to tamoxifen toxicities. In general, patients receiving exemestane experience less hot flashes and more arthralgias in comparison to tamoxifen, while there is also a reduction in venous thromboembolic events and vaginal bleeding. Patients on exemestane as a group do not appear to have a significantly changed quality of life in comparison to tamoxifen, while having a statistically significant benefit in preventing breast cancer recurrence.

  11. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  12. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  13. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

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    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  14. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, Manon; Meijers, Claire M. C.; Jansen, Jessica E.; De Kroon, Marlou L. A.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  15. Cosmetic Analysis Following Breast-Conserving Surgery and Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

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    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate cosmetic outcomes in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients had stage Tis-T2 tumors of ≤3 cm that were excised with negative margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. Both the patients and the treating radiation oncologist qualitatively rated cosmesis as excellent, good, fair, or poor over time and ascribed a cause for changes in cosmesis. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated quantitatively by percentage of breast retraction assessment (pBRA). Patients also reported their satisfaction with treatment over time. Results: Median follow-up was 55 months. The rates of excellent-to-good cosmesis reported by patients and the treating radiation oncologist were 92% and 97% pretreatment, 91% and 97% at 3 to 4 months' follow-up, 87% and 94% at 2 years, and 92% and 94% at 3 years, respectively. Breast infection and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of a fair-to-poor cosmetic outcome at 3 years. Compared to pretreatment pBRA (7.35), there was no significant change in pBRA over time. The volume receiving more than 150 Gy (V150) was the only significant predictor of pBRA. The majority of patients (86.6%) were completely satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Patients and the treating physician reported a high rate of excellent-to-good cosmetic outcomes at all follow-up time points. Acute breast infection and chemotherapy were associated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy does not significantly change breast size as measured by pBRA.

  16. Predictors of early death in female patients with breast cancer in the UK: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Holmberg, Lars; Tataru, Daniela; Møller, Henrik; Robinson, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting early death in women with breast cancer. Design Cohort study. Setting 29 trusts across seven cancer networks in the North Thames area. Participants 15 037 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between January 1996 and December 2005. Methods Logistic regression analyses to determine predictors of early death and factors associated with lack of surgical treatment. Main exposures Age at diagnosis, mode of presentation, ethnicity, disease severity, comorbidities, treatment and period of diagnosis in relation to the Cancer Plan (the NHS's strategy in 2000 for investment in and reform of cancer services). Main outcome measures Death from any cause within 1 year of diagnosis, and receipt of surgical treatment. Results By 31 December 2006, 4765 women had died, 980 in the year after diagnosis. Older age and disease severity independently predicted early death. Women over 80 were more likely to die early than women under 50 (OR 8.05, 95% CI 5.96 to 10.88). Presence of distant metastases on diagnosis increased the odds of early death more than eightfold (OR 8.41, 95% CI 6.49 to 10.89). Two or more recorded comorbidities were associated with a nearly fourfold increase. There was a significant decrease in odds associated with surgery (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35). Independently of disease severity and comorbidities, women over 70 were less likely than those under 50 to be treated surgically and this was even more pronounced in those aged over 80 (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.10). Other factors independently associated with a reduced likelihood of surgery included a non-screening presentation, non-white ethnicity and additional comorbidities. Conclusions These findings may partially explain the survival discrepancies between the UK and other European countries in female patients with breast cancer. The study identifies a group of women with a particularly poor prognosis for whom interventions aiming at early detection may be targeted.

  17. Optimal systemic therapy for early breast cancer in women: a clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, A; Fletcher, G G; Gandhi, S; Mates, M; Freedman, O C; Dent, S F; Trudeau, M E

    2015-03-01

    The Breast Cancer Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario identified the need for new guidelines for the adjuvant systemic therapy of early-stage breast cancer. The specific question to be addressed was "What is the optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for female patients with early-stage operable breast cancer, when patient and disease factors are considered?" A systematic review was prepared based on literature searches conducted using the medline and embase databases for the period January 2008 to March 5, 2012, and updated to May 12, 2014. Guidelines were located from that search, from the Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines, and from the Web sites of major guideline organizations. The literature located was subdivided into the broad categories of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and therapy targeted to her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Although several of the systemic therapies discussed in this guideline can be considered in the neoadjuvant setting, the review focused on trials with rates of disease-free and overall survival as endpoints and thus excluded several trials that used pathologic complete response as a primary endpoint. Based on the systematic review, the working group drafted recommendations on the use of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy; based on their professional experience, they also drafted recommendations on patient and disease characteristics and recurrence risk. The literature review and draft recommendations were circulated to a consensus panel of medical oncologists who had expertise in breast cancer and who represented the regions of Ontario. Items without initial consensus were discussed at an in-person consensus meeting held in Toronto, November 23, 2012. The final recommendations are those for which consensus was reached before or at the meeting. Some of the key evidence was revised after the updated literature search. Evidence reviews for systemic chemotherapy, endocrine

  18. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

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    Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy

  19. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  20. The molecular subtype classification is a determinant of sentinel node positivity in early breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Reyal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several authors have underscored a strong relation between the molecular subtypes and the axillary status of breast cancer patients. The aim of our work was to decipher the interaction between this classification and the probability of a positive sentinel node biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our dataset consisted of a total number of 2654 early-stage breast cancer patients. Patients treated at first by conservative breast surgery plus sentinel node biopsies were selected. A multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. Interaction covariate between ER and HER2 markers was a forced input of this model. The performance of the multivariate model in the training and the two validation sets was analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of axillary metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. RESULTS: The interaction covariate between ER and HER2 status was a stronger predictor (p = 0.0031 of positive sentinel node biopsy than the ER status by itself (p = 0.016. A multivariate model to determine the probability of sentinel node positivity was defined with the following variables; tumour size, lympho-vascular invasion, molecular subtypes and age at diagnosis. This model showed similar results in terms of discrimination (AUC = 0.72/0.73/0.72 and calibration (HL p = 0.28/0.05/0.11 in the training and validation sets. The interaction between molecular subtypes, tumour size and sentinel nodes status was approximated. DISCUSSION: We showed that biologically-driven analyses are able to build new models with higher performance in terms of breast cancer axillary status prediction. The molecular subtype classification strongly interacts with the axillary and distant metastasis process.

  1. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  2. Value of combined detection of serum miR-21,miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhao Zhang; Ying Li; De-Xiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study level of miRNA in the serum of early breast carcinoma patients and to evaluate the clinical diagnostic value of combined detection of early breast carcinoma. Methods:A total of 54 cases of early breast carcinoma, 58 cases of benign breast diseases and 70 cases of healthy physical examination women were selected as the research subjects, to analysis serum miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels by fluorescence quantitative PCR method and to analyze the diagnostic value of single and combined detection in early breast cancer by receiver operating characteristic curve. Results:The relative expression levels of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in early breast carcinoma patients were significantly higher than those in benign breast disease and healthy controls;there was no significant difference in the relative expression of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-195 in the benign breast disease group and healthy control group;receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that AUC of miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 in the diagnosis of early breast carcinoma were 0.805, 0.86 and 0.848 respectively, the sensitivity were 63.3%, 70.0%and 70.0%, and the specificity were 86.7%, 93.3%and 90.0%;AUC, sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection were 0.974, 93.3%and 96.7%respectively. Conclusion:miR-21, miR-195 and miR-222 levels in serum of patients with early breast carcinoma rise, the combined detection of the 3 indicators have a high diagnostic value for early breast carcinoma, and contribute to early breast carcinoma screening and diagnosis.

  3. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  4. Blood levels of vitamin D and early stage breast cancer prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, April A N; Elser, Christine; Ennis, Marguerite; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D regulates expression of genes important in development and progression of breast cancer. The association of vitamin D with breast cancer outcomes among breast cancer patients is controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of this association in early stage breast cancer outcome. We searched MEDLINE (1982-May 1, 2013), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2009-2012), and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2010-2012) for abstracts, using the following keywords: "breast cancer" and "prognosis" or "survival", and "vitamin D" or" calcitriol" to identify studies reporting the associations of blood vitamin D levels (drawn close to diagnosis) with breast cancer outcomes. Meta-analyses were performed using an inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects model with Stata Version 12. Eight studies including 5,691 patients were identified. Vitamin D deficiency was variably categorized across studies; a median of 36.8 % of patients were classified as deficient. Low vitamin D levels were associated with a pooled hazard ratio of 2.13 (95 % CI 1.64-2.78) and 1.76 (95 % CIs 1.35-2.30) for recurrence (six studies) and death (four studies), respectively, with no evidence of significant heterogeneity across studies. There was potential evidence of a publication bias in studies examining associations with death (but not in those examining associations with recurrence). These findings support an association of low levels of vitamin D with increased risk of recurrence and death in early stage breast cancer patients. Given the observational nature of the included studies, it cannot be concluded that this association is causal. Further research is warranted to investigate the potential beneficial effects of vitamin D in breast cancer.

  5. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187 for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process.

  6. Early-Stage Breast Cancer in the Octogenarian: Tumor Characteristics, Treatment Choices, and Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Herold, Christina I.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna

    2016-01-01

    Background Nodal staging with sentinel node biopsy (SLNB), post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (RT), and endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors is valuable in the treatment of early-stage (stages 1 or 2) breast cancer but used less often for elderly women. Methods This retrospective study investigated women referred for surgical evaluation of biopsy-proven primary early-stage invasive breast cancer from January 2001 to December 2010. Clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and outcomes for women ages 80–89 years and 50–59 years were compared. Results The study identified 178 eligible women ages 80–89 years and 169 women ages 50–59 years. The elderly women more often had grade 1 or 2 disease (p = 0.003) and ER+ tumors (p = 0.007) and less frequently had undergone adjuvant therapies (all p ≤ 0.001). Lumpectomy was performed more commonly for the elderly (92 vs. 83 %, p = 0.02), and axillary surgery was less commonly performed (46 vs. 96 %; p < 0.001). Fewer elderly women had undergone post-lumpectomy RT (42 vs. 89 %; p < 0.001) and ET for ER+ tumors (72 vs. 95 %; p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 56 months for the 80- to 89-year old group and 98 months for the 50- to 59-year-old group, death from breast cancer was similar (4 vs. 5 %; p = 0.5). The two groups respectively experienced 7 versus 6 locoregional recurrences and 11 versus 13 distant recurrences. Conclusions The octogenarians had disease survivorship similar to that of the younger women despite less frequent use of adjuvant therapies, likely reflecting lower-risk disease features. Whether increased use of axillary surgery, post-lumpectomy RT, and/or ET for ER+ tumors would further improve outcomes is an important area for further study, but treatment should not be deferred solely on the basis of age. PMID:27364507

  7. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  8. Testing breast cancer serum biomarkers for early detection and prognosis in pre-diagnosis samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Anna; Blyuss, Oleg; Metodieva, Gergana; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Kiseleva, Elena M; Prytomanova, Olga M; Jacobs, Ian J; Widschwendter, Martin; Menon, Usha; Timms, John F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although mammography screening is available, there is an ongoing interest in improved early detection and prognosis. Herein, we have analysed a combination of serological biomarkers in a case–control cohort of sera taken before diagnosis. Methods: This nested case–control study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) used serum samples from 239 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and 239 matched cancer-free controls. Sera were screened by ELISA for 9 candidate markers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations with clinico-pathological features and between case controls in different time groups before diagnosis. Results: Significant associations with clinico-pathological features related to prognosis were found for several candidates (CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1). However, there were no consistent differences between cases and controls for any candidate in the lead up to diagnosis. Whilst combination models outperformed single markers, there was no increase in performance towards diagnosis. Conclusions: This study using unique pre-diagnosis samples shows that CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1 have potential as early prognostic markers and warrant further investigation. However, none of the candidates or combinations would be useful for screening. PMID:28081538

  9. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  10. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  11. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos de baixo peso Prevalence of breast feeding of low birthweight infants

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    César C. Xavier

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se de forma longitudinal e prospectiva a duração do aleitamento materno no primeira ano de vida de 222 crianças nascidas com peso menor ou igual a 2.500 gramas no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil, no período de outubro de 1985 a setembro de 1986. A incidência do aleitamento materno foi de 86,5%. A prevalência encontrada para as crianças que foram amamentadas foi de 62,5% aos 3 meses, 38,5% aos 6 meses, 28,7% aos 9 meses e 25,0% aos 12 meses de vida. A mediana da duração do aleitamento materno foi de 4 meses. O peso ao nascer mostrou associação positiva com a incidência e duração do aleitamento materno, O nível de escolaridade materno associou-se positivamente com sua duração. A idade materna, situação conjugal e o número de consultas pré-natais não apresentaram associação com o aleitamento materno. Estes dados mostram índices menores em relação aos de populações de países desenvolvidos, em especial os pré-termos finlandeses nascidos com peso menor do que 1.500 gramas. Programas de ações envolvendo a comunidade e/ou instituições devem resultar em melhoria de nossos índices, se bem implementados.The present situation regarding the breast feeding of children born with a weight of 2,500 grammes or less (LWB at the Hospital das Clínicas of the Medical School of the Universidade de S. Paulo in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil was studied. The study was descriptive and the data were obtained through a longitudinal follow-up carried over the period from October 1985 to September 1986 inclusive. Of the 222 children included in the study, 30 (13.5% infants were not breastfed. Thus the incidence of breast feeding among this population was of 86.5%. At 3 months 62.5% of these infants were still being breastfed. At 6 months this figure fell to 38.5% and only 25.0% were still being breast-fed at the end of 12 months. The average duration of breast feeding for the 192 children that

  13. Uso de chupeta e amamentação em crianças menores de quatro meses no estado de São Paulo Pacifier use and breast-feeding in children under four months old in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Cotrim

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar a prevalência do uso da chupeta e sua associação com as práticas alimentares. MÉTODOS: analisado o banco de dados de 1999 do projeto "Amamentação e Municípios". A associação entre o uso de chupeta e interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME e aleitamento materno (AM foi verificada através do teste de chi2. RESULTADOS: a prevalência do uso de chupeta em 22.188 menores de quatro meses foi alta (61,3% e variou de 32,8% a 78,4% nos 111 municípios estudados. Observou-se a introdução precoce da chupeta (53,9% em menores de um mês e associação entre o uso da chupeta e interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo e aleitamento materno (p OBJECTIVES: to study pacifier use prevalence and its association to feeding practices. METHODS: data collected from the "Amamentação e Municípios" ("Breast-feeding and Municipalities" project in 1999 were analyzed. The association between pacifier use and exclusive breast-feeding interruption was verified through the chi2 test. RESULTS: prevalence of the pacifier use in 22.188 children from 0 - 4 months was high (61,3% and varied from 32,8% to 78,4% in 111 cities. Early pacifier introduction was noted (53,9% in children less than one month old as well as association between pacifier use and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and breast-feeding (BF (p <0,05 interruption. There was a higher prevalence of bottle-feeding among pacifier users. CONCLUSIONS: it is necessary to increase the number of protective, promotion and supportive actions to breast-feeding to reduce the high pacifier prevalence determined by this study. Child Friendly Hospital Initiatives should be included.

  14. Feeding Your Baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use the combination of breast milk and formula, bottle-feeding and nursing that works best for you and ... the breast even if you supplement with a bottle-feeding afterwards, do so. Permit yourself room to experiment ...

  15. Early visual experience of food does not appear to reduce subsequent feed neophobia in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuelle, S; Bouvarel, I; Chagneau, A M; Laviron, F; Lescoat, P; Leterrier, C

    2011-01-01

    Turkeys may reduce their feed intake because of neophobia toward a new diet; however, their feeding behavior is not well known. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of diet color on behavior and feed intake in turkeys. For 2 wk, 2 groups of 1-day-old turkey chicks were fed diets varying in color but of the same composition: light-colored crumbles (LC group) or dark-colored crumbles (DC group). Both groups (total n = 144) were then fed a novel diet of green crumbles for the next 2 wk. On d 30, the original groups were each divided into 3 groups and received light, dark, or green pellets. We postulated that neophobia on d 30 would be reduced for chicks fed 1) green pellets compared with diets of other colors because of the effect of recent experience, and 2) a diet of a color that was previously encountered over the first 2 wk of life. Behavior and feed intake were measured on the days before and during each feed transition at 5 min after the changeover feed to observe the short-term reaction. On the first transition day, birds in the LC group decreased their feed intake significantly at 5 min, unlike birds in the DC group, which increased their feed intake. Exploratory behavior increased in both groups when they received green crumbles on the transition day, indicating a response to the color. The changeover to pellets induced a reduction in feed intake in all groups at 5 min, but, in line with our first hypothesis, behavioral changes were less pronounced in birds receiving green pellets. However, turkeys in the DC group did not eat more dark-colored pellets than those in the other groups, and turkeys in the LC group did not eat more light-colored pellets. In the present experiment, we conclude that previous visual experience did not reduce subsequent feed neophobia but that color continuity facilitated a diet change from one feed form to another.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  17. Early feeding practices and severe early childhood caries in four-year-old children from southern Brazil: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Giugliani, E R J; Vigo, Á; Vítolo, M R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between feeding practices in the first year of life and the occurrence of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) at 4 years of age. A birth cohort study (n = 500) was conducted in children who were born within the public health system in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Feeding practices were assessed using standardized methods at 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 340 children were examined at 4 years of age. S-ECC was defined as recommended by an expert panel for research purposes: ≥1 cavitated, missing or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or d(1+) mfs ≥5. Poisson regression with robust variance was used in order to determine the early feeding practices which represent risk factors for the occurrence of S-ECC at 4 years of age. The multivariable model showed a higher adjusted risk of S-ECC for the following dietary practices at 12 months: breastfeeding ≥7 times daily (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.45-2.68), high density of sugar (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.89), bottle use for liquids other than milk (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86), as well as number of meals and snacks >8 (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97). Mother's education ≤8 years was also associated with the outcome. The present study identified early feeding practices which represent risk factors for caries severity in subsequent years. These findings may contribute to developing general and oral health interventions, with special attention to families with low maternal education.

  18. [Influence of feeding patterns on the development of teeth, dentition and jaw in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-tong; Ge, Li-hong

    2015-02-18

    Breastfeeding has been recognized as the most natural and nutritious way of feeding babies. Besides the nutritional, immunological and emotional benefits, breastfeeding promotes a healthy stomatognathic system. First of all, the nutrients and minerals in maternal milk are easy to be absorbed by the infants, which contributes to the mineralization of the teeth, and suppress the propagation of bacteria on the teeth. Though the jury is still out on whether breastfeeding can prevent Early Childhood Caries (ECC), it is definite that we should pay attention to feeding at night and the oral hygiene of the babies. Secondly, the method of feeding is closely bound up with the development of dentition and jaw. Breast- and bottle-feeding involve different orofacial muscles, which possibly have different effects on the harmonic growth of maxilla and dental arches. Meanwhile, breathing, swallowing and mastication should be developing in harmony, and differences exist in the learning of the coordinated movement between breast feeding and bottle feeding children. Bottle feeding had been proved to be closely related with the non-nutritive sucking habits which can cause malocclusion. At last, it should be pointed out that breast feeding should be the only feeding source in the first 6 months of life, then supplementary foods should be added. And prolonged bottle feeding should be avoided. We can see that breast feeding is definitely good for the infants, but the reality is not optimistic in our country.

  19. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Forster, Alice S.; Dodd, Rachael H.; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women. PMID:23213334

  20. Overexpression of Gli1 in cancer interstitial tissues predicts early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Hua Li; Hai-Feng Gao; Yan Wang; Fang Liu; Xiao-Feng Tian; Yang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate whether Gli1 expression is important in relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.Methods:Using immunohistochemistry,Glil expression was analyzed in human primary breast cancer (n=284) and paracancerous tissues (n=20),and also in local lymph nodes (n=28) and metastatic lymph nodes (n=28).Results:Initial analysis of Gli1 expression in a small cohort of 20 breast tumors and their paracancerous tissues showed a tendency towards Gli1 overexpression in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001).Further,Gli1 expression in 284 breast cancer tissue samples was analyzed and a significant correlation was found between increased expression of nuclear Gli1 and unfavorable recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P<0.05).The nuclear expression of Gli1 in metastatic lymph nodes following relapse after radical operation was much higher than that in the local lymph nodes of primary carcinoma (P<0.05).Most interestingly,the expression of Gli1 was much higher in the interstitial tissues of the relapsed group than of the non-relapsed group (P<0.001).Conclusions:Breast cancer shows a high prevalence of Gli1 expression,which is significantly correlated with aggressive features and unfavorable RFS.Nuclear Gli1 overexpression,especially in the interstitial tissues,signified early relapse after radical operation of breast cancer.

  1. Promoting early presentation of breast cancer in older women: implementing an evidence-based intervention in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsay J L; Forster, Alice S; Dodd, Rachael H; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women.

  2. Long-term results of forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Boram; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Rena; Moon, Byung In [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To observe long-term clinical outcomes for patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with forward intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including local control and clinical toxicities. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 214 patients with stage I-II breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant breast radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. All patients were treated using forward IMRT. The whole breast was irradiated to a dose of 50 to 50.4 Gy followed by an 8 to 12 Gy electron boost to the surgical bed. The median age was 46 years (range, 21 to 82 years) and the medial follow-up time was 7.3 years (range, 2.4 to 11.7 years). Stage T1 was 139 (65%) and T2 was 75 (35%), respectively. Ipsilateral breast recurrence was observed in 3 patients. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 99.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated according to the Harvard scale and 89.4% of patients were scored as excellent or good. The whole breast radiation therapy as an adjuvant treatment using a forward IMRT technique showed excellent long-term local control as well as favorable outcomes of toxicity and cosmesis.

  3. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. L. Forbes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2. Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women.

  4. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deshields, Teresa L. [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  5. 早期保乳治疗在乳腺癌中的作用%The Effect of Early Breast Conserving Therapy in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆会

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of early breast conserving therapy for breast cancer.Methods Selected 70 patients with early breast cancer clinical data from June 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were randomly divided into early group (early breast conserving therapy ) and the control group (conventional breast conserving surgery), each group had 35 cases, followed up for 1 to 5 years, compared with the treatment effect of the two groups.Results Compared with the two groups of patients in the treatment effect, mortality, and beautiifcation effect, the early group was better than the contrast group,P<0.05, had difference statistically signiifcance.Conclusion With conventional breast cancer treatment, early cover milk therapy for earlier intervention, treatment effect is good, death rate is low, but the operation should be attention in patients with clinical indications, contraindications, landscaping practices, surgical techniques, to ensure the best effect of clinical treatment.%目的探究早期保乳治疗术对乳腺癌的临床治疗效果。方法选取我院2013年6月~2015年6月收治的70例早期乳腺癌患者的临床治疗资料,随机将其分为早期组(早期保乳治疗术)和对照组(常规保乳术),每组35例,术后随访1~5年,对比两组患者的治疗效果。结果对比两组患者治疗效果、致死率、美化效果,早期组均优于对比组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论与常规乳腺癌治疗方法相比,早期保乳治疗术的介入时间早、治疗效果好、致死率低,但行术时应注意患者的临床适应证、禁忌证、美化手法、手术技巧等,以保证最佳的临床治疗效果。

  6. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction: oncologic risks and aesthetic results in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, S A; Schnitt, S J; Duda, R B; Houlihan, M J; Koufman, C N; Morris, D J; Troyan, S L; Goldwyn, R M

    1998-07-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy has been advocated as an oncologically safe approach for the management of patients with early-stage breast cancer that minimizes deformity and improves cosmesis through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast. Because chest wall skin is the most frequent site of local failure after mastectomy, concerns have been raised that inadequate skin excision could result in an increased risk of local recurrence. Precise borders of the skin resection have not been well established, and long-term local recurrence rates after skin-sparing mastectomy are not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety and aesthetic results for skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and saline breast prosthesis. Fifty-one patients with early-stage breast cancer (26 with ductal carcinoma in situ and 25 with invasive carcinoma) undergoing primary mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a latissimus flap were studied from 1991 through 1994. For 32 consecutive patients, skin-sparing mastectomy was defined as a 5-mm margin of skin designed around the border of the nipple-areolar complex. After the mastectomy, biopsies were obtained from the remaining native skin flap edges. Patients were followed for 44.8 months. Histologic examination of 114 native skin flap biopsy specimens failed to demonstrate breast ducts in the dermis of any of the 32 consecutive patients studied. One of 26 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ had metastases to the skin of the lateral chest wall and back. Four other patients, one with stage I disease and three with stage II-B disease, had recurrent breast carcinoma. The stage I patient had a local recurrence in the subcutaneous tissues near the mastectomy specimen. Two patients suffered axillary relapse, and one had distant metastases to the spine. The findings of this study support the technique of skin-sparing mastectomy as an oncologically safe one

  7. Review of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer: should MRI be performed on all women with newly diagnosed, early stage breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Hayes, Daniel F

    2009-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown equivalent survival for women with early stage breast cancer who are treated with breast-conservation therapy (local excision and radiotherapy) or mastectomy. Decades of experience have demonstrated that breast-conservation therapy provides excellent local control based on defined standards of care. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced in preoperative staging of the affected breast in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer because it detects additional foci of cancer that are occult on conventional imaging. The median incremental (additional) detection for MRI has been estimated as 16% in meta-analysis. In the absence of consensus on the role of preoperative MRI, we review data on its detection capability and its impact on treatment. We outline that the assumptions behind the adoption of MRI, namely that it will improve surgical planning and will lead to a reduction in re-excision surgery and in local recurrences, have not been substantiated by trials. Evidence consistently shows that MRI changes surgical management, usually from breast conservation to more radical surgery; however, there is no evidence that it improves surgical care or prognosis. Emerging data indicate that MRI does not reduce re-excision rates and that it causes false positives in terms of detection and unnecessary surgery; overall there is little high-quality evidence at present to support the routine use of preoperative MRI. Randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the clinical, psychosocial, and long-term effects of MRI and to show a related change in treatment from standard care in women newly affected by breast cancer.

  8. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varsos, G.; Yahalom, J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended.

  9. Opportunistic breast cancer early detection in Tyrol, Austria 1996-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frede, Thomas E. [BrustGesundheitZentrumTirol, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Radiologie II, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.frede@uibk.ac.at

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the need for a mammography-screening program for Tyrol, as recently proposed in an OeBIG feasibility study commissioned by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Women, in view of the already existing organized opportunistic screening. Materials and methods: This author has examined the state of breast cancer early detection and diagnosis in Tyrol. A comprehensive review of all available data and results based on 3340 primary biopsy recommendations between 1996 and 2004 at our breast centre was performed. Results: Early detection has been improved by organizing the existing opportunistic screening through a true team approach, incorporating not only the clinic's specialties, but also the private radiologists and referring physicians. In 2004, our centre made the definitive diagnosis in 230 (67.6%) of the about 340 primary breast cancer cases occurring yearly in Tyrol with 62.2% being discovered by routine examination and 74.3% stemming from second opinion examinations. About 92.4% of our primary biopsies are performed minimally invasive with an overall 42.9% (1375 of 3205 cases) malignancy rate. Pathological TNM-staging was obtained in over 95% of women under 70 years of age. On average 55.3% (62.0% in 2004) of all discovered cancers were TNM-stage 1 or better lesions (76.2% in our routine patients). With an overall participation of about 75% of our target group (women over 34 years), it is women under the age of 50 years, who most consistently follow our recommendations, resulting in an above average rate of 58.5% TNM-stage 1 and better lesions for all discovered breast cancers (routine and symptomatic) in this group. Conclusions: Opportunistic screening with a true team approach, combined with minimally invasive diagnosis and a strive for excellence have resulted in improved diagnosis, ever expanding patient and referring physician acceptance and an increase of positive prognostic factors, which eclipses the results of any published

  10. Comparison of breast cancer to healthy control tissue discovers novel markers with potential for prognosis and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J David; Karlan, Beth Y; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-02-09

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically 'normal' breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors.

  11. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Kajdi, Georg W.; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Grimminger, Hanns-Joerg [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Malzahn, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, Wuerzburg (Germany); Lamp, Nora [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Langen, Heinz-Jakob [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97 % of patients. In a single patient (3 %), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81 % of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p < 0.01) lower than the score for iROLL. iROLL is a well-tolerated and feasible technique for localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection. (orig.)

  12. TGF-β1 expression in wound healing is acutely affected by experimental malnutrition and early enteral feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Claudia Cristina; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Giorgi, Ricardo; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Logullo, Angela Flavia; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2014-10-01

    Malnutrition is associated with the delay or failure of healing. We assessed the effect of experimental malnutrition and early enteral feeding with standard diet or diet supplemented with arginine and antioxidants on the levels of mRNA encoding growth factors in acute, open wound healing. Standardised cutaneous dorsal wounds and gastrostomies for enteral feeding were created in malnourished (M, n = 27) and eutrophic control (E, n = 30) Lewis male adult rats. Both M and E rats received isocaloric and isonitrogenous regimens with oral chow and saline (C), standard (S) or supplemented (A) enteral diets. On post-trauma day 7, mRNA levels of growth factor genes were analysed in wound granulation tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). M(C) rats had significantly lower transforming growth factor β(TGF-β1 ) mRNA levels than E(C) rats (2·58 ± 0·83 versus 3·53 ± 0·57, P malnutrition decreased local mRNA levels of TGF-β1 genes, which was minimised by early enteral feeding with standard or supplemented diets.

  13. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  14. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 

  15. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  16. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life.

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Results in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kocakuflak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB in breast cancer patients targets the evaluation of the initial lymph node (SLN which drains the primary tumor. The morbidity of unnecessary axillary dissection can be avoided by intensive preoperative assessment of SLN. Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients who had been surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer between March 2005 and August 2007 were evaluated. Blue dye (methylene blue method was used to detect SLN. All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection following SLNB. NCSS program was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square test was used in the comparison of binary groups. Results: Except for one, all patients were female. The mean age of the patients was 56 (29-76 years. While 13 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy (=mastectomy+axillary dissection, the remaining 13 patients underwent breast preserving surgery (lumpectomy+axillary dissection. SLN could not be found in 2 patients (7.6%.The male patient was one of these 2 patients and both of them were positive for axillary node metastases. The detection rate of SLN, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity, false negativity, and reliability were 92.3%, 92.8%, 86%, 90.9%, 83.3%, 16.6%, and 88.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Our result support the hypothesis that SLNB with blue dye alone is a reliable technique and, surgery clinics should use it prior to axillary dissection to test their own success during the learning curve. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011; 49: 67-72

  18. [CEA and early detection of relapse in breast cancer subtypes: Comparison with CA 15-3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Goussot, Vincent; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Lorgis, Véronique; Coutant, Charles; Beltjens, Françoise; Lizard, Sarab; Fumoleau, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the interest of CEA measurement for early detection of breast cancer recurrences. Among 804 patients with invasive breast cancer, we selected 97 patients without recurrence (WR) for 5 years or more, 32 with a local recurrence (LR) and 131 with at least one distant metastasis (DM). Elevated CEA and CA 15-3 levels (>3.1 μg/L and >26 kU/L respectively) were found in 6 % and 22 % of patients with RL respectively and in 49 % and 69 % of patients with DM. Both CEA and CA 15-3 retained a significant value in predicting DM by univariate and multivariate analysis. Higher sensitivity of CEA and CA 15-3 were found in tumors with positive hormonal receptor status. CEA and CA 15-3 levels at DM were raised respectively in 23 and 65 % of the triple negative group, 58 and 75 % of the luminal, 56 and 78 % of the luminal-HER2 and 50 and 30 % of HER2-enriched group (P=0.0094 and 0.0252 respectively). The combination of CEA and CA 15-3 increased CA 15-3 sensitivity in especially luminal and HER2-enriched groups. In conclusion, elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels at initial diagnosis of recurrence were found to be associated with hormonal receptor status and breast cancer subtypes. The combination of CEA and CA 15-3 appeared useful especially luminal and HER2-enriched groups.

  19. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  20. Accelerated hypofractionated adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy with concomitant photon boost after conserving surgery for early stage breast cancer: a prospective evaluation on 463 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cante, Domenico; Rosa La Porta, Maria; Casanova-Borca, Valeria; Sciacero, Piera; Girelli, Giuseppe; Pasquino, Massimo; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ozzello, Franca

    2011-01-01

    The current standard therapeutic option for early stage breast cancer (EBC) employs a multimodality treatment approach including conservative surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. The most common adjuvant radiotherapeutic strategy consists of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) delivered to the whole breast using 1.8-2 Gy fractions given five times a week, up to a total dose of 45-50 Gy over a period of 5 weeks. In recent years, altered schedules employing larger dose per fraction delivered in fewer treatment sessions over a shorter overall treatment time began to be explored. We herein present clinical data on accelerated hypofractionated adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy delivered on a daily basis for a total treatment time of 20 fractions. Between February 2005 and June 2009, a total of 463 patients underwent hypofractionated accelerated adjuvant radiation after conservative surgery for early breast cancer (pathological stage pTis, pT1 or pT2, pN0-N1). The basic course of radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy, to the whole breast in 20 fractions with 2.25 Gy/fraction; an additional daily boost dose of 0.25 Gy was concomitantly delivered, to the lumpectomy cavity, for an additional total dose of 5 Gy. The cumulative nominal dose was 50 Gy. At follow-up, patients were examined at 3 and 6 months after the end of radiotherapy and twice a year afterward. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group /European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scale. Cosmetic results were assessed in agreement with the Harvard criteria. All the 463 patients treated with the accelerated hypofractionated adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy schedule achieved at least 6 months' follow-up and subsequently were considered for the present analysis. With a median follow-up of 27 months, 5-year DFS is 93.1%. Only three patients experienced disease recurrence: two of them

  1. Personality predicts perceived availability of social support and satisfaction with social support in women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. den Oudsten; G.L. van Heck; A.F.W. van der Steeg; J.A. Roukema; J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful

  2. Autoantibodies to aberrantly glycosylated MUC1 in early stage breast cancer are associated with a better prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Ola; Bueti, Deanna; Burford, Brian;

    2011-01-01

    associated glycoforms of MUC1 in a proportion of early breast cancer patients (54/198). Five positive sera were selected for detailed definition of the reactive epitopes using on chip glycosylation technology and a panel of glycopeptides based on a single MUC1 tandem repeat carrying specific glycans...

  3. Time dependence of biomarkers: Non-proportional effects of immunohistochemical panels predicting relapse risk in early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stephen; G. Murray; D.A. Cameron (David); J. Thomas; I. Kunkler (Ian); W. Jack (W.); G.R. Kerr; M.D. Piper; C.L. Brookes (Cassandra); D.W. Rea; C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); A. Hasenburg (Annette); C. Markopoulos; L.Y. Dirix (Luc); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.M.S. Bartlett (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground:We investigated the impact of follow-up duration to determine whether two immunohistochemical prognostic panels, IHC4 and Mammostrat, provide information on the risk of early or late distant recurrence using the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series and the Tamoxifen vs Exemest

  4. Clinical outcome analysis of 98 elderly women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing modified radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhilong Jia; Baoxia Su

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical results and prognosis for early elderly patients after surgery and to explore the rational treatment. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2008, 98 early elderly breast cancer patients aged ≥ 65 years were treated with surgery, of which 52 patients received modified radical mastectomy and 46 patients received simple mastectomy. Results: Sixty-four (65.3%) patients had comorbidities including coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, etc. After a median follow up of 56 months (21 to 280 months), the 5-year cumulative survival rate of breast modified radical mastectomy group and mastectomy group were 84.0% and 82.7%, separately (P = 0.653). The 5-year recurrence rate were 3.8% and 8.1%, separately (P = 0.504). Conclusion: The simple mastectomy is suitable for the treatment of early elderly breast cancer patients for its lower complication and recurrence rate. Early old women with breast cancer may be safely treated by simple mastectomy. Our findings suggest that modified radical mastectomy does not significantly increase the overall survival.

  5. Risk of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark, 1982-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehammar, Jens Christian; Johansen, Jens Brock; Jensen, Maj-Britt;

    2016-01-01

    (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women treated for early-stage BC in Denmark from 1982 to 2005 were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. By record linkage to the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Registry information was retrieved on CIED implants subsequent to RT. Standardized incidence...

  6. Lymphoid infiltration as a prognostic variable for early-onset breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, S; Tomasic, G; Casalini, P; Balsari, A; Pilotti, S; Cascinelli, N; Salvadori, B; Colnaghi, M I; Rilke, F

    1997-05-01

    Infiltration by lymphoid cells is a common feature of many human tumors, including breast carcinomas, and the degree of infiltration has been suggested to be a measure of the host immune response. Our analyses in a series of 1919 cases of primary ductal and lobular infiltrating breast carcinomas from women with a long-term follow-up revealed: (a) a 16-17% frequency of infiltrated tumors independent of the patient's age at diagnosis; and (b) a strong positive correlation between survival rates and the presence of lymphocytes at the tumor site in patients less than 40 years of age (P = 0.0002) but no association with prognosis in patients 40 years of age or older. Multivariate analysis indicated that lymphoid infiltration is independent of other conventional prognostic factors such as nodal status and tumor size in predicting survival. Thus, a possible immune response against the tumor seems to be relevant only in women with early-onset tumors. Because the immune system is functionally maximum in younger years, declining with age, this finding might reflect a difference in the efficiency of the immune system. Alternatively, the biology of these tumors might differ, leading to a difference in immuno-genicity.

  7. Founder mutations in early-onset, familial and bilateral breast cancer patients from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Sherina, Natalia Yu; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Chekmariova, Elena V; Buslov, Konstantin G; Shilov, Evgeny S; Togo, Alexandr V; Bit-Sava, Elena M; Voskresenskiy, Dmitry A; Chagunava, Oleg L; Devilee, Peter; Cornelisse, Cees; Semiglazov, Vladimir F; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that founder mutations may play a noticeable role in breast cancer (BC) predisposition in Russia. Here we performed a systematic analysis of eight recurrent mutations in 302 BC cases (St.-Petersburg, Russia), which were selected due to the presence of clinical indicators of hereditary disease (bilaterality and/or early onset (A in 2 (0.7%), and BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA2 6174delT and NBS1 657del5 in 1 (0.3%) patient each. No cases with BRCA1 300T>G (C61G) mutation was identified. The obtained data suggest that a significant fraction of hereditary BC cases in Russia can be diagnosed using only a limited number of simple PCR tests.

  8. Significance of Micrometastases: Circulating Tumor Cells and Disseminated Tumor Cells in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oakman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant systemic therapy targets minimal residual disease. Our current clinical approach in the adjuvant setting is to presume, rather than confirm, the presence of minimal residual disease. Based on assessment of the primary tumor, we estimate an individual’s recurrence risk. Subsequent treatment decisions are based on characteristics of the primary tumor, with the presumption of consistent biology and treatment sensitivity between micrometastases and the primary lesion. An alternative approach is to identify micrometastatic disease. Detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTC in the bone marrow and circulating tumor cells (CTC from peripheral blood collection may offer quantification and biocharacterization of residual disease. This paper will review the prognostic and predictive potential of micrometastatic disease in early breast cancer.

  9. Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis in early breast cancer--relevance to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Yilmaz, Mette;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis add new knowledge regarding prediction of prognosis in 455 consecutive early breast carcinomas, both node-positive (52%) and node-negative (48%). Median follow-up was 101 months. Intense vascularization indicated...... poor disease-specific (p = 0.003) and overall (p = 0.004) survival. In node-negative patients, Chalkley counts were not associated with prognosis, whereas in node-positive patients, high Chalkley scores indicated poor disease-specific (p = 0.0006) and overall (p = 0.0008) survival. A multivariate...... analysis showed that positive lymph nodes, high histopathological grades, and negative oestrogen receptors were independent markers of cancer-related death. A high histopathological grade was associated with cancer-related death in node-negative patients, whereas in node-positive patients, many lymph nodes...

  10. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, John J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hug, Eugen [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Cahlon, Oren, E-mail: cahlono@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  11. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  12. From cancer screening to treatment: service delivery and referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D; Royalty, Janet E; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies.

  13. Mammary epithelial morphogenesis and early breast cancer. Evidence of involvement of basal components of the RNA Polymerase I transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Stefano; Wierzbicki, Andrzej J; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-09-16

    Upregulation of RNA Polymerase (Pol I)-mediated transcription of rRNA and increased ribogenesis are hallmarks of breast cancer. According to several datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), amplification/upregulation of genes encoding for basal components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery is frequent at different breast cancer stages. Here we show that knock down of the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3 (TIF-IA) in breast cancer cells is sufficient to reduce rRNA synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation, and second that stable ectopic expression of RRN3 in human mammary epithelial (HME1) cells, by increasing rRNA transcription, confers increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of a selective Pol I inhibitor. Further, RRN3-overexpressing HME1 cells, when grown in in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) culture, develop into morphologically aberrant acinar structures lacking a lumen and filled with proliferative cells, thus acquiring a morphology resembling in situ ductal breast cancer lesions (DCIS). Consequently, interference with RRN3 control of Pol I transcription seems capable of both compromising mammary epithelial morphogenetic processes at early breast cancer stages, and driving breast cancer progression by fostering proliferation.

  14. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  15. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.

  16. Longitudinal study: the effects of early feeding types on the infant(《2 years old) obesity%早期喂养方式对2岁以下婴幼儿肥胖影响的纵向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴家振; 洪琴; 张春梅; 张敏; 池霞; 童梅玲; 郭锡熔

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨早期喂养方式对婴幼儿肥胖发生及转归的影响,为临床有效预防提供策略.[方法] 回顾调查522名在南京市妇幼保健院儿保科体检的2岁儿童,按其0~4个月喂养方式不同分成母乳喂养组与人工喂养组,比较两组儿童在不同月龄(3、6、9、12、18及24个月)时超重及肥胖的发生率;并纵向观察3月龄组超重及肥胖儿童随月龄增长超重及肥胖的转归情况.[结果]人工喂养组儿童各月龄肥胖发生率、超重加肥胖发生率呈先递增后递减趋势,母乳喂养组则呈现随月龄增加递减趋势.其中18月龄母乳喂养组儿童肥胖发生率显著低于人工喂养组,12、24月龄母乳喂养组儿童超重加肥胖发生率显著低于人工喂养组(P<0.05);两组中3月龄发生超重及肥胖的儿童在后期各月龄肥胖发生率逐渐下降,以母乳喂养组下降更明显(P<0.05).[结论]早期母乳喂养对2岁以内儿童超重及肥胖的发生有保护作用;母乳喂养对早期超重及肥胖儿童后期超重及肥胖的发生亦有保护作用.%[Objective]To investigate the effects of early feeding types on the development of infant obesity.[Methods]A retrospective study was used to survey 522 children(aged 2) who had regular health care in Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital.According to the feeding types before 4 months old, they were classified into breast feeding group and bottle feeding group.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in different months were compared between the two groups.[Results]The prevalence of obesity and overweight in bottle feeding group were elevated with age increased and reached peak in 12 months old, then decreased gradually, while they were gradually declined with age increased in breast feeding group.In 18 months old, obesity was more prevalent in the infants with bottle feeding than that with breast feeding(P<0.05).In 12 and 24 months old, the rates of overweight and obesity were

  17. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in evaluating the size of early-stage breast neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wang; Hongzhi Chen; Xiaobin Ma; Zhijun Dai; Shuai Lin; Huafeng Kang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Accurate evaluation of the size and extent of the tumor is crucial in selecting a suitable surgical method for patients with breast cancer. Both overestimation and underestimation have important adverse ef ects on patient care. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) examination for measuring the size and extent of early-stage breast neoplasms. Methods The longest diameter of breast tumors in patients with T1–2N0–1M0 invasive breast cancer prepar-ing for breast-conserving surgery (BCS) was measured preoperatively by using both MRI and US and their accuracy was compared with that of postoperative pathologic examination. If the diameter dif erence was within 2 mm, it was considered to be consistent with pathologic examination. Results A total of 36 patients were imaged using both MRI and US. The mean longest diameter of the tu-mors on MRI, US, and postoperative pathologic examination was 20.86 mm ± 4.09 mm (range: 11–27 mm), 16.14 mm ± 4.91 mm (range: 6–26 mm), and 18.36 mm ± 3.88 mm (range: 9–24 mm). US examination underestimated the size of the tumor compared to that determined using pathologic examination (t = 3.49, P 0.05). Conclusion MRI and US are both ef ective methods to assess the size of breast tumors, and they main-tain good consistency with pathologic examination. MRI has a better correlation with pathology. However, we should be careful about the risk of inaccurate size estimation.

  18. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Walesca M; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23-0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

  19. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Huang, Ya-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Fang-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p = 0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients' age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p = 0.027; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p = 0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19) [corrected].Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  20. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection by 3D Freehand Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein present our first experience obtained by 3D freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT (F-SPECT guidance for sentinel lymph node detection (SLND in two patients with early stage breast cancer. F-SPECT guidance was carried out using one-day protocol in one case and by the two-day protocol in the other one. SLND was performed successfully in both patients. Histopathologic evaluation showed that the excised nodes were tumor negative. Thus, patients underwent breast-conserving surgery alone.

  2. The early enteral feeding and rehabilitation of severely burned patients%严重烧伤患者的早期肠道营养与康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢德荣

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of rehabilitation through analysis the early enteral feeding on the prevention of enteral infection in severely burned patients .Method A total of 22 patients with severe burns were randomly divided into an early enteral feeding group (EF) and a delayed enteral feeding group (DF). The levels of serum endotoxin were detected in the members of both groups in 1, 3, and 5 days .Result The levels of serum endotoxin in severely burned patients were significantly higher than in normal subjects (P< 0.01) . The levels of serum endotoxin in the EF group were significantly lower than in the DF group (P< 0.01). Conclusion Early enteral feeding may decrease enterogenic infection and it helps the nutrition support, improve the patient resistance, facilitate the repair of damaged tissue , so it contributes to the rehabilitation of burned patients.

  3. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals i