WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast feeding early

  1. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  2. Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Folster, Samantha; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids. Methods The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four intervent...

  3. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  4. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  5. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  6. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design: Prospective cohort study. Set...

  7. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  8. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  9. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  10. Yes to breast feeding, but...how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savane, M A

    1980-01-01

    Although the health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding are recognized, social and economic constraints discourage the practice in developing countries. Outside employment of women, an image of breast feeding as representing a constraint on women's freedom, and the lack of facilities to aid working mothers are all factors. More affluent women are often pressured not to breast feed by stereotypes of feminine beauty, in order to maintain a certain lifestyle, and because of conflicts with their wifely duties. Many women holding good jobs are also practically unable to breast feed, but such women are usually able to provide adequate substitutes for their children. Women working in the service sector are often unable to breast feed because their place of work is too far away from their home, and they are often forced to leave their young children with inexpensive but unqualified caretakers. Women from the poorest sectors often most wean their children early because of employment, but are unable to afford a substitute formula in sufficient quantity. Undernourished women who breast feed are often pushed toward further depletion. Bottle feeding will remain a problem until societal structures are created which provide adequate support for women in their multiple roles. PMID:12233382

  11. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  12. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)

  13. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  14. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  15. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. METHODS: Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history of...... asthma. Skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels against 12 common inhalant and 10 food allergens were assessed longitudinally at ages ½ year, 1½ years, 4 years, and 6 years. Eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood...... clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization in...

  16. Guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article examines some guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. Eighteen radiopharmaceuticals are separated crudely into three categories according to their physical properties and according to their magnitude and effective half-life of excretion in breast milk, i.e. 1) breast feeding must be discontinued, 2) breast feeding must be interrupted for a short period during which milk should be expressed at normal feeding times and discarded and 3) breast feeding need not be interrupted. (UK)

  17. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Leandro; Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J.; Nankervis, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants ...

  18. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice to...

  19. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J

    1993-08-01

    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  20. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2011-12-01

    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. PMID:21969026

  1. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  2. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and Duration,"…

  3. A good start in life: breast-feeding in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF introduced the Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992 to foster breast feeding in hospitals. The balanced composition of breast milk fulfills the 4-6 month old infant's nutrient requirements. Colostrum is rich in antibodies and immunoglobulins, which protect the newborn against infection. As economic development progresses, more mothers use infant formulas while fewer mothers breast feed. Between 1960 and 1985 in Japan, the proportion of mothers breast feeding 1-2 month old infants fell from 68% to 50%. Between 1975 and 1968 in Western Samoa, it fell from 69% to 48% in urban areas and 78% to 59% in rural areas. Hospital practices that discourage breast feeding include separation of mother and newborn, prelacteal feedings, and free samples of infant formula. These practices occur even in areas, such as the Western Pacific Region, where most mothers deliver at home. Hospital baby-friendly criteria include a written breast-feeding policy, training of all health care staff in skills needed to implement this policy, informing all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding, assisting mothers to begin breast feeding within 30 minutes of delivery, demonstrating to mothers how to breast feed and to maintain lactation, no prelacteal feeds, newborn rooming-in with mother, promoting breast feeding on demand, no artificial teats or pacifiers, and breast-feeding support groups. The Western Pacific Region supports the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Between March 1991 and March 1993, the number of baby-friendly hospitals in the Philippines rose from 4 to 103. Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila is a model baby-friendly hospital for other hospitals in the region. It does not release mothers until milk flow has been established. By late 1992, 21 Chinese hospitals were baby-friendly. The WHO Western Pacific Region distributes information about breast feeding and the Initiative and provides breast

  4. The Prevalence of Breast Feeding Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    A Gholozar; K Wares Isfahany; H Shajary; Sh Behjaty

    2004-01-01

    Background: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 13% of neonates between 2nd and 4th day of life. Method: A prospective study was performed between December 2002 and December 2003 in Childrens Medical Center, Tehran. Enrollment criteria included term neonates with no underlying organic illness causing poor feeding, hypernatremia (serum sodium level more than 150 mEq/L), weight loss greater than 5% and urinary specific gravity above 1012. Results: Out of 217 cases of neonatal jaundice, 37 were recog...

  5. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  6. Factors Causing Exclusive Breast Feeding Failure in a Pakistani Urban Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the factors responsible for termination of exclusive breast feeding in our population. Location and Duration: A cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from February 2010 to June 2010. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Sample Size: A total of 620 mothers carrying healthy infants were interviewed.Inclusion Criteria: Mothers who failed to exclusively breast feed their infants within first six months of life and started supplemental feeds. Data Collection Procedure: A semi-structured, preformed questionnaire was filled containing information about mothers age, infant sex and reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Mean maternal age was 25.87 years. Early failure was seen in 41.9%$ and late failure in 58.1% infants. Difficulties in initiating and establishing breast feeding (84%), knowledge deficit about breast feeding benefits (78.8%) and milk insufficiency (69.2%) were the main reasons for early failure. Deficient knowledge about exclusive breast feeding which included its WHO definition of six months and its benefits (88.9%) was the most common reason of addition of weaning diets after 4 months of age. Other significant factors found for failure were working mothers (21.3%), premature delivery (13.5%), early second pregnancy (16.1%), and perception of poor weight gain by infant while exclusively breast fed (19.4%). Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding ensures the best possible health of an infant. Dedicated efforts are required at national level for dissemination and promotion of knowledge about exclusive breast feeding. (author)

  7. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  8. An intervention model for breast feeding in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaipat, V; Thanomsingh, P; Pudhapongsiriporn, S; Buranasin, P; Phanidanunt, M; Monkalasiri, R

    1992-09-01

    To promote breast feeding and/or prevent further decline of adverse infant feeding practices, we developed an integrated comprehensive breast feeding promotion program, and implemented it in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital in 1987. The program provided sound knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding to all mothers at the Antenatal Care Unit, delivery room, the Postnatal Care Unit, and the Outpatient Department. The program activities included early bonding, assistance with initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in, provision of a breast feeding corner in the special care unit, collecting breast milk for sick babies, a lactation clinic and home visits. The impact of the program was evaluated in 1992. Altogether 1,428 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The results were highly encouraging. A majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status, 60 percent of them worked outside the home, and 40 percent were housewives. Compared with baseline data reported in 1986, breast feeding in infants aged 0 to one month increased from 85 to 90 percent, and the practice in the nine- to 12-month old group increased from 39 to 47 percent. However, the acute drop of the practice from 90 percent at birth to 50 percent at the one- to two-month old stage observed was similar in the two studies. The main reasons given by mothers for prematurely stopping breast feeding were the mothers' working outside the home (46%), and insufficient milk (23%). Provision of breast feeding education, along with improved maternal nutrition, extension of maternity leave, and availability of nurseries at the work place, may sustain a longer period of breast feeding. PMID:1488699

  9. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has mo...

  10. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  11. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  12. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  13. Aleitamento materno e condições socioeconômico-culturais: fatores que levam ao desmame precoce Breast-feeding and socioeconomic cultural status: factors that lead to early weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o aleitamento materno, ressaltando os fatores que levaram ao desmame precoce conforme as condições socioeconômico-culturais. MÉTODOS: analisou-se uma amostra de 599 crianças e seus responsáveis que procuraram o Pronto Socorro do Instituto da Criança, São Paulo, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Utilizou-se um questionário incluindo: idade, profissão e escolaridade dos pais, condições de moradia, renda familiar, trabalho materno, duração da amamentação exclusiva, introdução de novos alimentos, causas de desmame e importância do leite materno. RESULTADOS: 86,1% das mães amamentaram e 92% referiram saber a importância do leite materno. A idade média do desmame foi de 3,3 meses, sendo que 75,9% das mães suspenderam a amamentação sem orientação médica. 38,9% referiram que o leite era "fraco", ou "secou" ou que a criança "largou" o peito. Maior escolaridade da mãe e presença de rede de esgoto mostraram relação com maior tempo de aleitamento (p = 0,016 e p = 0,011 respectivamente. Não houve associação entre acompanhamento da criança no posto de saúde e tempo de aleitamento materno. CONCLUSÕES: embora a grande maioria das mães saiba a importância do leite materno e tenha amamentado seu filho, a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo é menor do que o preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, sendo a baixa escolaridade um fator para o desmame precoce.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the breast-feeding among people seeking the highlighting the causes of early weaning relating it to social, economic and cultural factors. METHODS: a sample of 599 children and caretakers who sought the Emergency Room of the Instituto da Criança, São Paulo, from of August to December 1998 were interviewed. A questionnaire asking for age, parents profession and education level, living conditions, family income, maternal work, exclusive breast-fee-ding length, introduction of new food, weaning reasons and the value of

  14. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  15. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  16. Breast feeding's interruption following radiopharmaceutical administration to nursing mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceutical administration to lactating women for therapeutic or diagnostic purpose can achieve a radiological risk to the breast feeding child due to levels of radioactivity in the breast milk. International recommendations regarding safe assumption of nursing mother after radiopharmaceutical administration were analysed. We examined the formula proposed by Rommey et al. to establish objective guidelines in case of the administration of radiopharmaceutical to nursing mothers. The ICRP 54 metabolic model for iodine was modified in order to calculate the suppression breast feeding's period according to the radioactivity measured in the breast milk. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  18. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L

    2010-05-01

    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women. PMID:20492888

  19. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Hamadani, J; Amin, N J; Kabir, I; Malek, M A; Mahalanabis, D; Habte, D

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  20. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  1. A STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG POST- NA TAL MOTHERS ATTENDING GOVT MATERNITY HOSPITAL AT HYDE RABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  2. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  3. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  4. Early Feeding After a Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Flesher

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH. This descriptive study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 164 patients who had been on a clinical pathway following TAH. Comparisons in initiation of fluids and foods, and gastrointestinal effects were made between the early fed group (n=82 and the traditionally fed group (n=82. Results: Both groups had the similar gastrointestinal symptoms postoperatively, but the early fed group had an earlier bowel movement. The early fed group had a statistically significant shorter length of stay. Similar usage of anti-nausea medication and pain medication usage was noted between the two groups, except for a lower usage of Tylenol #3 (acetaminophen with codeine in the early fed group. Conclusions: This study found that early feeding could be tolerated well in TAH patients, with statistically significant improvements in usage of some pain medication and length of stay were noted in the early fed group.

  5. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  6. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I

    2000-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities. PMID:10979148

  7. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  8. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  9. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

  10. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Bergh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  11. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  12. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Untch; Christian Jackisch

    2008-01-01

    Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocri...

  13. Re-evaluating early breast neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moulis, Sharon; Sgroi, Dennis Charles

    2008-01-01

    Historically, histomorphological and epidemiological data suggested that atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ are the earliest recognizable neoplastic stages of breast cancer progression. Over the past several years, detailed high-throughput molecular genetic, gene expression and epigenetic analyses have enhanced our understanding of these early neoplastic lesions and have re-shaped our view of human breast cancer progression to include multiple distinct pathways of evolut...

  14. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies tha...

  15. Breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From March 1987 through September 1989, a total of 31 patients with early breast cancer were treated with breat-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. As of February 1989, all patients are alive without recurrence. Cosmetic results were satisfactory (excellent; 25%, good; 75%) at 1 year after radiotherapy. Mild radiation pneumonitis requiring medication developed in 3 patients. (author)

  16. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G

    1999-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  17. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF NOURISHING MOTHERS ABOUT BREAST FEEDING, ATTENDING URBAN HEALTH CENTRE: A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY FROM KISHANGANJ, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  18. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  19. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer afforded a further opportunity for scientists from all over the world to come together and present important papers concerning breast cancer and early diagnosis procedures. The symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultra-sonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and significant contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist

  20. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  1. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. Treatment of early breast cancer with conservation of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current status of conservative treatment for early breast cancer. Radiotherapy to the breast after local tumour excision is important to prevent local breast relapse, but it is not clear whether it has any influence on the risk of distant metastases. Several questions remain to be answered. While most investigators agree that the breast should receive a radiation dose of about 50 Gy in 5 weeks, there is no general agreement about the need for a tumour bed booster dose. Considering patients with tumour infiltration at the surgical resection line for whom it is not possible for cosmetic reasons to perform re-resection, it is not clear whether an acceptable local control rate can be achieved through application of a high booster dose in the tumour bed. More trials are needed to show whether certain patients with small invasive carcinomas should be treated with wide local excision without radiotherapy. The need for radiotherapy after local excision for small intraductal (ductal carcinoma in situ) cancers is being addressed in ongoing trials. (orig.)

  3. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: Comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Roganovic; Dragana Djilas; Sasa Vujnovic; Dag Pavic; Dragan Stojanov

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by ...

  4. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  5. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  6. Breast Feeding: Practices and Determinants in Rural Area of West Tripura District of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Bhattacharjya, Shampa Das, Chanda Mog, Sukanta Bhowmik

    2013-01-01

    Methodology: To assess the practice and determinants of breast feeding a community based cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire was conducted during 1st August to 31st August 2009 among 116 mothers from four sub-centre areas under Mohanpur CHC of West Tripura district chosen by multistage sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used. Result: Prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 25%. Median time of initiating breast feeding was one hour following delivery, median duration of breast feeding was four months and median age of starting weaning was two months. Colostrum was fed by 87.9% women and advice regarding this was mainly obtained from the healthcare providers. Prelacteal feeding was practiced by 56% mothers and honey was the commonest prelacteal feed. With the improvement in mother’s literacy, there was significant increase in colostrum feeding (p = 0.010 and decrease in prelacteal feeding (p = 0.007. Mother’s parity, age, literacy, place of delivery, antenatal checkup and gender of the child were found to be signifi-cant determinants of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Improving literacy status, promoting antenatal checkup and encouraging institutional birth will reduce harmful infant feeding practices. As the health workers were the major source of information, they can initiate behavior change communication for promoting exclusive breast feeding in this community.

  7. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  8. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies that underpin our current practice are discussed briefly.

  9. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  10. Maternal Infant Feeding Behaviors and Disparities in Early Child Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Rachel S.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Hauser, Nicole R.; Messito, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity.

  11. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  12. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-01

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  13. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women with a......: Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate and...... carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  14. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Roganovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p < 0.001, while the difference between breast tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p = 0.20. 

  15. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history. PMID:24577423

  16. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah W

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  17. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival after breast cancer is determined by disease related factors such as stage at diagnosis, patient characteristics, e.g., age, and treatment. AIM: To review evidence published during the last ten years on the effect of comorbidity on survival after early breast cancer. METHODS......: A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with...... diagnosis is an important prognostic factor in early breast cancer, irrespective of age and stage of disease....

  18. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  19. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005

  20. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  1. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    . Mothers were divided into two groups, based on breast-feeding duration: those who breast-fed for less than 3 months and those who did so for three months or more. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding. RESULTS: One-hundred and twelve mothers (42.3% abandoned breast-feeding early. Risk factors were: poor maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, odds ratio (OR 5.97, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.67-20.67; mothers with no previous breast-feeding experience OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66-5.36; mothers planning to breast-feed their babies for less than 3 months (OR 16.24, 95% CI 5.37-49.12; and mothers with no access to breast-feeding facilities at work (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONS: The main factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding were the maternal ones. The only work-related factor associated with short duration of breast-feeding was the absence of breast-feeding facilities. It is probable that maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, previous breast-feeding experience, and the availability of facilities at work for breast-feeding affect the maternal decisions on breast-feeding duration.

  2. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of suspicious nonpalpable breast lesions and early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saarela, A. (Arto)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The purposes of the present research were to evaluate (1) the value of ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) in nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions, (2) the preoperative use of methylene blue staining in nonpalpable galactographically suspicious breast lesions, (3) the determinants of positive histologic margins and residual cancer in wire-guided biopsy (WGB) of nonpalpable breast cancer and in lumpectomy for early breast ...

  3. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  4. When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a board-certified lactation consultant and director of media relations for La Leche League International, a breast-feeding ... West, international board-certified lactation consultant and director, media relations, La Leche League International; Kate Dupont Phillips, M. ...

  5. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, R; Chen, XH; Jiang, DY; Cheng, L.; Tintori, A; O. Rieppel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus ...

  6. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MOTHERS REGARDING BREAST FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    CICY JOSEPH

    2012-01-01

    This research explores knowledge and practice of mother regarding breast feeding.Descriptive research approach was used in this study. The study population comprised of 60 mothers who have children between the age group of birth to one year in Jayanagar General Hospital, Bangalore. A structured questionnaire on knowledge and practice of mothers regarding breast feeding were prepared to study the sample. Descriptive and inferential statistics had been used to analyze the data. The...

  7. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University...

  8. Partial Breast Irradiation Versus Whole Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local

  9. New research on breast-feeding as a method of fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction's Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility promotes research on lactation to develop a better understanding of how breast feeding inhibits fertility. The knowledge gained will allow health workers and pregnant women to receive reliable advice on breast feeding as a birth spacing method. A multicenter study, begun in 1989, examined how different breast feeding practices influence the length of time lactating women go without menstruation. The 4100 mothers maintained detailed records of all feeding episodes and of supplementary foods as well as of vaginal bleeding. The not-yet-published findings should further development of guidelines on lactational amenorrhea. They should show how lactating mothers can use certain breast feedings to influence the length of infertility. Some findings already revealed are feeding patterns vary greatly worldwide. For example, the breast feeding episodes of Australian and Swedish infants are, on average, 3 times longer than those of Chinese infants (24 vs. 6 minutes/episode). The study's findings will contribute greatly to the second Bellagio Conference in December 1995 entitled The Lactational Amenorrhoea Method (LAM) of Family Planning: Efficacy and Modification of the Bellagio Guidelines. A study in Sri Lanka shows that a 50 g powdered skimmed milk supplement given to lactating mothers did not affect the duration of lactational amenorrhea, but these mothers did breast feed longer than those who did not receive the supplement. Demographic and Health Survey data from Indonesia and Peru suggest that postpartum abstinence is not associated with breast feeding status and that lactating women were more likely to use contraception than non-lactating women. Another multicenter study is examining the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of LAM as an interim method of birth spacing and as a way to

  10. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  11. Early Feeding Is Feasible after Emergency Gastrointestinal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Soon; Shim, Hongjin; Jang, Ji Young; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jae Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of early feeding in patients that have undergone emergency gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed 84 patients that underwent emergency bowel resection and/or anastomosis from March 2008 to December 2011. Patients with severe shock, intestinal ischemia, sustained bowel perforation, or short bowel syndrome were excluded. Patients were divided into the early (group E; n=44) or late (gro...

  12. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  13. OUTCOME OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER ELECTIVE COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sushant; Pranay; Deepak; Swetabh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Outcome of early oral feeding after elective colonic anastomosis . STUDY DESI G N: Descriptive case series . PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY : Department of Surgery Mata Gujari Medical C ollege, Kishanganj, Bihar, India. From June 2012 - March 2014. METHODOLOGY: De tailed preoperative ev aluation of the selected patients was done. Patients with malignancies, heart disease, poor general conditions, distal loop o...

  14. The physical principles of near infrared breast diaphanography and early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early-screening and diagnosis of breast cancer is very important for improving the life quality of women as well decreasing the death rate. As a main diagnostic technique, mammography might cause radiation damage to the human body. Near infrared (NIR) computer diaphanography imaging diagnosis (CDI) is a new technique for breast cancer diagnosis which can be performed multiple times with no harm. However, its high incidence of false positivity has raised doubts and questions. We introduce the physical principles of CDI, and discuss the mechanism of how a malignant growth surrounds itself with a dense network of tiny blood-filled capillaries to feed oxygen and nutrients to active tumors, thus forming unique NIR transmittance markers that reveal the presence of cancer. The advantages and difficulties of CDI are evaluated, with the conclusion that CDI satisfies all the 'three-conditions' of imaging diagnosis. The influence of competition with mammography in the development of CDI is reviewed. The opportunities of physics interacting with the life sciences are outlined. (authors)

  15. Breast feeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHO is undertaking a combined growth study in several countries, in order to establish adequate growth curves for breast-feeding infants. Present growth charts in use, were obtained in a sample of breast and artificial feeding infants, which have overestimated the growth needs. In our country during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breast-feed their infants has permanently grown, due to the implementation of health care programs that promote, mother-infant interaction tight after birth, in all Public Hospitals, and education programs for the mothers, during both antenatal and post natal control of mother and child. The last figures obtained in a country sample of 10000 mother-infant pair, shows that 45% of the mothers are exclusively breast-feeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants were evaluated by the adequate charts, because it is of common use that many health professionals suggest to stop breast-feeding because the infant is not growing according the charts in use. The anthropometric study proposed by WHO will benefit considerably by adding determination of breast-milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium, a standard procedure proposed by Coward et al and extensively used in our country. The proposed study will also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. (author)

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-05-01

    With long-term follow-up, the DBCG 77B trial demonstrates that oral single-agent cyclophosphamide significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality as compared with no systemic therapy in pre-menopausal patients with high-risk early breast cancer. DBCG 77B is the only randomised trial assessing single-agent cyclophosphamide; and a second comparison suggests that its benefits are comparable to what may be achieved by classic CMF. The lack of benefits from adding methotrexate and fluorouracil to cyclophosphamide paved the way for combining cyclophosphamide with anthracyclines and later taxanes. DBCG 89D showed an incremental benefit in DFS and OS from substituting methotrexate with epirubicin. The advantage of anthracycline-containing three-drug combinations over CMF was confirmed by others and in the individual-patient EBCTCG meta-analysis, while standard AC or EC for four cycles not was superior to classic CMF. A further reduction in breast cancer mortality appeared in the EBCTCG meta-analysis from the addition of a taxane to a standard AC, while the substitution of cycles or drugs with a taxane was not associated with a reduction in mortality. No apparent benefit was observed in an early analysis of the DBCG 82C evaluating the addition of CMF to tamoxifen in post-menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. Apart from menopausal status, the two trials had identical selection criteria, and the differences in outcome warranted a long-term follow-up of the 82C trial. After ten years of follow-up, CMF in the DBCG 82C was associated with a significant improvement in DFS; but even with 24 years of follow-up, mortality was not significantly improved. The diversity in outcome from the 77C and the 82B trials triggered further studies. The 77B trial used classic CMF with oral cyclophospamide, while a four-weekly intravenous CMF regimen was used in the 82B and C trials, and a three-weekly CMF regimen was used in the succeeding 89B and D trials. The outcome following

  17. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  18. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  19. Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Asim; Shahid Mahmood; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Farkhanda Anjum; Farhat Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Beneficial effects of breast feeding both for the mother and child are well-known. However, there is evidence that breast feeding is on the decline in many developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to explore the different socio-cultural issues which were associated with breast feeding practices. The universe of the present study was Faisalabad District...

  20. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Chen, Xiao-hong; Jiang, Da-yong; Cheng, Long; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic. PMID:25754468

  1. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  2. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  3. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  4. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  5. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N Gadhavi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  6. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  7. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    < 0.05) and 22-h (60% of total intake; P < 0.10) tests, respectively. In conclusion, feed supplementation with the FA1, FA2, and FA3 from weaning did not induce beneficial effects on feed intake and growth performance during the early postweaning period. The FA2 increased palatability and acceptance of the unfamiliar starter diet the day of feed transition, while the FA1 and FA3 increased palatability of the starter diet only after a few days of exposure, most likely through long-term familiarization processes. PMID:24668952

  8. Maternal bodies, breast-feeding, and consumer desire in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschang, Suzanne Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that shaped their infant-feeding practices. These personal histories also illustrate the limitations of multilateral breast-feeding programs that emphasize breast-feeding as a natural interaction between mother and infant. The cases I present here demonstrate instead that the material, bodily manifestations of breast-feeding require nursing mothers to continually renegotiate relations with husbands, coworkers, and family. Chinese women's accounts also add insight to theoretical deliberations on gender and the body, for they demonstrate that cultural expectations and the demands of the lactating body must be considered to understand fully the process of women's decisions in a social and not strictly reproductive context. On a larger scale, the data also illustrate how global intervention, in the form of the WHO-UNICEF-sponsored Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, promotes breast-feeding as a woman's primary duty at the same time that market forces counter this message as women redefine their individual expectations and social relationships. PMID:17405698

  9. IMPACT OF BREAST-FEEDING EDUCATION ON NUTRITIONAL AWARENESS OF MOTHERS IN SOUTH TERRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Djazayery

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrition education on knowledge of mothers concerning breast-feeding in Giassi Charity Health Centre in the south of Tehran, Yaftabad. Breast-feeding and nutritional awareness of 104 randomly selected mothers was assessed before and after a one-month breast-feeding course (Three 90-minutes' sessions per week. The proportion of the mothers with high awareness before the course was 0.0% and increased to 83% after the course. In this study the effect of such independent variables as mothers’ age and age at the first pregnancy, their education, number of children and physiological status, as well as family income on their nutritional awareness was determined. Statistical analysis (of both total score and individual question score changes showed the nutrition education course to have had a positive impact on mothers’ nutritional knowledge and awareness (P<0.001, confidence limits 99.9%.

  10. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed. PMID:665791

  11. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  12. Determining the breast-feeding interruption schedule after administration of 123I-iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity after administration of 123I-sodium iodide was measured in breast milk samples obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis. The breast milk was collected over 93 h during the infant's regular feeding times. The radioactivity in the breast milk was calculated with a 123I capsule of the same lot number as the standard source. 123I was excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.5 h; 2.5% of the total radioactivity administered was excreted in the breast milk over the 93 h, 95% of which was excreted within the first 24 h, and 98.2% within 36 h. The first milk sample collected at 7 h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical contained 48.5% of the total radioactivity excreted. We estimated the potential absorption of radioactivity to an infant's thyroid in uninterrupted breast-feeding to be 30.3 mGy. With a 24-hour interruption, the absorbed radioactivity would be 1.25 mGy; with a 36-hour interruption, it would be 0.24 mGy. According to our calculations, breast feeding should be curtailed for 36 h to reduce the infant's exposure to 123I radioactivity. By using a correction factor based on maximum radioactivity from another 123I capsule of the same lot, we were able to ascertain the appropriate protocol for our patient and establish a measurement method that can be applied in similar clinical situations. (author)

  13. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had recei...

  14. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING BREAST FEEDING, A PICTURE IN EAST KHASI HILLS DISTRICT OF MEGHALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and deve lopment. A child who is breast fed has greater chances of survival than a child who is art ificially fed. The low prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding increase the risk of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide, suboptimal breastfeeding still accounts for deaths of 1.4 million children a ged less than five years . AIM OF THE STUDY : 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices reg arding breast feeding among women 2. To study the factors influencing breast feeding practic es among women residing in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross sectional study conduct ed within the field practice area of NEIGRIHMS, two of which were urban- Nongmynsong and Pynthorbah and one rural area-Tynring. The study per iod was conducted from October 2012- December 2012 (three months duration. A total of 1 35 women were interviewed during the period. In the respective areas the households were s elected using simple random sampling after obtaining a list of all the households in the respective area from the ANM. In the selected household all the females available who have a chil d between 1-2 year of age were interviewed. Data analysis was done by descriptive analysis and a nalytical statistics by using Chi Square test using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS & OBSERVATION: Out of 135 families visited, 70 (51.9% families were nuclear families. With respect to feed ing practices; 80 (59% mothers had given Exclusive Breast Feeding for a period of 6 months. 7 4 (55% of mothers had knowledge on colostrums and 109 (80.75% of mothers had given co lostrum to their babies . 42 (31.1% mothers had initiated BF within 1 hour . The variables which were found to be associated wit h breast feeding are the mother

  15. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  16. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  17. Clinical Trial to Comparison the Effect of Family- centered Educational-supportive Program on Mothers’ Empowerment in Breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Results: Thirty-five mothers were in the intervention group and 35 were in the control group. The mean of the total score of breast-feeding empowerment and its seven areas in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, exclusive breast-feeding was also significantly higher in the intervention group (P

  18. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  19. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, S

    1984-10-01

    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  20. Surgical treatment of early breast cancer in day surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2007-01-01

    Quadrantectomy and associated sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is currently employed in most breast surgery centres as the gold standard in the treatment of early breast cancer. This approach has a modest morbidity and can usually be performed in a day-surgery regimen, leading to best acceptance by the patients. This reports outlines the experience of our Breast Unit with quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery for early breast cancer. One hundred patients presenting to our institution with primary invasive breast cancer measuring less than 3 cm and clinically negative axillary nodes underwent quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery. For 60 women with breast cancer the sentinel node was negative, so the only definitive surgical treatment was performed in the day-surgery regimen; 40 patients with positive sentinel nodes were hospitalised a second time for axillary dissection. In these patients that needed clearance of the axilla, SLNB was performed on the only positive node in 22 cases (55%). None of the patients admitted for quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery required re-hospitalisation after discharge. All patients proved to be fully satisfied with early discharge from hospital when questioned on the occasion of subsequent monitoring. Short-stay surgical programs in early invasive breast cancer treatment are feasible today owing to the availability of less invasive approaches such as quadrantectomy and SLNB. There are two main pointers to a distinct advantage for this kind of approach, i.e. recovery and psychological adjustment. Recovery from surgery is faster and the patient tends to play down the seriousness of the operation and to have a better mental attitude to neoplastic disease. Moreover, when performing quadrantectomy with SLNB in day surgery fewer than 50% of breast cancer patients (40% in our experience) require another surgical treatment, concluding the surgery in a single session. PMID:18019641

  1. Premenopausal endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: who receives chemotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, M. M.; Pagani, O; Walley, B; et al, ...; Stahel, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of chemotherapy in addition to combined endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer remains an open question, yet trials designed to answer it have repeatedly failed to adequately accrue. The International Breast Cancer Study Group initiated two concurrent trials in this population: in Premenopausal Endocrine Responsive Chemotherapy (PERCHE), chemotherapy use is determined by randomization and in Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (...

  2. Post Reconstruction Breast Pyoderma Gangrenosum: Early Recognition and Prosthesis Salvage

    OpenAIRE

    Cicuto, Bryan; Cheriyan, Thomas; Rudnicki, Pamela; Guo, Lifei

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We report 3 cases of breast pyoderma gangrenosum in patients undergoing total mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. All three received systemic corticosteroid treatment, resulting in resolution of symptoms. As experience grew, early diagnosis in the third patient helped prosthesis salvage and timely return to the original course of reconstruction. This represents the first report of prosthesis salvage from post breast reconstruction pyoderma gangrenosum, and it demonstrates that ...

  3. OUTCOME OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER ELECTIVE COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Outcome of early oral feeding after elective colonic anastomosis . STUDY DESI G N: Descriptive case series . PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY : Department of Surgery Mata Gujari Medical C ollege, Kishanganj, Bihar, India. From June 2012 - March 2014. METHODOLOGY: De tailed preoperative ev aluation of the selected patients was done. Patients with malignancies, heart disease, poor general conditions, distal loop obstructions were excluded from the series. In selected patient’s proper history, physical examination and base line investigations were done. Limited bowel preparation was done in all the patients. Postope ratively 15 - 50 ml of sips was allowed 2 hourly after recovery form anesthesia . Free oral fluid intake was allowed on postoperative day - 1 , semisolids on day - 2 and day - 3 as tolerated and full oral diet allowed on day - 4. In case of two episodes of vomiting and absence of bowel sounds , patients were kept nil by mouth and nasogastric tube was inserted . RESULTS : Total 68 pat ients were selected, out of which 46(67.64% were males and 22(32.36% females (M.F2.09 : 1 . The age range was from 28 year to 76 year wi th mean age of 47.5 +2.4 year . Passage of first flatus was observed between 2 to 6 days (mean 2.8 days , and the time of first passage of stool was 3 - 8 days (mean 4.6 days. Twelve (17.64% patients did not tolerate feeding . Intolerance to feed results into vomiting and abdominal distension. Postoperative complications included wound infection (10.29% , electrolyte imbalance (4.41%, respiratory tract infections (2.94%, anastigmatic leaks (1.47% and wound dehiscence (1.47% . The hospital stay was 3 - 8 day ( M ean 5.4 day . CONCLUSION : Early oral feeding after elective colonic surgery was safe and well tolerated by majority of the patients.

  4. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are consi...

  5. Skin toxicity during hypo fractionated breast irradiation in patient with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an important component in the treatment of breast cancer. (1) Many women with an early stage of breast cancer are candidates for a breast conservation therapy, which combines both conservative surgery and radiotherapy. (2) According to the data from some series, an estimated 90% of the patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer will develop a degree of radiation-induced dermatitis. (3) The severity of the skin reactions during and following the breast irradiation is influenced by both treatment-related and patient-related factors. The treatment - related factors include the fraction size (the dose delivered with each treatment), the total dose delivered, the volume of tissue treated, the type of radiation (4) and the addition of chemotherapy. (5) The patient-related factors include breast size, smoking, axillary lymphocele drainage before treatment, age, and infection of the surgical wound. (6) A hypo fractionation radiotherapy is alternative for a standard fractionation radiotherapy for women with early stage of breast cancer after conservative surgery. The aim of the study was to analyse the acute skin reactions during a hypo fractionated radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer at our institution. Materials and methods: Twenty patients with early stage of breast cancer (Stadium I and II) and conservative surgery (quadrantectomy of breast with ipsilateral axillary dissection) were analysed. The patients were treated with 6MV x rays on LINAC, using tangential fields with 2.65Gy per fraction and the total dose prescribed to target volume was 42,4 Gy. These patients were observed for acute skin toxicity during the second week and at the end of the treatment. We evaluated dryness, epilation, pigmentation, changes and eritema, dry desquamation (clinically characterized by scaling and pruritus) and moist desquamation (characterized by serious oozing and exposure of the dermis). By using the radiation therapy oncology group’s (RTOG

  6. Appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breast-fed infant. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B A; Hofvander, Y

    1982-01-01

    The initiative for this review of appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breastfed infant came from the Consultative Group on Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, an expert supportive group to the UN/ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition. Evidence assessing the duration of breastfeeding adequacy and the advantages and disadvantages of early versus later introduction of complementary foods is reviewed. Several years ago the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) recommended that complementary foods be provided between 4-6 months of age. In later studies, the variability of circumstances in different ecologies were reported to have a significant impact on the ability and desire of a woman to breastfeed and for how long. Hence the appropriate time to provide a breast milk complement is again under examination. Nutritionists, health professionals, and the baby food industry (their pro and antagonists) have renewed their interest in this issue, but differences in opinion and distorted claims among the interested groups have left many people confused. The appropriate time for the introduction of complementary feeding varies considerably in different sociocultural settings and among different socioeconomic groups. In developed countries very early complementation is usual not because of nutritional need, but because of social pressures, availability of convenient alternatives, and other considerations. In developing countries, early complementation may be needed in circumstances with a high prevalence of maternal malnutrition that may contribute to low milk output. Hazards accompany both too early and too late complementation. If a complement is introduced too early, there is the danger of diarrheal disease and food allergies. There is also an economic burden on poor families to purchase complementary food. In some underprivileged areas, cultural patterns in which the introduction of complementary food is too much delayed is the primary cause of faltering growth and

  7. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  8. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  9. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  10. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  11. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to

  12. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  13. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease. PMID:26158500

  14. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  15. [A case of hypernatremic dehydration due to breast-feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M; Neffati, F; Khelifa, H; Douki, W; Monastiri, K; Gueddiche, M N; Ben Amor, A; Najjar, M F

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an 11-day-old exclusively breast-fed female, with a birth weight of 3 300 g, who had suffered from dehydration stage I, with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis, with 170 mmol/L of serum sodium. Renal ultrasounds were normal but the rate of sodium in mother's milk was three times higher than controls (87 versus 21 mmol/L). Intravenous rehydration allowed the correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders. PMID:18725352

  16. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddie, S.; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M.

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant...

  17. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Radiological Univ. Clinic, Freiburg (Germany); Ikenberg, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstretics, Gynecological Univ. Clinic, Freiburg (Germany); Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M. [Inst. for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Univ. Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  18. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Riis, Jens Østergaard; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer;

    2010-01-01

    start of adjuvant treatment and after 6 months by neuropsychological tests and questionnaires to evaluate cognitive function, quality of life and psychological distress. Neuropsychological tests did not reveal any differences in cognitive function between breast cancer patients after chemotherapy and......The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive function in patients with early breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy or 6 months of tamoxifen. We performed a population-based study in the county of North Jutland, Denmark, including 120 women aged <60 years who received adjuvant...... chemotherapy with seven cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluoruracil or adjuvant tamoxifen for 6 months for early breast cancer from 2004 to 2006. They were compared with an aged-matched group of 208 women without previous cancer selected randomly from the same population. Data were collected before...

  19. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Determinantes de la amamantación óptima en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Dearden; Mekibib Altaye; Irma de Maza; Maritza de Oliva; Maryanne Stone-Jimenez; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Barton R. Burkhalte

    2002-01-01

    Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey o...

  20. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Swamy R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  1. Influence of past breast feeding on pattern and severity of presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrich, Kimme L; Baildam, Eileen; Pickford, Hannah; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce E; Foster, Helen; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    This analysis aimed to study the influence of breast feeding on the pattern and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) at presentation. The association between ever versus never breast feeding and disease severity at onset was compared in 923 children with JIA recruited to the UK Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study at first presentation to rheumatology. Fifty six per cent of children were ever breast fed (median 3.7 months). Breastfed children reported a lower median age at onset, a lower Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), a measure of disease severity, lower parent general evaluation scores and lower pain at presentation. There was a trend towards a higher proportion of breastfed children with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis, but lesser enthesitis-related and psoriatic arthritis. There was a statistically significant inverse association between breast feeding and high CHAQ, even after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic status (adjusted OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.95)). Further work to understand the reasons behind these associations is required. PMID:26369575

  2. Early retirement and non-employment after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T; Hietanen, P; Carlsen, K; Gudbergsson, S; Gunnarsdottir, H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among e...

  3. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  4. A suspension-feeding anomalocarid from the Early Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Stein, Martin; Longrich, Nicholas R; Harper, David A T

    2014-03-27

    Large, actively swimming suspension feeders evolved several times in Earth's history, arising independently from groups as diverse as sharks, rays and stem teleost fishes, and in mysticete whales. However, animals occupying this niche have not been identified from the early Palaeozoic era. Anomalocarids, a group of stem arthropods that were the largest nektonic animals of the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, are generally thought to have been apex predators. Here we describe new material from Tamisiocaris borealis, an anomalocarid from the Early Cambrian (Series 2) Sirius Passet Fauna of North Greenland, and propose that its frontal appendage is specialized for suspension feeding. The appendage bears long, slender and equally spaced ventral spines furnished with dense rows of long and fine auxiliary spines. This suggests that T. borealis was a microphagous suspension feeder, using its appendages for sweep-net capture of food items down to 0.5 mm, within the size range of mesozooplankton such as copepods. Our observations demonstrate that large, nektonic suspension feeders first evolved during the Cambrian explosion, as part of an adaptive radiation of anomalocarids. The presence of nektonic suspension feeders in the Early Cambrian, together with evidence for a diverse pelagic community containing phytoplankton and mesozooplankton, indicate the existence of a complex pelagic ecosystem supported by high primary productivity and nutrient flux. Cambrian pelagic ecosystems seem to have been more modern than previously believed. PMID:24670770

  5. Feeding concentrate in early lactation based on rumination time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, M.V.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Markussen, B.;

    2015-01-01

    Precision feeding of dairy cows facilitates optimization of milk production. Accordingly, the objective was to study the effect on milk production when stepping up concentrate at 3 rates in early lactation according to individual daily rumination time (RT). Data was collected in 3 commercial dairy...... herds with Holstein cows, where daily RT was recorded by rumination sensors (Qwes HRTM). Cows were fed a partially mixed ration and concentrate at the milking robot. Concentrate was stepped up over the first 28 and 17 days in milk for primiparous and multiparous cows. Cows were assigned to either...... an experimental group (EXP) or a control group (CON) immediately after calving. In addition, all cows in the EXP and CON were assigned to either a high, medial or low rumination group according to their individual RT. Cows in the EXP assigned to the high (EH), medial (EM) or low (EL) rumination group were stepped...

  6. Hard-object feeding in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys and interpretation of early hominin feeding ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Daegling

    Full Text Available Morphology of the dentofacial complex of early hominins has figured prominently in the inference of their dietary adaptations. Recent theoretical analysis of craniofacial morphology of Australopithecus africanus proposes that skull form in this taxon represents adaptation to feeding on large, hard objects. A modern analog for this specific dietary specialization is provided by the West African sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys. This species habitually feeds on the large, exceptionally hard nuts of Sacoglottis gabonensis, stereotypically crushing the seed casings using their premolars and molars. This type of behavior has been inferred for A. africanus based on mathematical stress analysis and aspects of dental wear and morphology. While postcanine megadontia, premolar enlargement and thick molar enamel characterize both A. africanus and C. atys, these features are not universally associated with durophagy among living anthropoids. Occlusal microwear analysis reveals complex microwear textures in C. atys unlike those observed in A. africanus, but more closely resembling textures observed in Paranthropus robustus. Since sooty mangabeys process hard objects in a manner similar to that proposed for A. africanus, yet do so without the craniofacial buttressing characteristic of this hominin, it follows that derived features of the australopith skull are sufficient but not necessary for the consumption of large, hard objects. The adaptive significance of australopith craniofacial morphology may instead be related to the toughness, rather than the hardness, of ingested foods.

  7. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    1992-01-01

    for their post-natal health visitor records. These include data on birth weight, birth length, immunizations, and feeding habits. A total of 77 cases were re-identified. No differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics between these cases and those not identified. For each diabetic...... subject, two control children with date of birth identical to the diabetic cases were drawn from health visitor records. Cases and controls did not differ with respect to maternal age, or birth weight or length. Overall, the statistical analysis failed to confirm the hypothesis of an association between...

  8. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER GASTROINTESTINAL ANASTOMOSES

    OpenAIRE

    Purujit

    2014-01-01

    Thirty five patients who were randomly allocated to early feeding beginning with liquid diet 7 hour post - operatively then controlled liquid , liquid diet then semisolid and solid diet. Ryle’s tube was removed immediately after operation. Post - operative ileus , anastomotic leak , wound dehiscence , mesenteric embolus , wound infection are not related to early feeding. Early feeding in G.I anastomosis seems to be safe , well ...

  9. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Sang Jun [Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10{approx}16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13{approx}179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy ({<=}6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks.

  10. Long-term Results of Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the long-term results after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in early breast cancer in terms of failure, survival, and cosmesis. One hundred fifty-four patients with stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. According to TNM stage, 93 patients were stage I, 50 were IIa, and 11 were IIb. The affected breasts were irradiated with 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks with a boost irradiation dose of 10∼16 Gy to the excision site. Chemotherapy was administered in 75 patients and hormonal therapy in 92 patients with tamoxifen. Follow-up periods were 13∼179 months, with a median of 92.5 months. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 97.3% and 94.5%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (5YDFS and 10YDFS, respectively) rates were 92.5% and 88.9%, respectively; the ultimate 5YDFS and 10YDFS rates after salvage treatment were 93.9% and 90.2%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, only the interval between surgery and radiation therapy (≤6 weeks vs. >6 weeks, p=0.017) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for DFS. The major type of treatment failure was distant failure (78.5%) and the most common distant metastatic site was the lungs. The cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 96 patients (80.7%). Conservative surgery and radiation for early stage invasive breast cancer yielded excellent survival and cosmetic results. Radiation therapy should be started as soon as possible after breast-conserving surgery in patients with early breast cancer, ideally within 6 weeks

  11. The Results of Primary Radiotherapy following Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyong Hwan; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Purpose : Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy during the past 2 decades. In this country, however, the practice of conservative therapy for early invasive breast cancer has not been generalized yet. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the results and complications of breast conservation therapy in Korean Cancer Center Hospital(KCCH) Materials and Methods : From January 1987 to December 1989, 45 patients with early breast cancer treated with conservative treatment in KCCH were studied retrospectively. Median follow up was 54 months(range, 4 to 82 months). All patients received partial mastectomy (biopsy, tumorectomy, or quadrantectomy) and radiation therapy. Twenty eight patients received axillary dissection. The breast was treated with two opoosing tangential fields (total 50 Gy or 50.4 Gy in 5 weeks with daily target dose of 2 Gy or 1.8 Gy). Thirty patients received chemotherapy before and after radiotherapy. Eleven patients received hormonal therapy. Results : Five-year survival rate, 5-year disease free survival rate and 5-year local control rate were 87.2%, 86.5% and 97.6%, respectively. Administration of systemic Therapy (chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) correlated with good prognosis but statistically not significant (0.05 < p < 0.01). The sever late complication rate was 8.9%. Conclusion : Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer is an alternative treatment comparing to radical treatment. Long term follow-up and more patients collection is needed to evaluate the prognostic factor and cosmetic outcome.

  12. The Results of Primary Radiotherapy following Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy during the past 2 decades. In this country, however, the practice of conservative therapy for early invasive breast cancer has not been generalized yet. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the results and complications of breast conservation therapy in Korean Cancer Center Hospital(KCCH) Materials and Methods : From January 1987 to December 1989, 45 patients with early breast cancer treated with conservative treatment in KCCH were studied retrospectively. Median follow up was 54 months(range, 4 to 82 months). All patients received partial mastectomy (biopsy, tumorectomy, or quadrantectomy) and radiation therapy. Twenty eight patients received axillary dissection. The breast was treated with two opoosing tangential fields (total 50 Gy or 50.4 Gy in 5 weeks with daily target dose of 2 Gy or 1.8 Gy). Thirty patients received chemotherapy before and after radiotherapy. Eleven patients received hormonal therapy. Results : Five-year survival rate, 5-year disease free survival rate and 5-year local control rate were 87.2%, 86.5% and 97.6%, respectively. Administration of systemic Therapy (chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) correlated with good prognosis but statistically not significant (0.05 < p < 0.01). The sever late complication rate was 8.9%. Conclusion : Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer is an alternative treatment comparing to radical treatment. Long term follow-up and more patients collection is needed to evaluate the prognostic factor and cosmetic outcome

  13. Analysis of whole Breast Radiotherapy Methods for Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer after Conserving Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. At present moment breast cancer in Latvia is at second place for whole population and at first place among women. In year 2004 there were 1012 new breast cancer cases discovered. There was growth in number of breast cancer patients from 58.6 per 100 000 inhabitants in 1995 to 80.4 per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004. This growth is primarily attributed to breast cancer screening program which is nowadays active in Latvia. Breast cancer is third death cause among cancers in Latvia, - in 1995 there where 27.4 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants and in 2004 - 36.2 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Due to screening program there is increasing number of patients with stage I and II breast cancer. In 2004 toe where 9884 women with breast cancer registered in Latvian Cancer Registry and among them 79 percent were presented as stage I or II. Breast conservative surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy as standard part of it plays great role in breast cancer treatment in our Center. In year 2004 there were 103 breast conservative surgeries performed in our Center. Radiotherapy is a standard part of treatment in modem breast saving operations for early stage breast cancer, At present, only whole breast postoperative irradiation is performed in Latvia. For selected group of patients this treatment can be substituted with other radiotherapy methods in order to reduce acute reactions and/or late toxicity, maintaining the same tumor control. Aim of this work is to show that during whole breast irradiation dose maximum and tissue volume which receives doses more than 105% from prescribed dose, is linked with size of treated volume (treated volume - tissue volume receiving > 95% from prescribed dose), which is strictly linked with breast volume. Because of this for large breast volumes there is higher complication probability performing whole breast irradiation, and it seems to be meaningful to use Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy or Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for

  14. Identification of early molecular markers for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlag Peter M; Schoenegg Winfried; Siedentopf Friederike; Sterner-Kock Anja; Kretschmer Céline; Kemmner Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the mammary gland represents an early, pre-invasive stage in the development of invasive breast carcinoma. Since DCIS is a curable disease, it would be highly desirable to identify molecular markers that allow early detection. Mice transgenic for the WAP-SV40 early genome region were used as a model for DCIS development. Gene expression profiling was carried out on DCIS-bearing mice and control animals. Additionally, a set of human DC...

  15. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fahami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  16. Mammotome-assisted endoscopic breast-conserving surgery: a novel technique for early-stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan; Ming, Jia; Zhou, Yan; QI, XIAOWEI; Fan, Linjun; Jiang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of its minimally invasive and highly accurate nature, the use of Mammotome, a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy device has proven beneficial to the treatment of benign breast lesions. Taking advantage of endoscopic and Mammotome techniques together, we utilized the Mammotome device for therapeutic excision of malignant lesions in breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods Between December 2009 and January 2010, two patients with early breast cancer received Mammotome-assisted end...

  17. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Rothfus

    2012-04-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  18. Partial-Breast Irradiation Versus Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) is a new treatment paradigm for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Although PBI may lead to greater local recurrence rates, it may be cost-effective because of better tolerability and lower cost. We aim to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of PBI compared with whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal women treated for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. External beam (EB) and MammoSite (MS) PBI were considered and assumed to be equally effective, but carried different costs. Patients received tamoxifen, but not chemotherapy. Utilities, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature; the baseline utility for no disease after radiotherapy was set at 0.92. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in the PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, and patient utilities. Costs (in 2004 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life-years were discounted at 3%/y. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for WBRT compared with EB-PBI was $630,000/quality-adjusted life-year; WBRT strongly dominated MS-PBI. One-way sensitivity analysis found that results were sensitive to PBI hazard ratio, recurrence pattern, baseline recurrence risk, and no evidence of disease PBI utility values. Probabilistic sensitivity showed that EB-PBI was the most cost-effective technique over a wide range of assumptions and societal willingness-to-pay values. Conclusions: EB-PBI was the most cost-effective strategy for postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. Unless the quality of life after MS-PBI proves to be superior, it is unlikely to be cost-effective.

  19. Radiation-induced breast cancer: the question of early breast cancer screening in Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal, Talal; Rudy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Chest irradiation is associated with numerous early and late complications that arise from ionizing radiation-induced damage to cellular structures within the field of therapy. In patients exposed to chest irradiation at an early age as part of the treatment of childhood cancer, specifically Hodgkin's lymphoma, the increased risk of breast cancer in the long run should be considered. A case of a 35-year-old woman who exposed to chest irradiation as part of the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma ...

  20. Interim advice concerning the early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of breast cancer in the Netherlands and the methods of diagnosis and treatment are outlined. A systematic screening of the total female population would result in a number of breast cancers being found at a relatively early stage. The advantages and disadvantages of five methods of screening are discussed: breast self-examination by women, palpation by doctor or para-medical personnel, mammography, ultrasound and thermography. It is concluded that mammography currently appears to be the best method. The risk that the X-rays might cause cancer is negligible. Two large screening projects in the Netherlands are described and the preliminary results discussed. In the appendices, a number of aspects such as the current projects in the Netherlands, the risks of ionizing radiation, and the attitudes and response of women invited for screening, are elaborated upon. A discussion session between an advisory committee and a number of Dutch and foreign experts is also presented (in English). (Auth.)

  1. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding -a clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians....

  2. Breast feeding and oral rehydration at home during diarrhoea to prevent dehydration.

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D.; Islam, A.; Hoque, S. S.; A. Hasnat

    1992-01-01

    In a case-control study we evaluated the role of maternal behaviour, as reflected in maintenance of breast feeding and the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home during acute diarrhoea, in preventing dehydration in infants and young children. A systematic 5% sample was taken of all children aged 1-35 months attending the treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute watery diarrhoea of six days or less between August 1988 and Septe...

  3. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Choi

    Full Text Available For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer, 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93 were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696, the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically

  4. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  5. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  6. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease. PMID:26051698

  7. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and...

  8. Brachytherapy boost in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In women with early stage breast cancer brachytherapy (BR) boost allows increase of the dose administered to the tumour bed, following whole-breast irradiation. In the present paper high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy results are presented, in comparison to external electron beam radiotherapy. Results of Phase II and III trials show that both techniques give comparable results regarding efficacy. In most patients satisfying cosmetic results can also be obtained, with acceptable local recurrence rate not exceeding 10 %. (authors)

  9. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake. PMID:21651932

  10. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER GASTROINTESTINAL ANASTOMOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purujit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients who were randomly allocated to early feeding beginning with liquid diet 7 hour post - operatively then controlled liquid , liquid diet then semisolid and solid diet. Ryle’s tube was removed immediately after operation. Post - operative ileus , anastomotic leak , wound dehiscence , mesenteric embolus , wound infection are not related to early feeding. Early feeding in G.I anastomosis seems to be safe , well tolerated and was not associated with increased post - operative GI complications. Though the number of patients is less in this study without comparative post - operative conventional feeding yet no untoward post - operative complication encountered and patients were discharged within 5 - 10 days post - operatively.

  11. Cosmetic results of conservative treatment for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of conservative treatment for early breast cancer and to analyze the factors influencing cosmetic outcome. From February 1992 through January 1997, 120 patients with early breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The types of conservative surgery were quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection for 108 patients (90%) and lumpectomy or excisional biopsy for 10 patients (8.3%). Forty six patients (38%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF). Cosmetic result evaluation was carried out between 16 and 74 months (median, 33 months) after surgery. The cosmetic results were classified into four categories, i.e., excellent, good, fair, and poor. The appearances of the patients' breasts were also analyzed for symmetry using the differences in distances from the stemal notch to right and left nipples. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables influencing the cosmetic outcome. Cosmetic score was excellent or good in 76% (91/120), fair in 19% (23/120) and poor in 5% (6/ 120) of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (T1 versus T2) (p=0.04), axillary node status (NO versus N1) (p=0.0002), extent of surgery (quadrantectomy versus lumpectomy or excisional biopsy) (p=0.02), axillary node irradiation (p=0.0005) and chemotherapy (p=0,0001) affected cosmetic score. Multivariate analysis revealed that extent of surgery (p=0.04) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) were significant factors. For breast symmetry, univariate analysis confirmed exactly the same factors as above. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p=0.003) and lymph node status (p=0.007) affected breast symmetry. Conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent or good cosmetic outcome in a large portion of the patients. Better cosmetic results were achieved generally in the group of patients with smaller tumor size, without axillary

  12. Cosmetic results of conservative treatment for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Kyoung; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Seong Deok; Ha, Sung Whan; Noh, Dong Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of conservative treatment for early breast cancer and to analyze the factors influencing cosmetic outcome. From February 1992 through January 1997, 120 patients with early breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The types of conservative surgery were quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection for 108 patients (90%) and lumpectomy or excisional biopsy for 10 patients (8.3%). Forty six patients (38%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF). Cosmetic result evaluation was carried out between 16 and 74 months (median, 33 months) after surgery. The cosmetic results were classified into four categories, i.e., excellent, good, fair, and poor. The appearances of the patients' breasts were also analyzed for symmetry using the differences in distances from the stemal notch to right and left nipples. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables influencing the cosmetic outcome. Cosmetic score was excellent or good in 76% (91/120), fair in 19% (23/120) and poor in 5% (6/ 120) of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (T1 versus T2) (p=0.04), axillary node status (NO versus N1) (p=0.0002), extent of surgery (quadrantectomy versus lumpectomy or excisional biopsy) (p=0.02), axillary node irradiation (p=0.0005) and chemotherapy (p=0,0001) affected cosmetic score. Multivariate analysis revealed that extent of surgery (p=0.04) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) were significant factors. For breast symmetry, univariate analysis confirmed exactly the same factors as above. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p=0.003) and lymph node status (p=0.007) affected breast symmetry. Conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent or good cosmetic outcome in a large portion of the patients. Better cosmetic results were achieved generally in the group of patients with smaller tumor size, without

  13. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  14. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L

    1985-07-01

    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding. PMID:4041206

  15. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p o histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  16. Management of Early Breast Cancer with Breast Conservative Surgery. An Egyptian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast conservative surgery (BCS) has been an established method for treatment of early breast cancer. The volume of the procedure varies from a wide local excision to partial mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy. The nipple and areola complex sparing, depends on their proximity to the tumour. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and or hormonal treatment play an integral role in the treatment of early breast cancer. Aim of the Study: In the present study we present our experience at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University with breast conservative surgery in treatment of female patients with early (T1-T2) breast cancer. The aim is to examine the evidence based management of those cases and the outcome of treatment in terms of loco regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis. Patients and Methods: The study includes 200 with early breast cancer patients who presented to the department of surgery, National Cancer Institute between May 2002 and February 2007. The average age was 46±6.5 years and the range was (26-72 years). Bilateral mammography, chest X-ray and full blood count were done routinely in the entire patients' group. The inclusion criteria included all patients presented with a breast tumor up to 4 cm in greatest dimension (T1-2N0). Results: Sixty Eight percent of patients underwent wide local excision, 20% underwent quadrantectomies, and 12% underwent partial mastectomy with or without nipple and areola preservation. All patients who underwent quadrantectomy or partial mastectomy required an augmentation mammoplasty to restore the breast volume. A latissmus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used in the majority of cases (70%), the rest were reconstructed with either a prosthetic implant or transverse rectus abdominis flap. The complications involved a total flap loss in 2 patients, partial flap loss in 2, nipple and areola sloughing in 4, wound infection in 5, haematoma in 4, seroma in 60, and donor site morbidity in 12 patients. Ninety

  17. Breast conservation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of breast conservation therapy (limited surgery and irradiation of the breast with/without axilla) in the approximately 5% of breast cancer patients who harbour a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, is a largely unexplored area and is seen by some as controversial. The relatively high cumulative risk of second primary cancers in such patients and concern about a possible decreased ability of mutation carriers to repair DNA damage caused by radiation has fuelled this controversy. Published studies of breast conservation therapy in carriers of a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are reviewed, with particular attention to their methodology. These studies have not demonstrated any increase in radiation sensitivity of normal tissues in mutation carriers, either in terms of increased early or late toxicity or tumourigenesis. Likewise, tumour sensitivity to radiotherapy, which might be expected based on the known functions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, has not been documented to date in mutation carriers. Further, methodologically rigorous studies of large numbers of breast cancer patients who carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are required to fully elucidate these issues. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P;

    1994-01-01

    were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea was......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival...... higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...

  20. Normalising the Breast: Early Childhood Services Battling the Bottle and the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Judith; Bartle, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Normalising practices as a tool for controlling the body and bodily processes have been well-documented using Foucault's theories, including debates around breastfeeding. In this article we explore how the ideas of "normalisation" of the bottle-feeding culture of infants in New Zealand early childhood settings has become the…

  1. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore assoc...

  2. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  3. Complications after modified radical mastectomy in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the frequency of complications, particularly the lymphedema of the arm, after modified radical mastectomy in early breast cancer patients who have not been given post-operative radiotherapy to axilla. Design: Hospital based descriptive study. Results: Median age of these patients was 47 years with a range of 25-58 years. Majority of these patients were stage II (84%) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent type of cancer (88%). Fifty-six percent of these patients had high grade tumors. None of the patients received radiotherapy to axilla after modified radical mastectomy. Early complications documented from history and medical record revealed that seroma formation was the most frequent early complication seen after modified radical mastectomy (20%). Frequent late complications included anterior chest tightness (56%), shoulder dysfunction (36%), lymphedema (26%) and sensory loss (22%). Shoulder dysfunction included limited range of movement in all 18 patients. Gross multiple restrictions were seen in 11 (61.11%) of these patients. Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that lymphedema and shoulder dysfunction are the two major complications in patients of early breast cancer who have undergone modified radical mastectomy without post-operative axillary radiation. (author)

  4. Dosimetric comparison of 3DCRT versus IMRT in whole breast irradiation of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The counseling regarding the treatment option is an important objective in the management of early stages breast cancer. In this study, we attempt to compare and analyze the dosimetric aspects of 3DRT over IMRT in the whole breast radiotherapy.Methods and Materials:  Both right and left sided computed tomography simulations of 14 women with early stage breast cancer were used for our retrospective study to compare the 3DCRT and IMRT. The dose prescribed was 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast PTV. The PTV was defined by adding unequal margins to the directional safety margin status of each lumpectomy cavity (i.e., medial, lateral, superior, inferior and deep margins measured from the tumor front after the examination of the surgical specimen: 2, 1.5, and 1 cm for resection margins < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and > 2cm, respectively. And than modified so that it was no longer closer than 3mm to the skin surface and was no deep than the lung –chest interface. The prescribed dose delivered in 5 fractions per week schedule. Treatment plans were compared for target minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose, conformity index, heterogeneity index and doses to organs at risk were compared and analysed.Results: The target coverage was achieved with 90% prescription to the 95% of the PTV. Conformity to the PTV was significantly higher with 3DCRT technique than IMRT. 3DCRT technique seems better in sparing critical organs parameters like lung V20 and Mean, heart, V25, Maximum, both lungs V20, Mean and Dose to the Normal Healthy tissue.Conclusion: We conclude from our study that treatment technique selection for whole Breast irradiation is an important factor in sparing the adjacent normal structures and in determining the associated risk. 3DCRT produces better conformity and heterogeneity indices of the target volume, also reduces dose to OARs the 3DCRT reduces the risk of radiation induced heart diseases

  5. Health education for early detection of breast cancer in blind women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of blind women about the risk factors for breast cancer and whether they look for early detection of this cancer. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with 72 blind women distributed in focus groups. Data were collected through interviews. Results: few participants had knowledge about one or more risk factors for breast cancer, but most practiced early detection. Health education was developed using breast kits and demonstration of breast self-examination. It was obtained qualitative improvement of knowledge of the participants about breast cancer, its risk factors and early detection practices. In addition, participants demonstrated breast self-examination confidently. Conclusion: we need to develop in a harder manner educational activities to clarify about breast cancer risk factors and the importance of periodically carrying out breast self-examination, clinical examination and mammography.

  6. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding. PMID:27181767

  7. Supraclavicular recurrence after early breast cancer: a curable condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders N; Møller, Susanne; Steffensen, Karina D;

    2010-01-01

    treatment and primary patient characteristics, treatment response, and survival after supraclavicular recurrence (SR) in a large patient population. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group treatment database 1977-2003, 305 patients were identified with SR without distant disease as site of first......The prognosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node recurrence after early breast cancer appears to be worse than for other loco-regional recurrences, but better than for distant metastases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between different types of salvage...... recurrence. Salvage treatment types as well as other factors were related to response and survival. The median follow-up time for progression after SR was 25 months. Complete remission was 76% among patients receiving excision surgery, 67% with combined loco-regional and systemic therapy, and 48% with...

  8. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential. PMID:19748244

  9. Breastfeeding and allergic disease: a multidisciplinary review of the literature (1966-2001) on the mode of early feeding in infancy and its impact on later atopic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odijk, J.; Kull, I.; Borres, M.;

    2003-01-01

    feeding mode in relation to allergy has not been published previously. Here, the objective is to review the scientific literature regarding the impact of early feeding (breast milk and/or cow's milk and/or formula) on development of atopic disease. The work was performed by a multidisciplinary group of...... Scandinavian researchers. Methods: The search in the literature identified 4323 articles that contained at least one of the exposure and health effect terms. A total of 4191 articles were excluded mainly because they did not contain information on both exposure and health effects. Consequently, 132 studies...

  10. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  11. Survey on the effects of breast feeding on blood sugar in highbirth weight neonates

    OpenAIRE

    S. Behzadnia; V. Ghaffari; K. Vahidshahi

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : The low amount of blood sugar in neonates is an important and prevalent problem which needs serious attention because of its cerebral complications. High birth weight is one of the risk factors for hypoglycemia.There is no general agreement about how to approach the high birth weight neonates who do not have the symptoms of hypoglycemia but are at a high risk of it.In some centers the neonates blood sugar is checked before beginning the breast feeding and treatment bu...

  12. Early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding improve patients' rehabilitation after colorectostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhou; Xiao-Ting Wu; Ye-Jiang Zhou; Xiong Huang; Wei Fan; Yue-chun Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and tolerance of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing surgery for colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen patients submitted to operations associated with colorectostomy from January 2004 to September 2005 were randomized to two groups: In experimental group (n = 161), the nasogastric tube was removed after the operation from 12 to 24 hours and was promised immediately oral feeding; In control group (n = 155), the nasogastric tube was maintained until the passage of flatus per rectum.Variables assessed included the time to first passage of flatus, the time to first passage of stool, the time elapsedpostoperative stay, and postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage, acute dilation of stomach,wound infection and dehiscense, fever, pulmonary infection and pharyngolaryngitis.RESULTS: The median and average days to the first passage of flatus (3.0±0.9 vs 3.6± 1.2, P<0.001), the first passage of stool (4.1± 1.1 vs 4.8± 1.4 P<0.001)and the length of postoperative stay (8.4± 3.4 vs 9.6±5.0, P<0.05) were shorter in the experimental group than in the control group. The postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage (1.24% vs 2.58%), acute dilation of stomach (1.86% vs 0.06%)and wound complications (2.48% vs1.94%) were similar in the groups, but fever (3.73% vs 9.68%, P<0.05),pulmonary infection (0.62% vs 4.52%, P<0.05) and pharyngolaryngitis (3.11% vs 23.23%, P<0.001) were much more in the control group than in the experimental group.CONCLUSION: The present study shows that application of gastrointestinal decompression after colorectostomy can not effectively reduce postoperative complications.On the contrary, it may increase the incidence rate of fever, pharyngolaryngitis and pulmonary infection.These strategies of early removing gastrointestinal decompression and early oral feeding in the patients undergoing

  13. Breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer: interim analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, You Sah [College of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate interim results in terms of failure, cosmetic results and survival after breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer. From January 1992 through December 1997, seventy two patients with early stage 0, I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Age distribution was 25 to 77 years old with median age of 43. Ac cording to TNM stage, five patients had stage 0, thirty three were stage I, twenty five were lIa, and nine were llb. Most patients underwent excision of all gross tumor and ipsilateral axillary dissection. Breast was irradiated through medial and lateral tangential fields of 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. We delivered a boost irradiation dose of 10 to 16 Gy in 1 to 2 weeks to excision site. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in forty one patients with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5fluorouracil) regimens of 6 cycles concurrently or before radiation. Cosmetic results were assessed by questionnaire to patients grading of excellent, good, fair, poor. Follow-up periods were 22 to 91 months with median 40 months. Five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 95.8%. According to stage, 5YDFS was 100%, 96.9%, 96% and 88.9% in stage 0, I, lIa and llb, respectively. Two patients had distant metastasis and one had local and distant failure. One patient with distant failure had bone and liver metastasis at 14 months after treatment and the other had lung and both supraclavicular metastasis at 21 months after treatment. Patient with local and distant failure had local recurrence on other quadrant in same breast and then salvaged with total mastectomy and chemotherapy but she died due to brain metastasis at 55 months. Complications were radiation pneumonitis in five patients (four patients of asymptomatic, one patient of symptomatic) and hand or arm edema(4 patients). Fifty nine patients answered our cosmetic

  14. Breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer: interim analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate interim results in terms of failure, cosmetic results and survival after breast conserving operation and radiation therapy in early breast cancer. From January 1992 through December 1997, seventy two patients with early stage 0, I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery plus radiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Age distribution was 25 to 77 years old with median age of 43. Ac cording to TNM stage, five patients had stage 0, thirty three were stage I, twenty five were lIa, and nine were llb. Most patients underwent excision of all gross tumor and ipsilateral axillary dissection. Breast was irradiated through medial and lateral tangential fields of 6 MV photons to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. We delivered a boost irradiation dose of 10 to 16 Gy in 1 to 2 weeks to excision site. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in forty one patients with CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5fluorouracil) regimens of 6 cycles concurrently or before radiation. Cosmetic results were assessed by questionnaire to patients grading of excellent, good, fair, poor. Follow-up periods were 22 to 91 months with median 40 months. Five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 95.8%. According to stage, 5YDFS was 100%, 96.9%, 96% and 88.9% in stage 0, I, lIa and llb, respectively. Two patients had distant metastasis and one had local and distant failure. One patient with distant failure had bone and liver metastasis at 14 months after treatment and the other had lung and both supraclavicular metastasis at 21 months after treatment. Patient with local and distant failure had local recurrence on other quadrant in same breast and then salvaged with total mastectomy and chemotherapy but she died due to brain metastasis at 55 months. Complications were radiation pneumonitis in five patients (four patients of asymptomatic, one patient of symptomatic) and hand or arm edema(4 patients). Fifty nine patients answered our cosmetic

  15. Stage 3 recommendations - the early recognition of breast cancer in Germany. Abridged version forr medical practioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aim of this level 3 good clinical practice guideline is to help physicians, women and patients in decision making about the appropriate health care for early detection of breast cancer. The principle of early detection of breast cancer comprise the detection and diagnosis of premalignant breast tumors (stage 0, Carcinoma in situ), risk reduction of cancer development as well as the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer at an early stage (stage I), with a 90% chance of cure as shown by a large number of clinical trials. To establish a nation wide, comprehensive quality assuring program for the early detection of breast cancer the guideline summarized in the following paper offers the basis for a timely mortality reduction of breast cancer. The cure of early stage disease will be additionally possible by less invasive treatment allowing patients to maintain quality of life. The guideline leads to a major improvement of women's health care. (orig.)

  16. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  17. The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Prognosis of Early Breast Cancer in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Wu; Shao, Yu-Yun; Shau, Wen-Yi; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Lu, Yen-Shen; Chen, Ho-Min; Kuo, Raymond N.C.; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Using nationwide databases in Taiwan, the individual effect of diabetes mellitus on both the breast cancer–specific and overall survival rates in Asian patients with early-stage breast cancer was evaluated while taking into account other comorbidities. Diabetes mellitus was found to be an independent predictor of both the breast cancer–specific and overall survival rates.

  18. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility, and Early Experience Using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Obayomi-Davies, Olusola; Kole, Thomas P.; Oppong, Bridget; Rudra, Sonali; Makariou, Erini V.; Lloyd D Campbell; Hozaifa M Anjum; Sean P Collins; Unger, Keith; WILLEY, SHAWNA; Tousimis, Eleni; Collins, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rati...

  19. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (SAPBI) for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility and Early Experience using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola eOBAYOMI-DAVIES; Kole, Thomas P.; Bridget eOppong; Sonali eRudra; Erini eMakariou; Lloyd D Campbell; Hozaifa M Anjum; Sean P Collins; Keith eUnger; Willey, Shawna C.; Eleni A Tousimis; Brian Timothy Collins

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rat...

  20. Identification of early molecular markers for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlag Peter M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the mammary gland represents an early, pre-invasive stage in the development of invasive breast carcinoma. Since DCIS is a curable disease, it would be highly desirable to identify molecular markers that allow early detection. Mice transgenic for the WAP-SV40 early genome region were used as a model for DCIS development. Gene expression profiling was carried out on DCIS-bearing mice and control animals. Additionally, a set of human DCIS and invasive mammary tumors were analyzed in a similar fashion. Enhanced expression of these marker genes in human and murine samples was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, marker gene expression was also validated by immunohistochemistry of human samples. Furthermore in silico analyses using an online microarray database were performed. Results In DCIS-mice seven genes were identified that were significantly up-regulated in DCIS: DEPDC1, NUSAP1, EXO1, RRM2, FOXM1, MUC1 and SPP1. A similar up-regulation of homologues of the murine genes was observed in human DCIS samples. Enhanced expression of these genes in DCIS and IDC (invasive ductal carcinoma was validated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions By comparing murine markers for the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the mammary gland with genes up-regulated in human DCIS-samples we were able to identify a set of genes which might allow early detection of DCIS and invasive carcinomas in the future. The similarities between gene expression in DCIS and invasive carcinomas in our data suggest that the early detection and treatment of DCIS is of utmost relevance for the survival of patients who are at high risk of developing breast carcinomas.

  1. Early Closure of Gastroschisis After Silo Placement Correlates with Earlier Enteral Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Harris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly affecting 2.3-4.4/10,000 births. Previous studies show initiation of early enteral feeds predicts improved outcomes. We hypothesize that earlier definitive closure after silo placement; can lead to earlier enteral feed initiation.Design/ Setting/ Duration: Retrospective review of patients with gastroschisis from 2005 and 2014 at a single institution.Material and Methods: The data, including ethnicity, gestational age, birth weight, time to definitive closure, and time of first and full feeds, were analyzed using both Spearman’s rho and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test where appropriate; a p value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Forty-three patients (24 males, 19 females born with gastroschisis were identified. Overall survival rate was 88% (38/43. Forty of the 43 patients had a silo placed prior to definitive closure. Median days to closure were 6 (0 to 85 days. First feeds on average began on day of life (DOL 17, and full feeds on DOL 25. Earlier closure of gastroschisis correlated with early initiation of feeds (p=0.0001 and shorter time to full feeds (p=0.018, closure by DOL4 showed a trend toward earlier feeding (p=0.13.Conclusion: Earlier closure of gastroschisis after silo placement was associated with earlier feed initiation and shorter time to full feeds.

  2. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  3. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-01-01

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081

  4. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A.

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081

  5. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  6. Breastfeeding and allergic disease: a multidisciplinary review of the literature (1966-2001) on the mode of early feeding in infancy and its impact on later atopic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odijk, J.; Kull, I.; Borres, M.; Brandzaeg, P.; Edberg, U.; Hanson, L.; Høst, A.; Kuitunen, M.; Olsen, S.; Skerfving, S.; Sundell, Jan; Wille, S.

    2003-01-01

    concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms of......Background: Strategies to prevent children from developing allergy have been elaborated on the basis of state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature regarding pets and allergies, building dampness and health, and building ventilation and health. A similar multidisciplinary review of infant...... feeding mode in relation to allergy has not been published previously. Here, the objective is to review the scientific literature regarding the impact of early feeding (breast milk and/or cow's milk and/or formula) on development of atopic disease. The work was performed by a multidisciplinary group of...

  7. CTCs in early breast cancer: A path worth taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, Roberta; Gallerani, Giulia; Fici, Pietro; Rocca, Andrea; Fabbri, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cellular elements of undeniable significance that spread from the tumor mass into the peripheral blood and constitute one of the main vehicles for disease diffusion. Their rarity, in addition to a number of molecular and cellular features, has severely impaired research and exploitation. CTCs have been evaluated in early breast cancer (EBC), although long from being fully accepted in this field also due to a lack of technical standardization. CTCs hold promise to be a powerful non-invasive real-time measurable biomarker in all disease stages. This hypothesis is particularly appealing in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer, as it still lacks a marker that could play a central role in monitoring disease-free intervals, predicting early relapse and guiding drug selection. This review aimed to discuss CTC characteristics and show the main results of CTC-research in EBC setting, stating the urgency to continue basic and translational research in this field to definitely translate this marker from bench to bedside. PMID:27060205

  8. Early-stage bilateral breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive irradiation: the university of Pennsylvania experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with early-stage bilateral breast cancer can be treated with definitive irradiation following breast-conserving surgery with acceptable survival, local control, complications, and cosmesis. Methods and Materials: During the period 1977-1992, 55 women with Stage 0, I, or II concurrent (n = 12) or sequential (n = 43) bilateral breast cancer were treated with definitive irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. The records of these 55 patients with 110 treated breasts were reviewed for tumor size, histology, pathologic axillary lymph node status, first and overall site(s) of failure, and adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Curves for survival, local control, and regional control were determined. Cosmetic outcome, complication rates, and matching technique were analyzed. The median total radiation dose delivered was 64 Gy (range 42-72) using tangential whole-breast irradiation followed by an electron or iridium implant boost. The tangential fields were matched with no overlap in 40 patients (73%); there was overlap on skin of up to 4 cm in 14 patients (25%); and the matching technique was unknown in 1 patient (2%). The median follow-up for the 12 women with concurrent bilateral breast cancer was 4.0 years. The median follow-up for the other 43 women with sequential cancer was 9.3 and 4.9 years, respectively, after the first and second cancers. Results: For the overall group of 55 patients, the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, after treatment of the first cancer, and 96% and 92%, respectively, after treatment of the second cancer. The 5- and 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival rates were 90% and 75%, respectively, after treatment of the first cancer, and 83% and 72%, respectively, after treatment of the second cancer. For the 110 treated breast cancers, the 5- and 10-year actuarial local failure rates were 5% and 15%, respectively. Complication rates were: 28% breast edema, 8

  9. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapenko Valerijus; Veseliunas Jonas; Bulotiene Giedre

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the ...

  10. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  11. Safety of breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk%HBV-DNA阳性乳汁喂养的安全性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬生; 林秋香; 蒋就喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of breast-feeding by puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk.Methods 117 puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk (2 cases with twins) were studied.119 infants were given with HBV active and passive immunization.34 infants were provided with breast feeding and 85 infants were provided with artificial-feeding.Results 34 out of 119 infants (28.57%) were found to have chronic HBV infection.The rate of HBV infection in the breast-feeding group (32.35%,11/34) was similar to artificial-feeding froup (27.06%,23/85) (P>0.05).However,it has statistical significant difference that the amount of breast milk HBV-DNA loads between the group of chronic HBV infection in infants and the group of no infection(P<0.05).Conclusions Chronic HBV infection in infants is correlated with the amount of HBV-DNA in maternal milk.Breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk may not increase the risk of chronic HBV infection in infants.%目的 探讨乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇117例(双胞2例),119例幼儿出生时均接受HBV主动+被动免疫,自由选择喂养方式,其中母乳喂养34例(母乳喂养组),人工喂养85例(人工喂养组),观察两组幼儿慢性感染HBV情况.结果 119例幼儿慢性感染HBV 34例,慢性感染率为28.57%;其中母乳喂养组幼儿慢性感染率为32.35%(11/34),人工喂养组为27.06%(23/85),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但幼儿HBV慢性感染组与未感染组母亲乳汁HBV-DNA水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 幼儿慢性感染HBV与产妇乳汁HBV-DNA载量有关,但母乳喂养并未增加感染HBV的风险.

  12. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  13. Ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy of breast lesions : early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report some early experiences of ultrasonography-guided mammotome biopsy for solid breast lesions. Sixty seven solid breast lesions in 59 patients aged 25-77 (mean, 44.5) years were biopsied under ultrasound-guidance using an 11 gauge mammotome. The size and depth of the lesions, diagnostic accuracy achieved, complications, and merits and demerits of the device were evaluated. The lesions ranged in size from 0.5 to 8 (mean, 1.6)cm, and at their center the mean depth was 1.4cm. for every lesion at least seven biopsies were performed, and the mean weight of extracted tissue was 0.44gm. The lesions were located mainly at the at 12o'clock area and upper inner quadrant of the left breast(n=10 for each area); they were also found in other regions for both breasts, including subareloar areas. The histopathologic diagnosis was malignant in 26 lesions and benign in 39, and in one case, atypical ductal hyperplasia was diagnosed. One lesion contained no tumor cells. Twenty-four malignant lesions were surgically excised, and in 21 invasive ductal/lobular carcinomas and one ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (91.7%) the initial and subsequent diagnosis correlated. One lesion diagnosed as DCIS and one whose invasiveness could not be initially determined were confirmed as invasive ductal carcinomas (8.3%). Follow-up ultrasonography involved six benign lesion and showed that five of these had become smaller. The complications noted were severe pain in three patients and a moderate amount of bleeding in two, but in all cases good control was achieved by interrupting the procedure or applying compression. The merits of the mammotome biopsy compared with the conventional core biopsy technique are higher diagnostic accuracy due to the larger amount of tissue extracted by suction and the large caliber of the needle, multiple biopsies achieved by one needle insertion, and less possibility of server complications such as pneumothorax. Dry-tapping was a demerit of the device. Very small

  14. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  15. Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heung Lae; Kim, Cheo Ljin; Park, Sung Kwang; Oh, Min Kyung; Lee, Jin Yong; Ahn, Ki Jung [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range 43.8-129.4 months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for Tis and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had 1-3 lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close ({<=}2 mm) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy (41.4-60.4 Gy) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0

  16. Clinical Outcome after Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the disease-free survival and risk factors of recurrence in early breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: From March 1997 to December 2002, 77 breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up time was 58.4 months (range 43.8-129.4 months) and the mean subject age was 41 years. The frequency distribution of the different T stages, based on the tumor characteristics was 38 (49.3%) for T1, 28 (36.3%) for T2, 3 for T3, 7 for Tis and 1 for an unidentified sized tumor. In addition, 52 patients (67.5%) did not have axillary lymph metastasis, whereas 14 patients (18.1%) had 1-3 lymph node metastases and 3 (0.03%) had more than 4 lymph node metastases. The resection margin was negative in 59 patients, close (≤2 mm) in 15, and positive in 4. All patients received radiation therapy at the intact breast using tangential fields with a subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed at a total dose ranging from 59.4 Gy to 66.4 Gy. Patients with more than four positive axillary lymph nodes received radiation therapy (41.4-60.4 Gy) at the axillary and supraclavicular area. Chemotherapy was administered in 59 patients and tamoxifen or fareston was administered in 29 patients. Results: The 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 98.08% and 93.49%, respectively. Of the 77 patients, a total of 4 relapses (5.2%), including 1 isolated supraclavicular relapse, 1 supraclavicular relapse with synchronous multiple distant relapses, and 2 distant relapses were observed. No cases of local breast relapses were observed. Lymph node metastasis or number of metastatic lymph nodes was not found to be statistically related with a relapse (p=0.3289) nor disease-free survival (p=0.1430). Patients with positive margins had a significantly shorter disease-free survival period (p<0

  17. The fidelity of mutans streptococci transmission and caries status correlate with breast-feeding experience among Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, W; Caufield, P W

    2000-01-01

    Our previous study reported that the fidelity of mutans streptococci (MS) transmission from mother to infant was gender- and race-specific within a Birmingham, Ala., population. We hypothesized that fidelity might be a function of postnatal nurturing practices. The purpose of the present study was to investigate those factors that could be correlated with MS transmission among Chinese children whose nurturing histories were known. Forty-eight families with 2- to 3-year-old children were selected from two kindergartens of Beijing, China. A questionnaire concerning the childhood nursing practice was obtained from the parents. Dental caries status was examined, and bacterial samples were collected for all participants twice at 6-month intervals. An average of six isolates of MS was picked at random from selective medium from each individual at each visit. Chromosomal DNA fingerprints were performed for all MS isolates to determine the genomic similarity within each family and among individuals. The results showed that 66% of the children at 2-3 years of age harbored MS, and 46% were caries-active. Of those children, 70% were breast-fed. Among the children whose chromosomal DNA fingerprint genotypes of MS matched that of their mothers, 88% were breast-fed compared with only 12% who were not breast-fed (p = 0.03). We also found that children who were breast-fed for more than 9 months were likely to harbor strains of MS common to their mothers (p = 0.04) and experience more dental caries (dmft = 4.4) at 3 years of age compared with children who were breast-fed less than 9 months (dmft = 1.4, p = 0.04). The data suggest that breast-feeding, especially prolonged breast-feeding, may correlate with the fidelity of transmission and that prolonged breast-feeding may contribute to a higher caries rate. PMID:10773629

  18. Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have examined the effect of breast implants after mastectomy on long-term survival in breast cancer patients, despite growing public health concern over potential long-term adverse health effects. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics. Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival. In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old

  19. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  20. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  1. CADe tools for early detection of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Lauria, A; López, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S

    2004-01-01

    A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcifications and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. Our collaboration, among italian physicists and radiologists, has built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images and has developed a Computer Aided Detection (CADe) system for the automatic analysis of mammographic images and installed it in some Italian hospitals by a GRID connection. Regarding microcalcifications, in our CADe digital mammogram is divided into wide windows which are processed by a convolution filter; after a self-organizing map analyzes each window and produces 8 principal components which are used as input of a neural network (FFNN) able to classify the windows matched to a threshold. Regarding massive lesions we select all important maximum intensity position and define the ROI radius. From each ROI found we extract the parameters which are used as input in a FFNN to distinguish betwee...

  2. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steyn

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  3. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  4. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  5. Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery--what are the issues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdomin...... surgical programs in abdominal surgery provide a rational basis for future studies to investigate and facilitate enforced oral feeding after major abdominal procedures.......This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdominal...... procedures. It appears that several factors may promote postoperative oral feeding such as thoracic epidural analgesia, multimodal anti-emetic treatment, opioid-sparing analgesia, selective peripheral opioid antagonists, and enforced oral nutrition. Recent data from multimodal fast-track rehabilitation...

  6. Race, Poverty May Affect Early Stage Breast Cancer Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  7. Outcomes in Black Patients With Early Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The race-specific impact of prognostic variables for early breast cancer is unknown for black patients undergoing breast conservation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 1,231 consecutive patients ≥40 years of age with Stage I-II invasive breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy at the University of Chicago Hospitals and affiliates between 1986 and 2004. Patients were classified as either black or nonblack. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the effects of known prognostic factors and interactions with race. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 82 months. Thirty-four percent of patients were black, and 66% were nonblack (Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian). Black patients had a poorer 10-year overall survival (64.6% vs. 80.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.06) and 10-year disease-free survival (58.1% vs. 75.4%; HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18-1.89) compared with nonblack patients. Tumor sizes were similar between nonblack and black patients with mammographically detected tumors (1.29 cm vs. 1.20 cm, p = 0.20, respectively). Tumor size was significantly associated with overall survival (HR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.96) in black patients with mammographically detected tumors but not in nonblack patients (HR 1.09; 95% CI, 0.78-1.53), suggesting that survival in black patients depends more strongly on tumor size in this subgroup. Tests for race-size method of detection interactions were statistically significant for overall survival (p = 0.049), locoregional control (p = 0.036), and distant control (p = 0.032) and borderline significant for disease-free survival (p = 0.067). Conclusion: Despite detection at comparable sizes, the prognostic effect of tumor size in patients with mammographically detected tumors is greater for black than in nonblack patients.

  8. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  9. Early experience with diverse foods increases intake of nonfamiliar flavors and feeds in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2012-08-01

    This study determined whether early experiences by sheep with monotonous or diverse diets influence intake of unfamiliar flavors and feeds later in life. Thirty 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (n = 10): diverse (DIV), diverse with plant toxins (DIV+T), and monotonous (MON). Lambs in DIV received in 9 successive periods of exposure 4-way choice combinations of 2 foods high in energy and 2 foods high in protein from an array of 6 foods: 3 high in energy [beet pulp, oat grain, and a mix of milo:grape pomace (60:40)] and 3 high in digestible protein (DP) (soybean meal, alfalfa, corn gluten meal). Lambs in DIV+T received the same exposure as DIV, but 2 plant toxins, oxalic acid (1.5%) and quebracho tannins (10%), were randomly added to 2 of the feeds in each of the choice combinations. Lambs in MON received a monotonous balanced diet, made with a mixture of all 6 feeds detailed before. All treatments received their feed in 4 separate buckets. During exposure, treatments did not differ in total daily DMI (P = 0.31), but daily intake of ME was less (P 0.05). After exposure, lambs were offered a familiar feed (wheat bran) containing novel flavors (maple, garlic, or bitter) and 2-way choices of novel feeds (fescue hay vs. corn distillers grains, rice vs. calf manna, and green peas vs. rolled oats). Intake of maple-flavored wheat bran tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for lambs in DIV than for lambs in DIV+T and MON. Intake of bitter-flavored and garlic-flavored wheat bran were greater (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. During 2-way choice trials, lambs in DIV, but not in DIV+T, showed greater intakes of fescue hay (P = 0.05) and rice (P = 0.04) than lambs in MON. Intake of green peas was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. At the end of testing, lambs in DIV but not in DIV+T showed greater ADG than lambs in MON (P = 0.05). Thus, early exposure to diverse foods

  10. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer: Review of phase III studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kacprowska, Agata; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery including whole breast irradiation has long been a recommended procedure for early breast cancer. However, conventionally fractionated radiotherapy requires a lengthy hospitalisation or prolonged commuting to a hospital for radiotherapy. In recent years, hypofractionated radiotherapy has increasingly been used. This method involves higher fraction doses (above 2 Gy) as compared to conventional radiotherapy, so the total dose can be delivered in fewer fractions and in...

  11. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  12. Early feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M; Becker, Dorothy;

    2011-01-01

    Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for ß cell autoimmunity, clinical type 1 diabetes, or both. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in...... initially recruited 5606 newborn infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and enrolled 2159 eligible subjects who carried a risk-conferring HLA genotype. All recruited mothers were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6-8 mo with a minimum study formula exposure time of 2 mo...

  13. Bones, breasts, and bisphosphonates: rationale for the use of zoledronic acid in advanced and early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Lipton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Allan LiptonMilton S. Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby inhibiting the release of growth factors necessary to promote cancer cell growth, differentiation, and tumor formation in bone. These agents have demonstrated efficacy for delaying the onset and reducing the incidence of skeletal-related events in the advanced breast cancer setting, and have been shown to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss in the early breast cancer setting. Emerging clinical data indicate that the role of bisphosphonates in advanced and early breast cancer is evolving. Retrospective analyses and recent clinical trial data show that zoledronic acid may improve outcomes in some patients with breast cancer. Data from ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST suggest that zoledronic acid may improve disease-free survival in the adjuvant breast cancer setting in postmenopausal women or women with endocrine therapy-induced menopause, and recent data from a predefined subset of the AZURE trial added to the anticancer story. However, the overall negative AZURE trial also raises questions about the role of bisphosphonates as an anticancer agent in patients with breast cancer. Overall, these data suggest that the addition of zoledronic acid to established anticancer regimens may have potential anticancer benefits in specific patient populations, although more studies are required to define its role.Keywords: anticancer, adjuvant therapy, bone metastasis, skeletal, zoledronic acid

  14. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health. PMID:27288148

  15. Risk of developing atopic disease after early feeding with cows' milk based formula.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Gustafsson; Löwhagen, T; Andersson, K.

    1992-01-01

    A follow up of a cohort of 736 healthy full term children with exposure to cows' milk based formula and breast milk from donors on the maternity ward was performed. The children were divided into three exposure groups according to the feeding patterns on the maternity ward. Group 1 received only mother's milk, group 2 mother's milk and human donors' milk, and group 3 received mother's milk, donors' milk and cows' milk based formula. The children were investigated at 7 years of age, by examini...

  16. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  17. A Study of Protein Energy Malnutrition with respect to Breast Feeding Practices in Less than Six Year Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji V Ukarande, Ajit S Nagaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Results: The Proportion of undernutrition was more in, who has not exclusively breast fed (72.92% and 44.07%, p<0.001, who did not received colostrum (91.74% and 27.64%, p<0.0001. Who received prelacteal feed (94.35% and 25.20%, p<0.05, Breast fed after 1hr of birth. (71.66% and 45.34% (p<0.0001. Who has un-hygienic feeding practices (63.33% and 50.57% p<0.05. Who weaned after 6 months of age (67.11% 43.60%. p<0.001. Conclusion: Adequate breastfeeding counseling and support are essential for mothers and families to initiate and maintain optimal breastfeeding practices. "

  18. Combining multifractal analyses of digital mammograms and infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, E.; Toner, B.; Marin, Z.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Argoul, F.; Khalil, A.; Gileva, O.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We used a 1D wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature recorded with an infrared (IR) camera from a panel of patients with breast cancer. This study shows that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts, is lost in the region of the malignant tumor in cancerous breasts. Then, we applied the 2D WTMM method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same patients. Compared to the correlated roughness fluctuations observed in the healthy areas, some clear loss of correlations is detected in malignant tumor foci. These physiological and architectural changes in the environment of malignant tumors detected in both thermograms and mammograms open new perspectives in computer-aided multifractal methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  19. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An q...

  20. Effects of feed deprivation and electrical, gas, and captive needle stunning on early postmortem muscle metabolism and subsequent meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, B; Schreurs, F J G; Winkelman-Goedhart, H A; Gerritzen, M A; Korf, J; Lambooij, E

    2002-04-01

    The general method for stunning poultry before slaughter is by immersion of a chicken's head into an electrified waterbath. This method results in carcass and meat quality deficiencies. The major problems are hemorrhages and a delay in onset of rigor mortis, which increases the risk of cold shortening with early deboning. In two experiments, this study examines the early postmortem metabolism in the breast muscle and its effect on ultimate meat quality. The first experiment describes the effects of 5 h feed deprivation on the availability of glycogen from the liver and the breast muscle, of waterbath and head-only electrical stunning on pH and metabolite levels up to 6 h in unprocessed muscle, and the consequences on meat quality. The second experiment compares the same measurements after waterbath and head-only electrical stunning, CO2/O2/N2 and Ar/CO2 gases, and captive needle stunning. Metabolic degradation halted after 6 h without processing or after 4 h under conventional conditions after waterbath and CO2/O2/N2 stunning. With other stunning methods, this occurrence is at a faster rate, largely depending on muscle activity. Muscle glycogen does not need to be exhausted for energy generation to cease. If glycogen is a limiting factor, as found with head-only stunning, pH drops too rapidly and affects water-holding capacity and color. Hemorrhage scores were higher with electrical stunning than with other stunning methods. Gas stunning affected color and, to a lesser extent, water-holding capacity. Captive needle stunning scored between gas and electrical stunning on most measurements. PMID:11989757

  1. Early Post Operative Enteral Versus Parenteral Feeding after Esophageal Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadtaghi Rajabi Mashhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is reported to be high. In particular, patients with esophageal cancer are prone to malnutrition, due to preoperative digestive system dysfunctions and short-term non-oral feeding postoperatively. Selection of an appropriate method for feeding in the postoperative period is important in these patients.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with esophageal cancer who had undergone esophagectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 were randomly assigned into either enteral feeding or parenteral feeding groups, with the same calorie intake in each group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, C3, C4 and hs-C-reactive protein          (hs-CRP, as well as the rate of surgical complications, restoration of bowel movements and cost was assessed in each group.   Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of serum albumin, prealbumin or transferrin. However, C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the enteral feeding group compared with the parenteral group, while hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the enteral feeding group. Bowel movements were restored sooner and costs of treatment were lower in the enteral group. Postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups. There was one death in the parenteral group 10 days after surgery due to myocardial infarction.   Conclusion:  The results of our study showed that enteral feeding can be used effectively in the first days after surgery, with few early complications and similar nutritional outcomes compared with the parenteral method. Enteral feeding was associated with reduced inflammation and was associated with an improvement in immunological responses, quicker return of bowel movements, and reduced costs in comparison with parenteral feeding.

  2. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2009-09-01

    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth. PMID:19664551

  3. Adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Present the results of the 1995 World Overview which will be held in Oxford England two weeks before ASTRO. Discuss the interpretation and application of these results. Review current research topics on the use of adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer. The survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women and adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal women are well established. Each will reduce the annual odds of death by about 25% resulting in a 10 year survival difference of 8-10%. By the time of this presentation, the results of the 1995 Adjuvant Therapy Overview should be with 10+ years of follow-up, and if possible these will be summarized. Current efforts to improve on previous results are focused on the following areas: Optimal chemotherapy dose. Decreasing dose will compromise patient survival. It is not as certain that increasing dose will have as much impact in improving survival. The NSABP was unable to demonstrate an improvement in survival by modestly increasing the dose of cyclophosphamide alone. However, recent results of a Canadian study of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epidoxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil) and an Intergroup trial of an intense 16 week polychemotherapy program keep alive the possibility that dose escalation is still a very important question. An NSABP trial evaluating even greater cyclophosphamide dose escalation, an Intergroup evaluation of different doxorubicin doses, and two Intergroup trials evaluating very high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should provide definitive evidence regarding the importance of dose. Drug sequence. A study from Milan suggests that initial treatment with single agent doxorubicin followed by CMF will be superior to alternating doxorubicin and CMF. This has not been confirmed yet, and the reason for increased benefit from such a sequence is not entirely clear. This concept is being explored further in an Intergroup trial comparing four cycles of

  4. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  5. Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer: 3-year results of the German-Austrian phase II-trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate perioperative morbidity, toxicity and cosmetic outcome in patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy to the tumor bed as the sole radiation modality after breast conserving surgery. Materials and methods: from 11/2000 to 11/2004, 240 women with early stage breast cancer participated in a protocol of tumor bed irradiation alone using pulsed dose rate (PDR) or high dose rate (HDR) interstitial multi-catheter implants (partial breast irradiation). Perioperative morbidity, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmetic outcome were assessed. Of the first 51 patients treated in this multicenter trial, we present interim findings after a median follow-up of 36 months. Results: perioperative Morbidity: Bacterial infection of the implant: 2% (1/51). Acute toxicity: radiodermatitis grade 1: 4% (2/51). Late toxicity: breast pain grade 1: 8% (4/51), grade 2: 2% (1/51); dyspigmentation grade 1: 8% (4/51); fibrosis grade 1: 4% (2/51), grade 2: 8% (4/51); telangiectasia grade 1: 10% (5/51), grade 2: 4% (2/51). Cosmetic results: Excellent and good in 94% (48/51) of the patients. Conclusion: this analysis indicates that accelerated partial breast irradiation with 192-iridium interstitial multicatheter PDR-/HDR-implants (partial breast irradiation) is feasible with low perioperative morbidity, low acute and mild late toxicity at a median follow-up of 36 months. The cosmetic result is not significantly affected. (orig.)

  6. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthi, Sashendra, E-mail: sashasenthi@msn.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Chua, Boon H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  7. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  8. Early complementary feeding is associated with low nutritional status of young infants recovering from diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Kabir, I; Habte, D

    1996-06-01

    Young infants admitted to hospital for diarrhoea were studied to identify and understand the reasons for early complementary feeding and to examine its effect on nutritional status. Of 132 infants, 71 percent were being breastfed, 24 percent had already stopped, and 5 percent had never been breastfed. Complementary feeds were started by the mothers when infants' median age (range) was 27 (1-180) days. Mothers' perceptions regarding breastmilk being insufficient (53 per cent) or causing diarrhoea (19 percent), were the major reasons for complementary feeding. The mean weight-for-age of the infants given complementary feeds before the age of 2 months was 72 percent of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards, compared to 82 percent in those starting after 2 months of age (P = 0.01). Similarly, the mean weight-for-length in these two groups were 86 and 91 percent, respectively (P = 0.04). Initiation of early complementary feeding is associated with infant malnutrition and this alarming trend should be strongly discouraged. PMID:8699586

  9. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... mobilisation, which allowed early mobilisation for up to 11 hours on the third postoperative day. Gastrointestinal function with defaecation had returned to normal in 12 patients within the first two postoperative days. Median hospital stay was five days with minimal increase in fatigue and without...... postoperative weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  10. The 10-Year Local Recurrence and Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhen Wang; Ruiying Li

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the local recurrence and the role of whole breast radiotherapy for early breast cancer treated by conservative surgery.METHODS From April 1990 to December 2000, 49 patients with early primary breast cancer were treated by conservative surgery in our hospital. The cases were comprised of Stage 0, 1; Stage Ⅰ, 31; and Stage Ⅱa,17. Forty cases underwent quadrantectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection, and the other 9 cases had lumpectomy alone. Irradiation, which was received by 39 patients, was administered by using low tangential half fields with 6 MV X-ray to decrease the pulmonary irradiative volume.The dose to the whole breast was 45 Gy/22~23f/4.5W, then a 15 Gy boost dose was delivered to the tumor bed by an electron beam. The other patients underwent an irradiated regional field according to postoperative pathology.RESULTS All patients were followed-up for 10 years or more. The 10year local recurrence rates, distant metastasis rates and survival rates were 6.1%, 4.1% and 98.0% respectively. All of the 3 patients who had a local recurrence had infiltrative carcinomas and negative lymph nodes.The 10-year local recurrence rate was higher (2.6% vs. 20.0%) with nonpostoperative whole breast radiotherapy, but the statistical difference was not marked because of the low number of cases. All of the recurrent lesions localized within 3 cm of the primary lesion.CONCLUSION Original recurrence of the tumor was the main type of local recurrence. Radiotherapy after conservative surgery is very essential.After conservative surgery it is feasible that irradiation can be delivered alone to the neighboring region of the tumor bed. Partial breast radiotherapy can substitute for whole breast radiotherapy.

  11. Prone breast radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Women with large breasts have marked dose inhomogeneity and often an inferior cosmetic outcome when treated with breast conservation compared to smaller-sized patients. We designed a prone breast board, which both minimizes breast separation and irradiated lung or heart volume. We report feasibility, cosmesis, and preliminary local control and survival for selected women with Stage 0-II breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients with clinical Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and breast irradiation utilizing a prototype prone breast board. A total of 59 breasts were treated. Indications for treatment in the prone position were large or pendulous breast size (n = 57), or a history of cardiopulmonary disease (n = 2). The median bra size was 41D (range, 34D-44EE). Cosmesis was evaluated on a 1-10 (worst-to-best) scale. Results: Acute toxicity included skin erythema (80% of patients experienced Grade I or Grade II erythema), breast edema (72% of patients experienced mild edema), pruritus (20% of patients), and fatigue (20% of patients reported mild fatigue). One patient required a treatment break. The only late toxicity was related to long-term cosmesis. The mean overall cosmesis score for 53 patients was 9.37 (range, 8-10). Actuarial 3- and 5-year local control rates are 98%. Actuarial overall survival at 3 and 5 years are 98% and 94%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that treating selected women with prone breast radiotherapy is feasible and tolerated. The approach results in excellent cosmesis, and short-term outcome is comparable to traditional treatment techniques. This technique offers an innovative alternative to women who might not otherwise be considered candidates for breast conservation

  12. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy for select early-stage breast cancer: local control and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) via high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Between 2002 and 2006, 48 prospectively selected patients with early-stage breast cancer received APBI using multicatheter brachytherapy following breast-conserving surgery. Their median age was 52 years (range 36-78). A median of 34 Gy (range 30-34) in 10 fractions given twice daily within 5 days was delivered to the tumor bed plus a 1-2 cm margin. Most (92%) patients received adjuvant systemic treatments. The median follow-up was 53 months (range 36-95). Actuarial local control rate was estimated from surgery using Kaplan-Meier method. Local recurrence occurred in two patients. Both were true recurrence/marginal miss and developed in patients with close (< 0.2 cm) surgical margin after 33 and 40 months. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence rate was 4.6%. No regional or distant relapse and death has occurred to date. Late Grade 1 or 2 late skin and subcutaneous toxicity was seen in 11 (22.9%) and 26 (54.2%) patients, respectively. The volumes receiving 100% and 150% of the prescribed dose were significantly higher in the patients with late subcutaneous toxicity (p = 0.018 and 0.034, respectively). Cosmesis was excellent to good in 89.6%. APBI using HDR multicatheter brachytherapy yielded local control, toxicity, and cosmesis comparable to those of conventional whole breast irradiation for select early-stage breast cancer. Patients with close resection margins may be ineligible for APBI

  13. Breast conserving therapy for early stage invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To discuss a number of clinical, pathologic, and treatment related issues in the management of early stage invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. In the last 10 years, prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series have established the role of conservative surgery and radiation in the treatment of early stage invasive breast cancer. This course will focus on some of the unresolved issues in breast conservation therapy including patient selection, the extent of surgery in the breast, and the importance of microscopic resection margins. The impact of adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy or tamoxifen) on breast recurrence will be presented. Factors predicting for an increased risk of recurrence in the treated breast will be presented. Potential candidates for conservative surgery alone with minimally invasive breast cancer will be identified. The impact of improved local control on survival will be discussed. Treatment options for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) including observation, radiation and mastectomy. Results from prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series will be presented in an attempt to identify appropriate treatment strategies for the different clinical presentations and histologic subtypes of DCIS. As cost effective strategies are developed, the role of conservative surgery and radiation in minimally invasive breast cancer and DCIS must be defined

  14. Breast conserving therapy for early state invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To discuss a number of clinical, pathologic, and treatment related issues in the management of early stage invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. In the last 10 years, prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series have established the role of conservative surgery and radiation in the treatment of early stage invasive breast cancer. This course will focus on some of the unresolved issues in breast conservation therapy including patient selection, the extent of surgery in the breast, and the importance of microscopic resection margins. The impact of adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy or tamoxifen) on breast recurrence and complications will be presented. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy will be reviewed. Factors predicting for an increased risk of recurrence in the treated breast will be presented. The diagnosis and treatment of a breast recurrence will be discussed. Treatment options for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) including observation, radiation and mastectomy. Results from prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series will be presented in an attempt to identify appropriate treatment strategies for the different clinical presentations and histologic subtypes of DCIS. As cost effective strategies are developed, the role of conservative surgery and radiation in minimally invasive breast cancer and DCIS must be defined

  15. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II trials and three randomized phase three trials evaluating concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant of breast cancer. In patients with early breast cancer having positive lymph nodes, phases III clinical trials showed that CCRT improved local control after conservative breast surgery. However, these randomized trials used non-standard regimen: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF or fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FNC. In addition, in phases II clinical trials, concurrent use of taxanes and anthracycline with standard whole-breast irradiation showed high rate of toxicity: Pulmonary toxicity with taxane; and cardiac and skin toxicity with anthracycline. Consequentely, CCRT is not be used in practice because of concerns of toxicity with the standard drugs (anthracyclines and taxanes and radiation. Anthracyclines with partial breast irradiation (PBI was feasible according to one phase I clinical trial, and should be investigated in randomized clinical trials. Concurrent Trastuzumab plus radiotherapy is safe and can be used in HER2-positive breast cancer; in this case, cardiac volume sparing and patient selections for internal mammary chain irradiation are highly recommended. The present paper aimed to review the current data evaluating the efficacy and safety of CCRT in early breast cancer.

  16. Feasibility, efficacy and cosmetic effect of three-dimensional conformal external bean partial breast irradiation for the selected early stage breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, efficacy and cosmetic effect of three-dimensional conformal external beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) after breast-conserving surgery for the selected Chinese early stage breast cancer patients. Methods: From June 2003 to December 2010, Forty-four early stage breast cancer patients underwent underwent EB-PBI after breast-conserving surgery. Twenty patients had CT simulation scan in moderate deep inspiration breathing hold, and twenty-four patients in free breathing. EB-PBI was planned and delivered by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with four non-coplanar beams. The prescribed dose was 3.40 Gy per fraction in thirty-nine patients and 3.85 Gy per fraction in five patients, twice per day at an interval of at least six hours, in five consecutive days. Results: The number of patients with follow up time of 2, 3 and 5 years were 39, 31 and 16, Grade 1 acute radiation-induced dermatitis was observed in 17 patients (39%) at three months. Cosmesis was good or excellent in all cases at six months after radiotherapy and in 95% cases at two years after radiotherapy. The 2-, 3- and 5- year local control rates were 100%, 99% and 94%, respectively. The 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were all 100% and no metastases occurred. Conclusions: EB-PBI delivered by 3DCRT is feasible for selected Chinese early stage breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery. The cosmetic effect, local control rate and long-term survival rate are satisfactory, and acute radiation toxicity is very low. (authors)

  17. Feeding pattern a dual risk? otitis media (OM and early childhood caries (ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sangeetha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Otitis media (OM and Early childhood caries (ECC and their coexistence in children with a history of faulty feeding patterns. Method: Children aged 5 years and below were recruited at random from dental and medical hospitals. Parents of these children were posed with questions about the feeding methods, feeding patterns such as duration, frequency, position, burping, specific childhood illness etc. Children (120 were examined for ECC by a Paedodontist and OM by an Otolaryngologist and were segregated into three groups i.e. Control group, ECC group and OM group respectively. The ECC group was sub grouped into ECC only and ECC&OM group. The OM group was also similarly sub grouped into OM group and OM&ECC group. Collected data were tabulated and subjected for statistical analysis using Pearson Chi – square test. Results: Prevalence of ECC, OM, and their coexistence increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Overall Prevalence of their coexistence in children was 51.25%. Significant percentages (25% of children in the OM group were fed in supine position. Children fed on demand (47.5% experienced ECC. overall 85% (p=.017 of children had coexistence of ECC&OM fed on demand and during bed time. Significant numbers of children who were burped occasionally after feeding (35% or were not burped at all (12.5% were affected with both ECC and OM. Conclusion: Prevalence of their coexistence was higher in children with OM. Significant association existed between on demand feeding and ECC; supine feeding position and OM. Risk factors in common for both the disease were combined feeding position, on demand, bed time feeding and occasionally burping.

  18. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  19. The Investigation of Pregnant women' Cognition about Breast Feeding%孕妇对母乳喂养认知情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳秋; 孙美农

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims at knowing about the pregnant women's cognition about breast feeding , the feeding plan for infant and the requirements of breast feeding knowledge , in order to provide basis for clinical to have breast feeding health education . Methods We had an investigar~ tion on 190 pregnant women from obstetrical department outpatient service using a self-designed questionnaire . The main contents of the questionnaire include general materials , breast feeding plan postpartum , breast feeding cognition , knowledge source and the ways and timing of hoping to get breast feeding knowledge . Results There are 159 pregnant women planning to choose pure breast feeding; the average score of breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women is 8 .34+6 .42 , which is quite low; the score and the age and gestational age appears low positive correlation; the situation of taking the initiative for getting breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women from different gestational age and different culture degree has statistical difference ( P<0 .05 ); pregnant women's initiative of getting breast feeding knowledge are different , whose knowledge score has statistical difference ( P<0.05); 70% pregnant women hope to get propaganda and education from medical staffs; 66 .3% of them hope to learn certain knowledge about breast feeding during second trimester . Conclusions The cognition situation about breast feeding of pregnant women is not optimistic . The requirements of propaganda and education from medical staffs are amount . Medical staffs should develop effective breast feeding health education for pregnant women , for laying a foundation to improve the rate of pure breast feeding postpartum .%目的 了解孕妇母乳喂养知识的认知情况,对婴儿的喂养计划及对母乳喂养知识的需求情况,为临床进行母乳喂养方面的健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对产科门诊就诊的190名孕妇进行调查.问卷的主要内容

  20. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  1. Effect of early grain feeding of beef steers on postabsorptive metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Pike, K L; Wiles, T R; McCann, M A; Scheffler, J M; Greiner, S P; Schramm, H H; Gerrard, D E; Jiang, H; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early weaning followed by a period of high-grain feeding on plasma acetate kinetics and signaling protein phosphorylation in LM tissue of growing steers. We hypothesized that early grain feeding would result in altered cell signaling and acetate use to support observed improvements in carcass gain and marbling. Fall-born Angus × Simmental steers were weaned at 106 ± 4 d of age (early weaned [EW]; n = 6) and fed a high-grain diet for 148 d or remained with their dams (normal weaned [NW]; n = 6) on pasture until weaning at 251 ± 5 d of age. Both treatments were subsequently combined and grazed on mixed summer pasture to 394 ± 5 d of age followed by a feedlot ration until harvest at 513 ± 5 d of age. Longissimus muscle tissue biopsies were collected at 253 ± 5 and 394 ± 5 d of age and at harvest. Total and phosphorylated forms of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and downstream proteins of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Eight steers were used to assess acetate clearance at different age points via a bolus infusion of acetate (4 mmol/kg of BW). Early weaned steers had greater (P carcass weights, but observed changes in acetate appearance and clearance rates do not appear to explain the observed differences in intramuscular fat deposition during the terminal feeding period. PMID:26020339

  2. Stereotactic Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (SAPBI for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Rationale, Feasibility and Early Experience using the CyberKnife Radiosurgery Delivery Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola eOBAYOMI-DAVIES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI utilizing brachytherapy or conventional external beam radiation has been studied in early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery. Data regarding stereotactic treatment approaches are emerging. The CyberKnife linear accelerator enables excellent dose conformality to target structures while adjusting for target and patient motion. We report our institutional experience on the technical feasibility and rationale for SAPBI delivery using the CyberKnife radiosurgery system.Methods: Ten patients completed CyberKnife SAPBI in 2013 at Georgetown University Hospital. Four gold fiducials were implanted around the lumpectomy cavity prior to treatment under ultrasound guidance. The synchrony system tracked intrafraction motion of the fiducials. The clinical target volume (CTV was defined on contrast enhanced CT scans using surgical clips and post-operative changes. A 5 mm expansion was added to create the planning treatment volume (PTV. A total dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the PTV in 5 consecutive fractions. Target and critical structure doses were assessed as per the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-39 study.Results: At least 3 fiducials were tracked in 100% of cases. The Mean treated PTV was 70 cm3 and the mean prescription isodose line was 80%. Mean dose to target volumes and constraints are as follows: 100% of the PTV received the prescription dose (PTV30. The volume of the ipsilateral breast receiving 30 Gy (V30 and above 15 Gy (V>15 was 14% and 31% respectively. The ipsilateral lung volume receiving 9 Gy (V9 was 3% and the contralateral lung volume receiving 1.5 Gy (V1.5 was 8%. For left sided breast cancers, the volume of heart receiving 1.5 Gy (V1.5 was 31%. Maximum skin dose was 36 Gy. At a median follow up of 1.3 years, all patients have experienced excellent/good breast cosmesis outcomes, and no breast events have been recorded

  3. Sector resection with and without radiotherapy in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 a prospective, multicentre randomized trial of breast preserving surgery for invasive histopathological stage I breast cancer was started in the Uppsala-Oerebro health care region in Sweden. After identical preoperative investigation and surgical treatment, patients are randomly allocated to receive postoperative radiation with 54 Gy to the remaining breast for five weeks, or to serve as controls. The primary aim of the trial is to determine whether a standardized surgical technique aiming at local tumour radicality can reduce the rate of local recurrence to an acceptable level without postoperative radiotherapy. In December 1987 a second trial was initiated, with an almost identical design but including women with tumours mammographically 21-30 mm in diameter and with histopathologically negative nodes. The first trial is near the termination of patient accrual. Studies of the cosmetic result and of the psychosocial adjustment after breast conserving therapy as compared with mastectomy have been coupled to the trials. Among 263 patients who answered a questionnaire, 96.5% found the new appearance of the treated breast good or acceptable. The psychosocial adjustment was assessed in semi-structured interviews 4 and 13 months postoperatively in 99 women, 37 of whom underwent breast conserving surgery and the remainder modified radical mastectomy. There was a consistent but statistically non-significant tendency for the conservatively treated women to adjust better. Overall 5% of the women in the conservatively treated group and 22% of the mastectomized women are still suffering substantial psychosocial disturbance after 13 months. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of dosimetry and clinical outcome using intensity modulated radiation therapy for early breast cancer patients after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the dosimetric benefits, clinical effect and side-respond of whole breast using intensity modulated radiotherapy for early breast cancer after conservative surgery. Methods: From Oct. 2004 to Aug. 2005, 103 patients received the whole breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A dosimetric comparison of IMRT with conventional radiotherapy (CR) was performed on each patient. The cosmetic results, clinical effect and side-respond were observed. Results: The average volume proportion of 95% and 107% prescribed dose was 95.8% ± 4.90% and 84.0% ± 20.7% (t=9.60, P20 (lung volume of accepted > 20 Gy/all lung volume x 100%) of the ipsilateral lung were 15.70% ± 4.64% and 23.11% ± 7.88% (t=-13.3, P30 of the heart were 4.44% ± 3.93% and 15.55% ± 10.89% (t=-11.3, P<0.01) with IMRT and CR respectively for sixty-three left side breast cancer patients. The 1- and 2-year excellent rate of good cosmetic outcome was both 100%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year local control rate was 99%, 99% and 98 %, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year disease-free survival rate was 99%, 99% and 96%, respectively. The Grade 1 and 2 acute radiation skin reaction rate was 95.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional radiotherapy, IMRT improves dose distribution of CTV and reduce the dose of normal tissue around CTV; but with better clinical effects and lower side-respond for early breast cancer patients after' breast conservative surgery. (authors)

  5. Breast hypoplasia following irradiation of the female breast in infancy and early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and the degree of breast hypoplasia were studied in 129 women irradiated with ionizing radiation in infancy or childhood for hemangioma located in the breast region. The patients were born between 1934 and 1943 and were treated at Radiumhemmet before 4 years of age. Dosimetry was based on treatment data. The mean absorbed dose to the breast anlage was 2.3 Gy. Breast asymmetry was estimated by a mailed questionnaire to all patients and by a clinical examination of 53 patients living in Stockholm Country. Breast hypoplasia on the treated side was reported by 57% of the patients and on the contralateral side by 8%. A breast hypoplasia exceeding 10% was found in 53% of the clinically examined patients on the treated side and in 9% on the contralateral side. The frequency and the severity of impaired breast development increased with the absorbed dose. The possibility of a threshold dose for the occurrence of breast hypoplasia could neither be established nor ruled out. (orig.)

  6. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  7. Identifying Geographic Disparities in the Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxme Hariharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIdentifying communities with lower rates of mammography screening is a critical step to providing targeted screening programs; however, population-based data necessary for identifying these geographic areas are limited. This study presents methods to identify geographic disparities in the early detection of breast cancer.MethodsData for all women residing in Dane County, Wisconsin, at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis from 1981 through 2000 (N = 4769 were obtained from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System (Wisconsin’s tumor registry by ZIP code of residence. Hierarchical logistic regression models for disease mapping were used to identify geographic differences in the early detection of breast cancer.ResultsThe percentage of breast cancer cases diagnosed in situ (excluding lobular carcinoma in situ increased from 1.3% in 1981 to 11.9% in 2000. This increase, reflecting increasing mammography use, occurred sooner in Dane County than in Wisconsin as a whole. From 1981 through 1985, the proportion of breast cancer diagnosed in situ in Dane county was universally low (2%–3%. From 1986 through 1990, urban and suburban ZIP codes had significantly higher rates (10% compared with rural ZIP codes (5%. From 1991 through 1995, mammography screening had increased in rural ZIP codes (7% of breast cancer diagnosed in situ. From 1996 through 2000, mammography use was fairly homogeneous across the entire county (13%–14% of breast cancer diagnosed in situ.ConclusionThe percentage of breast cancer cases diagnosed in situ increased in the state and in all areas of Dane County from 1981 through 2000. Visual display of the geographic differences in the early detection of breast cancer demonstrates the diffusion of mammography use across the county over the 20-year period.

  8. Early diagnostic value of survivin and its alternative splice variants in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin and its splice variants are differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues. Our previous work showed Survivin is released from tumor cells via small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes. We, therefore, hypothesize that analysis of serum exosomal Survivin and its splice variants may provide a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer. We collected sera from forty breast cancer patients and ten control patients who were disease free for 5 years after treatment. In addition, twenty-three paired breast cancer tumor tissues from those same 40 patients were analyzed for splice variants. Serum levels of Survivin were analyzed using ELISA and exosomes were isolated from this serum using the commercially available ExoQuick kit, with subsequent Western blots and immunohistochemistry performed. Survivin levels were significantly higher in all the breast cancer samples compared to controls (p < 0.05) with exosome amounts significantly higher in cancer patient sera compared to controls (p < 0.01). While Survivin and Survivin-∆Ex3 splice variant expression and localization was identical in serum exosomes, differential expression of Survivin-2B protein existed in the exosomes. Similarly, Survivin and Survivin-∆Ex3 proteins were the predominant forms detected in all of the breast cancer tissues evaluated in this study, whereas a more variable expression of Survivin-2B level was found at different cancer stages. In this study we show for the first time that like Survivin, the Survivin splice variants are also exosomally packaged in the breast cancer patients’ sera, mimicking the survivin splice variant pattern that we also report in breast cancer tissues. Differential expression of exosomal-Survivin, particularly Survivin-2B, may serve as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker, a “liquid biopsy” if you will, in early breast cancer patients. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of the role of this

  9. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  10. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse...

  11. Identifying Geographic Disparities in the Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using a Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Luxme Hariharan; Ronald E. Gangnon, PhD; Patrick L. Remington, MD, MPH; Jane A. McElroy, PhD; LeAnn D. Andersen, MS

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Identifying communities with lower rates of mammography screening is a critical step to providing targeted screening programs; however, population-based data necessary for identifying these geographic areas are limited. This study presents methods to identify geographic disparities in the early detection of breast cancer. Methods Data for all women residing in Dane County, Wisconsin, at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis from 1981 through 2000 (N = 4769) were obtained from...

  12. Psychosocially Influenced Cancer: Diverse Early-Life Stress Experiences and Links to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Linda A.; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page XXX in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to id...

  13. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Tudorica; Oh, Karen Y.; Stephen Y-C Chui; Nicole Roy; Troxell, Megan L.; Arpana Naik; Kathleen A Kemmer; Yiyi Chen; Megan L Holtorf; Aneela Afzal; Charles S Springer Jr.; Xin Li; Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB). Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Eval...

  14. The value of mammography, color doppler ultrasound and biopsy in diagnosis of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of mammography, color Doppler ultrasound and biopsy in early breast cancer and to evaluate its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: 55 patients with breast cancer and 25 patients with benign breast masses, proved pathologically, were checked by mammography, color Doppler ultrasound and biopsy. Results: Mammography demonstrated breast cancer in 45 cases, the sensitivity and specificity were 82.0% and 88.0%, respectively, with the accuracy of 83.8%; Color Doppler ultrasound revealed breast cancer in 43 cases, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 78.2%, 84.0% and 80.0%; Biopsy demonstrated breast cancer in 53 cases, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 96.4%, 92.0% and 95.0%. When ultrasound, mammography and biopsy were combined together, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 98.2%, 96.0% and 97.5%. Conclusion: Mammography, color Doppler ultrasound combined with biopsy can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of early breast cancers

  15. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  16. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Choi; Gerhard Fusch; Niels Rochow; Christoph Fusch

    2016-01-01

    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce suc...

  17. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. PMID:26805998

  18. Conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of 402 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy between 1979 and 1992 w as done. Disease free and actuarial survival rates, local, regional and distant recurrence rates and treatment related acute and chronic complications were evaluated according to stage. The technique and dose of radiotherapy were assessed in relation to stage of the disease, status of margin of lumpectomy and cosmetic results. Treatment related morbidity was minimal and overall cosmetic results were excellent. In stage 0 (in situ), I and II survival at 12 years has been 100%, 90% and 80% respectively. It is concluded that breast conservation treatment is an appropriate method of primary therapy, along with radiation therapy, for women with Stage I and II breast cancer

  19. Evaluation of the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Beiqi; Hua, Jing; Wang, Yijing; Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast milk expression (breast pumping) has become prevalent as an important dimension of breastfeeding behavior. It is, however, not clear whether increasing breast milk expression contributes to extend the duration of breastfeeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of breast milk expression in early postpartum period on breastfeeding duration amongst mothers of healthy term infants. Methods A prospective cohort study had been conducted from March to J...

  20. The influence of genetic variation in thirty selected genes on the clinical characteristics of early onset breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, William; Hammond, Victoria; Gerty, Sue; Ennis, Sarah; Simmonds, Peter; Collins, Andrew; Eccles, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: common variants that alter breast cancer risk are being discovered. Here, we determine how these variants influence breast cancer prognosis, risk and tumour characteristics. Methods: we selected 1,001 women with early onset nonfamilial invasive breast cancer from the Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) cohort and genotyped 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 30 candidate genes. After quality control, 899 cases and 13...

  1. 'Breast is not always best': South Asian women's experiences of infant feeding in the UK within an acculturation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Kubra; Wallace, Louise M

    2012-01-01

    Acculturating to a host country has a negative impact on immigrant women's breastfeeding practices, particularly when coming from countries where breastfeeding rates are higher than Western countries. Whether this is true of those immigrating to the UK remains to be investigated. The study aimed to explore whether acculturating to the UK had detrimental effects on breastfeeding practices of South Asian women, and to provide explanations as to how acculturation may have exerted its influence. Twenty South Asian women completed semi-structured interviews exploring infant feeding experiences. Data were thematically analysed. A bidimensional measure assessed women's acculturation status. Women displaying low acculturation levels were aware of living in a formula-feeding culture but this had little influence on breastfeeding intentions/behaviours; drawing upon South Asian cultural teachings of the psychological benefits of breast milk. These women opted to formula-feed in response to their child's perceived demands or in a bid to resolve conflict; either when receiving information about the best feeding method or between their roles as a mother and daughter-in-law. Highly acculturated women also experienced such conflict; their awareness of the formula-feeding culture governed feeding choice. The findings provide a picture of how acculturation may affect South Asian women's breastfeeding intentions and behaviours; encouraging health service providers to meet the varying needs of an acculturating population. If breastfeeding is to be encouraged, it is necessary to understand factors influencing feeding choice; with particular attention to the acculturation pathways that may govern such decisions. This paper highlights ways to tailor information for South Asian women depending on levels of acculturation. PMID:22136221

  2. miRNAs as potential biomarkers in early breast cancer detection following mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sidney W; Lee, Woojin; Coffey, Caitrin; Lean, Alexa; Wu, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiaohui; Man, Yan-Gao; Brem, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women, except for skin cancers. About 12 % women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. Currently one of the most accepted model/theories is that ductal breast cancer (most common type of breast cancer) follows a linear progression: from normal breast epithelial cells to ductal hyperplasia to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and finally to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Distinguishing pure ADH diagnosis from DCIS and/or IDC on mammography, and even combined with follow-up core needle biopsy (CNB) is still a challenge. Therefore subsequent surgical excision cannot be avoided to make a definitive diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a highly abundant class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which contribute to cancer initiation and progression, and are differentially expressed between normal and cancer tissues. They can function as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. With accumulating evidence of the role of miRNAs in breast cancer progression, including our own studies, we sought to summarize the nature of early breast lesions and the potential use of miRNA molecules as biomarkers in early breast cancer detection. In particular, miRNA biomarkers may potentially serve as a companion tool following mammography screening and CNB. In the long-term, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the miRNA signatures associated with breast cancer development could potentially result in the development of novel strategies for disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26819702

  3. Radiation therapy after breast augmentation or reconstruction in early or recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients whose augmented or reconstructed breasts were treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. Silicone gel implants were used in 13 patients and free-injected silicone in one patient. The total radiation dose ranged from 4400 to 6200 cGy using tangential photon fields or an en face electron field by megavoltage equipment. In several cases, electron boost radiation was added to the tumor bed. The majority of the patients tolerated therapy well with minimal transient skin reactions; only three patients required a treatment break secondary to moist desquamation. Three patients developed documented implant encapsulation, although the majority retained good to excellent cosmesis. In summary, when breast carcinoma arises in the augmented or reconstructed breast, conservative management (i.e., limited surgery and definitive irradiation) is feasible without compromising the therapy or the cosmetic result. Thus, conservative management should be offered as an option to patients who are interested in breast prosthesis conservation

  4. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of nuclear medicine physician's attitudes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The present survey was undertaken to approach the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire (see infra) was sent to all (201) Belgian Nuclear Physicians. Results: 78 answers (39 %) were received. During pregnancy, do you accept to perform Tc-99m lung perfusion scan ? First 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 16%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 51%; No: 33%. After 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 24% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 52% ; No: 24%. Tc-99m ventilation scan? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 10%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 11%; No: 79%. After 3 months : Yes, using standard protocol: 15%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 19%; No: 66%. Other diagnostic tests using Tc-99m? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 12%; No: 84%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 17%; No: 79%. Other diagnostic tests using other radioisotopes? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. In breast-feeding women do you accept to perform Tc-99m diagnostic tests? No: 11%. Yes, using standard protocol: 0%. Yes, provided a breast-feeding break: 89%. In those situations is an informed consent necessary? Yes: 42% ; No: 58%. Conclusion: These results are quite similar to those obtained in other countries; given the diversity of the opinions expressed, practical guidelines defining a standardized attitude would be helpful

  5. The choice of multi-beam IMRT for whole breast radiotherapy in early-stage right breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciislamoglu, Emel; Colak, Fatma; Canyilmaz, Emine; Zengin, Ahmet Yasar; Yilmaz, Ahmet Hakan; Yoney, Adnan; Bahat, Zumrut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a rational strategy for the selection of multi-beam IMRT in patients with right breast cancer through the comparison of dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) using five different radiotherapy modalities. This was a retrospective study using computed tomography scans from ten patients with early-stage right breast cancer who had been treated previously. Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), forward-planned IMRT (for-IMRT), inverse-planned IMRT (inv-IMRT), helical tomotherapy (HT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were planned for each patient. The plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis. The most significant impact of inverse-planned multi-beam modalities for right breast cancer was the reduction of Dmax, Dmean, V53.5 and prescribed dose volume (cc) outside of the PTV (breast) (OB-V50) of the PTV. HT decreased the ipsilateral OAR volumes receiving higher doses. In exchange, HT also increased the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. The heart, LAD, and contralateral doses for 3DCRT and for-IMRT were significantly lower than those for inv-IMRT, HT, and VMAT. In addition, inv-IMRT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of heart, LAD, ipsilateral lung, and contralateral lung compared with those parameters for HT or VMAT. Although it is known to reduce cardiac toxicity with breath hold technique in left sided breast cancer, similarly it is possible for 3DCRT and for-IMRT techniques in right sided breast cancer even in free breathing. PMID:27350922

  6. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  7. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    helped to prevent misinterpretations of the clinical data. The study provided the most detailed description of HRQL during and after breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy to date, and compared results of chemotherapy against ovarian ablation. It also provided controversial results concerning the prognostic...

  8. Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whet...

  9. A nested case-control study of adjuvant hormonal therapy persistence and compliance, and early breast cancer recurrence in women with stage I-III breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence. Methods: A nested case–control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiati...

  10. A nested case–control study of adjuvant hormonal therapy persistence and compliance, and early breast cancer recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, T I; Cahir, C; Sharp, L.; Bennett, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence. Methods: A nested case–control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiation, were matched to contr...

  11. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  12. Immediate reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy: one option for young breast cancer patients with early stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rachel L; Kelz, Rachel R; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2013-06-01

    The article entitled "Application of immediate breast reconstruction with silicon prosthetic implantation following bilateral mammary gland excision in treatment of young patients with early breast cancer" published in Journal of Thoracic Disease, examined the oncologic and cosmetic outcomes of the aforementioned procedures. We aimed to describe the unique circumstances of young breast cancer patients with early stage disease and highlight the multitude of surgical treatment and reconstructive options available to these patients. PMID:23825742

  13. Immediate reconstruction following nipple-sparing mastectomy: one option for young breast cancer patients with early stage disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rachel L; Kelz, Rachel R; Czerniecki, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The article entitled “Application of immediate breast reconstruction with silicon prosthetic implantation following bilateral mammary gland excision in treatment of young patients with early breast cancer” published in Journal of Thoracic Disease, examined the oncologic and cosmetic outcomes of the aforementioned procedures. We aimed to describe the unique circumstances of young breast cancer patients with early stage disease and highlight the multitude of surgical treatment and reconstructiv...

  14. Novel Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging Methods for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-12-01

    Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) methods are presented and compared for early breast cancer detection. Due to the significant contrast between the dielectric properties of normal and malignant breast tissues, developing microwave imaging techniques for early breast cancer detection has attracted much interest lately. MAMI is one of the microwave imaging modalities and employs multiple antennas that take turns to transmit ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses while all antennas are used to receive the reflected signals. MAMI can be considered as a special case of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar with the multiple transmitted waveforms being either UWB pulses or zeros. Since the UWB pulses transmitted by different antennas are displaced in time, the multiple transmitted waveforms are orthogonal to each other. The challenge to microwave imaging is to improve resolution and suppress strong interferences caused by the breast skin, nipple, and so forth. The MAMI methods we investigate herein utilize the data-adaptive robust Capon beamformer (RCB) to achieve high resolution and interference suppression. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods for breast cancer detection via numerical examples with data simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method based on a 3D realistic breast model.

  15. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  16. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  17. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  18. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (follow-up 1997-2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10 and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (Level 1 most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12-13 and 14-17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5-10, 10-20 and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1-2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (confidence interval = 1.04-1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29-2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  19. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  20. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17...... unselected patients (median age 69 years) undergoing colonic resection. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received combined epidural and general anaesthesia during operations and after operation were given continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25%, 4 ml hour and morphine 0.2 mg hour, for 96 hours and oral paracetamol 4 g....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and...

  1. Development of a novel approach for breast cancer prediction and early detection using minimally invasive procedures and molecular analysis: how cytomorphology became a breast cancer risk predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    With enhanced public awareness, advances in breast imaging, and emphasis on early breast cancer detection and prevention, more women are seeking consultation to assess the status of their breast health. Risk assessment has become an integral part of established multi-disciplinary breast care, and breast cancer risk reduction interventions have received a great deal of attention. Similarly, interest in identification of high-risk individuals has increased significantly. Atypical proliferative changes in breast epithelial cells are ranked high among various known breast cancer risk factors and, in recent years, have been the subject of several investigations. Breast tissue and fluid in the ductal system provide a rich source of cells and biomarkers that have the potential to aid in the assessment of short-term risk of breast cancer development, and assess responses to interventional prevention efforts. There are three minimally invasive procedures currently being utilized to sample breast tissue in asymptomatic high-risk individuals. These procedures are: fine-needle aspiration biopsy, nipple aspiration fluid, and ductal lavage. In this review article, the merits and limitations of each procedure are presented, and the contribution of cytomorphology and molecular analysis in breast cancer prediction is highlighted. In addition, the role of Masood Cytology Index as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in chemopreventative trials is discussed. PMID:25556774

  2. Tangential Radiotherapy Without Axillary Surgery in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the risk of regional-nodal recurrence in patients with early-stage, invasive breast cancer, with clinically negative axillary nodes, who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, 'high tangential' breast radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery or the use of a separate nodal radiation field. Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and November 2003, 74 patients who were ≥55 years of age with Stage I-II clinically node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer underwent tumor excision to negative margins without axillary surgery as a part of a multi-institutional prospective study. Postoperatively, all underwent high-tangential, whole-breast radiotherapy with a boost to the tumor bed, followed by 5 years of hormonal therapy. Results: For the 74 patients enrolled, the median age was 74.5 years, and the median pathologic tumor size was 1.2 cm. Lymphatic vessel invasion was present in 5 patients (7%). At a median follow-up of 52 months, no regional-nodal failures or ipsilateral breast recurrences had been identified (95% confidence interval, 0-4%). Eight patients died, one of metastatic disease and seven of other causes. Conclusion: In this select group of mainly older patients with early-stage hormone-responsive breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes, treatment with high-tangential breast radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, without axillary surgery, yielded a low regional recurrence rate. Such patients might be spared more extensive axillary treatment (axillary surgery, including sentinel node biopsy, or a separate nodal radiation field), with its associated time, expense, and morbidity

  3. Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J

    2008-08-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  4. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone

  5. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, Olga, E-mail: olga.vujovic@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Cherian, Anil [Station Health Centre, Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, Moray (United Kingdom); Dar, A. Rashid [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Department of Biometry, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  6. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns

  7. Adoption of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A National Cancer Data Base Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Rutter, Charles E.; Evans, Suzanne B. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of patient, hospital, and cancer characteristics with the adoption of hypofractionation in a national sample of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004-2011 who were treated with radiation therapy and met eligibility criteria for hypofractionation. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of hypofractionation (vs conventional fractionation). Results: We identified 13,271 women (11.7%) and 99,996 women (88.3%) with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with hypofractionation and conventional fractionation, respectively. The use of hypofractionation increased significantly, with 5.4% of patients receiving it in 2004 compared with 22.8% in 2011 (P<.001 for trend). Patients living ≥50 miles from the cancer reporting facility had increased odds of receiving hypofractionation (odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.44-1.72], P<.001). Adoption of hypofractionation was associated with treatment at an academic center (P<.001) and living in an area with high median income (P<.001). Hypofractionation was less likely to be used in patients with high-risk disease, such as increased tumor size (P<.001) or poorly differentiated histologic grade (P<.001). Conclusions: The use of hypofractionation is rising and is associated with increased travel distance and treatment at an academic center. Further adoption of hypofractionation may be tempered by both clinical and nonclinical concerns.

  8. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

  9. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz;

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with an advantage to infant neurobehavioral development, possibly in part due to essential nutrients in breast milk. However, breast milk may be contaminated by environmental neurotoxicants, such as methylmercury. In the Faroe Islands, where maternal consumption of...... pilot whale may cause transfer of marine toxicants into breast milk, a cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1986-87. Methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and in the hair of the child at age 12 months, and the duration of breastfeeding...

  10. Aedes aegypti midgut early trypsin is post-transcriptionally regulated by blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, F G; Pennington, J E; Barillas-Mury, C; Wang, X Y; Wells, M A

    1996-02-01

    Early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the Aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. Early trypsin gene expression was studied by Northern blot analysis. The early trypsin mRNA, absent in larvae, pupae and newly emerged females, reaches detectable levels at 24 h post-emergence and attains a maximum level at an adult age of 4-7 days. After the first week there is a decrease in the steady-state level of the transcript, but it remains readily detectable for up to a month after emergence. Despite the high levels of early trypsin mRNA present in the midgut of the unfed female, translation of the early trypsin mRNA occurs only after a blood or a protein meal. Early trypsin mRNA levels rapidly decrease during the first 24 h after feeding, but the steady-state level of the transcript rises again at the end of the blood digestion cycle (60 h), as the mosquito prepares for a second blood meal. PMID:8630532

  11. Optimal approach in early breast cancer: Radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Poortmans, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy significantly reduces by at least 70% the relative risk of local and regional recurrences for breast cancer after surgery. A positive influence on overall survival has been clearly demonstrated, especially for patients with a high absolute risk for locoregional recurrences. However, this is partially counterbalanced by late toxicity (dependent upon the radiation dose) especially to cardiac structures. Apart from this toxicity, a clear influence of radiation-therapy-related f...

  12. Surgical management for early-stage bilateral breast cancer patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jian Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China.This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014.A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5% suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC, and 296 (2.0% suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC. Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC.Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options.

  13. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  14. SAFETY OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER TRANSHIATAL ESOPHAGECTOMY : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding is the best means of nutrition in surgical patients. There arc many reports on early oral feeding after lower gastrointestinal {(il operations but data regarding upper Gl procedures is rather scant. This limited study rocuses 011 early removal of nasogastric tube and start of oral diet after transhiatal csophagcctomy. We prospectively evaluated 13 consecutive patients (8 males. 5 females with esophageal cancer who had undergone rranshiatal csophngcctomy from March 100 I to September :lOrn. Nasogustric tube was removed on post-op day 1 and clear liquids started on day 3. Diet was advanced to son regular in tile next 5 days if the patients tolerated it. Mean age of patients was 63 years."nMenu body weight and serum albumin level were 57.9 kg and 3.73 gr/dl., respectively. Tumor pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 11 cases and adenocarcinoma in I. Location oftumor was at the lower third of the esophagus in 11 cases and middle third in one. All patients ill the study group tolerated tile protocol well. Only one patient had nausea after oral intake, without vomiting. We had one neck wound infection and OIlC pulmonary infection. There was no anastomotic leakage or fistula. A group of I( esophageal cancer patients undergoing trnnshiuta! csophagcctomy in the same period ""'('I'C used as the control group. One anastomotic leakage occurred in control group. We had no significant complication. Early nasogastric tube removal and oral feeding seems to be safe in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transhiatal csophagcctcmy.

  15. Results of breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer and the role of mammographic follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The following article is a review of 23 years of breast-conserving therapy in our hospital. This study was performed to assess and improve the follow-up care of women with early breast cancer and to evaluate whether or not biannual mammogram is useful. Methods and Materials: Between 1972 and December 1995, 3072 women with pathological size pT1 and pT2 breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Eighty-five patients developed a recurrence in the treated breast as the first site of failure, 12 of which had positive axillary nodes. In the following patient study, those with an noninvasive recurrence were excluded. A retrospective assessment of the entire mammographic course was made, starting with the mammogram at the time of original diagnosis to the mammogram of the recurrence. Results: In our study group the probability for local failure ranged from 1 to 2% per year. At 5 and 10 years the actuarial rates were 5 and 10%. The median time to recurrence was 41 months (range 8-161). Twenty-six (31%) recurrences were detected by mammography alone, 10 (12%) by clinical examination only, and 35 (41%) by both methods. For the patients with an ipsilateral recurrence, the overall actuarial 5- and 10-year survival after treatment was 87 and 70%, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of survival from salvage mastectomy was 61%. Conclusion: Considering the high percentage of recurrences detectable by mammography and the possibility of detection within a short-term interval, we think biannual mammographic follow-up is appropriate for the first years following breast-conserving therapy

  16. Effect of 3 postmortem electrical stimulation treatments on the quality of early deboned broiler breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Lawrence, K

    2010-08-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) immediately prescalding (PS), ES immediately postdefeathering (PD), or PS combined with PD (PSPD) on the quality of early deboned (2 h) broiler breast muscles, pectoralis major (fillets), and pectoralis minor (tenders). No stimulation, early-deboned (2 h), and 24-h deboned (24 h) fillets were used for the comparison. The 42-d-old broiler carcasses were electrically stimulated with pulsed current at 200 V for 30 s over a 90-s time interval (total of 1 min over 180 s for PSPD), and breast meat was deboned 2 h postmortem. Quality indicators evaluated were CIE L*, a*, and b* color and pH of the raw fillets and cook yields and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force of the fillets and tenders. There were no differences in raw fillet color, pH, and cook yields of both the fillets and tenders between the 3 ES treatments. Effects of different ES treatments on meat WB shear force values varied with breast muscles. For the fillets, the average WB shear force values of both the PS and PSPD samples, which were not different from each other, were significantly lower than those of the PD samples. For the tenders, there were no differences in the average shear force values between the 3 ES treatments. Regardless of ES treatment and breast muscle, early deboned broiler breast meat from ES carcasses required significantly less force to shear than the 2-h control. These results indicate that ES can tenderize early deboned poultry breast muscles; however, the effectiveness of ES tenderization varies with ES treatments for the fillets. The PS treatment is more effective in reducing fillet shear values than PD, and there is no further reduction in shear values with PSPD compared with the PS treatment. PMID:20634531

  17. Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims to use isotopic techniques to measure energy expenditure and breast milk intake of children, and the energy expenditure and breast milk production of lactating mothers. Two separate methods are being used, both of which involve the use of doubly labelled water. The present report presents growth rate date on the children and data on how they spend their time; the isotopic analysis has not yet been performed. 5 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Conservative Surgery and Primary Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer; Yonsei Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Hy De; Lee, Kyung Sik; Jung, Woo Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Breast conserving surgery and irradiation is now accepted as preferable treatment method for the patients with stage I and II breast cancer. Our institution activated team approach for breast conservation 1991 and treated on hundred and forty patients during the next three years. Purpose: To present our early experience with eligibility criteria, treatment techniques, and the morbidities of primary radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty four patients with early stage breast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1992 were evaluated. All patients received partial mastectomy(wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Total dose of 4500-5040 cGy in 5-5 1/2 weeks was given to entire involved breast and boost dose of 1000-2000 cGy in 1-2 weeks was given to the primary tumor site. Linac 4 MV X-ray was used for breast irradiation and electron beam was used for boost. Thirty five patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. Patients characteristics, treatment techniques, and treatment related morbidities were analyzed. Results: Age distribution was ranged from 23 to 59 year old with median age of 40. Twenty-seven patients had T1 lesions and 34 patients had T2 lesions. In three patients, pathologic diagnosis was ductal carcinoma in situ. Thirty-seven patients were N0 and 27 patients were N1. There were three recurrences, one in the breast and two distant metastases during follow-up period(6-30 months, median 14 months). Only one breast recurrence occurred at undetected separate lesion with microcalcifications on initial mammogram. There was no serious side reaction which interrupted treatment courses or severe late complication. Only one symptomatic radiation pneumonitis and one asymptomatic radiation peumonitis were noted. Conclusions: Conservative surgery and primary radiotherapy for early breast cancer in proven to be safe and comfortable treatment method without

  19. Conservative Surgery and Primary Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer; Yonsei Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conserving surgery and irradiation is now accepted as preferable treatment method for the patients with stage I and II breast cancer. Our institution activated team approach for breast conservation 1991 and treated on hundred and forty patients during the next three years. Purpose: To present our early experience with eligibility criteria, treatment techniques, and the morbidities of primary radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty four patients with early stage breast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1992 were evaluated. All patients received partial mastectomy(wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Total dose of 4500-5040 cGy in 5-5 1/2 weeks was given to entire involved breast and boost dose of 1000-2000 cGy in 1-2 weeks was given to the primary tumor site. Linac 4 MV X-ray was used for breast irradiation and electron beam was used for boost. Thirty five patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. Patients characteristics, treatment techniques, and treatment related morbidities were analyzed. Results: Age distribution was ranged from 23 to 59 year old with median age of 40. Twenty-seven patients had T1 lesions and 34 patients had T2 lesions. In three patients, pathologic diagnosis was ductal carcinoma in situ. Thirty-seven patients were N0 and 27 patients were N1. There were three recurrences, one in the breast and two distant metastases during follow-up period(6-30 months, median 14 months). Only one breast recurrence occurred at undetected separate lesion with microcalcifications on initial mammogram. There was no serious side reaction which interrupted treatment courses or severe late complication. Only one symptomatic radiation pneumonitis and one asymptomatic radiation peumonitis were noted. Conclusions: Conservative surgery and primary radiotherapy for early breast cancer in proven to be safe and comfortable treatment method without

  20. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Yang, G.; Li, H. L.; Elasy, T; Zheng, W; Shu, X.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between lifetime breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large population-based cohort study of middle-aged women. Methods This was a prospective study of 62,095 middle-aged parous women in Shanghai, China, who had no prior history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment. Breast-feeding history, dietary intake, physical activity and anthropometric measureme...

  1. Clinical analysis of early breast cancer%早期乳腺癌临床分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛陈毅; 倪启超

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To improve early det ection and diagnosis of breast cancer.Methods:Retrospective clinical analysis was done of the ages of onset of breast cancer, early diagnosis, histological types and surgical methods.Results:162 cases were clinically cured with early breast cancer, and the follow-up results showed that the 1-year and the 3-year sur-vival rates were 100% and 97.5%.Conclusion: Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer depend primarily on clini-cians who can detect≤2cm milk block, with the combination of ultrasound and mammography.%目的:提高乳腺癌早期发现、早期诊断水平。方法:回顾性临床分析乳腺癌发病年龄、早期诊断方法、病理组织类型和手术方法。结果:162例早期乳腺癌均临床治愈出院,159例患者获随访,1年、3年生存率分别为100%、97.5%。结论:乳腺癌早期发现、早期诊断主要取决于临床医师检出≤2cm的乳块,辅以彩超和钼靶联合检查。

  2. 18F-FDG PET and biomarkers for tumour angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour angiogenesis is an independent and strong prognostic factor in early breast carcinoma. We performed this study to investigate the ability of 18F-FDG to detect angiogenesis in early breast carcinoma using PET/CT. Twenty consecutive patients with early (T1-T2) breast carcinoma were recruited prospectively for 18F-FDG PET/CT. The PET/CT data were used to calculate whole tumour maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean). All patients underwent subsequent surgery without prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The excised tumour underwent immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD105 and glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1). The SUVmax showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.60, p = 0.005; GLUT1: r = 0.21, p = 0.373; VEGF: r = -0.16, p = 0.496. The SUVmean showed the following correlation with tumour histology: CD105: r = 0.65, p = 0.002; GLUT1: r = 0.34, p = 0.144; VEGF: r = -0.18, p = 0.443 18F-FDG uptake is highly significantly associated with angiogenesis as measured by the immunohistochemistry with CD105 for new vessel formation. Given that tumour angiogenesis is an important prognostic indicator and a predictor of treatment response, 18F-FDG PET may have a role in the management of primary breast cancer patients even in early-stage disease. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  4. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  5. Image Enhancement by Microwave Double Irradiation for Early Diagnosis of Breast Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. PADMAVATHY; S. Muttan; Punal M. Arabi

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells; if not detected and treated at the early stage cancer would become fatal. Early detection of the disease increases the survival rate. Though there are several diagnostic methods, each method is having its own merits and demerits. In this study, a method of obtaining an active thermo gram by irradiating the patients breast twice using a microwave source of 2450 MHz and allowing them to cool naturally after every radiation is proposed. Result...

  6. 北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养率及影响因素分析%Breast feeding rate and its influencing factors in Haidian District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the breast feeding status in Haidian District and explore its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for improvement of infant nutrition .Methods A self-designed questionnaire survey was carried out among 580 mothers or caregivers , who took their babies aged 0-4 months for health care in child early department center of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital in the period of January to December in 2012.Results The pure breast feeding rate of mothers with senior middle school education or lower was significantly higher than that of the mothers with vocational high school education or higher (χ2 =4.192,P<0.05).The rate of breast feeding was different among mothers with different occupation , and that was highest among unemployed women (χ2 =9.631,P<0.05). The rate of pure breast feeding of eutocia was higher than that of dystocia (χ2 =5.631,P<0.05).The rate of pure breast feeding of women with normal breast development was higher than that of women with abnormal breast development (χ2 =48.275, P<0.05).Conclusion Education , occupation , obstetrical way as well as breast development are the major influencing factors of breast feeding .Intervention program should be implemented by maternal and child health care workers .%目的:了解北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养情况,探讨影响母乳喂养的相关因素,为改善婴儿营养提供依据。方法采用随机抽样的方法,抽取在北京市海淀妇幼保健医院儿童早期发展中心进行健康检查的0~4个月龄婴儿580例,用自行设计的母乳喂养状况调查表,了解2012年1月至12月产妇母乳喂养情况。结果母亲高中文化程度以下较中专文化程度以上纯母乳喂养率高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.192,P<0.05)。不同职业的母乳喂养率差异有统计学意义,其中全职妈妈的母乳喂养率最高(χ2=9.631,P<0.05)。顺产组的纯母乳喂养率高于剖宫产组

  7. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with risk and early onset of breast cancer among Saudi women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Toulimat, Mohamed; Tulbah, Asma; Elkum, Naser; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer has a major impact on the health of women worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), breast cancer incidence is on the increase and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. Owing to the importance of the TP53 gene in breast carcinogenesis, we analyzed the possible link between TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of breast cancer in Saudi women by direct sequencing of the TP53 gene exon 4 from 100 breast cancer tissues. The proportion of the ...

  8. A case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) after breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of BOOP occurring after radiotherapy for breast cancer was reported. TBLB and BAL were performed at the time of diagnosis. This case suggested that radiographic changes began in the irradiated area, then later spread to non-irradiated areas. In this article, we discussed the peculiary radiographic image, pathological manifestation, BAL characteristics and clinical course in this sequela. (author)

  9. Breast MR imaging in women at high-risk of breast cancer. Is something changing in early breast cancer detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, several papers have addressed the introduction of contrast-enhanced MR imaging for screening women at high risk for breast cancer. Taking in consideration five prospective studies, on 3,571 screened women with hereditary predisposition to the disease and 9,652 rounds, we found that 168 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (155 screen-detected, eight interval, and five cancers excluded from analysis) with a detection rate per year of 1.7%. These cancers were small (49% equal to or less than 10 mm in diameter) but aggressive, 82% being invasive and 49% with histologic grade 3; however, only 19% of these invasive cancers were associated with nodal involvement. The pooled sensitivity was 16% for clinical breast examination, 40% for mammography, 43% for ultrasound, and 81% for MR. The positive predictive value (calculated on the basis of the number of invasive diagnostic procedures due to false positives) was 33%, 47%, 18%, and 53%, respectively. Aim of the present article is to present the historical development of MR imaging of breast tumors that made this application theoretically and technically possible, to explain what strategic problems we face in the presence of a hereditary predisposition to the disease, to review the main results of the published studies, and to outline open problems and future perspectives. (orig.)

  10. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  11. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of...... and we did not have a priori hypotheses for all these potential comparisons. Therefore, a staff survey involving experienced doctors and nurses was conducted in order to generate hypotheses that could be tested in the data from patients. We contacted 46 health care professionals and 36 (78%) responded...

  12. Development of a Compact Wide-Slot Antenna for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Featuring Circular Array Full-View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar type antenna printed on a high permittivity Rogers’ substrate is proposed for early stage microwave breast cancer detection. The design is based on a p-shaped wide-slot structure with 50 Ω microstrip feeding circuit to eliminate losses of transmission. The design parameters are optimized resulting in a good reflection coefficient at −10 dB from 4.5 to 10.9 GHz. Imaging result using inhomogeneous breast phantom indicates that the proposed antenna is capable of detecting a 5 mm size cancerous tumor embedded inside the fibroglandular region with dielectric contrast between the target and the surrounding materials ranging from 1.7 : 1 to 3.6 : 1.

  13. Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations to Early Algerian Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henouda, Sarra; Bensalem, Assia; Reggad, Rym; Serrar, Nedda; Rouabah, Leila; Pujol, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and the leading cancer mortality cause among Algerian women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with early-onset breast cancer have not been clearly identified within the Algerian population. It is necessary to study the BRCA1/2 genes involvement in the Algerian breast cancer occurrence. We performed this study to define germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and their implication in breast cancer among young women from eastern Algeria diagnosed or treated with primary invasive breast cancer at the age of 40 or less who were referred to Anti-Cancer Center of Setif, Algeria. Case series were unselected for family history. Eight distinct pathogenic mutations were identified in eight unrelated families. Three deleterious mutations and one large genomic rearrangement involving deletion of exon 2 were found in BRCA1 gene. In addition, four mutations within the BRCA2 gene and one large genomic rearrangement were identified. Novel mutation was found among Algerian population. Moreover, five variants of uncertain clinical significance and favor polymorphisms were identified. Our data suggest that BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer in Algerian young women. PMID:26997744

  14. Cosmetic outcome and curative effect of radiotherapy for early breast cancer after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the cosmetic outcome and curative effect of 6 MV X-ray tangential field radiotherapy for early stage breast cancer after conservative surgery. Methods: The eligible criteria were single tumor ≤3 cm in diameter, surgical margin negative and lymph node negative. The exclusive criteria were inflammatory carcinoma or male breast cancer. After conservative surgery, 42 patients with stage 0, I or II breast cancer were treated with conventional radiotherapy with a total dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast and 10 Gy boost to the tumor bed. The efficacy and the cosmetic outcome of radiotherapy were evaluated every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months after that and every 12 months after 5 years. Results: The follow up time was 19-90 months (median 56 months). Two patients died of metastasis after 16 months and 36 months, which was diagnosed by CT scan. Excellent or good cosmetic outcome was > 93% at 36 months. The local control rate was 100%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates was 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: Tangential field radiotherapy for early breast cancer after conservative surgery has a satisfied result in both tumor control and cosmetic outcome, which can definitely improve the life quality of the patients. (authors)

  15. SURVIVAL MODELS AND RISK FACTORS OF BREAST FEEDING IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF TAKESTAN-INTRODUCING SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Eshraghian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the Survival models, survival functions for the time from birth to the event of using formula (i.e. the time that baby in fed by breast milk in urban and rural areas of Takestan (Iran, Winter 1998 are reported. Later the relation between the mentioned time and some factors are also discussed. The Kaplan-Meire Method and Cox Regression are used in this paper as well. 480 babies from urban areas and 720 from rural areas were chosen to be included in this research. It was shown that 7.7% of babies in urban and 6.5% in rural areas were fed by formula. The mean time of feeding by breast milk, before using formula, in urban and rural areas was 2.5 and 2 months, respectively. It was also shown that the survival functions of time that a baby fed by breast milk was not significantly different in urban and rural areas (P=0.50. The survival functions of the mentioned time in different sexes for both urban (P = 0.62 and rural (P = 0.62 areas were not significantly different. It was also shown that in urban areas the discussed survival functions were significantly different. In different mother's age groups (P = 0.03 and in groups of mothers with and without a job (P = 0.0001. Cox Regression showed that the hazard of a baby, belonged to a mother whit a job, being fed by formula was 6.31 times of a baby, belonged to a mother without a job. It also showed that the babies of older mothers were more at risk of being fed by formula. The mean time of using breast milk for mothers with and without a job was 17 and 23 months, respectively.

  16. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Hernandez, Rohini K; Wade, Sally W; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Current information on the incidence and prevalence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer is scarce. This study examined the occurrence and predictors of bone metastases, as well as post-metastasis survival in a prospective cohort of Canadian women with breast cancer. We included women treated for early-stage (stage I, II, or III) breast cancer at the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre (HBBC) in Toronto, Canada between 1987 and 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records and pathology reports in the HBBC database; follow-up extended to end of data availability or August 31, 2015. Actuarial survival analyses provided cumulative incidence of bone metastases at 5, 10, and 15 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves describe breast cancer mortality. Regression models assessed patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics as predictors of bone metastases with all-cause mortality as a competing risk. Among 2097 women studied, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year probability of bone metastasis was 6.5, 10.3, and 11.3 % for the first recurrence, and 8.4, 12.5, and 13.6 % for any bone recurrence. At median follow-up (12.5 years), 13.2 % of patients had bone metastases. Median survival was 1.6 years following bone metastasis, and shorter if both bone and visceral metastases occurred. Advanced age and adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen were protective against bone metastasis. In this representative cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, with long follow-up, the incidence of bone metastases was consistent with longitudinal studies from the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the US. PMID:27083181

  17. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  18. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Ireaneus Anna Rejani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a mammogram enhancement. (b The segmentation of the tumor area. (c The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include, which classifies the regions using the SVM classifier. The method was tested on 75 mammographic images, from the mini-MIAS database. The methodology achieved a sensitivity of 88.75%.

  19. A Presurgical Study of Oral Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine in Patients with Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Aristarco, Valentina; Puccio, Antonella; Mora, Serena; Caldarella, Pietro; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Riva, Antonella; Petrangolini, Giovanna; Morazzoni, Paolo; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    Silybin-phosphatidylcholine is an orally bioavailable complex of silybin, a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle, endowed with potential anticancer activity in preclinical models. The purpose of this window of opportunity trial was to determine, for the first time in early breast cancer patients, the breast tissue distribution of silybin. Twelve breast cancer patients received silybin-phosphatidylcholine, 2.8 g daily for 4 weeks prior to surgery. Silybin levels were measured before (SIL) and after (TOT-SIL) enzymatic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS in biologic samples (plasma, urine, breast cancer, and surrounding normal tissue). Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline, before the last administration, and 2 hours later. All patients were fully compliant and completed the treatment program. No toxicity was observed. SIL and TOT-SIL were undetectable in baseline samples. Despite a high between-subject variability, repeated administration of Siliphos achieved levels of TOT-SIL of 31,121 to 7,654 ng/mL in the plasma and up to 1,375 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. SIL concentrations ranged from 10,861 to 1,818 ng/mL in plasma and up to 177 ng/g in breast cancer tissue. Median TOT-SIL concentration was higher in the tumor as compared with the adjacent normal tissue (P = 0.018). No significant change in either blood levels of IGF-I and nitric oxide or Ki-67 in tumors was noted. Silybin-phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue. These findings provide the basis for a future phase II biomarker trial in breast cancer prevention. PMID:26526990

  20. Preoperative Single Fraction Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palta, Manisha; Yoo, Sua; Adamson, Justus D.; Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several recent series evaluating external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) have reported adverse cosmetic outcomes, possibly related to large volumes of normal tissue receiving near-prescription doses. We hypothesized that delivery of external beam PBI in a single fraction to the preoperative tumor volume would be feasible and result in a decreased dose to the uninvolved breast compared with institutional postoperative PBI historical controls. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with unifocal Stage T1 breast cancer were identified. Contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance images were loaded into an Eclipse treatment planning system and used to define the target volumes. A 'virtual plan' was created using four photon beams in a noncoplanar beam arrangement and optimized to deliver 15 Gy to the planning target volume. Results: The median breast volume was 1,713 cm{sup 3} (range: 1,014-2,140), and the median clinical target volume was 44 cm{sup 3} (range: 26-73). In all cases, 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume. The median conformity index was 0.86 (range: 0.70-1.12). The median percentage of the ipsilateral breast volume receiving 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose was 3.8% (range: 2.2-6.9) and 13.3% (range: 7.5-20.8) compared with 18% (range: 3-42) and 53% (range: 24-65) in the institutional historical controls treated with postoperative external beam PBI (p = .002). The median maximum skin dose was 9 Gy. The median dose to 1 and 10 cm{sup 3} of skin was 6.7 and 4.9 Gy. The doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung were negligible. Conclusion: Preoperative PBI resulted in a substantial reduction in ipsilateral breast tissue dose compared with postoperative PBI. The skin dose appeared reasonable, given the small volumes. A prospective Phase I trial evaluating this technique is ongoing.

  1. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  2. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  3. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  4. Physiological development of the infant and its implications for complementary feeding

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    From the standpoint of nutritional needs, physiological maturation, and immunological safety the provision of foods other than breast milk before about four months of age is unnecessary and may also be harmful. On the other hand, many infants require some complementary feeding by about six months of age. There are a number of known disadvantages and risks involved in too early complementary feeding, including interference with the infant's feeding behaviour, reduced breast-milk production, de...

  5. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN VANDALE-TONEY

    1997-09-01

    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  6. NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Schmidt, Gregory; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

  7. Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnikar, Domen; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe. PMID:27249737

  8. Transfer of Cs-137 from food into milk of breast-feeding women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between May 1987 and May 1988 a duplicate of the food taken in as well as a specimen of the milk of 8 nursing mothers was daily collected during 3-4 weeks and the Cs 137 activity was measured. Moreover the mothers' whole-body activity was measured once during the collection period. The measured values show that apart from the direct transfer of Cs 137 from the food taken in into the breast milk a transfer of cellular Cs 137 from the mother's body into the breast milk is also taking place. During this process about 12% of the mother's Cs 137 activity concentration and about 19% of the Cs 137 activity daily taken in with the food are transferred into one liter of breast milk. (orig.)

  9. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  10. Safety and esthetic outcomes of therapeutic mammoplasty using medial pedicle for early breast cancer

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    Roshdy S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sameh Roshdy,1 Osama Hussein,1 Ashraf Khater,1 Mohammad Zuhdy,1 Hend A El-Hadaad,2 Omar Farouk,1 Ahmad Senbel,1 Adel Fathi,1 Emadeldeen Hamed,1 Adel Denewer1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Mansoura Oncology Center, 2Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Although therapeutic mammoplasty (TM was introduced for treatment of localized ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma (stages I and II in females with large breast size, the suitability of medial pedicle TM for treatment of breast tumors at different locations has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and esthetic outcome of medial pedicle TM for breast tumors at different locations. Methods: The study was conducted from February 2012 to July 2014. Consecutive patients with early breast carcinoma with medium- and large-sized breasts, with or without ptosis, who were offered medial pedicle TM were included in the study. Patients who were not candidates for breast-conserving surgery or those with tumors located along the medial pedicle were excluded. All patients received immediate postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 48.5 years received medial pedicle TM in the breast harboring the tumor or, additionally, the other breast (N=14. The tumors were in the upper (60.0%, lower (26.7%, and lateral (13.3% quadrants. Minor complications occurred in five cases (5/30, 16.7% in the ipsilateral and in two (2/14, 14.3% contralateral breasts. No wound dehiscence or areolar necrosis was recorded. A total of 22 (73.3% patients were scored as excellent cosmesis. After a median follow-up of 20 months, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases were observed. Conclusion: TM using a medial pedicle is a safe and appealing technique among women with tumors at different locations. Keywords: therapeutic mammoplasty, medial

  11. Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together. The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R2 index (R2N). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform. In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R2N. In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R2N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios). Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized to the

  12. External beam irradiation plus 192Ir implant after breast-preserving surgery in women with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide more information for the clinician and to analyze the impact of the boost with brachytherapy on the local disease-free survival (LDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), specific overall survival (OS), and cosmesis, a retrospective study of external radiation therapy and 192Ir implantation in early breast cancer at Institut Catala d'Oncologia has been undertaken. Patients and Methods: From 1986 to 1996, 530 patients were selected for this study with a median follow-up period of 39.5 months (range, 10-115 months). External radiation therapy (combined with brachytherapy) was administered postoperatively to the breast in all patients. Mean given dose was 48.7 Gy (range, 42-52 Gy) with external radiation therapy to the breast, and 16.8 Gy (range, 10-27 Gy) was the mean dose with brachytherapy. Variables have been tested for cosmesis. Univariate and multivariate analysis have also been carried out. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years (range, 28-81 years). Stages were distributed as follows: 350 patients (66%) in Stage I, 173 in Stage II (32.8%), and 7 in Stage III (1.1%). Pathologic distribution was 445 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (84%), 20 patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma (4%), and 65 patients (12%) of a miscellaneous group. OS for the entire group was 89.4% and 85.9% at 5 and 7 years respectively. Probability of DFS was 81.7% and 70.1% at 5 and 7 years. The LDFS was 94.9% and 91.7% at 5 and 7 years. The MFS probability was 85.5% and 76.9% at 5 and 7 years, respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age (older than 52 years), premenopausal status, moderate and high histologic grades (Grades II-III), and presence of intraductal comedocarcinoma were prognostic factors for local relapse. Multivariate analysis for local disease-free survival demonstrated that only perineural or muscular infiltration remain as prognostic factors. Tumor dose bed of 70 Gy or higher had a negative impact in breast subcutaneous

  13. The comparative study of the outcomes of early and late oral feeding in intestinal anastomosis surgeries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Amanollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A leakage of intestinal anastomosis is typically regarded as a devastating post-operative complication. Traditionally its believed that long fasting after intestinal surgery protect anastomosis site and most surgeons applied this method. Post-operative long fasting has many physical and mental adverse effects, especially in children, but its benefit has not proven yet. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of early and late oral feeding in intestinal resection and anastomosis surgery in children. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind controlled trial evaluated the outcome of early-feeding following in children aged 1 month to 12 years who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis and compared the results with those who had late-feeding. The results were anlysed for fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distension, first passage of gas and stool were also evaluated hospital stay time, major post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage, wound infection or dehiscence, intra-abdominal abscess between the two groups. Results: The mean time of first oral feeding in the early feeding group (study group was 2.5 ± 0.7 days but it was 5.3 ± 0.6 days in the late feeding group (control group. There was no mortality in both groups. There was no difference in major complications in both groups (anastomosis leakage. In the study group, first defecation time was shorter than the control group (3.7 days v. 4.4 days and they had less hospital stay also (5.2 days vs. 8.3 days and lower cost of hospitalization. Conclusion: Early oral feeding after intestinal resection and anastomosis in children is a safe method, it has many benefits and does not increase the major or minor post-operative complications (anastomosis leakage long time fasting is not necessary and has not any beneficial effect and early feeding increases satisfaction of the parents and children, and reduce hospital stay and costs.

  14. Intraoperative radiation therapy delivered prior to lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer: a single institution study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wei; Lin, Zhi; Ju, Zhong-Jian; Li, Xi-Ru; ZHANG, YAN-JUN; Kong, Qing-Long; Gong, Han-Shun; Wang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, cosmesis, and clinical outcome of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) delivered prior to lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods: From December 2008 to March 2012, 75 breast cancer patients (ages 34-66 years) were treated with IOERT during breast conservative surgery. IOERT was delivered using a mobile linear accelerator. Suitable energy and applicator size were chosen to ensure coverage of the tumor with anterior and posterior margin...

  15. XeNA: Capecitabine Plus Docetaxel, With or Without Trastuzumab, as Preoperative Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Glück, Edward F. McKenna Jr, Melanie Royce

    2008-01-01

    Combinations of capecitabine and a taxane are highly active in metastatic breast cancer, and synergy between capecitabine and docetaxel has also been demonstrated. Such combinations potentially would provide a promising non–anthracycline-based alternative for patients with early breast cancer. Non-anthracycline preoperative regimens are a particularly interesting proposition in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, as they offer less cardiotoxicity and ...

  16. XeNA: Capecitabine Plus Docetaxel, With or Without Trastuzumab, as Preoperative Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Glück, Stefan; McKenna Jr, Edward F.; Royce, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Combinations of capecitabine and a taxane are highly active in metastatic breast cancer, and synergy between capecitabine and docetaxel has also been demonstrated. Such combinations potentially would provide a promising non–anthracycline-based alternative for patients with early breast cancer. Non-anthracycline preoperative regimens are a particularly interesting proposition in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, as they offer less cardiotoxicity and thus c...

  17. Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Gunnarsdóttir, Katrín Á;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to characterize the impact of obesity on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and death as a result of breast cancer or other causes in relation to adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Information on body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was available for 18......,967 (35%) of 53,816 women treated for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark between 1977 and 2006 with complete follow-up for first events (locoregional recurrences and distant metastases) up to 10 years and for death up to 30 years. Information was available on prognostic factors and adjuvant treatment...... for all patients. Univariate analyses were used to compare the associations of known prognostic factors and risks of recurrence or death according to BMI categories. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the influence of BMI after adjusting for other factors. Results Patients...

  18. A comparison of data-independent microwave beamforming algorithms for the early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; O'Halloran, Martin; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) radar is one of the most promising alternatives to X-ray mammography as an imaging modality for the early detection of breast cancer. Several beamforming algorithms have been developed which exploit the dielectric contrast between normal and cancerous tissue at microwave frequencies in order to detect tumors. Dielectric heterogeneity within the breast greatly effects the ability of a beamformer to detect very small tumors, therefore the design of an effective beamformer for this application represents a significant challenge. This paper analyzes and compares 3 data-independent beamforming algorithms, testing each system on an anatomically correct, MRI derived breast model which incorporates recently-published data on dielectric properties. PMID:19964043

  19. Clinical trial of a minimally invasive operation for early breast cancer. One of the methods of day surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical management for primary breast cancer has become less invasive. We performed breast-conserving therapy (wide excision: Bp) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with local anesthesia as a clinical trial. We hypothesized that it is possible to manage early breast cancer by day surgery employing this method. Twenty-three patients with early breast cancer (maximum diameter: 2.0 cm, and no evidence of metastases of lymph nodes on preoperative image examinations) underwent this method. The treatment was completed without any complications in all cases. There were no disadvantages in the local anesthesia group compared with the general anesthesia group regarding oncological findings. In conclusion, this method is one of the options to manage early breast cancer in day surgery. (author)

  20. Effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling development and retail product quality of beef steers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle producers continuously search for nutritional management options that provide flexibility to production scenarios. Due to its positive effects on maternal productivity, early weaning is one such alternative strategy that has received considerable interest. To better understand the effects of early weaning on calf productivity, an extensive literature review and three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling develo...

  1. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with risk and early onset of breast cancer among Saudi women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Toulimat, Mohamed; Tulbah, Asma; Elkum, Naser; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer has a major impact on the health of women worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), breast cancer incidence is on the increase and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. Owing to the importance of the TP53 gene in breast carcinogenesis, we analyzed the possible link between TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of breast cancer in Saudi women by direct sequencing of the TP53 gene exon 4 from 100 breast cancer tissues. The proportion of the polymorphic forms of SNP72 in the Saudi breast cancer patients were: Arg/Arg (RR), 39%; Pro/Pro (PP), 36%; and Arg/Pro (RP), 25%. The frequencies of these forms in disease-free Saudi women were 7.59, 22.22 and 60.19%, respectively. This indicates that the RR form of the codon 72 polymorphism is a potential risk factor, whereas the RP form is a protection factor against breast cancer among Saudi women (p=0.0001). Moreover, the results have shown that the p53 R72P SNP is significantly associated with the early onset of breast cancer in the Saudi population (p=0.0138). However, the codon 47 polymorphism appears to have no role in this disease among Saudi women. These results indicate that the TP53 gene could play a major role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Saudi women. PMID:22741010

  2. The p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with risk and early onset of breast cancer among Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Toulimat, Mohamed; Tulbah, Asma; Elkum, Naser; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancer has a major impact on the health of women worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), breast cancer incidence is on the increase and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. Owing to the importance of the TP53 gene in breast carcinogenesis, we analyzed the possible link between TP53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of breast cancer in Saudi women by direct sequencing of the TP53 gene exon 4 from 100 breast cancer tissues. The proportion of the polymorphic forms of SNP72 in the Saudi breast cancer patients were: Arg/Arg (RR), 39%; Pro/Pro (PP), 36%; and Arg/Pro (RP), 25%. The frequencies of these forms in disease-free Saudi women were 7.59, 22.22 and 60.19%, respectively. This indicates that the RR form of the codon 72 polymorphism is a potential risk factor, whereas the RP form is a protection factor against breast cancer among Saudi women (p=0.0001). Moreover, the results have shown that the p53 R72P SNP is significantly associated with the early onset of breast cancer in the Saudi population (p=0.0138). However, the codon 47 polymorphism appears to have no role in this disease among Saudi women. These results indicate that the TP53 gene could play a major role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Saudi women. PMID:22741010

  3. CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygosity in Women With Breast Cancer Associated With Early Death, Breast Cancer-Specific Death, and Increased Risk of a Second Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pharoah, Paul; Bolla, Manjeet K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Van't Veer, Laura J; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hopper, John L; Hall, Per; Andrulis, Irene L; Devilee, Peter; Fasching, Peter A; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Lambrechts, Diether; Hooning, Maartje; Cox, Angela; Giles, Graham G; Burwinkel, Barbara; Lindblom, Annika; Couch, Fergus J; Mannermaa, Arto; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; John, Esther M; Dörk, Thilo; Flyger, Henrik; Dunning, Alison M; Wang, Qin; Muranen, Taru A; van Hien, Richard; Figueroa, Jonine; Southey, Melissa C; Czene, Kamila; Knight, Julia A; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ziogas, Argyrios; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Collée, Johanna Margriet; Reed, Malcolm W R; Severi, Gianluca; Marme, Frederik; Margolin, Sara; Olson, Janet E; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N; Miron, Alexander; Bogdanova, Natalia; Shah, Mitul; Blomqvist, Carl; Broeks, Annegien; Sherman, Mark; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Glendon, Gord; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ekici, Arif B; Leunen, Karin; Kriege, Mieke; Cross, Simon S; Baglietto, Laura; Sohn, Christof; Wang, Xianshu; Kataja, Vesa; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Meyer, Andreas; Easton, Douglas F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS From 22 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... Association Consortium, 25,571 white women with invasive breast cancer were genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC and observed for up to 20 years (median, 6.6 years). We examined risk of early death and breast cancer-specific death by estrogen receptor status and risk of a second breast cancer after a first breast...... cancer in prospective studies. Results CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity was found in 459 patients (1.8%). In women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.82; log-rank P = .004) for early death...

  4. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A.; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05–0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother’s own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion

  5. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  6. Breast imaging technology: Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first introduction approximately 10 years ago, there has been extensive progress in the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced MRI has been shown to have value in the diagnostic work-up of women who present with mammogram or clinical abnormalities. In addition, it has been demonstrated that MRI can detect mammogram occult multifocal cancer in patients who present with unifocal disease. Advances in risk stratification and limitations in mammography have stimulated interest in the use of MRI to screen high-risk women for cancer. Several studies of MRI high-risk screening are ongoing. Preliminary results are encouraging

  7. Toxicity and cosmesis outcomes after single fraction partial breast irradiation in early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report the clinical outcome after a Single Shot 3D-CRT PBI (SSPBI) in breast cancer patients after conservative surgery (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01316328). A dose of 18Gy (in the first 4 patients) and 21Gy (in the remaining 60 patients) was prescribed in a single session and delivered to the index area (i.e. the area of breast including the primary tumor bed and the surrounding tissue) using 3D-CRT with patients in prone position. Acute and late toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's CTC for Adverse Events. Cosmesis was defined based on modified Harvard criteria. Differences between dosimetric or clinical parameters of patients with/without G2 or more late toxicity or unsatisfactory (poor or fair) cosmetic outcome were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated for cosmesis and fibrosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses(UVA/MVA) were used to determine covariates associated with an increase in fibrosis or fat necrosis rate. Sixty four patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 3 years, G2 and G3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 20(31%) and in 8(13%) patients, and ≥G2 fat necrosis was observed in 2(3%) patients. Good to excellent, fair and poor cosmesis was observed in 38(59%), 23(36%) and 3(5%) patients, respectively. Based on UVA, the breast volume receiving more than 21Gy (V21Gy) was found to be a predictor of the ≥G1 or ≥G2 fibrosis/fat necrosis. Based on MVA, V21Gy was confirmed as a predictor for ≥G1 fibrosis/fat necrosis, the results correlated as a trend for ≥G2. Cosmesis was correlated with whole breast (WB) mean dose (p = 0.030). Our choice of a single dose of 21Gy significantly increased the treatment related toxicity. However, this should not discourage novel SSPBI approaches with lower equivalent doses

  8. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  9. Long-term prognosis of patients with local recurrence after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Voogd (Adri); F.J. van Oost (F.); E.J. Rutgers; S. Elkhuizen (Sylvia); A.N. van Geel (Albert); L.J.E.E. Scheijmans (L. J E E); M.J.C. van der Sangen (Maurice); G. Botke (G.); C.J.M. Hoekstra (C. J M); J.J. Jobsen (Jan); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); M.F. von Meyenfeldt (Maarten); J.M. Tabak (J.); J.L. Peterse (J.); M.J. Vijver (Marc ); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); G. van Tienhoven (Geertjan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the long-term prognosis of 266 patients considered to have isolated local recurrence in the breast following conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The median follow-up of the patients still alive after diagnosis of local relapse was 11.2 years. At

  10. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  11. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status

  12. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  13. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  14. nab-Paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerdichian, Christine; Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Hurvitz, Sara A

    2014-06-01

    Taxanes are highly active chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer. Novel formulations have been developed to improve efficacy and decrease toxicity associated with these cytotoxic agents. nab-Paclitaxel is a biologically interactive, solvent-free, 130-nm-sized albumin-bound paclitaxel, developed to avoid the Cremophor vehicle used in solvent-based paclitaxel. Based on a pivotal phase 3 study, nab-paclitaxel was shown to be safely infused at a significantly higher dose of paclitaxel than the doses used with standard paclitaxel therapy, and had a shorter infusion time, no premedication, and higher response rates. It is now approved in the United States for treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant therapy, and has demonstrated promising efficacy and favorable tolerability. Recently, several phase 2 and 3 studies have suggested a role for nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for the treatment of early- and late-stage breast cancer. This review will discuss the findings of clinical trials evaluating nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. PMID:24560997

  15. Impact of early diagnosis of breast cancer on treatment and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of non-palpable and small breast cancers by mammography in asymptomatic women is the really decisive contribution of medical imaging to the treatment and outcome of this by far most common malignant tumor in females. Early detection of the disease not only leads to a significant increase in overall cure rates, but also offers patients the enormous advantage of conservative therapy (conservation surgery and radiotherapy), which practically yields the same long-term results as mutilating radical operations. In the past decade a marked increase in early stages of breast cancer has occured. According to the established selection criteria for conservative treatment, over 70% of all newly diagnosed patients would therefore be candidates for this treatment modality. More than 80% are likely to have excellent cosmetic results. For precision radiotherapy of women with breast cancer, individual pretreatment tomographies (computerized tomograpy or transversal analog tomography) should be obtained for treatment planning in exactly the position to be used for subsequent radiotherapy. Useful images for this purpose can only be recorded in the planning unit of a radiotherapy center. Diagnostic procedures for staging of breast cancer will be discussed as well as the problems of locoregional recurrences and follow-up mammographies after conservative treatment. (Author)

  16. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  17. Similar Survival With Breast Conservation Therapy or Mastectomy in the Management of Young Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate survival outcomes of young women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) or mastectomy, using a large, population-based database. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, information was obtained for all female patients, ages 20 to 39 years old, diagnosed with T1–2 N0–1 M0 breast cancer between 1990 and 2007, who underwent either BCT (lumpectomy and radiation treatment) or mastectomy. Multivariable and matched pair analyses were performed to compare overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Results: A total of 14,764 women were identified, of whom 45% received BCT and 55% received mastectomy. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 0.5–17.9 years). After we accounted for all patient and tumor characteristics, multivariable analysis found that BCT resulted in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.04; p = 0.16) and CSS (HR, 0.93; CI, 0.83–1.05; p = 0.26) similar to that of mastectomy. Matched pair analysis, including 4,644 BCT and mastectomy patients, confirmed no difference in OS or CSS: the 5-, 10-, and15-year OS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 92.5%, 83.5%, and 77.0% and 91.9%, 83.6%, and 79.1%, respectively (p = 0.99), and the 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 93.3%, 85.5%, and 79.9% and 92.5%, 85.5%, and 81.9%, respectively (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Our analysis of this population-based database suggests that young women with early-stage breast cancer have similar survival rates whether treated with BCT or mastectomy. These patients should be counseled appropriately regarding their treatment options and should not choose a mastectomy based on the assumption of improved survival.

  18. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Camilia R.; Pei-Ra Ling; Blackburn, George L

    2016-01-01

    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritio...

  19. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    H Boskabadi; Godarzi, M; M Zakerihamidi; F. Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional...

  20. De novo recurrent germline mutation of the BRCA2 gene in a patient with early onset breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Luijt, R. B.; van Zon, P. H A; Jansen, R.; van der Sijs-Bos, C. J M; Warlam-Rodenhuis, C.; Ausems, M.

    2001-01-01

    Germline mutations in either of the two major breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for a significant proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Identification of breast cancer patients carrying mutations of these genes is primarily based on a positive family history of breast/ovarian cancer or early onset of the disease or both. In the course of mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in a hospital based series of patients with risk factors for hereditary ...

  1. Onset and relapse of psychiatric disorders following early breast cancer: a case-control study. : Mental health of primary breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Gandubert, Catherine; Carrière, Isabelle; Escot, Chantal; Soulier, Maryvonne; Hermès, Aziz; Boulet, Patrick; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to evaluate the mental status of primary early breast cancer survivors according to DSM-IV criteria, distinguishing new psychiatric diagnosis, which started after the cancer diagnosis from relapse. METHODS: A comparative study of 144 breast cancer survivors and 125 women without previous history of cancer was carried out. Neuropsychiatric symptomatology was assessed retrospectively using standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini Internat...

  2. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  3. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  4. Computer-aided decision-making for early detection of breast cancers using fuzzy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experts system DIDIMA was developed for timely detection of the early stage of breast cancer in women using the HEWLETT-PACKARD 9845 B computer in the BASIC programming language. The expert system is based on the theory of fuzzy sets. The parameters and structure of the fuzzy knowledge base is given. The system was introduced into practice and its possibilities are described for diagnosis and therapy. (E.S.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography in detection of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of mammography and ultrasonography in the detection of early breast cancer, and the usefulness of combining the two modalities for the diagnostic study of this condition. The mammographic and ultrasonographic features of 47 female patients aged 23-68 (average, 46) years with pathologically proven early breast cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Mammography was preformed in 46 patients and ultrasonography in 38, and 37 underwent both mammography and ultrasonography. Analysis of the mammographic and/or ultrasonographic features focused on mass, microcalcification, mass with microcalcification, multiple nodules, duct dilatation, and architectural distortion. Mammography revealed microcalcification in 29 (63%) patients, mass in 13 (28%) patients, mass with microcalcification in 8 (17%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (4%) patients, architectural distortions in 1 (2%) patient, and negative finding in 9 (20%) patients. Ultrasonography revealed mass in 25 (66%) patients, microcalcification in 9 (24%) patients, mass with microcalcification in 8 (21%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (5%) patients, duct dilatation in 3 (8%) patients, and negative finding in 7 (18%) patients. On combined study of mammography and ultrasonography of the 37 patients, mammography or ultrasonography revealed mass in 25 (68%) patients, microcalcification in 20 (54%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (5%) patients, duct dilatation in 3 (8%) patients, and architectural distortion in 1 (3%) patient. In one (3%) patient among them, both mammography and ultrasonography revealed negative findings. The false negative rate of mammography, ultrasonography or both was 20%, 18%, and 3%, respectively, which was statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Combined study of mammography and ultrasonography is the most useful as a diagnostic study for early breast cancer. So, ultrasonography seems to be important additional method for detection of early breast cancer

  6. Physiotherapeutic stimulation: Early prevention of lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    SARRI, ALMIR JOSÉ; MORIGUCHI, SONIA MARTA; DIAS, ROGÉRIO; PERES, STELA VERZINHASSE; DA SILVA, EDUARDO TINÓIS; KOGA, KÁTIA HIROMOTO; ZUCCA MATTHES, ÂNGELO GUSTAVO; dos Santos, Marcelo José; da Rocha, Euclides Timóteo; Haikel, Raphael Luiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of early physiotherapeutic stimulation for lymphatic flow progression in patients with breast cancer undergoing axillary dissection. This was a randomized experimental study on 22 patients who underwent lymphoscintigraphy in their arms on two different occasions, firstly without stimulation and secondly after randomization into two groups: without physiotherapeutic stimulation (WOPS; n=10) and with physiotherapeutic stimulation (WPS; n=12...

  7. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  8. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P detection and could be considered in commercial feedlot

  9. Characteristics of breast milk and serology of women donating breast milk to a milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, P.; Foshaugen, I; Lindemann, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, a faster tolerance of enteral feeding, and a reduced need of parenteral nutrition. It is important to have milk from a CMV-IgG negative donor to VLBW infan...

  10. Initial clinical experience with the MammoSite breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We present the results of the initial clinical testing of the MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy patients were enrolled in a multicenter prospective trial testing the applicator for safety and performance. Fifty-four patients were implanted, and 43 patients were ultimately eligible for and received brachytherapy as the sole radiation modality after lumpectomy. Patients were staged T1N0M0 with negative pathologic margins and age >45 years. A dose of 34 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions over 5 days prescribed to 1 cm from the applicator surface using 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy. A minimum skin-to-balloon surface distance of 5 mm was required for treatment. Device performance, complications, and cosmesis were assessed. Results: Computed tomography imaging post-balloon inflation showed 8, 14, and 21 patients with 5-6 mm, 7-9 mm, and >10 mm of skin spacing, respectively. Two patients were explanted because of inadequate skin spacing and 7 because of suboptimal conformance of the surgical cavity to the applicator balloon. One patient was explanted because of positive nodal status and another because of age. The most common side effects related to device placement included mild erythema, drainage, pain, and echymosis. No severe side effects related to implantation, brachytherapy, or explantation occurred. Side effects related to radiation therapy were generally mild with erythema, pain, and dry desquamation being the most common. At 1 month, 88% of patients were evaluated as having good-to-excellent cosmetic results. Conclusions: The MammoSite balloon breast brachytherapy applicator performed well clinically. All eligible patients completed treatment. Side effects were mild to moderate and self-limiting. Skin-balloon surface distance and balloon-cavity conformance were the main factors limiting the initial use of the device

  11. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette Viberg;

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first...

  12. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.;

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P <0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first...

  13. Expression of the embryonic stem cell marker SOX2 in early-stage breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallwiener Diethelm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors member SOX2 has been mainly studied in embryonic stem cells as well as early foregut and neural development. More recently, SOX2 was shown to participate in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state and implicated in tumorigenesis in various organs. In breast cancer, SOX2 expression was reported as a feature of basal-like tumors. In this study, we assessed SOX2 expression in 95 primary tumors of postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Methods Samples from 95 patients diagnosed and treated at the University of Tuebingen Institute of Pathology and Women's Hospital were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for SOX2 expression in the primary tumor samples and in corresponding lymph node metastasis, where present. Furthermore, SOX2 amplification status was assessed by FISH in representative samples. In addition, eighteen fresh frozen samples were analyzed for SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 gene expression by real-time PCR. Results SOX2 expression was detected in 28% of invasive breast carcinoma as well as in 44% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS lesions. A score of SOX2 expression (score 0 to 3 was defined in order to distinguish SOX2 negative (score 0 from SOX2 positive samples (score 1-3 and among latter the subgroup of SOX2 high expressors (score 3 > 50% positive cells. Overall, the incidence of SOX2 expression (score 1-3 was higher than previously reported in a cohort of lymph node negative patients (28% versus 16.7%. SOX2 expression was detected across different breast cancer subtypes and did not correlate with tumor grading. However, high SOX2 expression (score 3 was associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.047 and positive lymph node status (0.018. Corresponding metastatic lymph nodes showed higher SOX2 expression and were significantly more often SOX2 positive than primary tumors (p = 0.0432. Conclusions In this report, we show that the embryonic stem

  14. Expression of the embryonic stem cell marker SOX2 in early-stage breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors member SOX2 has been mainly studied in embryonic stem cells as well as early foregut and neural development. More recently, SOX2 was shown to participate in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to a pluripotent stem cell state and implicated in tumorigenesis in various organs. In breast cancer, SOX2 expression was reported as a feature of basal-like tumors. In this study, we assessed SOX2 expression in 95 primary tumors of postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Samples from 95 patients diagnosed and treated at the University of Tuebingen Institute of Pathology and Women's Hospital were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for SOX2 expression in the primary tumor samples and in corresponding lymph node metastasis, where present. Furthermore, SOX2 amplification status was assessed by FISH in representative samples. In addition, eighteen fresh frozen samples were analyzed for SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 gene expression by real-time PCR. SOX2 expression was detected in 28% of invasive breast carcinoma as well as in 44% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. A score of SOX2 expression (score 0 to 3) was defined in order to distinguish SOX2 negative (score 0) from SOX2 positive samples (score 1-3) and among latter the subgroup of SOX2 high expressors (score 3 > 50% positive cells). Overall, the incidence of SOX2 expression (score 1-3) was higher than previously reported in a cohort of lymph node negative patients (28% versus 16.7%). SOX2 expression was detected across different breast cancer subtypes and did not correlate with tumor grading. However, high SOX2 expression (score 3) was associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.047) and positive lymph node status (0.018). Corresponding metastatic lymph nodes showed higher SOX2 expression and were significantly more often SOX2 positive than primary tumors (p = 0.0432). In this report, we show that the embryonic stem cell factor SOX2 is expressed in a variety of early

  15. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  16. Is early dynamic lymphoscintigraphy for detection of sentinel lymph nodes always achievable in breast tumor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we will discuss the achievement of early dynamic lymphoscintigraphic protocol and compare detection of sentinel node between benign and malignant breast tumors, and whether pathologic factor is related or not. During a six-month period, consecutive fifty-nine patients were enrolled into our study. The average age of patients was 47.6±9.8 years and all of them were clinically suspected of having breast cancer. The average tumor was 2.1±1.1 cm in size. First, Tc-99m sulfur colloid was injected around corners of palpable mass or biopsy cavity by the hybrid injection method. Immediately thereafter, dynamic protocol of lymphoscintigraphy, with 10 sec per frame for 60 frames was performed by established simultaneous dual-head vertical angle imaging technique. And delayed two-hour image was also acquired. All patients underwent surgery sixteen to twenty hours later and had a final pathological diagnosis. Among 59 patients, 14 of them were diagnosed with fibroadenoma and the other 45 cases with malignant conditions, infiltrating duct carcinoma mostly. The average age of the two groups was similar. From the summation image of dynamic study, identified axillary sentinel nodal activity was found as 80% in the group of benign breast tumor, but only 48% in the group of malignant breast tumor. In more than 88% of patients, sentinel lymph node was detectable on the delayed two-hour image between the two groups. Early dynamic protocol of pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy is helpful to clarify the relationship between the local lymphatic drainage basin and sentinel nodal uptake. However, this short period of protocol is not always achievable to detect sentinel node, especially in the group with breast malignant lesions. (author)

  17. Risk factors for recurrence after conservative treatment in early breast cancer; Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate our experience in the breast-conserving treatment for early breast cancer with special regard to recurrence pattern and related risk factors. Two hundred and sixteen patients with AJC stage I and II beast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1994 were evaluated. Age distribution ranged from 23-80 year old with a median age of 44. One hundred and seventeen patients had T1 lesions and 99 patients had T2 lesions. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 73 patients. All patients received a breast conserving surgery (wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Ninety six patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. During the follow-up period (3-60 months, median 30 months), local recurrence were noted in six patients (true; 3, elsewhere; 1, skin; 2). Sixteen patients developed distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence at 8-38 months (median 20 months) after surgery. Among them, three patients simultaneously developed local recurrence with distant metastases. Contralateral breast cancer developed in one patient and non-mammary cancers developed in three patients. The actuarial 5 year survival rate was 88.4% (stage I: 96.7%, stage IIa: 95.2%, stage IIb 69.9%). Age, T stage, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, and AJC stage were risk factors for distant metastases in univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the number of involved axillary lymph nodes was the most significant risk factor for metastases. Local recurrence was not common in the early years after radiotherapy. Distant metastases occurred at a steady rate during the first three years and was more common in the patients with larger tumors, higher number of involved axillary nodes, and younger age. (author)

  18. Early ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after breast conservation affect survival: An analysis of the National Cancer Institute randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conservation therapy (BCT) on survival. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-one women were randomized to BCT. Patients with an IBTR were analyzed to determine survival. Analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank tests, and time-dependent covariate Cox models. Results: At a median follow-up of 18.4 years, 27 patients had an IBTR. The median survival time after IBTR was 13.1 years. The 5-year survival rate was 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.5-100%). The 10-year survival rate was 54.3% (95% CI, 35.8-82.6%). According to a Cox model with time-dependent covariates, the hazard ratio or relative risk of dying for those with an IBTR at <5.3 years after BCT relative to patients without an IBTR after BCT is 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.12%; p = 0.04). The hazard ratio for those who relapse after 5.3 years is 0.59 (95% CI, 0.22-1.61%; p = 0.31). Age at randomization, original tumor size, and the presence of positive regional nodes at initial presentation were not found to be associated with decreased survival. Conclusions: There seems to be a significant association of early IBTR after BCT with decreased survival. Local control should be maximized

  19. Fat necrosis in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the incidence of clinical, pathological and radiological fat necrosis (FN) in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial brachytherapy (BRT) for early-stage breast cancer and to study certain variables associated with it. Methods and materials: Between May 2000 and August 2008, 171 women were treated with APBI using high dose rate (HDR) BRT. Patients were treated to a dose of 34 Gy/10 fractions/1 week with two fractions/day after intraoperative/postoperative placement of catheters. Results: At a median follow up of 48 months (SD: 28) 20 women developed FN with median time to detection being 24 months (range: 4–62 months, SD: 20). Actuarial 5 and 7 year FN rate was 18% and 23%, respectively. Grade 1 FN was seen in 4, grade 2 in 8 and grade 4 in 8 women. Additional investigations such as aspiration/biopsy were done in 9 patients. Volume of excision was the only significant factor affecting FN (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Actuarial FN rate of 18% at 5 years in our study was comparable to other reported series of FN. Median time of detection of FN was 24 months. Higher volume of excision resulted in an increased incidence of fat necrosis.

  20. Media representations of early human development: protecting, feeding and loving the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2013-11-01

    The public profile of neurodevelopmental research has expanded in recent years. This paper applies social representations theory to explore how early brain development was represented in the UK print media in the first decade of the 21st century. A thematic analysis was performed on 505 newspaper articles published between 2000 and 2010 that discussed early brain development. Media coverage centred around concern with 'protecting' the prenatal brain (identifying threats to foetal neurodevelopment), 'feeding' the infant brain (indicating the patterns of nutrition that enhance brain development) and 'loving' the young child's brain (elucidating the developmental significance of emotionally nurturing family environments). The media focused almost exclusively on the role of parental action in promoting optimal neurodevelopment, rarely acknowledging wider structural, cultural or political means of supporting child development. The significance of parental care was intensified by deterministic interpretations of critical periods, which implied that inappropriate parental input would produce profound and enduring neurobiological impairments. Neurodevelopmental research was also used to promulgate normative judgements concerning the acceptability of certain gender roles and family contexts. The paper argues that media representations of neurodevelopment stress parental responsibility for shaping a child's future while relegating the contributions of genetic or wider societal factors, and examines the consequences of these representations for society and family life. PMID:23273760

  1. The impact of early detection and intervention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas W; Wazer, David; Khan, Atif; Ridner, Sheila; Vicini, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) has become an increasingly important clinical issue as noted by the recent update of the 2015 NCCN breast cancer guidelines which recommends to "educate, monitor, and refer for lymphedema management." The purpose of this review was to examine the literature regarding early detection and management of BCRL in order to (1) better characterize the benefit of proactive surveillance and intervention, (2) clarify the optimal monitoring techniques, and (3) help better define patient groups most likely to benefit from surveillance programs. A Medline search was conducted for the years 1992-2015 to identify articles addressing early detection and management of BCRL. After an initial search, 127 articles were identified, with 13 of these studies focused on early intervention (three randomized (level of evidence 1), four prospective (level of evidence 2-3), six retrospective trials (level of evidence 4)). Data from two, small (n = 185 cases), randomized trials with limited follow-up demonstrated a benefit to early intervention (physiotherapy, manual lymphatic drainage) with regard to reducing the rate of chronic BCRL (>50% reduction) with two additional studies underway (n = 1280). These findings were confirmed by larger prospective and retrospective series. Several studies were identified that demonstrate that newer diagnostic modalities (bioimpedance spectroscopy, perometry) have increased sensitivity allowing for the earlier detection of BCRL. Current data support the development of surveillance programs geared toward the early detection and management of BCRL in part due to newer, more sensitive diagnostic modalities. PMID:26993371

  2. AGR3 in Breast Cancer: Prognostic Impact and Suitable Serum-Based Biomarker for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Antonopoulos, Wiebke; Hartmann, Arndt; Schrauder, Michael G.; Fasching, Peter A.; Anzeneder, Tobias; Tannapfel, Andrea; Ergönenc, Yavuz; Knüchel, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Blood-based early detection of breast cancer has recently gained novel momentum, as liquid biopsy diagnostics is a fast emerging field. In this study, we aimed to identify secreted proteins which are up-regulated both in tumour tissue and serum samples of breast cancer patients compared to normal tissue and sera. Based on two independent tissue cohorts (n = 75 and n = 229) and one serum cohort (n = 80) of human breast cancer and healthy serum samples, we characterised AGR3 as a novel potential biomarker both for breast cancer prognosis and early breast cancer detection from blood. AGR3 expression in breast tumours is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor α (P<0.001) and lower tumour grade (P<0.01). Interestingly, AGR3 protein expression correlates with unfavourable outcome in low (G1) and intermediate (G2) grade breast tumours (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.186, 95% CI: 1.008-4.740, P<0.05) indicating an independent prognostic impact. In sera analysed by ELISA technique, AGR3 protein concentration was significantly (P<0.001) elevated in samples from breast cancer patients (n = 40, mainly low stage tumours) compared to healthy controls (n = 40). To develop a suitable biomarker panel for early breast cancer detection, we measured AGR2 protein in human serum samples in parallel. The combined AGR3/AGR2 biomarker panel achieved a sensitivity of 64.5% and a specificity of 89.5% as shown by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics. Thus our data clearly show the potential usability of AGR3 and AGR2 as biomarkers for blood-based early detection of human breast cancer. PMID:25875093

  3. The advantages of breast-feeding: a developing country point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, P E

    1981-02-01

    One of the traditional practices related to child care which is undergoing the most rapid change in the 3rd world is breastfeeding. Concerned about the repercussions of this trend, the author reviews some important results of research carried out in developing countries on the advantages of breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and notes some of the factors influencing 3rd World women in their choice of mode of infant feeding and the cost of bottle feeding to both national and family budgets. The importance of taking stock of the present situation and preventing its deterioration is underscored. Increased home and community support for women to breastfeed even when working outside the home, is especially needed. PMID:12264014

  4. Determining the Efficient Structure of Feed-Forward Neural Network to Classify Breast Cancer Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khalid; Noureldien A. Noureldien

    2014-01-01

    Classification is one of the most frequently encountered problems in data mining. A classification problem occurs when an object needs to be assigned in predefined classes based on a number of observed attributes related to that object. Neural networks have emerged as one of the tools that can handle the classification problem. Feed-forward Neural Networks (FNN's) have been widely applied in many different fields as a classification tool. Designing an efficient FNN structure with optimum numb...

  5. Can radiographers be trained to deliver an intervention to raise breast cancer awareness, and thereby promote early presentation of breast cancer, in older women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To assess the feasibility of training radiographers to deliver a one-to-one intervention to raise breast cancer awareness among older women. The ultimate aim is to increase the likelihood of early presentation of breast cancer by older women and improve survival from the disease. Method: Four radiographers were trained to deliver a 10-min scripted one-to-one intervention. Key elements of training included rehearsal of the intervention using role-play with actors and colleagues and practice interviews with women attending NHS breast screening clinics. All practice interventions were videotaped to facilitate positive, constructive feedback on performance. Competence to deliver the intervention was assessed on delivery of the key messages and the style of delivery. Radiographers' experiences of training and intervention delivery were collated from reflective diaries. Results: Three radiographers were assessed as competent after training and all four increased in confidence to deliver the intervention. Reported benefits to radiographers included increased awareness of communication skills and enhanced interaction with women attending breast screening. Radiographers reported challenges relating to mastering the prescriptive nature of the intervention and to delivering complex health messages within time constraints. Discussion: It was feasible but challenging for radiographers to be trained to deliver a one-to-one intervention designed to raise breast cancer awareness and thereby to promote early presentation of breast cancer. If the intervention is found to be cost-effective it may be implemented across the NHS Breast Screening Programme with diagnostic radiographers playing a key role in promoting early presentation of breast cancer.

  6. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With 3-Week Accelerated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, Manjeet, E-mail: MChadha@chpnet.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Woode, Rudolph; Sillanpaa, Jussi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Lucido, David [Department of Biostatistics, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Boolbol, Susan K.; Kirstein, Laurie; Osborne, Michael P.; Feldman, Sheldon [Division of Breast Surgery, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Harrison, Louis B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To report early outcomes of accelerated whole-breast radiation therapy with concomitant boost. Methods and Materials: This is a prospective, institutional review board-approved study. Eligibility included stage TisN0, T1N0, and T2N0 breast cancer. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were ineligible. The whole breast received 40.5 Gy in 2.7-Gy fractions with a concomitant lumpectomy boost of 4.5 Gy in 0.3-Gy fractions. Total dose to the lumpectomy site was 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 19 days. Results: Between October 2004 and December 2010, 160 patients were treated; stage distribution was as follows: TisN0, n=63; T1N0, n=88; and T2N0, n=9. With a median follow-up of 3.5 years (range, 1.5-7.8 years) the 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.94) and 97% (95% CI 0.93-0.99), respectively. Five-year local relapse-free survival was 99% (95% CI 0.96-0.99). Acute National Cancer Institute/Common Toxicity Criteria grade 1 and 2 skin toxicity was observed in 70% and 5%, respectively. Among the patients with ≥2-year follow-up no toxicity higher than grade 2 on the Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic scale was observed. Review of the radiation therapy dose–volume histogram noted that ≥95% of the prescribed dose encompassed the lumpectomy target volume in >95% of plans. The median dose received by the heart D{sub 05} was 215 cGy, and median lung V{sub 20} was 7.6%. Conclusions: The prescribed accelerated schedule of whole-breast radiation therapy with concomitant boost can be administered, achieving acceptable dose distribution. With follow-up to date, the results are encouraging and suggest minimal side effects and excellent local control.

  7. Morbidity of ischemic heart disease in early breast cancer 15-20 years after adjuvant radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenes, G.; Rutqvist, L.E. (Karolinksa Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Fornander, T.; Carlens, P.

    1994-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiac side effects, primarily the occurrence of ischemic heart disease, in symptom-free patients with early breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. Thirty-seven survivors of a former randomized study of early breast cancer were examined. Twenty patients irradiated pre- or postoperatively for left sided disease (study group patients) were compared with 17 controls who were either treated for right sided disease, or were nonirradiated patients. Radiotherapy was randomized in the original study; either tangential field [sup 60]Co, or electron-therapy was delivered. Echocardiography and bicycle ergometry stress test with [sup 99m]Tc SestaMIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were carried out and the patients' major risk factors for ischemic heart disease were also listed. Our results showed a significant difference between the scintigraphic findings of the two groups. Five of the 20 study group patients (25%), while none of the 17 controls exhibited some kind of significant defects on scintigraphy, indicating ischemic heart disease (p < 0.05). No deterioration in left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function could be detected by echocardiography. Radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer with the mentioned treatment technique may present as an independent risk factor in the long-term development of ischemic heart disease, while left ventricular dysfunction could not be related to the previous irradiation. The authors emphasize the need to optimize adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer by considering the dose both to the heart as well as the cancer. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Axillary treatment for patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis: systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Amit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis, axillary treatment is widely recommended. This is either surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes, or axillary radiotherapy. The rationale for axillary treatment is that it will reduce the risk of recurrence in the axilla, and may improve survival. However, both treatments are associated with adverse effects, such as lymphedema, pain and sensory loss, and are costly to the health services and to patients. With improvements in adjuvant therapy, routine axillary treatment may no longer offer any overall advantage. Objectives To assess the short and long term benefits and adverse effects of routine axillary treatment (axillary lymph node clearance or axillary radiotherapy for patients with lymph node positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods/Design Criteria for potentially eligibility for the study will be that the participants are men and women with early breast cancer and lymph nodes with metastasis. The study compares either axillary treatment with no axillary treatment, or axillary node clearance with axillary radiotherapy, and the study is a randomized trial. Primary outcomes are axillary recurrence, disease-free and overall survival. Secondary outcomes include breast or chest wall recurrence, distant metastasis, time to axillary recurrence, axillary recurrence-free survival, arm morbidity, quality of life and health economic costs. The search strategy will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP search portal. Two independent reviewers will assess studies for inclusion in the review, assess study quality and extract data. Characteristics of included studies will be described. Meta-analysis will be conducted using ReVman software. Comment This review addresses an important clinical question, and results will inform clinical practice and health care policy.

  9. A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robinson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrew RobinsonNorthern Ontario School of Medicine, Regional Cancer Program of Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Exemestane is a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, which has proven to be a useful drug in the treatment of early stage breast cancer. Several clinical trials have been performed or are currently underway using exemestane as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women, which will be the indication reviewed here. A relative reduction in risk of breast cancer recurrence or death of 24% has been shown with exemestane compared with tamoxifen when given after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen. This corresponded to a 3.3% absolute reduction in recurrence or death at the end of 5 years, for a number needed to treat of 30. The main use of exemestane in the adjuvant setting is as an alternative to tamoxifen, and toxicities are discussed in relation to tamoxifen toxicities. In general, patients receiving exemestane experience less hot flashes and more arthralgias in comparison to tamoxifen, while there is also a reduction in venous thromboembolic events and vaginal bleeding. Patients on exemestane as a group do not appear to have a significantly changed quality of life in comparison to tamoxifen, while having a statistically significant benefit in preventing breast cancer recurrence.Keywords: breast cancer, exemestane, adjuvant

  10. Breast conserving therapy for early stage invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To discuss a number of clinical and treatment related issues in the management of early stage invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. Prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series have established the role of conservative surgery and radiation as an alternative equal to mastectomy in the patient selection, the importance of microscopic margins of research, radiotherapy technique including the role of the boost and regional node irradiation and the integration of systemic therapy (tamoxifen or chemotherapy) with radiation. A subgroup of patients with minimally invasive breast cancer for whom radiation may be omitted after conservative surgery will be identified. Factors predicting for an increased risk of recurrence in the treated breast will be reviewed. The diagnosis and treatment of a breast recurrence will be presented as well as the impact of a local recurrence on distant metastases. Treatment options for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) including observation, radiation and mastectomy will be reviewed. Results from prospective randomized trials as well as retrospective series will be presented in an attempt to identify appropriate treatment strategies for the different clinical presentations and histologic subtypes of DCIS

  11. Neoadjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer: the clinical utility of pertuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollamudi J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jahnavi Gollamudi,1,* Jenny G Parvani,2,* William P Schiemann,3 Shaveta Vinayak3,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients harbor tumors that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. HER2 amplification and hyperactivation drive the growth and survival of breast cancers through the aberrant activation of proto-oncogenic signaling systems, particularly the Ras/MAP kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. Although HER2-positive (HER2+ breast cancer was originally considered to be a highly aggressive form of the disease, the clinical landscape of HER2+ breast cancers has literally been transformed by the approval of anti-HER2 agents for adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Indeed, pertuzumab is a novel monoclonal antibody that functions as an anti-HER2 agent by targeting the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER2 receptor; it is also the first drug to receive an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in neoadjuvant settings in early-stage HER2+ breast cancer. Here, we review the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of HER2 in breast cancer, as well as summarize the landmark preclinical and clinical findings underlying the approval and use of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, the molecular mechanisms operant in mediating resistance to anti-HER2 agents, and perhaps to pertuzumab as well, will be discussed, as will the anticipated clinical impact and future directions of pertuzumab in breast cancer patients. Keywords: breast cancer

  12. 早期乳腺癌部分乳腺加速放疗%Accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋宁; 王小虎

    2011-01-01

    随着乳腺癌术后复发模式的研究进展,部分乳腺照射方法 成为乳腺癌放疗的热点.组织间插植、球囊近距离治疗、术中放疗及三维适形放疗和调强放疗等部分乳腺加速放疗已进入临床研究.其局部控制率和安全性与全乳腺照射比较相当,同时具有治疗周期短、方便患者等优势.部分乳腺加速放疗在部分患者有望代替全乳腺放疗,成为早期乳腺癌保乳术后放疗的标准治疗之一.%With a view to patterns of local recurrence after breast conserving surgery, whole breast irradiation(WBI) after surgery is controversial and partial-breast irradiation(PBI) came up. Many clinical trials related with accelerated partial-breast irradiation using a variety of radiotherapeutic techniques such as interstitial brachytherapy (IBT), MammoSite Radiation Therapy System, intraoperative radiotherapy(IORT), threedimensional conformal radiotherapy(3-DCRT)and intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) in selected patients have been carried out. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation that provides faster, more convenient treat-ment demonstrates local control rate and safety comparable to that of whole breast irradiation. Partial breast irradiation may be an alternative way to whole breast radiotherapy and will be one of the standard treatments in women with early breast cancer seeking breast conservation.

  13. Treatment results and prognostic factors of early breast cancer treated with a breast conserving operation and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic factors affecting local control and survival rates for patients with early breast cancer who received breast conserving treatment (BCT) and to find out the optimal treatment according to their risk factors. From October 1994 to December 2001, 605 patients with 611 stage I and II breast cancers received BCT, and the results were analyzed retrospectively. BCT consists of breast conserving surgery and whole breast irradiation. All the patients underwent lumpectomy or quad-rantectomy. Axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 608 cases (99.5%). The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy over 5 weeks with a 1.8 Gy daily fraction and with boost doses of 9-14.4 Gy administered to the tumor bed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in most of the patients with axillary lymph node metastasis or tumors larger than 1 cm. The median follow-up period was 47 months. Local relapse, regional relapse and distant metastasis occurred in 15 (2.5%), 16 (2.6%) and 43 patients (7.1%), respectively. The 5-year overall survival, local-relapse-free survival, distant-metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival rates were 95.3%, 97.2%, 91.3% and 88.5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, age (P=0.02), number of involved axillary lymph nodes (P=0.01) and nuclear grade (P=0.01) affected the local-relapse-free survival. The factors associated with disease-free survival were the T stage (P=0.05), number of involved axillary lymph nodes (P=0.01) and nuclear grade (P=0.001). Overall survival was associated with the T stage (P=0.02), number of involved axillary lymph nodes (P=0.01) and c-erb B2 overexpression (P=0.05). Patients with more than two factors among age≤35 years, positive lymph node metastasis and high nuclear grade showed a poor 5-year local-relapse-free survival rate compared with others (P=0.001). Also, patients with more than two factors among tumor size >1 cm, positive

  14. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  15. Mesenchymal and stemness circulating tumor cells in early breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event likely involved in dissemination of epithelial cancer cells. This process enables them to acquire migratory/invasive properties, contributing to tumor and metastatic spread. To know if this event is an early one in breast cancer, we developed a clinical trial. The aim of this protocol was to detect circulating tumor cells endowed with mesenchymal and/or stemness characteristics, at the time of initial diagnosis. Breast cancer patients (n = 61), without visceral or bone metastasis were enrolled and analysis of these dedifferentiated circulating tumor cells (ddCTC) was realized. AdnaGen method was used for enrichment cell selection. Then, ddCTC were characterized by RT-PCR study of the following genes: PI3Kα, Akt-2, Twist1 (EMT markers) and ALDH1, Bmi1 and CD44 (stemness indicators). Among the studied primary breast cancer cohort, presence of ddCTC was detected in 39% of cases. This positivity is independant from tumor clinicopathological factors apart from the lymph node status. Our data uniquely demonstrated that in vivo EMT occurs in the primary tumors and is associated with an enhanced ability of tumor cells to intravasate in the early phase of cancer disease. These results suggest that analysis of circulating tumor cells focused on cells showing mesenchymal or stemness characteristics might facilitate assessment of new drugs in clinical trials

  16. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy

  17. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  18. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  19. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and anxious preoccupation in early breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties in coping with cancer, and the accompanying anxious and depressive symptoms, have been shown to affect the mood and the quality of life in breast cancer patients. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) functional polymorphism of serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the adaptation to stressful life events. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to examine the association of 5-HTTLPR with the mental adaptation to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Forty eight consecutive patients with early mammary carcinoma were evaluated at enrolment and at follow up after one and three months. The patients were characterized psychometrically using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC); 5-HTTLPR allelic variants were determined using PCR-based techniques. In women with early breast cancer, the mental adaptation to the disease was associated with high scores of avoidance and anxious preoccupation of Mini-MAC, which decreased with time at follow up. Anxious preoccupation decreased with time less in patients with the S/S and S/L genetic variant of 5-HTTLPR as compared with the L/L carriers (p=0.023), indicating gene - environment interactions. These results indicate that the characterization of 5-HTTLPR allows the identification of breast cancer patients in greater risk of mental suffering, for which specific intervention may be focused; in case of drug therapy, they provide indications for the choice of most appropriate agent in a pharmacogenetic perspective

  20. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 99mTc-MIBI BREAST IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任长才; 金少津; 邹强; 朱汇庆; 王红鹰; 梁春立

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find an effective, sensitive, specific and noninvasive diagnostic method of breast cancer. Methods: 109 masses of 102 patients with breast lesions smaller than 2 cm in diameter were divided into three groups to undergo 99mTc-MIBI imaging and compared with the results of pathology examination. 20 cases without breast lesions were selected as control. Abnormal condensation of 99mTc-MIBI in the breast reaching 10% higher than that in the counterpart of the healthy breast was regarded as positive. Results: Of 32 breast cancers, positive imaging appeared in 25. Negative imaging were found in 31 of 38 benign breast lesions. Of 39 occult breast lesions, positive imaging appeared in 6 and 3 of them were breast cancer, 2 of 3 patients with slightly increased 99mTc-MIBI imaging threshold were breast cancer also. No positive imaging was found in the control group. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99mTc-MIBI was 88.4%, 89.2%, 88.0%, 75.0% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI imaging had higher sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer and differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. It could provide useful information for the diagnosis of clinically suspected breast cancer.

  1. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  2. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  3. Breast feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration: A preventable tragedy in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The innumerable and compelling benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to the infant, mother, family and society are well recognized. Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare, yet potentially preventable complication of exclusive breastfeeding; the etiology being inadequate lactation. We report 2 exclusively breastfed newborn infants with serum sodium levels of 166 and 159 mEq/L, respectively. Both babies presented with excessive weight loss, fever, dehydration, and irritability. Mothers had inadequate lactation. Corresponding breast milk sodium levels were elevated in both mothers (77 and 45 mEq/l; normal 7-21 mEq/L between 3-14 d postpartum. Appropriate parenteral fluids were administered to correct dehydration and hypernatremia. Serum sodium normalized within 72 hours. Following counseling, breastfeeding was resumed after 48 hours with both the mothers achieving good lactation. Infants were finally discharged on exclusive breastfeeding. Timely recognition and awareness of this potentially lethal, but preventable condition is essential to ensure a favorable outcome.

  4. Tailoring therapies--improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A S; Winer, E P; Goldhirsch, A; Gelber, R D; Gnant, M; Piccart-Gebhart, M; Thürlimann, B; Senn, H-J

    2015-08-01

    The 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference (2015) reviewed substantial new evidence on locoregional and systemic therapies for early breast cancer. Further experience has supported the adequacy of tumor margins defined as 'no ink on invasive tumor or DCIS' and the safety of omitting axillary dissection in specific cohorts. Radiotherapy trials support irradiation of regional nodes in node-positive disease. Considering subdivisions within luminal disease, the Panel was more concerned with indications for the use of specific therapies, rather than surrogate identification of intrinsic subtypes as measured by multiparameter molecular tests. For the treatment of HER2-positive disease in patients with node-negative cancers up to 1 cm, the Panel endorsed a simplified regimen comprising paclitaxel and trastuzumab without anthracycline as adjuvant therapy. For premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive disease, the Panel endorsed the role of ovarian function suppression with either tamoxifen or exemestane for patients at higher risk. The Panel noted the value of an LHRH agonist given during chemotherapy for premenopausal women with ER-negative disease in protecting against premature ovarian failure and preserving fertility. The Panel noted increasing evidence for the prognostic value of commonly used multiparameter molecular markers, some of which also carried prognostic information for late relapse. The Panel noted that the results of such tests, where available, were frequently used to assist decisions about the inclusion of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with luminal disease, but noted that threshold values had not been established for this purpose for any of these tests. Multiparameter molecular assays are expensive and therefore unavailable in much of the world. The majority of new breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths now occur in less developed regions of the world. In these areas, less expensive pathology tests may

  5. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013–01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  6. Early life soy exposure and age at menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Adgent, Margaret; Daniels, Julie; Rogan, Walter; Adair, Linda; Edwards, Lloyd; Westreich, Daniel; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed prospectively. Early life feeding regimes, categorized as primarily breast, early formula, early soy, and late soy were defined using infan...

  7. Early use of negative pressure therapy in combination with silver dressings in a difficult breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Alastair J; Hagelstein, Sue M; Patel, Girish K; Ivins, Nicola M; Sweetland, Helen M; Harding, Keith G

    2011-12-01

    Combining silver-based dressings with negative pressure therapy after radical excision of chronically infected breast disease is a novel application of two technologies. One patient with complex, chronic, infected breast disease underwent radical excision of the affected area and was treated early with a combination of silver-based dressings and topical negative pressure therapy. The wound was then assessed sequentially using clinical measurements of wound area and depth, pain severity scores and level of exudation. It is possible to combine accepted techniques with modern dressing technologies that result in a positive outcome. In this case, the combination of a silver-based dressing with negative pressure therapy following radical excision proved safe and was well tolerated by the patient. Full epithelisation of the wound was achieved and there was no recurrence of the infection for the duration of the treatment. PMID:21883932

  8. Serum auto-antibody testing for early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is generate prototype-tests suitable for randomized prospective validation of auto-antibody based diagnostic testing using serum samples. Tumours can stimulate the production of auto-antibodies against autologous cellular proteins known as TAAs (tumour associated antigens). This discovery has lead to a possibility of using the auto-antibodies as serological tools for the early diagnosis and management of breast cancer. The recombinant proteins expressed by the SEREX clones, identified from screenings of brain and lung tumour, were used for the production of the protein microarrays and macroarrays. The protein microarrays showed better correlation between the replicates of the serum samples used. The optimized protocols were used for the subsequent experiments. A sizable panel of 642 clone-proteins was selected by marker-screening on protein macroarrays with 38000 clones. These 642 clone-proteins were used to generate protein microarrays that differentiated serum samples from breast cancer patients and controls. Antigenic peptide motifs were identified by in-silico analysis of 642 clone-proteins and peptide arrays were generated using synthetically generated peptides. Comparative studies between protein microarrays and peptide microarrays were done using breast cancer and healthy control samples. Simultaneously, SEREX strategy was used for the identification of the immunogenic TAAs. I identified 192 cDNA expression clones derived from breast cancer tissue samples and the selection was done using breast cancer sera. The genes corresponding to these clones were found over-represented for the pathways that are known to be associated with cancers. These genes showed typical features of TAAs, like over-expression, mutations and fusion genes. (author)

  9. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials

  10. Psychological aspects of breast conserving therapy (BCT) in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychological and social status of 40 women who underwent BCT in early cancer was compared with 40 women after radical mastectomy. Women in BCT group showed significantly less anxiety about overall body image. The majority of them reported adjustment to work or ability to carry out household tasks. Almost all returned to normal social activities and interpersonal relationships. The majority of patients treated with BCT were fully satisfied in spite of unsatisfactory cosmetic results achieved in some of them and in spite of long duration of combined modality treatment. (author)

  11. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0–1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89–1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28–2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18–0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  12. Subcutaneous trastuzumab: development of a new formulation for treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizi S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Salima Hamizi,1 Gilles Freyer,1 Naoual Bakrin,2 Emilie Henin,3 Amina Mohtaram,1 Olivia Le Saux,1 Claire Falandry41Department of Medical Oncology, Lyon 1 University and Hospices Civils de Lyon, 2Department of Gynecologic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 3EMR 3738 Therapeutic Modeling in Oncology, Lyon 1 University, 4Department of Geronto-Oncology and Geriatrics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. HER2 is amplified or overexpressed in about 15% of breast cancers and is associated with aggressive disease. Clinical benefits of trastuzumab have been established in the treatment of both early and metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer have to be treated with trastuzumab for one year in combination with and sequentially after chemotherapy. This requires that trastuzumab is intravenously infused over 30–90 minutes every 3 weeks for one year which is time-consuming for both the patient and the health care provider. Consequently, a subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab using a recombinant human hyaluronidase has been developed. Recombinant human hyaluronidase transiently increases absorption and dispersion in the subcutaneous space of large therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, allowing subcutaneous administration of trastuzumab in about 5 minutes. Thus, subcutaneous trastuzumab could represent a new treatment option that could have benefit to both the patient and the health care system. This review focuses on the development of the subcutaneous trastuzumab formulation and analyzes clinical trials assessing the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of this new formulation.Keywords: trastuzumab, hyaluronidase, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, breast cancer

  13. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Valerijus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Methods Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 ± 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status. Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Results Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Conclusion Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients – those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  14. Thermal boost combined with interstitial brachytherapy in breast conserving therapy - Assessment of early toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hyperthermia (HT) causes a direct damage to cancerous cells and/or sensitize them to radiotherapy with usually minimal injury to normal tissues. Adjuvant HT is probably one of the most effective radiation sensitizers known and works best when delivered simultaneously with radiation. In breast conserving therapy, irradiation has to minimize the risk of local relapse within the treated breast, especially in an area of a tumor bed. Brachytherapy boost reduces 5-year local recurrence rate to mean 5,5%, so there still some place for further improvement. The investigated therapeutic option is an adjuvant single session of local HT (thermal boost) preceding standard CT-based multi catheter interstitial HDR brachytherapy boost in order to increase the probability of local cure. Aim: To report the short-term results in regard to early toxicity of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) boost with or without interstitial microwave hyperthermia (MV HT) for early breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy (BCT). Materials and methods: Between February 2006 and December 2007, 57 stage IA-IIIA breast cancer patients received a 10 Gy HDR BT boost after conservative surgery and 42.5-50 Gy whole breast irradiation (WBI) ± adjuvant chemotherapy. 32 patients (56.1%) were treated with additional pre-BT single session of interstitial MW HT to a tumor bed (multi-catheter technique). Reference temperature was 43 oC and therapeutic time (TT) was 1 h. Incidence, severity and duration of radiodermatitis, skin oedema and skin erythema in groups with (I) or without HT (II) were assessed, significant p-value ≤ 0.05. Results: Median follow-up was 40 months. Local control was 100% and distant metastasis free survival was 91.1%. HT sessions (median): reference temperature 42.2 .C, therapeutic time (TT) 61.4 min, total thermal dose 42 min and a gap between HT and BT 30 min. Radiodermatitis grades I and II occurred in 24 and 6 patients, respectively, differences

  15. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  16. STUDY OF EARLY RADIATION PNEUMONITIS IN CARCINOMA BREAST AND LUNG TREATED WITH RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaganath KP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background toxicity of the respiratory system is quite common after radiotherapy of thoracic tumors. Breast and lung cancer patients represent one of the groups for whom there is a long expected survival. The quantification of lung tissue response to irradiation is important in designing treatments associated with a minimum of complication and maximum tumor control. OBJECTIVE :- To study the impact of lung volume irradiated on early pneumonitis in patients undergoing RT for cancer breast. METHOD :- The Study was conducted as per ICH GCP guidelines and Ethics Committee approval.This is a prospective study of cancer of breast and lung treated with radiotherapy from February 2004 to January 2005. Computerized tomography (CT simulation was part of treatment planning. The volume of lung irradiated was calculated by using both CLD method and summation of area technique. Chest x-ray and spirometric tests were done first as a baseline procedure and later at one month and at 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. Patients of either sex and Karnofsky performance status (KPS>70 and all cases of carcinoma breast and lung receiving radiotherapy were included.Patients who have received previous chemotherapy with drugs like bleomycin and mitomycin were excluded from the study. RESULTS. The incidence of RP in carcinoma breast is 3.9%. With conventional technique of treatment planning for carcinoma breast, percentage of lung volume irradiated in majority of cases (16/26 was within 11% and Central Lung Distance (CLD proved to be best predictor of it. The spirometry evaluation showed reduction in the percentage values in different compartments patients. Changes were maximum in patients treated with anthracyclin-based chemotherapy also. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION The incidence of RP of carcinoma breast is 3.9% treated with locoregional radiotherapy, which is accepted globally. The CLD (Central Lung Distance method of calculation of PIV (Percentage of

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding at a tertiary care centre in the government medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Deshmukh; Ummehani Rasool; Bhakti Kalyankar; Rupali Gaikwad; Kanan Yelikar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mother's milk undoubtedly represents the best nourishment for the child during first months of life. The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) specially, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), are well established. No artificial feed can replace breast milk, its specific nutrients and protection against diseases. All women should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed their infants up to 6 months of age and thereafter to continue along with appropriate and adequate complementary foods, for up t...

  18. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Saber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD, the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30 and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95. The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat

  19. Irradiation with external beam and interstitial radioactive implant as primary treatment for early carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locoregional control of 60 to 61 patients supports the results published by other centers and compares favorably with results of any surgical series. The cosmetic results are excellent with only three of 61 patients having severe fibrosis of the breast develop. No rib fractures, skin ulcerations, symptomatic radiation pneumonitis, edema of the arm or limitation of arm movement have been observed as complications. Ten of the 28 patients who have had axillary dissection had transient edema of the breast develop. Results of numerous studies suggest that primary radiotherapy without mastectomy is appropriate treatment for early carcinoma of the breast. The accessibility of the breast makes it relatively easy to deliver curative doses of radiation with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. The cumulative radiotherapy experience has demonstrated the gratifying results of not only maintaining a rather normal breast but also avoiding the negative physical and psychologic repercussions of the mastectomy. Radiation therapy is an alternative to Halsted's radical mastectomy

  20. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  1. Analysis of factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior%产妇哺乳行为的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 周晓梅; 侯桂芝; 齐建林; 董燕; 吴程曦

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨产妇哺乳行为的影响因素,以便有针对性地解决临床母乳喂养存在的问题.方法 2003-2008年来我院接受产后常规检查的妇女99名,接受检测时间为产后42 d,采用SCL-90评价孕妇的情绪.按中国常模划分,总分>160分或阳性项目数>43项,或任一因子分>2分为阳性,按SCL-90检测结果分成阳性组与阴性组,比较两组间哺乳行为的差异.同时填写产妇产后情况调查表.结果 受访的99例产妇中,共有26例(26.3%)采用母乳喂养;心理检测阳性组的母乳喂养率低于心理检测阴性组(x2=6.41,P<0.01);产妇哺乳行为与产妇的生产方式、婴儿排便和产妇对待婴儿哭闹的方式因素进入了回归方程,说明不同的生产方式、产妇对待哭闹婴儿的方式、婴儿排便情况与产妇的哺乳行为相互影响.结论 哺乳行为和产妇心理以及情绪状态存在联系.对长期有负性情绪体验的产妇给予必要的心理支持,建立良好的哺乳行为可降低心理应激、促进婴儿发育,增进亲子关系,有效的提高母乳喂养率.%Objective To analyze the factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior and to solve the problems existing in clinical maternal breast-feeding. Methods A total of 99 postpartum women were psychologically tested during routine examination on their postpartum 42nd day in 2003 through 2008. Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to evaluate the mood of the women. According to Chinese norm, total score > 60, or positive item number > 43, or any item score > 2, was defined as positive and divided into positive group and negative group according to the SCL-90 results, the difference of breast-feeding behavior was compared between two groups. Results As for breast-feeding, 26 of the 99 ones (26. 3% ) experienced breast-feeding. The breastfeeding rate was lower in SCL-90 positive group than in SCL-90 negative group (χ2 =6.41, P < 0. 01 ) . Such factors as maternal

  2. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The pur

  3. Effects of feeding metabolite combinations from lactobacillus plantarum on plasma and breast meat lipids in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Loh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456 on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control; (ii standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control; (iii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456; (iv standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria.

  4. Incorporation of sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy for the management of early breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoscintigraphy is a well-established computer of the management of early malignant melanoma stage l/ II (Clark's classification) with negative clinical lymph node while in breast carcinoma it is still investigational, although the data suggest that it will be accepted as a standard treatment in the near future. Axillary dissection is the standard approach for early stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node in order to precise stage axillary involvement. Proper staging is essential for deciding further adjuvant chemo or radiotherapy and reflects the prognosis of the disease. However, axillary dissection is associated with increased morbidity and it is not cost-effective when the nodes are disease-free. The first lymph node in the lymphatic basin draining the primary tumor called the sentinel lymph node (Sln) when identified, removed and biopsied will reflect the histologic characteristics of the rest of the nodes in the basin. The sentinel node mapping is a new approach to avoid unnecessary axillary node dissection .Sentinel node localization is the second most important development in this century after conservative lumpectomy for the treatment of early breast cancer.Sentinel lymph nodes can be localized by vital blue dye injected around the tumor at the time of surgery and by radiocolloid mapping separately or simultaneously.Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be more convenient and with more success rate though little more costly than blue dye method. When both methods are used simultaneously they increase success rate and give more confidence to the surgeon especially during the learning phase methods. In this review article, we reviewed the status of axillary node mapping, its advantages, difficulties, experience in different centers including ours and future possibilities. (authors) 2 tabs., 45 refs

  5. Factors influencing the surgery intentions and choices of women with early breast cancer: the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivell, S.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Manstead, A.S.; BresDex, g.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (stage I or II) can be offered the choice between mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy due to equivalence in survival rates. A wide variation in the surgical management of breast cancer and a lack of theoretically guided res

  6. Awareness that early cancer lump is painless could decrease breast cancer mortality in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    There are several factors which contribute to patients’ reporting late to healthcare facility even after detecting the breast lump (patient delay). Amongst these, one of the important factors in low- and middle-income countries is lack of awareness that early cancer lump is painless (ECLIPs). Pain is often taken as a danger sign and absence of pain is often not taken seriously. The studies have shown that up to 98% of women in low-income countries are unaware that a painless lump could be a w...

  7. Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis in early breast cancer--relevance to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Yilmaz, Mette; Knoop, Ann; Overgaard, Jens

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis add new knowledge regarding prediction of prognosis in 455 consecutive early breast carcinomas, both node-positive (52%) and node-negative (48%). Median follow-up was 101 months. Intense vascularization indicated......, high malignancy grade, negative oestrogen receptor, and increasing Chalkley counts (both tertiles and continuous) were independent markers of disease-specific death. Thus, in a univariate analysis it was found that high Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis indicated a poor prognosis, but high Chalkley...

  8. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Autoantibody Markers — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify large numbers of antigens that can be used to recognize the presence of cancer by detecting antibodies to tumor proteins in the serum of the test subjects. Our technology will provide an early detection test for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. We will use bioinformatics techniques to analyze these protein microarray-immunoassays to discriminate between cancer patients and healthy subjects so as to detect disease prior to standard diagnoses as well as discriminate patients with benign conditions or other cancers that might be a false positive in less specific assays.

  9. Early Breast Cancer Precursor Lesions: Lessons Learned from Molecular and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn, Hans-Peter; Elsawaf, Zeinab; Helmchen, Birgit; Aulmann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and lobular neoplasia (LN) form a group of early precursor lesions that are part of the low-grade pathway in breast cancer development. This concept implies that the neoplastic disease process begins at a stage much earlier than in situ carcinoma. We have performed a review of the published literature for the upgrade risk to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in open biopsy after a diagnosis of ADH, FEA, or LN in cor...

  10. Comparing the effects of conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapies on early skin toxicity and cosmetic outcomes after breast cancer conserving surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, P; AR Sebzari; B Kalaghchi; F Amouzegar Hashemi; Z Shahabi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high number of breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy after surgery has caused many to think about a shorter period of radiotherapy, which can significantly reduce the radiotherapy machine time, labor hours, and fewer patient visits. This study was designed to evaluate the acute skin effects and cosmetic outcomes of short course radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer in comparison with the conventional treatment method.Methods: Fifty-two patients with operable...

  11. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J.; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkg...

  12. Aberrant reduction of telomere repetitive sequences in plasma cell-free DNA for early breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xi; Tanaka, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Excessive telomere shortening is observed in breast cancer lesions when compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, suggesting that telomere length may represent a key biomarker for early cancer detection. Because tumor-derived, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is often released from cancer cells and circulates in the bloodstream, we hypothesized that breast cancer development is associated with changes in the amount of telomeric cfDNA that can be detected in the plasma. To test this hypothesis, we devi...

  13. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Alice S Forster; Dodd, Rachael H.; Lorraine Tucker; Rachel Laming; Sarah Sellars; Julietta Patnick; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at a...

  14. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Weir, Lorna [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  15. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  16. Clinical Practice Guideline for the prevention and early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, C F; Tea, M K; Pristauz, G; Hubalek, M; Rappaport, C; Riedl, C C; Helbich, T H

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 10% of breast cancer cases exhibit a higher familial incidence, and functional mutations in BRCA (breast cancer-gene) 1 or 2 are responsible for the development of malignant tumors in approximately half of these cases. Women with a germline mutation in either of the two genes have a lifetime risk of up to 85% to develop breast cancer, and of up to 60% risk to develop ovarian cancer. This clinical practice guideline defines the individual and familial tumor constellations that represent an indication for BRCA germline testing. It also describes the therapeutic options (early detection programme vs prophylactic surgery) that arise from the result of a BRCA mutational analysis. This guideline further includes recommendations regarding the use of multigene panels and therapeutic aspects that arise from the selective use of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with known BRCA1 or 2 mutations. It replaces the previous version of the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention and Early Detection of Breast- and Ovarian Cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families" which was published in 2012. PMID:26525377

  17. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  18. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  19. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak–Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0–5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets

  20. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoon, T. F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2011-11-01

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak-Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0-5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets.

  1. Aspects of the application of complementary brachytherapy for early invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial studies of brachytherapy with the 'Mammosite Radiation Therapy System', a device consisted by a catheter centered inside a inflate balloon, to perform breast brachytherapy was revised. A high activity source was applied into the balloon, exposing to the tumor bed to a high absorbed dose, while the surrounding areas receives one reduced by to a factor 1/r2, during a short interval of time. The high acute dose provides a booster to conventional radiation therapy, resulting in a better local control. The acceptable esthetic impact achieved and an easier device setting stimulated the present dosimetric study. The brachytherapy with Ir192 was simulated through the development of a computerized digital voxels phantom, which represented the breast anatomy. The Monte Carlo Code (MCNP TM, 1977) was used to evaluate the radiation of the tumor bed and health tissues. Results from simulations shows, as example, an amount of radiation absorbed by the tumor bed of 11.30 Gy up to 5 mm around the balloon surface. Radiation selectivity is also shown, in which tumour bed absorbed more radiation than the surrounding tissues, whose maximum values were: skin (6.73 Gy), muscle (7.69 Gy), and lung (3.02 Gy), for a fifteen-minute exposure of a Ir-152 source. The simulation results are presented. Reliability of this radiotherapy technique as a postoperative booster in early breast cancer is presented and confirmed in this work. (author)

  2. A prospective cohort study on postoperative radiotherapy with TomoDirect using simultaneous integrated boost technique in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and toxicity of TomoDirect in breast cancer patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. 155 consecutive patients with breast carcinoma in situ or T1-2 breast cancer with negative lymph node received breast irradiation with TomoDirect using simultaneous integrated boost technique in the prospective cohort study. A radiation dose of 50.4 Gy and 57.4 Gy in 28 fractions was prescribed to the ipsilateral breast and tumor bed, respectively. Dosimetric parameters of target and organ at risk and acute complication were assessed prospectively. The mean dose for the tumor bed is 58.90 Gy. The mean values of V54.53Gy (95% of the prescribed dose), V63.14Gy (110% of the prescribed dose), and V66.01Gy (115% of the prescribed dose) were 99.97%, 1.26%, and 0%, respectively. The mean value of radiation conformality index was 1.01. The mean value of radical dose homogeneity index was 0.89. The average dose irradiated to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast was 4.72 Gy, 1.09 Gy, and 0.19 Gy, respectively. The most common toxicity was dermatitis. During breast irradiation, grade 2 and 3 dermatitis occurred in 41 (26.5%) and 6 (3.9%) of the 155 patients, respectively. Two patients had arm lymphedema during breast irradiation. Two patients had grade 2 pneumonitis 1 month after breast irradiation. Radiotherapy using TomoDirect in early breast cancer patients showed acceptable toxicities and optimal results in terms of target coverage and organ at risk sparing

  3. 乳腺癌保乳手术38例临床分析%Analysis of breast conserving operation in 38 patients with early stage breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱运新; 龚建军; 翟新发; 秦文祥

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of breast conserving surgery for early stage breast cancer. Methods The record of 38 patients with 0-IIa-stage breast cancer who received breast conserving surgery from Jan. 2005 to Feb.2010 was reviewed. The short-term effect was analyzed and the cosmetic effect was evaluated according to Rose standard. Results All patients recovered well and they were all satisfied with the shape of their breasts. No complication occurred. During the follow-up, no local recurrence and distant metastasis occurred. Conclusion Satisfactory clinical and cosmetic effect can be achieved by breast-conserving surgery in patients with early stage breast cancer.%目的 总结保乳手术治疗早期乳腺癌的临床经验及疗效观察.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月至2010年2月新疆石河子人民医院收治的38例临床0~IIa期、非乳晕区单发肿瘤的乳腺癌患者的临床资料.分析其近期疗效,并按Rose标准,对接受保乳手术的患者进行美容效果评价.结果 所有病例术后恢复良好,无1例出现并发症,随访未见局部复发及远处转移,患者对术后乳房外形及生活质量满意.结论 早期乳腺癌患者接受保乳手术治疗可取得满意的临床和美容效果.

  4. Cosmetic Analysis Following Breast-Conserving Surgery and Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate cosmetic outcomes in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients had stage Tis-T2 tumors of ≤3 cm that were excised with negative margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. Both the patients and the treating radiation oncologist qualitatively rated cosmesis as excellent, good, fair, or poor over time and ascribed a cause for changes in cosmesis. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated quantitatively by percentage of breast retraction assessment (pBRA). Patients also reported their satisfaction with treatment over time. Results: Median follow-up was 55 months. The rates of excellent-to-good cosmesis reported by patients and the treating radiation oncologist were 92% and 97% pretreatment, 91% and 97% at 3 to 4 months' follow-up, 87% and 94% at 2 years, and 92% and 94% at 3 years, respectively. Breast infection and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of a fair-to-poor cosmetic outcome at 3 years. Compared to pretreatment pBRA (7.35), there was no significant change in pBRA over time. The volume receiving more than 150 Gy (V150) was the only significant predictor of pBRA. The majority of patients (86.6%) were completely satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Patients and the treating physician reported a high rate of excellent-to-good cosmetic outcomes at all follow-up time points. Acute breast infection and chemotherapy were associated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy does not significantly change breast size as measured by pBRA.

  5. Cosmetic Analysis Following Breast-Conserving Surgery and Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate cosmetic outcomes in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2008, 151 patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients had stage Tis-T2 tumors of ≤3 cm that were excised with negative margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. Both the patients and the treating radiation oncologist qualitatively rated cosmesis as excellent, good, fair, or poor over time and ascribed a cause for changes in cosmesis. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated quantitatively by percentage of breast retraction assessment (pBRA). Patients also reported their satisfaction with treatment over time. Results: Median follow-up was 55 months. The rates of excellent-to-good cosmesis reported by patients and the treating radiation oncologist were 92% and 97% pretreatment, 91% and 97% at 3 to 4 months' follow-up, 87% and 94% at 2 years, and 92% and 94% at 3 years, respectively. Breast infection and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of a fair-to-poor cosmetic outcome at 3 years. Compared to pretreatment pBRA (7.35), there was no significant change in pBRA over time. The volume receiving more than 150 Gy (V150) was the only significant predictor of pBRA. The majority of patients (86.6%) were completely satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Patients and the treating physician reported a high rate of excellent-to-good cosmetic outcomes at all follow-up time points. Acute breast infection and chemotherapy were associated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy does not significantly change breast size as measured by pBRA

  6. Is early feeding after major gastrointestinal surgery a fashion or an advance? evidence-based review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikhande Shailesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Early enteral nutrition (EN after major digestive surgery has been receiving increasing attention. Supporting evidence has not been clear. This evidence-based review traces the development of early EN and analyses whether it is indeed an advance. We performed a PubMed search in October 2009 with the key words enteral nutrition, early feeding, and gastrointestinal surgery. Our emphasis was on earliest studies documenting the benefits or adverse effects of EN, comparative studies, documenting the benefits or adverse effects of EN, comparative studies, and randomized controlled trials. Thirty-one results were returned from which 17 were included for evaluation (1979-2009. Fifteen papers concluded that early EN was beneficial. In general, patients put on early EN and immunonutrition postoperatively seemed to have decreased hospital stay, decreased complication rates, decreased treatment and hospital costs, and even decreased morbidity and mortality; however, judicious use has been suggested. One study did not recommend early enteral feeding in well-nourished patients at low risk of nutrition-related complications and another suggested that immunonutrition is not beneficial and should not be used routinely. Early EN has been safely given after major digestive surgery since 1979. It benefits patients undergoing major gastrointestinal (GI surgeries, with reduction in perioperative infection, better maintainance of nitrogen balance, and shorter hospital stay. Early EN may be superior to total parenteral nutrition (TPN. However, TPN is perhaps better tolerated in the immediate postoperative period. Early enteral immunonutrition should be used only in malnourished and in transfused patients. Early EN after major digestive surgery is an old advance that is now in fashion.

  7. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy

  8. The molecular subtype classification is a determinant of sentinel node positivity in early breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Reyal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several authors have underscored a strong relation between the molecular subtypes and the axillary status of breast cancer patients. The aim of our work was to decipher the interaction between this classification and the probability of a positive sentinel node biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our dataset consisted of a total number of 2654 early-stage breast cancer patients. Patients treated at first by conservative breast surgery plus sentinel node biopsies were selected. A multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. Interaction covariate between ER and HER2 markers was a forced input of this model. The performance of the multivariate model in the training and the two validation sets was analyzed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Probability of axillary metastasis was detailed for each molecular subtype. RESULTS: The interaction covariate between ER and HER2 status was a stronger predictor (p = 0.0031 of positive sentinel node biopsy than the ER status by itself (p = 0.016. A multivariate model to determine the probability of sentinel node positivity was defined with the following variables; tumour size, lympho-vascular invasion, molecular subtypes and age at diagnosis. This model showed similar results in terms of discrimination (AUC = 0.72/0.73/0.72 and calibration (HL p = 0.28/0.05/0.11 in the training and validation sets. The interaction between molecular subtypes, tumour size and sentinel nodes status was approximated. DISCUSSION: We showed that biologically-driven analyses are able to build new models with higher performance in terms of breast cancer axillary status prediction. The molecular subtype classification strongly interacts with the axillary and distant metastasis process.

  9. Individual radiotherapy planning after organ-preserving surgery in early breast carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the paper to assess the beneficial effect of individual CT treatment planning in patients with early breast carcinoma after organ-preserving operations. The study covers 122 cases presenting breast carcinoma stage I-II, subjected to postoperative radiotherapy following quadrantectomy and radical axillary dissection. In 87.7 per cent CTV-I (clinical target volume)includes the preserved breast with the underlying thoracic wall. In patients with N1 and >3 positive axillary lymph nodes (12.3%) CTV-II is added for the supraclavicular lymph nodes. In all patients at least three transverse sections are prepared at irradiation position on CT Somatom AR.C (Siemens), and five with sagittal topogram for patients with left breast. The obtained CT data are plotted on the topographic section of the thoracic wall contour and verified by x-ray simulator. CT sections are used for high-precision outlining of PRV and organs at risk, using photographic magnifying lens. PTV-I is irradiated using two tangential fields (60Co) without boost for the tumor bed to the prescribed 50 Gy total focal dose, in 25 fractions over five weeks. Supraclavicular fossa irradiation is supplemented by a 'third' field at 44 Gy total dose. A 5-year local control is achieved in 96.0 per cent of patients, with excellent and good cosmetic results in 56.1 and 41.0 per cent of the cases, respectively. Post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis is recorded in 1.6 per cent. The method described is readily accessible and practicable in all patients. It allows for homogeneous CTV irradiation at maximum sparing of the organs at risk. (author)

  10. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  11. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Churl Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  12. The Dynamics of Parenting and Early Feeding--Constructs and Controversies: A Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Daniels, Lynne A.; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that parenting and feeding interact to influence children's eating behaviour and weight status. Interpretation of existing research is complicated by the lack of consensus in the conceptualisation and measurement of both "parenting" and "feeding", particularly the distinction between "styles", "dimensions" and…

  13. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focu...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  14. Radical Radiotherapy with Lympectomy (Wide excisional biopsy) for Early Breast Cancer-A Case Report and Review of Literature-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Young; Whang, In Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    However, long-term results of retrospective studies suggest that, for the great majority of individuals, mastectomy or conservative surgery with radiation therapy were be equally effective. The results at 5 and 10 years from prospective randomized trials indicate that survival following primary radiation therapy for early breast cancer is equivalent to that following mastectomy. When competently performed, primary radiation therapy gives highly satisfactory cosmetic results and acceptably low rates of local tumor recurrence. A number of controversial issues remain concerning patient evaluation and selection and the optimal techniques of treatment, both surgical and radiotherapeutic. In addition, further work is needed to clearity the best way to integrate primary radiotherapy with adjuvant systemic treatment. And further follow-up these patients with primary radiation therapy for early breast cancer will be required for ultimate proof of the relative merits. A case which was conservative surgery and radical irradiation of early breast cancer with review of literatures will be done.

  15. Radical Radiotherapy with Lympectomy (Wide excisional biopsy) for Early Breast Cancer-A Case Report and Review of Literature-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    However, long-term results of retrospective studies suggest that, for the great majority of individuals, mastectomy or conservative surgery with radiation therapy were be equally effective. The results at 5 and 10 years from prospective randomized trials indicate that survival following primary radiation therapy for early breast cancer is equivalent to that following mastectomy. When competently performed, primary radiation therapy gives highly satisfactory cosmetic results and acceptably low rates of local tumor recurrence. A number of controversial issues remain concerning patient evaluation and selection and the optimal techniques of treatment, both surgical and radiotherapeutic. In addition, further work is needed to clearity the best way to integrate primary radiotherapy with adjuvant systemic treatment. And further follow-up these patients with primary radiation therapy for early breast cancer will be required for ultimate proof of the relative merits. A case which was conservative surgery and radical irradiation of early breast cancer with review of literatures will be done

  16. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P Analysis (IPA) program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE) in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules) predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit), progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen activated protein kinase 4, and serum response factor would be inhibited in the high FE phenotype. The results provide additional insight into the fundamental molecular landscape of feed efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013-01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  17. Hypothesis: primary antiangiogenic method proposed to treat early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women with Down syndrome very rarely develop breast cancer even though they now live to an age when it normally occurs. This may be related to the fact that Down syndrome persons have an additional copy of chromosome 21 where the gene that codes for the antiangiogenic protein Endostatin is located. Can this information lead to a primary antiangiogenic therapy for early stage breast cancer that indefinitely prolongs remission? A key question that arises is when is the initial angiogenic switch thrown in micrometastases? We have conjectured that avascular micrometastases are dormant and relatively stable if undisturbed but that for some patients angiogenesis is precipitated by surgery. We also proposed that angiogenesis of micrometastases very rarely occurs before surgical removal of the primary tumor. If that is so, it seems possible that we could suggest a primary antiangiogenic therapy but the problem then arises that starting a therapy before surgery would interfere with wound healing. The therapy must be initiated at least one day prior to surgical removal of the primary tumor and kept at a Down syndrome level perhaps indefinitely. That means the drug must have virtually no toxicity and not interfere meaningfully with wound healing. This specifically excludes drugs that significantly inhibit the VEGF pathway since that is important for wound healing and because these agents have some toxicity. Endostatin is apparently non-toxic and does not significantly interfere with wound healing since Down syndrome patients have no abnormal wound healing problems. We propose a therapy for early stage breast cancer consisting of Endostatin at or above Down syndrome levels starting at least one day before surgery and continuing at that level. This should prevent micrometastatic angiogenesis resulting from surgery or at any time later. Adjuvant chemotherapy or hormone therapy should not be necessary. This can be continued indefinitely since there is no acquired resistance that

  18. Clinical outcome of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy for early breast cancer after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, complications, cosmetic results between conventional radiotherapy (CR) and three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) after conservative surgery for early breast cancer. Methods: Totally 106 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery, including 62 patients who received CR and 46 received 3DCRT. The radiation dose was determined by the tumor size, tumor location and axillary node involvement. Tangential fields were used to deliver 6 MV X-ray beams to a total dose of 50 Gy in 5 weeks. An additional 10-15 Gy was given to the tumor bed with 6-9 MeV electron beams in 1.0-1.5 weeks. The median follow-up time was 32 months. Results: The local recurrence, metastasis or death were observed in 3, 5 and 2 patients in the CR group, while 1, 4 and 2 in the 3DCRT group. No statistical significant difference was found between these two groups (P>0.05). Radiation induced pneumonia was observed in 11 patients in CR group versus none in the 3DCRT group. Six months and one year after radiotherapy, 90% and 93% of these patients were assessed as excellent or in fine cosmetic state in the CR group, versus 91.5% and 93.8% in the 3DCRT group. There was no significant difference in the cosmetic results between these two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy possesses similar treatment and cosmetic results to conventional radiotherapy after conservative surgery for early breast cancer. But the former, one can markedly reduce the likely hood of radiation complications. (authors)

  19. Training radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to deliver an intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer to all older women attending for their final routine mammogram within the NHS Breast Screening Programme. If the Promoting Early Presentation (PEP) intervention is demonstrated to be cost-effective, it may be implemented across the NHS requiring at least four radiographers per screening service to deliver the intervention. Methods: A pilot study in a single breast screening service was conducted to assess the feasibility of training sufficient radiographers to meet this objective. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the impact of training on participating radiographers and the screening service. Competency to deliver the intervention was assessed at key points during training according to quality criteria based on delivery of the key messages and style of delivery. Confidence to deliver the intervention was assessed using a self-report measure before and after training. Radiographers' experiences of training were elicited in face-to-face qualitative interviews. Results: Seven of eight radiographers who were released to undertake the training achieved the required level of competency to deliver the intervention within four months. All improved over time in their confidence to deliver the key messages of the intervention. The qualitative analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of training from the perspective of the radiographers. Conclusion: It was feasible and acceptable to train sufficient radiographers to deliver the PEP Intervention. The training package will be streamlined to improve efficiency for large implementation trials and clinical practice across the NHS.

  20. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  1. Detection of the smallest microcalcifications for early diagnostic of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinazzi, Elizandra; Kleper, S.O., E-mail: elizandra.martinazzi@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Institute of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Even though breast cancer is a cancer with relatively easy early diagnostic and has an appropriate treatment, it has high mortality rates in Brazil. This is in part because the disease is diagnosed only in advanced stages, but also because the whole information contained in the mammograms is not used by physicians and radiologists. There are many parameters to be considered in assessing the quality of a mammogram image. Among these parameters are contrast, spatial resolution, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the efficiency of the applied dose. Even with the improvement of the quality of radiographs, many structures, such as small microcalcifications, are not always identified by radiologists in the images. To determine the lowest detectable structures in digital mammograms, we made a numerical analysis of a few digital mammography using simulators, determining the spatial and intensity resolutions, and studying the noise and its distribution. With this, we could determine the detection levels, quantifying the probability that any point is due to statistical noise or a real change in breast density. This is the first step towards early detection of microcalcifications. In our work, it was possible to detect even the smallest microcalcifications of the simulator, 0.18 mm in diameter, with false alarm probability smaller than 1/1000. (author)

  2. Limited family structure and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype as predictors of BRCA mutations in a genetic counseling cohort of early-onset sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Manzano, Arancha; Blanco, Ignacio; Vega, Ana; Custodio, Ana; Teulé, Alex; Fachal, Laura; Martínez, Beatriz; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús; Chirivella, Isabel; Garcés, Vicente; Garre, Pilar; Romero, Atocha; Caldés, Trinidad; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; de la Hoya, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset diagnosis is an eligibility criterion for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) testing in sporadic breast cancer patients. Limited family structure has been proposed as a predictor of BRCA mutation status in this group of patients. An overwhelming amount of data supports a strong association between BRCA1 mutations and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we analyze the feasibility of using limited family structure and TNBC as predictors of BRCA mutation status in early-onset breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. We have conducted the study in a cohort of sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients (N = 341) previously selected for BRCA genetic testing in Academic Hereditary Cancer Clinics from Spain. A retrospective review of medical records available at the time of risk assessment allowed us classifying patients according to family structure and TNBC. In addition, BRCAPRO score was calculated for all patients. Association between categorical variables was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Limited family structure (OR 3.61, p = 0.013) and TNBC (OR 3.14, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of BRCA mutation status. Mutation prevalence in the subgroup of patients with at least one positive predictor was 14%, whereas it dropped to 3% in non-TNBCs with adequate family history (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.38-23.89, p = 0.006). BRCAPRO correctly discerned between limited and adequate family structures. Limited family structure and TNBC are feasible predictors of BRCA mutation status in sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. The low prevalence of mutations observed in non-TNBCs with adequate family structure suggests that this subgroup of patients might be excluded from genetic testing. PMID:25342642

  3. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorica, Alina; Oh, Karen Y; Chui, Stephen Y-C; Roy, Nicole; Troxell, Megan L; Naik, Arpana; Kemmer, Kathleen A; Chen, Yiyi; Holtorf, Megan L; Afzal, Aneela; Springer, Charles S; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB). Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM). After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters K(trans) (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant), ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction), kep (intravasation rate constant), and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime) are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR) vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT K(trans), τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05) correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism. PMID:26947876

  4. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  5. A prospective cohort study of early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer: the breast cancer quality of care study (BQUAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugut, Alfred I; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lamerato, Lois; Buono, Donna L; Nathanson, S David; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Jacobson, Judith S; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-07-01

    For many women with non-metastatic breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy prevents recurrence and extends survival. Women who discontinue chemotherapy early may reduce those benefits, but little is known about what predicts early discontinuation. We sought to determine prospectively the rate and reasons for early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective cohort study among three U.S. health care organizations. Of 1158 women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer, 2006-2010, we analyzed 445 (38.4 %) patients who initiated standard adjuvant chemotherapy as defined by accepted guidelines. We interviewed patients at baseline and twice during treatment regarding sociodemographic/psychosocial factors and treatment decision-making and collected clinical data. They were categorized according to the number of cycles required by the chemotherapy regimen they had initiated. The outcome was early discontinuation (4 cycles of therapy (18.1 % for longer regimens, 7.4 % for 4 cycles) (odds ratio [OR] 2.59, 95 % CI 1.32-5.08), controlling for race, age, stage, hormone receptor status, social support, optimism, spirituality, stress, and physical symptoms. Higher levels of psychological symptoms on the Memorial symptom assessment scale also increased the odds of early discontinuation (OR 1.92, 95 % CI 0.998-3.68). The large majority of patients who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer completed their prescribed regimens, but early discontinuation was associated with lengthier regimens and, with borderline statistical significance, for those with psychological side effects. PMID:27287779

  6. Pre-operative FDG PET/CT findings related to early tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify any pre-operative FDG PET/CT findings related to early recurrence in the breast cancer patients. One hundred eighteen breast cancer patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for preoperative staging from September 2004 to September 2005 were included. All patients received operation and follow-up examination. From the FDG PET/CT images, (1) the peak standard uptake values (pSUV) of the primary tumor, (2) pSUV of axillary lymph node (LN) were recorded. 7 out of 118 patients had tumor recurrence within 26 months after the surgery. The mean pSUV of primary tumors with early recurrence (6.113.22) was significantly higher than the mean pSUV of the early recurrence negative follow-up group (3.432.43). The mean pSUVs of the axillary LN showed no significant difference between the early recurrence group and recurrence negative (2.122.17 vs 2.411.13). Of 111 patients with no evidence of recurrence, 71 patients showed no perceptible FDG uptake in the axillary LNs. On the other hand, all of the 7 recurrent breast cancer cases show increased FDG uptakes of axillary LN. In the recurrence negative group, no axillary LN demonstrated perceptibly increased FDG uptakes in 64% (71/111 cases); increased FDG uptake was noted in 36% (40/111 cases). In breast cancer patients who had early recurrence, the pSUV of the primary tumor was significantly higher than that of early recurrence negative patients. Though the pSUV of the axillary LN was not a predictor of recurrent breast cancer, all recurrent breast cancer patients had FDG uptake in axillary LN

  7. The comparative study of the outcomes of early and late oral feeding in intestinal anastomosis surgeries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Amanollahi; Bahram Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Background: A leakage of intestinal anastomosis is typically regarded as a devastating post-operative complication. Traditionally its believed that long fasting after intestinal surgery protect anastomosis site and most surgeons applied this method. Post-operative long fasting has many physical and mental adverse effects, especially in children, but its benefit has not proven yet. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of early and late oral feeding in intestinal resection and anastomosis s...

  8. Evaluation of supporting role of early enteral feeding via tube jejunostomy following resection of upper gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafouri, Ali; Salehi, Omran Abbas; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Hosseini, Saeed; Shojaifard, Abolfazl; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, early diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies and their surgical resection is becoming more feasible. One of the important side effects in upper GI tract malignancies is malnutrition which has direct relationship with postoperative complications. Nonetheless, there is no easy regimen of nutrition for these patients especially for the first week after operation. Accordingly we present a simple method for improving feeding such patients via tube jejunostomy...

  9. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  10. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered “excellent”, 33% “good”, and 900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a “fair/poor” cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with “fair/poor” physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported “excellent”, “good”, and “fair/poor” cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with “fair/poor” outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose ≥16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83%-98% “good/excellent” cosmetic outcomes, and minimal

  11. A randomised controlled trial of forward-planned radiotherapy (IMRT) for early breast cancer: Baseline characteristics and dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This large trial was designed to investigate whether correction of dose inhomogeneities using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) reduces late toxicity and improves quality of life in patients with early breast cancer. This paper reports baseline characteristics of trial participants and dosimetry results. Materials and methods: Standard tangential plans of 1145 trials were analysed. Patients with inhomogeneous plans, defined by ICRU recommendations, were randomised to forward-planned IMRT or standard radiotherapy. Results: Twenty-nine percentage of patients had adequate dosimetry with standard 2D radiotherapy. In the randomised patients, the decreases in mean volumes receiving greater than 107% (Vol > 107) and less than 95% (Vol 3 (95% CI 26.4-41.6; P 3 (95% CI 34.4-61.9; P 107 > 2 cm3 on standard radiotherapy plans. Conclusion: This large trial, in which patients with all breast sizes were eligible, confirmed that breast dosimetry can be significantly improved with a simple method of forward-planned IMRT and has little impact on radiotherapy resources. It is shown that patients with larger breasts are more likely to have dose inhomogeneities and breast separation gives some indication of this likelihood. Photographic assessment of patients at 2 years after radiotherapy, as the next part of this randomised controlled trial, will show whether these results for IMRT translate into improved cosmetic outcome in patients with early breast cancer. This would provide impetus for the widespread adoption of 3D planning and IMRT.

  12. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ≤3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment

  13. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deshields, Teresa L. [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial b