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Sample records for breast cancer types

  1. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor. Using a tissue sample from your breast biopsy or using your tumor if you've already undergone surgery, your medical team determines your breast cancer type. This information helps your doctor decide which treatment ...

  2. Breast cancer associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Nakos, Georgios; Sambaziotis, Dimitrios; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2010-10-01

    The association between breast cancer and type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) is a rare clinical entity. We herein present the case of a 59-year-old woman, with typical clinical manifestations of NF1, who presented with a painless lump in her right breast, which she had first noticed 8 months earlier. Clinical examination and diagnostic workup were suggestive of a breast carcinoma, and a modified radical mastectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a poorly differentiated invasive ductal breast carcinoma and multiple neurofibromas. The pathological staging was pT2N1a according to TNM/UICC. Delayed presentation of the patient was the result of her mistakenly identifying the breast tumor as a manifestation of NF1 neurofibromatosis.

  3. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  4. Various types and management of breast cancer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh N Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Since last two decades, researches related to the breast cancer has lead to extraordinary progress in our understanding of the disease, resulting in more efficient and less toxic treatments. Increased public awareness and improved screening have led to earlier diagnosis at stages amenable to complete surgical resection and curative therapies. Consequently, survival rates for breast cancer have improved significantly, particularly in younger women. This article addresses the types, causes, clinical symptoms and various approach both non- drug (such as surgery and radiation and drug treatment (including chemotherapy, gene therapy etc. of breast cancer.

  5. VARIOUS TYPES AND MANAGEMENT OF BREAST CANCER: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Now days, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Since last two decades, researches related to the breast cancer has lead to extraordinary progress in our understanding of the disease, resulting in more efficient and less toxic treatments. Increased public awareness and improved screening have led to earlier diagnosis at stages amenable to complete surgical resection and curative therapies. Consequently, survival rates for breast cancer have improved significantly, particularly in younger women. This article addresses the types, causes, clinical symptoms and various approach both non- drug (such as surgery and radiation and drug treatment (including chemotherapy, gene therapy etc. of breast cancer.

  6. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  7. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  8. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPE C BEHAVIOR AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA MARÍA TORRES MARIÑO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate deeply the relationship between Type C behavior pattern andbreast cancer through an analytical observation design of cases and controls. Three groups of variables were established:demographical, medical and risk factors, including in the last one the Type C behavior, for three groups: a women withbreast cancer, b women with cervix cancer, and c healthy women. The changing answer for ‘having breast cancer’ isdetermined by the family history of sickness, having hormone replace therapy, the history of the ovarian and endometrialcancer, and the age of the participants. One concludes that the behavior pattern, so and as is raised until the moment,is related more to the way the disease is faced, than a type of premorbid personality. New factors are proposed in baseof the Five Factor Model, the Temperament and Character set out.

  10. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  11. Breast cancer in neurofibromatosis type 1: overrepresentation of unfavourable prognostic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Elina; Kallionpää, Roope A; Kurki, Samu; Rantanen, Matti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Härkönen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Riikka; Carpen, Olli; Pöyhönen, Minna; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Background: An increased breast cancer incidence and poor survival have been reported for women with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). To explain the poor survival, we aimed to link the histopathology and clinical characteristics of NF1-associated breast cancers. Methods: The Finnish Cancer Registry and the Finnish NF Registry were cross-referenced to identify the NF1 patients with breast cancer. Archival NF1 breast cancer specimens were retrieved for histopathological typing and compared with matched controls. Results: A total of 32 breast cancers were diagnosed in 1404 NF1 patients during the follow-up. Women with NF1 had an estimated lifetime risk of 18.0% for breast cancer, and this is nearly two-fold compared with that of the general Finnish female population (9.74%). The 26 successfully retrieved archival NF1 breast tumours were more often associated with unfavourable prognostic factors, such as oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity and HER2 amplification. However, survival was worse in the NF1 group (P=0.053) even when compared with the control group matched for age, diagnosis year, gender and oestrogen receptor status. Scrutiny of The Cancer Genome Atlas data set showed that NF1 mutations and deletions were associated with similar characteristics in the breast cancers of the general population. Conclusions: These results emphasise the role of the NF1 gene in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and a need for active follow-up for breast cancer in women with NF1. PMID:27931045

  12. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  14. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2011-06-15

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.

  15. Breast cancer risk and germline genomic profiling of women with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Teer, Jamie K; Tousignant, Renee N; Levin, Albert M; Boulware, David; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Shaw, Brandon M; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Yonghong; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Acosta, Maria T; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Korf, Bruce R; Tainsky, Michael A

    2017-09-10

    NF1 mutations predispose to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and women with NF1 have a moderately elevated risk for breast cancer, especially under age 50. Germline genomic analysis may better define the risk so screening and prevention can be applied to the individuals who benefit the most. Survey conducted in several neurofibromatosis clinics in the United States has demonstrated a 17.2% lifetime risk of breast cancer in women affected with NF1. Cumulated risk to age 50 is estimated to be 9.27%. For genomic profiling, fourteen women with NF1 and a history of breast cancer were recruited and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted genomic DNA based and RNA-based analysis of the NF1 gene. Deleterious NF1 pathogenic variants were identified in each woman. Frameshift mutations because of deletion/duplication/complex rearrangement were found in 50% (7/14) of the cases, nonsense mutations in 21% (3/14), in-frame splice mutations in 21% (3/14), and one case of missense mutation (7%, 1/14). No deleterious mutation was found in the following high/moderate-penetrance breast cancer genes: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCC, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, TP53, and STK11. Twenty-five rare or common variants in cancer related genes were discovered and may have contributed to the breast cancers in these individuals. Breast cancer predisposition modifiers in women with NF1 may involve a great variety of molecular and cellular functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The association between glucose-lowering drug use and mortality among breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Cardwell, C.R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Young, I.S.; Pouwer, F.; Murray, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the association between glucose-lowering drug (GLD) use, including metformin, sulphonylurea derivatives and insulin, after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. 1763 breast cancer patients, diagnosed between 1998 and 2010, with type 2 diabete

  17. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  18. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  19. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  20. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention Breast Cancer Screening Health Professional Breast Cancer Treatment Male ... Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention ...

  1. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  2. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739 b

  3. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739 b

  4. A Genetic Basis for Luminal and Basal-Type Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world, breast cancer not only is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, but also the second leading cause of cancer death. Clinically, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. About two-thirds of breast cancer patients survive their disease, whereas, one-third of breast cancer patients will die of metastases of their primary cancer within 15 years from diagnosis. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to accurately predict the prognosis and most appropri...

  5. Types of dietary fat and breast cancer : a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Toniolo, P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zelenuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in whether intakes of specific types of fat are associated with breast cancer risk independently of other types of fat, but results have been inconsistent. We identified 8 prospective studies that met predefined criteria and analyzed their primary data using a stand

  6. Changes in brain activation in breast cancer patients depend on cognitive domain and treatment type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Boogerd, Willem; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    integrity after systemic treatment. Overall these results suggest different neurobehavioral trajectories in breast cancer patients depending on treatment type. PMID:28267750

  7. A Genetic Basis for Luminal and Basal-Type Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hollestelle (Antoinette)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world, breast cancer not only is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, but also the second leading cause of cancer death. Clinically, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. About two-thirds of breast cancer patients survive their disease, whereas, one-third of

  8. A Genetic Basis for Luminal and Basal-Type Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hollestelle (Antoinette)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world, breast cancer not only is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, but also the second leading cause of cancer death. Clinically, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. About two-thirds of breast cancer patients survive their disease, whereas, one-third of

  9. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and prognosis in early stage breast cancer women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muhammet Ali; Pekkolay, Zafer; Kucukoner, Mehmet; Inal, Ali; Urakci, Zuhat; Ertugrul, Hamza; Akdogan, Recai; Firat, Ugur; Yildiz, Ismail; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman

    2012-09-01

    It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus may affect breast cancer prognosis, possibly due to increased diabetes-related comorbidity, or direct effects of insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes on disease-free survival (DFS) following mastectomy for breast cancer patients. The cases included in this retrospective study were selected from breast cancer women who had undergone mastectomy and completed adjuvant chemotherapy from 1998 to 2010. Patients were classified into two groups: diabetic and non-diabetic. Patients' age, sex, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), histopathological features, tumor size, lymph node involvement, hormone receptor and HER2-neu status, and treatment types were recorded. There were 483 breast cancer patients included in the study. Postmenopausal patients' rate (53.7% vs. 36.8%, P = 0.016) and mean BMI levels were statistically higher (32.2 vs. 27.9, P = 0.007) in diabetic patients. There was no statistical difference for histological subgroup, grade, ER and PR positivity, HER2-neu overexpression rate, and tumor size between the diabetic and non-diabetic group. Lymph node involvements were statistically higher in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic patients (P = 0.013). Median disease-free survival is 81 months (95% CI, 61.6-100.4) in non-diabetic patients and 36 months (95% CI, 13.6-58.4) in diabetic patients (P breast cancer.

  11. MicroRNA-139 suppresses proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells by targeting Topoisomerase II alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Wei [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Sa, Ke-Di; Zhang, Xiang; Jia, Lin-Tao; Zhao, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Yang, An-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Zhang, Rui, E-mail: ruizhang@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Fan, Jing, E-mail: jingfan@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Bian, Ka, E-mail: kakamax85@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, 710032 Xi' an (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The classification of molecular subtypes of breast cancer improves the prognostic accuracy and therapeutic benefits in clinic. However, because of the complexity of breast cancer, more biomarkers and functional molecules need to be explored. Here, analyzing the data in a huge cohort of breast cancer patients, we found that Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2a), an important target of chemotherapy is a biomarker for prognosis in luminal type breast cancer patients, but not in basal like or HER2 positive breast cancer patients. We identified that miR-139, a previous reported anti-metastatic microRNA targets 3’-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TOP2a mRNA. Further more, we revealed that the forced expression of miR-139 reduces the TOP2a expression at both mRNA and protein levels. And our functional experiments showed that the ectopic expression of miR-139 remarkably inhibits proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells, while exogenous TOP2a expression could rescue inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-139. Collectively, our present study demonstrates the miR-139-TOP2a regulatory axis is important for proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells. This functional link may help us to further understand the specificity of subtypes of breast cancer and optimize the strategy of cancer treatment. - Highlights: • High levels of TOP2a expression are closely associated with poor prognosis in luminal type breast cancer patients. • TOP2a is a novel target of miR-139. • Overexpression of miR-139 inhibits proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells. • TOP2a is essential for miR-139-induced growth arrest in luminal type breast cancer cells.

  12. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  13. Clinico-pathological signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special types of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ecmel Isik Kaygusuz; Handan Cetiner; Hulya Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signiifcance of extra-nodal spread in special histological sub-types of breast cancer and the relationship of such spread with prognostic parameters. Methods: A total of 303 breast cancer cases were classiifed according to tumor type, and each tumor group was subdivided according to age, tumor diameter, lymph node metastasis, extra-nodal spread, vein invasion in the adjacent soft tissue, distant metastasis, and immunohistochemical characteristics [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) existence, p53, c-erbB-2, and proliferative rate (Ki-67)]. hTe 122 cases with extra-nodal spread were clinically followed up. Results: An extra-nodal spread was observed in 40% (122 cases) of the 303 breast cancer cases. hTe spread most frequently presented in micro papillary carcinoma histological sub-type (40 cases, 75%), but least frequently presents in mucinous carcinoma (2 cases, 8%). Patients with extra-nodal spread had a high average number of metastatic lymph nodes (8.3) and a high distant metastasis rate (38 cases, 31%) compared with patients without extra-nodal spread. Conclusion: hTe existence of extra-nodal spread in the examined breast cancer sub-types has predictive value in forecasting the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the disease prognosis.

  14. Reference frameworks for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Helmut; Schröder, Peter; Davies, John K; Escamilla, Ixhel; Hall, Caroline; Hickey, Kieran; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Mechtler, Reli; Yared, Wendy Tse; Volf, Jaroslav; Weihrauch, Birgit

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents reference frameworks which order effective and feasible policies and interventions for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II). These reference frameworks can be used to rapidly appraise regional health policy documents and existing health management systems. Furthermore, the reference frameworks can serve health policy makers for the planning of health management measures.

  15. Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobbi Helenice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplasia of usual type (HUT is a common proliferative lesion associated with a slight elevated risk for subsequent development of breast cancer. Cell cycle-related proteins would be helpful to determine the putative role of these markers in the process of mammary carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT of breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer, and compare this expression with areas of invasive carcinomas. Results Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against cell cycle related proteins ER, PR, p53, p21, p63, and Ki-67 in hyperplasia of usual type (HUT in specimens of aesthetic reduction mammaplasty (ARM, in specimens of mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer (MCC, and in specimens of invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC presenting HUT in the adjacent parenchyma. The results showed that the immunoexpression of ER, PR, p21, p53, p63, and KI-67 was similar in HUT from the three different groups. The p63 expression in myoepithelial cells showed discontinuous pattern in the majority of HUT, different from continuous expression in normal lobules. Nuclear expression of p53 and p21 was frequently higher expressed in IMC and very rare in HUT. We also found cytoplasmic expression of p21 in benign hyperplastic lesions and in neoplastic cells of IMC. Conclusion Our data failed to demonstrate different expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT from patients with and without breast cancer. However, we found discontinuous expression of p63 in myoepithelial cells around HUT adjacent to carcinomas and cytoplasmic expression of p21 in epithelial cells of hyperplastic foci. Further studies are needed to determine how these subgroups relate to molecular abnormalities and cancer risk.

  16. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bloodstream. At least 8 out of 10 male breast cancers are IDCs (alone or mixed with other types ... is much smaller than the female breast, all male breast cancers start relatively close to the nipple, so they ...

  17. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  18. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  20. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H; Idris, Aymen I

    2015-09-04

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing.

  1. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  2. Breast cancer and specific types of oral contraceptives: a large Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumeaux, Vanessa; Alsaker, Elin; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-07-20

    The aim of our study was to examine the risk of breast cancer according to specific types of estrogens and progestagens in oral contraceptives (OCs) based on the prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). Between 1991-97 women aged 30-70 years were drawn at random from the central person register and mailed an invitation and a questionnaire. Women (102,443) were enrolled with follow-up information collected throughout 1999 by linkage with national registries of cancer, mortality and emigration based on the unique national identification number. Among the 96,362 women included in the present analysis 851 invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. The adjusted risk of breast cancer increased with 25% for ever use of OCs and the risk increased with increasing duration of use (test for trend: p = 0.007). No association between time since last use and breast cancer risk was found after stratification on duration of use. Positive trend was still found for total duration of use among women who used OCs more than 5 years ago. Second generation of OCs had an increased risk with increasing duration of use. Classifying progestagens according to chemical groups, the relative risk increased significantly with increasing cumulative dose of levonorgestrel progestagen. It was difficult to conclude for the other groups due to lack of power. In a multivariate analysis the cumulative dose for all progestagen groups were non-significant, although we observed a significant increased risk with increasing milligram-months of estrogen exposure (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the increased risk of breast cancer related with OC formulations could be due mostly to estrogen component.

  3. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  4. A Comparison of Behavioral Inhibition/ Activation System, Type D and Optimism in the Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, the role and importance of psychosocial factors on physical health, as well as the influence of personality characteristics in having psychosomatic diseases such as cancer are of interest to many researchers. In spite of increase in breast cancer in Iran, very few studies have been carried out on risk factors of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative Behavioral inhibition / Activation System, type D and optimism in the breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. Methods: In the present casual-comparative study, 190 people (95 Patients and 95 Normal Subjects were selected in Rasht, Iran. Moreover, the groups were matched for demographic characteristics (age, gender and education. All individuals diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Normal Subjects received a Gary-Wilson Personality Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test and Type D Personality Scale. Collected data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and regression. Results: The findings revealed that there were significant differences between cancer and normal groups in behavioral inhibition/activation system, type D Personality and optimism. In this regard, the Breast Cancer group had higher scores subscales of negative affect, social inhibition, passive avoidance, extinction and fight-flight than normal group. In addition, subscales of approach, active avoidance and optimism in the normal group were more than the Breast Cancer group. Conclusion: The present study supported the role of psychological variables in breast cancer patients which is essential for improving patients’ health and quality of life.

  5. Impact of different type of cancer treatment on the effectiveness of breast reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Szloch, Joanna; Marczyk, Elżbieta; Kołodziej-Rzepa, Marta; Komorowski, Andrzej L.

    2016-01-01

    For women undergoing mastectomy as part of their breast cancer treatment, breast reconstruction is an important part of therapy. However, neoadjuvant, adjuvant treatments as well as other patient-related factors can compromise the results of breast reconstruction techniques. In this article we have reviewed current approaches to the management of complications and risks that neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies pose on breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Non-treatment rela...

  6. Correlation of breast recurrence (inflammatory type or not) after breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy and clinicopathological factors in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Koyama, Hiroki

    1998-09-01

    To clarify risk factors for breast recurrence of inflammatory type after breast conserving therapy, we examined clinicopathological findings and therapies given after initial surgery. Nine cases of inflammatory breast recurrence out of 133 recurrent cases collected from a collaborative group supported by a grant-in-aid for Cancer Research by Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (7-24, Chairman: H. Koyama) were analyzed by a case control study. And forty-three recurrent cases in Kumamoto City Hospital were also analyzed similarly. Inflammatory breast recurrence after breast conserving surgery is characterized as follows: Most cases have negative surgical margin and may be unresponsive to radiation therapy, unlike non-inflammatory breast recurrence. Lymph node metastasis is involved in recurrence, but the difference in patients with only distant metastasis was positive lymphatic invasion. Distant metastasis coexisted at the time of recurrence, and secondary surgery was impossible in most cases. The prognosis after recurrence was unfavorable. These findings suggest that inflammatory recurrence is manifestation of so-called ``occult`` inflammatory breast cancer. (author)

  7. Predictors of adherence to different types and doses of supervised exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Gelmon, Karen; Mackey, John R; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Vallerand, James R; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-07-06

    Exercise is beneficial for breast cancer patients during chemotherapy but adherence to different types and doses of exercise is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of adherence to different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Breast cancer patients in Edmonton, Vancouver, and Ottawa, Canada receiving chemotherapy (N = 301) were randomized to a standard dose of 25-30 minutes of aerobic exercise (STAN), a higher dose of 50-60 minutes of aerobic exercise (HIGH), or a higher dose of 50-60 minutes of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB). Predictors included demographic, medical, fitness, and quality of life variables. Exercise adherence was measured as the percentage of supervised exercise sessions completed. Overall adherence to the supervised exercise sessions was 73% (SD = 24%). In a multivariate regression model, six independent predictors explained 26.4% (p adherence. Higher exercise adherence was achieved by breast cancer patients in Vancouver (p adherence. For disease stage, patients with stage I/IIa disease adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas patients with stage IIb/III disease adhered better to the STAN intervention than the two higher dose exercise interventions. For body mass index, healthy weight patients adhered equally well to all three exercise interventions whereas overweight patients adhered best to STAN and worst to COMB; and obese patients adhered best to STAN and worst to HIGH. Determinants of exercise adherence in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are multidisciplinary and may vary by the exercise prescription.

  8. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Mastectomy or breast conserving surgery? Factors affecting type of surgical treatment for breast cancer – a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Terry

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical choice facing breast cancer patients is which surgical treatment – mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS – is most appropriate. Several studies have investigated factors that impact the type of surgery chosen, identifying features such as place of residence, age at diagnosis, tumor size, socio-economic and racial/ethnic elements as relevant. Such assessment of "propensity" is important in understanding issues such as a reported under-utilisation of BCS among women for whom such treatment was not contraindicated. Using Western Australian (WA data, we further examine the factors associated with the type of surgical treatment for breast cancer using a classification tree approach. This approach deals naturally with complicated interactions between factors, and so allows flexible and interpretable models for treatment choice to be built that add to the current understanding of this complex decision process. Methods Data was extracted from the WA Cancer Registry on women diagnosed with breast cancer in WA from 1990 to 2000. Subjects' treatment preferences were predicted from covariates using both classification trees and logistic regression. Results Tumor size was the primary determinant of patient choice, subjects with tumors smaller than 20 mm in diameter preferring BCS. For subjects with tumors greater than 20 mm in diameter factors such as patient age, nodal status, and tumor histology become relevant as predictors of patient choice. Conclusion Classification trees perform as well as logistic regression for predicting patient choice, but are much easier to interpret for clinical use. The selected tree can inform clinicians' advice to patients.

  10. Study in mice shows that an aggressive type of breast cancer is linked to an inflammatory protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberrant expression of an inflammatory protein, nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), may enhance the progression and metastasis of an aggressive and less common form of breast cancer, known as the estrogen receptor-negative type of disease.

  11. Dietary factors, metabolic syndrome and risks of breast cancer and type II diabetes in the E3N cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fagherazzi, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer and type II diabetes are two of the main chronic diseases in women and are suspected to share common risk factors. But their etiologies are still partially unknown, in particular concerning some dietary factors and some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. If evidence is convincing that themetabolic syndrome is associated with an increased type II diabetes risk, questions remain unanswered regarding cholesterol level, anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk. The French E3...

  12. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  13. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  14. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  15. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  16. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Special Histologic Types of Invasive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Montserrat; Recaj, Mireia; Castellà, Eva; Puig, Pere; Gubern, Josep Maria; Julian, Juan Francisco; Fraile, Manel

    2016-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in ductal and lobular invasive breast cancer, a group of tumors known as special histologic type (SHT) of breast cancer. Between January 1997 and July 2008, 2253 patients from 6 affiliated hospitals underwent SNB who had early breast cancer and clinically negative axilla. The patients' data were collected in a multicenter database. For lymphatic mapping, all patients received an intralesional dose of radiocolloid Tc-99m (4mCi in 0.4 mL saline), at least two hours before the surgical procedure. SNB was performed by physicians from the same nuclear medicine department in all cases. Of the 2253 patients in the database, the SN identification rate was 94.5% (no radiotracer migration in 123 patients), and positive sentinel node prevalence was 22%. SHT was reported in 144 patients (6.4%) of the whole series. In this subgroup, migration of radiotracer was unsuccessful in 8 patients (identification rate was 94.4%) and SNs were positive in 7.4%. SN positivity prevalence in these tumors was variable across the subtypes. Higher probability of lymphatic spread seemed to be related to tumor invasiveness (20% of positivity in micropapillary, 15% in cribriform subtypes, and 0% in adenoid-cystic). Sentinel node biopsy is feasible in special histologic subtypes of breast carcinoma with a good identification rate. Lower migration rates, however, might be associated with special histologic features (colloid subtype). Complete axillary dissection after a positive sentinel node cannot be omitted in patients with SHT breast cancer because they can be associated with further axillary disease; the reported very low incidence of axillary metastases would justify avoiding axillary dissection only in the adenoid-cystic subtype.

  17. Sources and types of online information that breast cancer patients read and discuss with their doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Heerdt, Alexandra; Dickler, Maura; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-04-01

    Most research examining the impact of patients seeking online health information treats internet information homogenously, rather than recognizing that there are multiple types and sources of available information. The present research was conducted to differentiate among sources and types of internet information that patients search for, intend to discuss with their doctors, and recall discussing with their doctors, and to determine how accurate and hopeful patients rate this information. We surveyed 70 breast cancer patients recruited from the waiting rooms of breast medical oncology and surgery clinics. The main variables in the study were as follows: (1) the sources and types of online information patients have read, intended to discuss, and actually discussed with their doctors, and (2) how accurately and hopefully they rated this information to be. Patients read information most frequently from the websites of cancer organizations, and most often about side effects. Patients planned to discuss fewer types of information with their doctors than they had read about. They most often intended to discuss information from cancer organization websites or WebMD, and the material was most often about alternative therapies, side effects, and proven or traditional treatments. Some 76.8% of total participants rated the information they had read as very or somewhat accurate, and 61% rated the information they had read as very or somewhat hopeful. Internet information varies widely by source and type. Differentiating among sources and types of information is essential to explore the ways in which online health information impacts patients' experiences.

  18. Oxidative stress associated to dysfunctional adipose tissue: a potential link between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A B; Díaz-Lagares, A; Carreira, M C; Amil, M; Casanueva, F F

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer are two important health problems. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are closely linked with both being associated with breast cancer. Despite abundant epidemiological data, there is no definitive evidence regarding the mechanisms responsible for this association. The proposed mechanisms by which diabetes affects breast cancer risk and prognosis are the same as the mechanisms hypothesised for the contribution of obesity to breast cancer risk. The obesity-induced inflammation promoted by adipose tissue dysfunction is a key feature, which is thought to be an important link between obesity and cancer. Inflammation induces an increase in free radicals and subsequently promotes oxidative stress, which may create a microenvironment favourable to the tumor development in obese persons. Oxidative stress is also proposed as the link between obesity and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, obesity-related oxidative stress could be a direct cause of neoplastic transformation associated with obesity and T2DM in breast cancer cells. This review is focused on the role of obesity-related oxidative stress in the context of chronic inflammation, on the time of breast cancer onset and progression, which provide targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies in the fields of diabetes and obesity-related breast cancer.

  19. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  20. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  1. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  2. Prevalence of Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses, and Herpesviruses in Triple-Negative and Inflammatory Breast Tumors from Algeria Compared with Other Types of Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbex, Marilys; Bouzbid, Sabiha; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Aouras, Hayette; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Carreira, Christine; Lankar, Abdelaziz; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups. Materials and Methods One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria) to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses) using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology. Results Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9%) of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type) than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04). Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009). Conclusions Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative). While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings. PMID:25478862

  3. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  4. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jiping; ZHANG Guangde; XIA Wenhua; CHENG Deji

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and clinical significance of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in breast cancer. Methods: Applying streptavidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunohistochemical technique, expression of uPA was studied in 100 patients with primary breast cancer. Results: There were 55 patients with high uPA expression, and 45 with lower expression. There was significant correlation between uPA expression and TNM stage, lymph node status, and the tumor size. Neither age, menopausal status, nor ER status was significantly related with level of uPA expression. The patients with high expression of uPA had significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS)and overall survival (OS) than did those with low expression of uPA. Univariate analysis showed that uPA as a prognostic factor was of similar magnitude to lymph node status and TNM stage, but stronger than that of ER status and tumor size. UPA was an independent prognostic factor affecting disease-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: uPA appears to be a strong and independent biologic marker for predicting prognosis of breast cancer.

  5. Predicting the continuous values of breast cancer relapse time by type-2 fuzzy logic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Microarray analysis and gene expression profile have been widely used in tumor classification, survival analysis and ER statues of breast cancer. Sample discrimination as well as identification of significant genes have been the focus of most previous studies. The aim of this research is to propose a fuzzy model to predict the relapse time of breast cancer by using breast cancer dataset published by van't Veer. Fuzzy rule mining based on support vector machine has been used in a hybrid method with rule pruning and shown its ability to divide the samples in many subgroups. To handle the existence of uncertainties in linguistic variables and fuzzy sets, the TSK model of Interval type-2 fuzzy logic system has been used and a new simple method is also developed to consider the uncertainties of the rules which have been optimized by genetic algorithm. B632 validation method is applied to estimate the error of the model. The results with 95 % confidence interval show a reasonable accuracy in prediction.

  6. Morphometry of tumor cells in different grades and types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvulović, Ivana; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Sustercić, Dunja; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Manojlović, Spomenka

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare morphometric characteristics of different types and grades of breast cancer. Morphometric analysis was performed using the SFORM software (Vamstec, Zagreb) on the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) breast tissue specimens. The study included 42 patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma by breast smear FNAC at Merkur University Hospital during the 2001-2005 period. Postoperative tumor histopathology and semi-quantitative tumor grading by the method of Elston and Ellis' showed invasive ductal carcinoma grade I in 10, invasive ductal carcinoma grade II in 9, invasive ductal carcinoma grade III in 13, and invasive lobular carcinoma in 13 patients, the latter also including a subtype of invasive tubulolobular carcinoma. The following parameters were assessed by use of Statistica 7.1 and chi2-test: tumor area, circumference, maximal radius, minimal radius, convexity, length, width, elongation, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and shape factor. Morphometric analysis yielded statistically significant differences among all study groups (p < 0.001). Morphometric parameters showed significant individual correlation with tumor type and grade, whereby the area, convexity and circumference were most significant at both nuclear and cellular level.

  7. Association of Genetic Susceptibility Variants for Type 2 Diabetes with Breast Cancer Risk in Women of European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wen, Wanqing; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ben; Long, Jirong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lindstrom, Sara; Bojesen, Stig E.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cai, Qiuyin; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G.; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Harrington, Patricia; Hartman, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Khan, Sofia; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriege, Mieke; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E.; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Verhoef, Senno; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Whittemore, Alice S.; Winqvist, Robert; Zamora, M. Pilar; Zhao, Hui; Dunning, Alison M.; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. Methods We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D susceptibility loci and evaluated its relation to breast cancer risk using the data from two consortia, including 62,328 breast cancer patients and 83,817 controls of European ancestry. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to measure the association of breast cancer risk with T2D GRS or T2D-associated genetic risk variants. Meta-analyses were conducted to obtain summary ORs across all studies. Results The T2D GRS was not found to be associated with breast cancer risk, overall, by menopausal status, or for estrogen receptor positive or negative breast cancer. Three T2D associated risk variants were individually associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method (at P < 0.001), rs9939609 (FTO) (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.92 – 0.95, P = 4.13E-13), rs7903146 (TCF7L2) (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 – 1.06, P = 1.26E-05), and rs8042680 (PRC1) (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95 – 0.99, P = 8.05E-04). Conclusions We have shown that several genetic risk variants were associated with the risk of both T2D and breast cancer. However, overall genetic susceptibility to T2D may not be related to breast cancer risk. PMID:27053251

  8. Loss of A-type lamin expression compromises nuclear envelope integrity in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Callinice D. Capo-chichi; Kathy Q. Car; Jennifer Smedberg; Parvin Ganjei-Azar; Andrew K. Godwin; Xiang-Xi Xu

    2011-01-01

    Through advances in technology, the genetic basis of cancer has been investigated at the genomic level, and many fundamental questions have begun to be addressed. Among several key unresolved questions in cancer biology, the molecular basis for the link between nuclear deformation and malignancy has not been determined. Another hallmark of human cancer is aneuploidy; however, the causes and consequences of aneuploidy are unanswered and are hotly contested topics. We found that nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C are absent in a significant fraction (38%) of human breast cancer tissues. Even in lamin A/C-positive breast cancer, lamin A/C expression is heterogeneous or aberrant (such as nonnuclear distribution) in the population of tumor cells, as determined by immunohistology and immunofluorescence microscopy. In most breast cancer cell lines, a significant fraction of the lamin A/Cnegative population was observed. To determine the consequences of the loss of lamin A/C, we suppressed their expression by shRNA in non-cancerous primary breast epithelial cells. Down-regulation of lamin A/C in breast epithelial cells led to morphological deformation, resembling that of cancer cells, as observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The lamin A/C-suppressed breast epithelial cells developed aneuploidy as determined by both flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. We conclude that the loss of nuclear envelope structural proteins lamin A/C in breast cancer underlies the two hallmarks of cancer aberrations in nuclear morphology and aneuploidy.

  9. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  10. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  11. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about ... for a small fraction of breast cancers. In Learning About the BRCAX Study , researchers discuss a recent ...

  13. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  14. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  15. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  16. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  17. Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; McGuffog, Lesley; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Nathanson, Katherine L; Laitman, Yael; Kushnir, Anya; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Berger, Raanan; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan; Ehrencrona, Hans; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Seldon, Joyce; Ganz, Patricia A; Nussbaum, Robert L; Chan, Salina B; Odunsi, Kunle; Gayther, Simon A; Domchek, Susan M; Arun, Banu K; Lu, Karen H; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Godwin, Andrew K; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Daly, Mary B; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Thomas v O; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Godino, Javier; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Bobolis, Kristie A; Sand, Sharon R; Fontaine, Annette; Savarese, Antonella; Pasini, Barbara; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Vignolo-Lutati, Francesca; Scuvera, Giulietta; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Genuardi, Maurizio; Radice, Paolo; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Gismondi, Viviana; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy; Torres, Diana; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E; Kennedy, M John; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Donaldson, Alan; Ellis, Steve; Sharma, Priyanka; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Becker, Alexandra; Rhiem, Kerstin; Hahnen, Eric; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Engert, Stefanie; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hans Jörg; Mundhenke, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Fleisch, Markus; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, C R; Dikow, Nicola; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Steinemann, Doris; Kast, Karin; Beer, Marit; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Weber, Bernhard H; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Belotti, Muriel; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Damiola, Francesca; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Lasset, Christine; Sobol, Hagay; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Isaacs, Claudine; De Paepe, Anne; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Wakely, Katie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie V; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Romero, Atocha; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Verhoef, Senno; Collée, J Margriet; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Gille, Johannes J P; Wijnen, Juul T; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Kets, Carolien M; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; Devilee, Peter; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Kwong, Ava; Olah, Edith; Papp, Janos; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Darder, Esther; Blanco, Ignacio; Salinas, Mónica; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Menkiszak, Janusz; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Simard, Jacques; Laframboise, Rachel; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Alducci, Elisa; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Lee, Min Hyuk; Park, Sue K; Kim, Sung-Won; Friebel, Tara M; Couch, Fergus J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Guidugli, Lucia; Wang, Xianshu; Tischkowitz, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Vijai, Joseph; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Kauff, Noah; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Berger, Andreas; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Sunde, Lone; Thomassen, Mads; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Aretini, Paolo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Selkirk, Christina G; Hulick, Peter J; Andrulis, Irene

    2015-04-07

    Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. Breast and ovarian cancer risks. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95

  18. Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy in special types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Ryuji; Matsubara, Miyuki; Watarai, Yasuhiko; Yanagihara, Keiko; Yamashita, Koji; Tsuchiya, Shin-Ichi; Takei, Hiroyuki; Naito, Zenya

    2016-07-01

    Although fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an established tool to assess breast lesions, there has been a trend toward using core needle biopsy (CNB) instead. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FNA and CNB in special types of breast cancer. A retrospective review of diagnostic results of pre-operatively performed FNA or CNB, or a combination of the two, was conducted. The cases include histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (NST n = 159), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC n = 65), mucinous carcinoma (MUC n = 51), and apocrine carcinoma (APO n = 25). The absolute diagnostic sensitivity of FNA to detect malignancy in ILC and APO patients was inferior to that of NST patients (p < 0.001 for ILC and APO). Within each cancer type, the sensitivity of CNB was higher than that of FNA in the ILC and APO patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). As for NST and MUC patients, FNA and CNB had equivalent sensitivity. The sensitivity of FNA alone significantly improved when combined with CNB in NST, ILC and APO patients (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, respectively). Our results suggest that FNA has less diagnostic accuracy than CNB for ILC and APO; thus, the use of CNB should be encouraged when these types of cancer are clinically suspected or when the initial FNA is inconclusive.

  19. Prognostic factors in the myoepithelial-like spindle cell type of metaplastic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Fabian; Bartels, Stephan; Mägel, Lavinia; Framke, Theodor; Büsche, Guntram; Jonigk, Danny; Christgen, Matthias; Lehmann, Ulrich; Kreipe, Hans

    2016-08-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors with difficult to predict biological behavior. A subset of MBC, characterized by spindle-shaped tumor cells with a myoepithelial-like immunophenotype, was entered into a retrospective study (n = 42, median follow-up time 43 months). Molecular parameters (DNA sequences of mutation hot spots in AKT1, ALK, APC, BRAF, CDH1, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR2, FOXL2, GNAQ, GNAS, KIT, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, MSH6, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, SF3B1, SMAD4, SRC, SRSF2, STK11, TP53, and U2AF1; copy numbers for EGFR, c-myc, FGFR, PLAG, c-met) were assessed. None of the patients had axillary lymph node involvement. In 13 cases, local recurrence developed after surgery (30.9 %). Distant metastasis occurred in seven patients (17 %; four after local recurrence). The most frequent genetic alteration was PIK3CA mutation (50 % of cases). None of the pathological parameters (size, grade, stage, Ki-67 labeling index) was significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). PIK3CA mutation, especially the H1047R type, tended to adversely affect OS. Type of resection (mastectomy vs. breast-conserving therapy, width of margins) or adjuvant radiotherapy had no influence on DFS or OS, whereas in the group treated with radio-/chemotherapy, no local recurrence or metastasis and no death occurred. We conclude that the spindle cell type of MBC with myoepithelial features exhibits a higher frequency of PIK3CA mutation than other types of metaplastic or basal-like breast cancer and may benefit from combined radio-/chemotherapy. Classical pathological parameters are not helpful in identifying the high-risk tumors among this subgroup of MBC.

  20. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  1. Breast cancer detection rates using four different types of mammography detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Warren, Lucy M.; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Wallis, Matthew G. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cooke, Julie [Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Given-Wilson, Rosalind M. [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, Dev P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Halling-Brown, Mark D. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Scientific Computing, Department of Medical Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Looney, Padraig T. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the performance of different types of detectors in breast cancer detection. A mammography image set containing subtle malignant non-calcification lesions, biopsy-proven benign lesions, simulated malignant calcification clusters and normals was acquired using amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detectors. The images were adapted to simulate four types of detectors at the same radiation dose: digital radiography (DR) detectors with a-Se and caesium iodide (CsI) convertors, and computed radiography (CR) detectors with a powder phosphor (PIP) and a needle phosphor (NIP). Seven observers marked suspicious and benign lesions. Analysis was undertaken using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics weighted figure of merit (FoM). The cancer detection fraction (CDF) was estimated for a representative image set from screening. No significant differences in the FoMs between the DR detectors were measured. For calcification clusters and non-calcification lesions, both CR detectors' FoMs were significantly lower than for DR detectors. The calcification cluster's FoM for CR NIP was significantly better than for CR PIP. The estimated CDFs with CR PIP and CR NIP detectors were up to 15 % and 22 % lower, respectively, than for DR detectors. Cancer detection is affected by detector type, and the use of CR in mammography should be reconsidered. (orig.)

  2. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis and the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are both informative prognostic markers in breast cancer. In cell cultures and in animal model systems, PAI-1 has a proangiogenic effect. To evaluate the interrelationship of angiogenesis and the PAI-1 level in b...... and the Chalkley count are independent prognostic markers for recurrence-free survival in patients with primary breast cancer, suggesting that the prognostic impact of PAI-1 is not only based on its involvement in angiogenesis.......Tumour angiogenesis and the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are both informative prognostic markers in breast cancer. In cell cultures and in animal model systems, PAI-1 has a proangiogenic effect. To evaluate the interrelationship of angiogenesis and the PAI-1 level...... in breast cancer, we have evaluated the prognostic value of those factors in a total of 228 patients with primary, unilateral, invasive breast cancer, evaluated at a median follow-up time of 12 years. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34 and quantitated by the Chalkley...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  4. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  5. Knowledge about hereditary cancer of women with family histories of breast, colorectal, or both types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campacci, N; de Lima, J O; Ramadan, L; Palmero, E I

    2015-03-01

    Usually, the mass media do not address hereditary cancer and their risk factors, nor are these topics discussed at the community level. We used an informative guide on cancer and hereditary cancer, followed by a questionnaire on these topics to investigate the relevant knowledge among women at high risk for hereditary breast and/or colorectal cancer from a population-based cohort. The cohort was composed of 81 Brazilian women with positive family histories of breast and/or colorectal cancer. Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory was used for qualitative analysis. The average age of the cohort was 49.9 years old. Three participants (3.9%) were illiterate, 45 (59.2%) had attended elementary school, 14 (18.4%) had secondary school, and 14 (18.4%) held higher education degrees. A total of 47 (54.3%) volunteers were unable to fully understand the information provided in the guide because they did not know the meaning of words such as metastasis, malignant, hereditary, sporadic, or oncogenetics. Notwithstanding, the acceptance of the educational tool utilized was satisfactory, and it enhanced the volunteers' interest in a better understanding of cancer and heredity. Thereby, we concluded that the low knowledge of this important subject and the unawareness about fundamental terms required for the comprehension of this specific type of neoplasm made us believe that the use of the informative guide can provide a great value when used previously to the genetic counseling consultations. Besides, educational tools of easy understanding should be part of everyday clinical practice, from primary to specialized patient care.

  6. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  7. Exome Sequencing in a Family with Luminal-Type Breast Cancer Underpinned by Variation in the Methylation Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Nicole; Peeters, Armand V.; Pienaar, Fredrieka M.; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; van Rensburg, Susan J.; Kotze, Maritha J.

    2017-01-01

    Panel-based next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently preferred over whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnosis of familial breast cancer, due to interpretation challenges caused by variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). There is also no consensus on the selection criteria for WES. In this study, a pathology-supported genetic testing (PSGT) approach was used to select two BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients from the same family for WES. Homozygosity for the MTHFR 677 C>T mutation detected during this PSGT pre-screen step was considered insufficient to cause bilateral breast cancer in the index case and her daughter diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer ( 5%) in the folate pathway in all three affected family members is consistent with inheritance of the luminal-type breast cancer in the family. PSGT assisted with the decision to pursue extended genetic testing and facilitated clinical interpretation of WES aimed at reduction of recurrence risk. PMID:28241424

  8. The Risk and Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Breast Cancer in Women with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    disability, vasculopathy, cutaneous/dermal neurofibroma, plexiform neurofibroma, optic glioma, and MPNST . Cancers: Malignant solid tumors...Breast 11 4.5 Optic glioma 20 8.2 MPNST 10 4.1 CNS tumor 12 5.0 GISTs 3 1.2 Hematological cancer 2 0.8 Adenocarcinoma of GI 1 0.4 Ovarian

  9. Association of genetic susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wen, Wanqing; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ben; Long, Jirong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Milne, Roger L; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lindstrom, Sara; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cai, Qiuyin; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Harrington, Patricia; Hartman, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Khan, Sofia; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriege, Mieke; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathleen E; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Pilar Zamora, M; Zhao, Hui; Dunning, Alison M; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D

  10. Association of genetic susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhao (Zhiguo); W. Wen (Wanqing); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); B. Zhang (Bin); J. Long (Jirong); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.L. Milne (Roger); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Ahsan (Habibul); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); V. Arndt (Volker); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A. Beeghly-Fadiel (Alicia); J. Benítez (Javier); C. Blomqvist (Carl); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H. Brenner (Hermann); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); G. Casey (Graham); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); K. Czene (Kamila); T. Dörk (Thilo); M. Dumont (Martine); P.A. Fasching (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); O. Fletcher (Olivia); H. Flyger (Henrik); F. Fostira (Florentia); M. Gammon (Marilie); G.G. Giles (Graham); P. Guénel (Pascal); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); U. Hamann (Ute); P. harrington (Patricia); J.M. Hartman (Joost); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.L. Hopper (John); A. Jakubowska (Anna); F. Jasmine (Farzana); E.M. John (Esther); N. Johnson (Nichola); M. Kabisch (Maria); S. Khan (Sofia); M.G. Kibriya (Muhammad); J.A. Knight (Julia A.); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); M. Kriege (Mieke); V. Kristensen (Vessela); L. Le Marchand (Loic); E. Lee (Eunjung); J. Li (Jingmei); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Lubinski (Jan); K.E. Malone (Kathleen E.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); S. Margolin (Sara); F. Marme (Federick); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A. Meindl (Alfons); X. Miao; K.R. Muir (K.); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P. Neven (Patrick); J.E. Olson (Janet); B. Perkins (Barbara); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Rudolph (Anja); R. Santella (Regina); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M. Shah (Mitul); M. Shrubsole (Martha); M.C. Southey (Melissa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A.E. Toland (Amanda); I. Tomlinson (Ian); D. Torres (Diana); T. Truong (Thérèse); G. Ursin (Giske); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); S. Verhoef; S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); A.S. Whittemore (Alice S.); R. Winqvist (Robert); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); H. Zhao (Hui); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Hall (Per); P. Kraft (Peter); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); D. Hunter (David); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); W. Zheng (Wei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. Methods: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2

  11. Association of genetic susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wen, Wanqing; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ben; Long, Jirong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Milne, Roger L; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lindstrom, Sara; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cai, Qiuyin; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Harrington, Patricia; Hartman, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Khan, Sofia; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriege, Mieke; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathleen E; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Pilar Zamora, M; Zhao, Hui; Dunning, Alison M; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D susceptibi

  12. Association of genetic susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wen, Wanqing; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to be associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer. It is unclear, however, whether this association is due to shared genetic factors. METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using risk variants from 33 known independent T2D suscept...

  13. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  14. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  15. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  16. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  17. Using image simulation to test the effect of detector type on breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Warren, Lucy M.; Dance, David R.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Cooke, Julie; Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, Padraig T.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Alexander, Gavin G.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The effect that the image quality associated with different image receptors has on cancer detection in mammography was measured using a novel method for changing the appearance of images. Method: A set of 270 mammography cases (one view, both breasts) was acquired using five Hologic Selenia and two Hologic Dimensions X-ray sets: 160 normal cases, 80 cases with subtle real non-calcification malignant lesions and 30 cases with biopsy proven benign lesions. Simulated calcification clusters were inserted into half of the normal cases. The 270 cases (Arm 1) were converted to appear as if they had been acquired on three other imaging systems: caesium iodide detector (Arm 2), needle image plate computed radiography (CR) (Arm 3) and powder phosphor CR (Arm 4). Five experienced mammography readers marked the location of suspected cancers in the images and classified the degree of visibility of the lesions. Statistical analysis was performed using JAFROC. Results: The differences in the visibility of calcification clusters between all pairs of arms were statistically significant (ptype had a significant impact on the visibility of all types of subtle cancers, with the largest impact being on the visibility of calcification clusters.

  18. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  19. Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses of Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by at Least Two Cancer Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Beesley, Jonathan; Amin Al Olama, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P risk loci......: We demonstrate that combining large-scale GWA meta-analysis findings across cancer types can identify completely new risk loci common to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. We show that the identification of such cross-cancer risk loci has the potential to shed new light on the shared biology...... (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell...

  20. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  1. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells (hAMSC) interact depending on breast cancer cell type through secreted molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Bang, So Hee; Kang, So Yeong; Park, Ki Dae; Eom, Jun Ho; Oh, Il Ung; Yoo, Si Hyung; Kim, Chan-Wha; Baek, Sun Young

    2015-02-01

    Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells (hAMSC) are candidates for cell-based therapies. We examined the characteristics of hAMSC including the interaction between hAMSC and breast cancer cells, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells showed typical MSC properties, including fibroblast-like morphology, surface antigen expression, and mesodermal differentiation. To investigate cell-cell interaction via secreted molecules, we cultured breast cancer cells in hAMSC-conditioned medium (hAMSC-CM) and analyzed their proliferation, migration, and secretome profiles. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to hAMSC-CM showed increased proliferation and migration. However, in hAMSC-CM, MCF-7 cells proliferated significantly faster than MDA-MB-231 cells. When cultured in hAMSC-CM, MCF-7 cells migrated faster than MDA-MB-231 cells. Two cell types showed different profiles of secreted factors. MCF-7 cells expressed much amounts of IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1 in hAMSC-CM. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells interact with breast cancer cells through secreted molecules. Factors secreted by hAMSCs promote the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. For much safe cell-based therapies using hAMSC, it is necessary to study carefully about interaction between hAMSC and cancer cells.

  2. Cell type-restricted activity of hnRNPM promotes breast cancer metastasis via regulating alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Xin D; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Huang, Huilin; Tan, Haiyan; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Reinke, Lauren M; Peter, Marcus E; Feng, Yue; Gius, David; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Peng, Junmin; Xiao, Xinshu; Cheng, Chonghui

    2014-06-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the major cause of cancer-related death, but its molecular basis is still not well understood. Here we uncovered a splicing-mediated pathway that is essential for breast cancer metastasis. We show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNPM) promotes breast cancer metastasis by activating the switch of alternative splicing that occurs during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Genome-wide deep sequencing analysis suggests that hnRNPM potentiates TGFβ signaling and identifies CD44 as a key downstream target of hnRNPM. hnRNPM ablation prevents TGFβ-induced EMT and inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice, whereas enforced expression of the specific CD44 standard (CD44s) splice isoform overrides the loss of hnRNPM and permits EMT and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed hnRNPM acts in a mesenchymal-specific manner to precisely control CD44 splice isoform switching during EMT. This restricted cell-type activity of hnRNPM is achieved by competition with ESRP1, an epithelial splicing regulator that binds to the same cis-regulatory RNA elements as hnRNPM and is repressed during EMT. Importantly, hnRNPM is associated with aggressive breast cancer and correlates with increased CD44s in patient specimens. These findings demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism through which tumor metastasis is endowed by the hnRNPM-mediated splicing program.

  3. Genome-wide Meta-analyses of Breast, Ovarian and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by At Least Two Cancer Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Siddhartha P.; Beesley, Jonathan; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Lawrenson, Kate; Lindstrom, Sara; Ramus, Susan J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Kibel, Adam S.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Michael, Agnieszka; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wolk, Alicja; Monteiro, Alvaro; Peixoto, Ana; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cox, Angela; Rudolph, Anja; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Wu, Anna H.; Lindblom, Annika; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ekici, Arif B.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Blomqvist, Carl; Phelan, Catherine; McLean, Catriona; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Vachon, Celine; Cybulski, Cezary; Slavov, Chavdar; Stegmaier, Christa; Maier, Christiane; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Teerlink, Craig C.; Kang, Daehee; Tessier, Daniel C.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Neal, David E.; Eccles, Diana; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Wokozorczyk, Dominika; Levine, Douglas A.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Høgdall, Estrid; Song, Fengju; Bruinsma, Fiona; Heitz, Florian; Modugno, Francesmary; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Giles, Graham G.; Olsson, Håkan; Wildiers, Hans; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Pandha, Hardev; Risch, Harvey A.; Darabi, Hatef; Salvesen, Helga B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Gronberg, Henrik; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Song, Honglin; Lim, Hui-Yi; McNeish, Iain; Campbell, Ian; Vergote, Ignace; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Stanford, Janet L.; Benítez, Javier; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Donovan, Jenny L.; Dennis, Joe; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schleutker, Johanna; Hopper, John L.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Park, Jong Y.; Figueroa, Jonine; Clements, Judith A.; Knight, Julia A.; Peto, Julian; Cunningham, Julie M.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Batra, Jyotsna; Czene, Kamila; Lu, Karen H.; Herkommer, Kathleen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Muir, Kenneth; Offitt, Kenneth; Chen, Kexin; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Odunsi, Kunle; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Cook, Linda S.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Hooning, Maartje J.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Luedeke, Manuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Goodman, Marc T.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Riggan, Marjorie; Aly, Markus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Moisse, Matthieu; Sanderson, Maureen; Southey, Melissa C.; Jones, Michael; Lush, Michael; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Bogdanova, Natalia; Rahman, Nazneen; Le, Nhu D.; Orr, Nick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pashayan, Nora; Peterlongo, Paolo; Guénel, Pascal; Brennan, Paul; Paulo, Paula; Webb, Penelope M.; Broberg, Per; Fasching, Peter A.; Devilee, Peter; Wang, Qin; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Qiyuan; Kaneva, Radka; Butzow, Ralf; Kopperud, Reidun Kristin; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Stephenson, Robert A.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Winqvist, Robert; Ness, Roberta; Milne, Roger L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Benlloch, Sara; Olson, Sara H.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Maia, Sofia; Berndt, Sonja; Lee, Soo Chin; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Pejovic, Tanja; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Dörk, Thilo; Brüning, Thomas; Wahlfors, Tiina; Key, Tim J.; Edwards, Todd L.; Menon, Usha; Hamann, Ute; Mitev, Vanio; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Kristensen, Vessela; Arndt, Volker; Vogel, Walther; Zheng, Wei; Sieh, Weiva; Blot, William J.; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Schumacher, Fredrick; Freedman, Matthew L.; Berchuck, Andrew; Dunning, Alison M.; Simard, Jacques; Haiman, Christopher A.; Spurdle, Amanda; Sellers, Thomas A.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Gayther, Simon A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Eeles, Rosalind; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Lambrechts, Diether

    2016-01-01

    Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P < 10−8 seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P < 10−5 in the three-cancer meta-analysis. PMID:27432226

  4. Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Attas Omar S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested this association in type 2 diabetic women, categorized as obese, overweight and normal body weight groups based on BMI. Design and methods A total of 101 subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, C reactive protein, leptin, TGF-α, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Data were logarithmically transformed for variables not normally distributed. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni was applied to compare the data between the groups. Simple and partial correlation coefficients between the variables were determined and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between the variables of interest. Results Significantly increased levels of IL-6, C reactive protein, leptin and significantly decreased levels of adiponectin were found in obese group, while the levels of TNF-α and TGF-α were unaltered. A positive correlation between waist circumference and IL-6 was found in obese group. Similarly, C reactive protein, waist and hip circumferences were linearly correlated with BMI in obese group. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed several significant predictors for breast cancer risk. Conclusion Obesity and type 2 diabetes, owing to their effects on adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators, contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. This study emphasizes healthy life style and better management of these metabolic disorders to avoid the pathogenesis of breast cancer and of other chronic diseases.

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  6. p53 mutant breast cancer patients expressing p53γ have as good a prognosis as wild-type p53 breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    International audience; INTRODUCTION: Normal function of the p53 network is lost in most cancers, often through p53 mutation. The clinical impact of p53 mutations in breast cancer remains uncertain, especially where p53 isoforms may modify the effects of these p53 mutations. METHODS: Expression of p53β and p53γ isoforms, the isoforms identified in normal breast tissue, was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from a cohort of 127 primary breast tumours. Expression of p5...

  7. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  8. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  9. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  10. Breast cancer and other neoplasms in women with neurofibromatosis type 1: a retrospective review of cases in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Levin, A M; Smolinski, S E; Vigneau, F D; Levin, N K; Tainsky, M A

    2012-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common cancer predisposing syndromes with an incidence of 1 in 3,500 worldwide. Certain neoplasms or malignancies are over-represented in individuals with NF1; however, an increased risk of breast cancer has not been widely recognized or accepted. We identified 76 women with NF1 seen in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) from 1990 to 2009, and linked them to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry covering the metropolitan Detroit area. Fifty-one women (67%) were under age 50 years at the time of data analysis. Six women developed invasive breast cancer before age 50, and three developed invasive breast cancer after age 50. Using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) calculated based on the SEER age-adjusted invasive breast cancer incidence rates, our findings demonstrated a statistically significant increase of breast cancer incidence occurring in NF1 women (SIR = 5.2; 95% CI 2.4-9.8), and this relative increase was especially evident among those with breast cancer onset under age 50 (SIR = 8.8; 95% CI 3.2-19.2). These data are consistent with other reports suggesting an increase in breast cancer risk among females with NF1, which indicate that breast cancer screening guidelines should be evaluated for this potentially high-risk group.

  11. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  12. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... a mammogram , the breast is placed between 2 plates that are pressed together. Pressing the breast helps ...

  13. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  14. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  15. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  16. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional ... are linked by thin tubes called ducts. Enlarge Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. Can models of self-management support be adapted across cancer types? A comparison of unmet self-management needs for patients with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elise; Mackenzie, Lisa; Carey, Mariko; Peek, Kerry; Shepherd, Jan; Evans, Tiffany-Jane

    2017-09-22

    There is an increased focus on supporting patients with cancer to actively participate in their healthcare, an approach commonly termed 'self-management'. Comparing unmet self-management needs across cancer types may reveal opportunities to adapt effective self-management support strategies from one cancer type to another. Given that breast and colorectal cancers are prevalent, and have high survival rates, we compared these patients' recent need for help with self-management. Data on multiple aspects of self-management were collected from 717 patients with breast cancer and 336 patients with colorectal cancer attending one of 13 Australian medical oncology treatment centres. There was no significant difference between the proportion of patients with breast or colorectal cancer who reported a need for help with at least one aspect of self-management. Patients with breast cancer were significantly more likely to report needing help with exercising more, while patients with colorectal cancer were more likely to report needing help with reducing alcohol consumption. When controlling for treatment centre, patients who were younger, experiencing distress or had not received chemotherapy were more likely to report needing help with at least one aspect of self-management. A substantial minority of patients reported an unmet need for self-management support. This indicates that high-quality intervention research is needed to identify effective self-management support strategies, as well as implementation trials to identify approaches to translating these strategies into practice. Future research should continue to explore whether self-management support strategies could be adapted across cancer types.

  19. Adjuvant endocrine therapy alone in patients with node-positive, luminal A type breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Lee, Se Kyung; Paik, Hyun-June; Ryu, Jai Min; Kim, Isaac; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-06-01

    Luminal A breast cancer has a much better prognosis than other subtypes, with a low risk of local or regional recurrence. However, there is controversy around under- versus overtreatment with regard to adjuvant treatment of node-positive, luminal A breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify whether adjuvant systemic chemotherapy has any benefit in node-positive, luminal A breast cancer and to evaluate feasibility of endocrine therapy without chemotherapy in this group.This was a retrospective study of 11,025 patients who were surgically treated for invasive breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center between January 2004 and December 2013. Luminal A subtype was defined as ER+, HER2-, and Ki-67 < 14%. We compared AC based (AC: doxorubicin or epirubicin, plus cyclophosphamide) adjuvant chemotherapy versus endocrine therapy without chemotherapy in patients with node-positive, luminal A breast cancer.We performed 1: n matching, with a maximum n of 8 on endocrine therapy group (n = 50) to chemotherapy group (n = 642). The median age of the patients in each group at the time of surgery was 58.3 ± 9.5 years in the chemotherapy group and 58.7 ± 11.7 in the endocrine therapy only group. The median follow-up time was 51.9 months (range, 1-125 months). In multivariable analysis, omission of adjuvant chemotherapy in luminal A cancer had no influence on OS and DFS. Axillary lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor (PR) status were significantly different between the endocrine therapy alone group and the chemotherapy group in terms of OS. Nuclear grade, PR status, and adjuvant radiotherapy were significantly different between the endocrine therapy alone group and the chemotherapy group with regard to DFS. In survival analysis, there were no differences in OS (P = .137) and DFS (P = .225) between the 2 groups.Adjuvant chemotherapy could provide little benefit to postmenopausal patients with luminal A, node-positive breast cancer, and

  20. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anita; Szallasi, Arpad

    2013-10-01

    Elevated platelet count at the time of diagnosis has been suggested to identify a subset of patients with cancer (e.g. ovarian and lung adenocarcinoma) and poor prognosis. The evidence on the incidence and prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in breast cancer is, however, incomplete. We performed a retrospective analysis of 127 consecutive patients with breast cancer at our Institution. None of the 81 newly- diagnosed patients had an elevated platelet count (mean=252 × 10(6)/l). Out of the 31 patients with metastatic disease, one exhibited mild thrombocytosis (445 × 10(6)/l) but the mean value (239 × 10(6)/l) was similar to that seen in patients with localized disease. We conclude that thrombocytosis in breast cancer is rare and thus, unlike in other types of cancer, and has limited (if any) value in clinical decision making.

  1. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  2. Cell type classifiers for breast cancer microscopic images based on fractal dimension texture analysis of image color layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitaree, Sirinapa; Phinyomark, Angkoon; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Having a classifier of cell types in a breast cancer microscopic image (BCMI), obtained with immunohistochemical staining, is required as part of a computer-aided system that counts the cancer cells in such BCMI. Such quantitation by cell counting is very useful in supporting decisions and planning of the medical treatment of breast cancer. This study proposes and evaluates features based on texture analysis by fractal dimension (FD), for the classification of histological structures in a BCMI into either cancer cells or non-cancer cells. The cancer cells include positive cells (PC) and negative cells (NC), while the normal cells comprise stromal cells (SC) and lymphocyte cells (LC). The FD feature values were calculated with the box-counting method from binarized images, obtained by automatic thresholding with Otsu's method of the grayscale images for various color channels. A total of 12 color channels from four color spaces (RGB, CIE-L*a*b*, HSV, and YCbCr) were investigated, and the FD feature values from them were used with decision tree classifiers. The BCMI data consisted of 1,400, 1,200, and 800 images with pixel resolutions 128 × 128, 192 × 192, and 256 × 256, respectively. The best cross-validated classification accuracy was 93.87%, for distinguishing between cancer and non-cancer cells, obtained using the Cr color channel with window size 256. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm, based on fractal dimension features extracted from a color channel, performs well in the automatic classification of the histology in a BCMI. This might support accurate automatic cell counting in a computer-assisted system for breast cancer diagnosis.

  3. Understanding breast cancer patients' preference for two types of exercise training during chemotherapy in an unblinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallance Jeffrey K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient preference for group assignment may affect outcomes in unblinded trials but few studies have attempted to understand such preferences. The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with breast cancer patients' preference for two types of exercise training during chemotherapy. Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 242 completed a battery of tests including a questionnaire that assessed patient preference and the theory of planned behavior (TPB prior to being randomized to usual care, resistance exercise training (RET, or aerobic exercise training (AET. Results 99 (40.9% participants preferred RET, 88 (36.4% preferred AET, and 55 (22.7% reported no preference. Past exercisers (p = 0.023, smokers (p = 0.004, and aerobically fitter participants (p = 0.005 were more likely to prefer RET. As hypothesized, participants that preferred AET had more favorable TPB beliefs about AET whereas participants that preferred RET had more favorable TPB beliefs about RET. In multivariate modeling, patient preference for RET versus AET was explained (R2 = .46; p 2 = .48; p Conclusion Breast cancer patients' preference for RET versus AET during chemotherapy was predicted largely by a difference in motivation for each type of exercise which, in turn, was based on differences in their beliefs about the anticipated benefits, enjoyment, and difficulty of performing each type of exercise during chemotherapy. These findings may help explain patient preference effects in unblinded behavioral trials. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00115713.

  4. Induction of Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 correlates with invasive breast cancer oncogenesis and reduced type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Innate and type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity function as important extracellular control mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is an important cytokine that links innate immunity with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity. We recently observed in vitro that tumor-derived Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 (WISP1) exerts paracrine action to suppress IL12 signaling. The objective of this retrospective study was three fold: 1) to determine whether a gene signature associated with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with overall survival, 2) to determine whether WISP1 expression is increased in invasive breast cancer, and 3) to determine whether a gene signature consistent with inhibition of IL12 signaling correlates with WISP1 expression. Clinical information and mRNA expression for genes associated with anti-tumor immunity were obtained from the invasive breast cancer arm of the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Patient cohorts were identified using hierarchical clustering. The immune signatures associated with the patient cohorts were interpreted using model-based inference of immune polarization. Reverse phase protein array, tissue microarray, and quantitative flow cytometry in breast cancer cell lines were used to validate observed differences in gene expression. We found that type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with increased survival in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with invasive triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenic transformation in invasive breast cancer was associated with an increase in WISP1. The gene expression signature in invasive breast cancer was consistent with WISP1 as a paracrine inhibitor of type 1 cell-mediated immunity through inhibiting IL12 signaling and promoting type 2 immunity. Moreover, model-based inference helped identify appropriate immune signatures that can be used as design constraints in genetically engineering better pre

  5. Jadomycins inhibit type II topoisomerases and promote DNA damage and apoptosis in multidrug resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven R; Toulany, Jay; Bennett, Leah G; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Robertson, Andrew W; Jakeman, David L; Goralski, Kerry B

    2017-09-13

    Jadomycins are natural products that kill drug-sensitive and multidrug resistant (MDR) breast cancer cells. To date the cytotoxic activity of jadomycins has never been tested in MDR breast cancer cells that are also triple-negative. Additionally, there is only a rudimentary understanding of how jadomycins cause cancer cell death, which includes the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We first created a paclitaxel-resistant, triple-negative breast cancer cell line (231-TXL) from drug-sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells (231-CON). Using MTT cell viability measuring assays, jadomycins B, S, and F were found to be equipotent in drug-sensitive 231-CON and MDR 231-TXL cells, and using ROS-detecting assays these jadomycins were determined to increase ROS activity in both cell lines by up to 7.3-fold. Jadomycins caused DNA double strand breaks in 231-CON and 231-TXL cells as measured by γH2AX western blotting. Co-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pro-oxidant auranofin did not affect jadomycin-mediated DNA damage. Jadomycins induced apoptosis in 231-CON and 231-TXL cells as measured by annexin V affinity assays, a process which was retained when ROS were inhibited. This indicated that jadomycins are capable of inducing MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death independently of ROS activity. Using qPCR, western blotting, and direct topoisomerase inhibition assays, it was determined that jadomycins inhibit type II topoisomerases and that jadomycins B and F selectively poison topoisomerase IIβ. We therefore propose novel mechanisms through which jadomycins induce breast cancer cell death independently of ROS-activity, through inhibition or poisoning of type II topoisomerases, and induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  7. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    inhibitor of both the src and abl kinases, selectively inhibits growth of basal -type/“triple-negative” breast cancer cell lines growing in vitro. Breast...Welch JN, Lu J, Liu A, Zhu Y, Davis N, Leonessa F, Brunner N, Wang Y, Clarke R. Association of interferon regulatory factor-1, nucleo - phosmin...nmol/L 4HT (within the range of clinically relevant concentrations; ref. 10) was designated SUM44/LCCTam (hereafter called LCCTam). The basal growth

  8. The Role of Amplified Wild-Type Neu in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    metastasize to bone , liver, lung and kidney. This model has the potential to serve as an excellent male breast cancer model and also to test our central...mouse monoclonal anti- mas in all of the TG males, while ovariectomy of the TG female body directed against Neu. In both young TG males and females...arch, orchidectomy: ovx, ovariectomy ; nd, not determined. males by long-term treatment with either testosterone (T) or the mammary gland. At days 10-14

  9. The Risk and Clinical/Molecular Characteristics of Breast Cancer in Women with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    those NF1 women with breast cancer history. In addition, the sequencing data appeared to have significant artifacts . WES control samples: It...germline lymphocytes DNA were randomly selected from 42 de-identified samples in Henry Ford Hospital molecular diagnostic laboratory. These DNA samples...significant number of false positive artifacts . After applying increased stringency, a significant number of false positive artifacts have been

  10. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  11. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  12. Beta-lactam type molecular scaffolds for antiproliferative activity: synthesis and cytotoxic effects in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Mary J; Carr, Miriam; Knox, Andrew J S; Zisterer, Daniela M; Lloyd, David G

    2008-10-01

    A series of novel beta-lactam containing compounds are described as antiproliferative agents and potential selective modulators of the oestrogen receptor. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of these compounds on human MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 breast cancer cells. The compounds are designed to contain three aryl ring substituents arranged on the heterocyclic azetidin-2-one (beta-lactam), thus providing conformationally restrained analogues of the triarylethylene arrangement exemplified in the tamoxifen type structure. The compounds demonstrated potency in antiproliferative assays against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations with low cytotoxicity and moderate binding affinity to the oestrogen receptor. The effect of a number of aryl and amine functional group substitutions on the antiproliferative activity of the beta-lactam products was explored and a brief computational structure-activity relationship investigation with molecular simulation was investigated.

  13. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.

  14. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  15. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  16. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Variants With Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Lindström, Sara; Allen, Naomi E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen; Gaziano, J. Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Henderson, Brian E.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Krogh, Vittorio; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth; Willett, Walter C.; Hunter, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies have found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PCa), and genome-wide association studies have found common variants near 3 loci associated with both diseases. The authors examined whether a genetic background that favors T2D is associated with risk of advanced PCa. Data from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a genome-wide association study of 2,782 advanced PCa cases and 4,458 controls, were used to evaluate whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or aggregations of these 36 T2D susceptibility loci are associated with PCa. Ten T2D markers near 9 loci (NOTCH2, ADCY5, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, and HNF1B) were nominally associated with PCa (P < 0.05); the association for single nucleotide polymorphism rs757210 at the HNF1B locus was significant when multiple comparisons were accounted for (adjusted P = 0.001). Genetic risk scores weighted by the T2D log odds ratio and multilocus kernel tests also indicated a significant relation between T2D variants and PCa risk. A mediation analysis of 9,065 PCa cases and 9,526 controls failed to produce evidence that diabetes mediates the association of the HNF1B locus with PCa risk. These data suggest a shared genetic component between T2D and PCa and add to the evidence for an interrelation between these diseases. PMID:23193118

  17. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  18. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Styles Common Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects ... Insomnia and Fatigue Treatment for Insomnia and Fatigue Lymphedema Lymphedema Risk Treating Lymphedema Menopausal Symptoms Mouth Sores ...

  19. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20032432 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  20. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  1. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  2. Contralateral breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria ... This second breast cancer remains, however largely sub-clinical. .... therapeutic mastectomy and prophylactic ... basis against the operation's physical and.

  3. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Types of Cancer Teens Get KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Cancer Teens Get A A A What's in this article? ... que padecen los adolescentes Cancer is rare in teens. Certain diseases like breast cancer usually affect adult ...

  4. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    criteria were: having ever been treated with chemotherapy, or been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus or liver cirrhosis; having smoked the previous...history of breast cancer) was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Moreover, OC use before age 25 or first pregnancy was not...radioimmunoassay of unconjugated estriol in Endocrinol Metab 65:792-795 (1987). pregnancy plasma. Steroids 24:225-238 (1974). 47. Longcope C, Gorbach S

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  6. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampelj Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

  7. The importance of preoperative elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 in patients with breast cancer in predicting its histological type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Słonina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether in patients with breast cancer the occurrence of elevated serum tumour markers depends on its histological type. The aim of the study was to assess relationship between breast cancer histological type and the presence of increased serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3. The study population was 428 patients (all women, mean age 52.5 years, treated at The Department of Surgery of Wroclaw Medical University from 2005 to 2008 due to breast cancer. All of them had their preoperative CA 15-3 and CEA serum concentrations measured. According to the TNM system, 21% of patients were in stage I, 32.5% in stage II, 46.5% in stage III of the disease. In patients with ductal type of the cancer the elevated serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 were observed in 48.7% and 42.2%, in lobular type in 42.4% and 52.5%, and in non-ductal/tubular types in 48.1% and 40.4% (p=N/S. Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that ductal breast cancer is related to elevated CEA and normal CA 15-3 serum levels. The histological types of breast cancer are not significantly related to elevated serum levels of CEA and/or CA 15-3.

  8. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  9. The role of oestrogen in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and prostate disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graeme P

    2010-07-01

    A detailed review of the literature was performed in a bid to identify the presence of a common link between specific hormone interactions and the increasing prevalence of global disease. The synergistic action of unopposed oestrogen and leptin, compounded by increasing insulin, cortisol and xeno-oestrogen exposure directly initiate, promote and exacerbate obesity, type 2 diabetes, uterine overgrowth, prostatic enlargement, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Furthermore these hormones significantly contribute to the incidence and intensity of anxiety and depression, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and stroke. This review, in collaboration with hundreds of evidence-based clinical researchers, correlates the significant interactions these hormones exert upon the upregulation of p450 aromatase, oestrogen, leptin and insulin receptor function; the normal status quo of their binding globulins; and how adduct formation alters DNA sequencing to ultimately produce an array of metabolic conditions ranging from menopausal symptoms and obesity to Alzheimer's disease and breast and prostate cancer. It reveals the way that poor diet, increased stress, unopposed endogenous oestrogens, exogenous oestrogens, pesticides, xeno-oestrogens and leptin are associated with increased aromatase activity, and how its products, increased endogenous oestrogen and lowered testosterone, are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and oestrogenic disease. This controversial break-through represents a paradigm shift in medical thinking, which can prevent the raging pandemic of diabetes, obesity and cancer currently sweeping the world, and as such, it will reshape health initiatives, reduce suffering, prevent waste of government expenditure and effectively transform preventative medicine and global health care for decades.

  10. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premen...

  12. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer ... and the NIH effort to dramatically reduce the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer ...

  13. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  14. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  15. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  16. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, and not Type 12, is a target for endocrine therapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joanna M; Foster, Paul A; Tutill, Helena J; Parsons, Michael F C; Newman, Simon P; Chander, Surinder K; Allan, Gillian M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2008-05-01

    Oestradiol (E2) stimulates the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the pre-receptor activation/inactivation of hormones and other substrates. 17beta-HSD1 converts oestrone (E1) to active E2, but it has recently been suggested that another 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD12, may be the major enzyme that catalyses this reaction in women. Here we demonstrate that it is 17beta-HSD1 which is important for E2 production and report the inhibition of E1-stimulated breast tumor growth by STX1040, a non-oestrogenic selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1, using a novel murine model. 17beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD12 mRNA and protein expression, and E2 production, were assayed in wild type breast cancer cell lines and in cells after siRNA and cDNA transfection. Although 17beta-HSD12 was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines, only 17beta-HSD1 efficiently catalysed E2 formation. The effect of STX1040 on the proliferation of E1-stimulated T47D breast cancer cells was determined in vitro and in vivo. Cells inoculated into ovariectomised nude mice were stimulated using 0.05 or 0.1 microg E1 (s.c.) daily, and on day 35 the mice were dosed additionally with 20 mg/kg STX1040 s.c. daily for 28 days. STX1040 inhibited E1-stimulated proliferation of T47D cells in vitro and significantly decreased tumor volumes and plasma E2 levels in vivo. In conclusion, a model was developed to study the inhibition of the major oestrogenic 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD1, in breast cancer. Both E2 production and tumor growth were inhibited by STX1040, suggesting that 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors such as STX1040 may provide a novel treatment for hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  19. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  20. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  2. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  3. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  4. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  5. Cytotoxicity of various types of gold-mesoporous silica nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guomu; Li, Qiongshu; Ni, Weihua; Zhang, Nannan; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Yingshuai; Shao, Dan; Tai, Guixiang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown promising biological applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, the potential toxicity of AuNPs remains a major hurdle that impedes their use in clinical settings. Mesoporous silica is very suitable for the use as a coating material for AuNPs and might not only reduce the cytotoxicity of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-coated AuNPs but might also facilitate the loading and delivery of drugs. Herein, three types of rod-like gold-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (termed bare AuNPs, core-shell Au@mSiO2NPs, and Janus Au@mSiO2NPs) were specially designed, and the effects of these AuNPs on cellular uptake, toxic behavior, and mechanism were then systematically studied. Our results indicate that bare AuNPs exerted higher toxicity than the Au@mSiO2NPs and that Janus Au@mSiO2NPs exhibited the lowest toxicity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, consistent with the endocytosis capacity of the nanoparticles, which followed the order, bare AuNPs > core-shell Au@mSiO2NPs > Janus Au@mSiO2NPs. More importantly, the AuNPs-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells exhibited features that were characteristic of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, an enhanced Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Simultaneously, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria, and the caspase-3/9 cascade was activated. Moreover, both ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) partly blocked the induction of apoptosis in all AuNPs-treated cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that all AuNPs induce apoptosis through the ROS-/JNK-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Thus, Janus Au@mSiO2NPs exhibit the potential for applications in biomedicine, thus aiding the clinical translation of AuNPs.

  6. Effects of exercise dose and type on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Jespersen, Diana; Cook, Diane; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Forbes, Cynthia C; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effects of different doses and types of exercise on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A multicenter trial in Canada randomized 301 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2011 to thrice weekly, supervised exercise during chemotherapy consisting of either a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise (STAN; n = 96), a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise (HIGH; n = 101), or a combined dose of 50-60 min of aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB; n = 104). The secondary sleep outcomes in the trial were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline, twice during chemotherapy, and postchemotherapy. We analyzed the global PSQI and the component scores. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated that the HIGH group was statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.90; 95 % CI -0.05 to -1.76; p = 0.039) as well as subjective sleep quality (p = 0.028) and sleep latency (p = 0.049). The COMB group was borderline statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.76; 95 % CI +0.11 to -1.62; p = 0.085) as well as sleep duration (p = 0.051); and statistically superior for sleep efficiency (p = 0.040), and percentage of poor sleepers (p = 0.045). Compared to a standard volume of aerobic exercise, higher volumes of both aerobic and combined exercise improved some aspects of sleep quality during breast cancer chemotherapy. Exercise may be an attractive option to manage sleep dysfunction in cancer patients during chemotherapy.

  7. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  8. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  9. Doxorubicin-enriched, ALDHbr mouse breast cancer stem cells are treatable to oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xiufen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study was to test whether oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 could eradicate chemoresistant cancer stem cells (CSCs. Methods The fluorescent aldefluor reagent-based technique was used to identify and isolate ALDHbr cells as CSCs from the 4T1 murine breast cancer cell line. The presence of ALDHbr 4T1 cells was also examined in 4T1 breast cancer transplanted in immune-competent syngeneic mice. Results Compared with ALDHlo cells, ALDHbr cells had a markedly higher ability to form tumor spheres in vitro and a higher tumorigenic potential in vivo. ALDHbr cells also exhibited increased doxorubicin resistance in vitro, which correlated with a selective increase in the percentage of ALDHbr cells after doxorubicin treatment and an increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a known chemoresistance factor. In contrast, oncolytic HSV1 was able to kill ALDHbr cells in vitro and even more markedly in vivo. Furthermore, in in vivo studies, systemic administration of doxorubicin followed by intratumoral injection of oncolytic HSV1 resulted in much more significant suppression of tumor growth with increased median survival period compared with each treatment given alone (p+ T lymphocytes were induced by oncolytic HSV1, no significant specific T cell response against CSCs was detected in vivo. Conclusions These results suggested that the use of oncolytic HSV1 following doxorubicin treatment may help eradicate residual chemoresistant CSCs in vivo.

  10. Platinum-Based Drugs Differentially Affect the Ultrastructure of Breast Cancer Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adawi, Kawther; Al-Nabhani, Abdurahman; Al-Kindi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although platinum-based drugs (PBDs) are effective anticancer agents, responsive patients eventually become resistant. While resistance of some cancers to PBDs has been explored, the cellular responses of BC cells are not studied yet. Therefore, we aim to assess the differential effects of PBDs on BC ultrastructure. Three representative cells were treated with different concentrations and timing of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In SEM, control cells were semiflattened containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia while treated ones were round with irregular surface and several pores, indicating drug entry. Prolonged treatment resembled distinct apoptotic features such as shrinkage, membrane blebs, and narrowing of lamellipodia with blunt microvilli. TEM detected PBDs' deposits that scattered among cellular organelles inducing structural distortion, lumen swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Deposits were attracted to fat droplets, explained by drug hydrophobic properties, while later they were located close to cell membrane, suggesting drug efflux. Phagosomes with destructed organelles and deposits were detected as defending mechanism. Understanding BC cells response to PBDs might provide new insight for an effective treatment.

  11. Breast cancer and neurofibromatosis type 1: a diagnostic challenge in patients with a high number of neurofibromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, André Vallejo; Rodrigues, Fabiana Resende; Pureza, Mônica; Lopes, Vania Gloria Silami; Cunha, Karin Soares

    2015-03-26

    Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans, presenting with multiple neurofibromas and an increased risk of various benign and malignant tumors, including breast cancer. In this paper we report a case of a woman with neurofibromatosis 1 and the challenge associated with detecting an advanced breast cancer because of numerous skin neurofibromas, which were responsible for a substantial delay in cancer diagnosis. Literature concerning the association of neurofibromatosis 1 and breast cancer is reviewed and discussed. Best practice guidelines for breast cancer detection are not sufficient for the screening of neurofibromatosis 1 carriers. A more intensive clinical and imaging approach should be used if the same early detection rate as in non-neurofibromatosis 1 women is to be achieved.

  12. Lobular breast cancer : molecular basis, mouse and cellular models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christgen, Matthias; Derksen, Patrick W B

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the most common special breast cancer subtype. With mutational or epigenetic inactivation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (CDH1) being confined almost exclusively to ILC, this tumor entity stands out from all other types of breast cancers. The

  13. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  14. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  15. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. M. Lopes; A. Dourado; R. Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    .... In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements...

  16. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  17. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  19. Combining phenotypic and proteomic approaches to identify membrane targets in a ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust Steven

    2013-02-01

    using the anti-CD73 antibody, which bound other ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell lines and produced significant tumour growth inhibitory activity in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that multiple methods are required to successfully analyse the membranome of a desired cell type. It has also successfully demonstrated that phenotypic antibody screening provides a mechanism for rapidly discovering and evaluating antibody tractable targets, which can significantly accelerate the therapeutic discovery process.

  20. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  1. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  2. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...... instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  3. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  4. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  5. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  6. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  8. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  9. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  10. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  11. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  12. Developing phytoestrogens for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mandy M; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer.

  13. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  14. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  15. [Immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Tsubota, Yu; Sueoka, Noriko; Endo, Kayoko; Ogura, Tsunetaka; Nagumo, Yoshinori; Kwon, A-Hon

    2014-11-01

    We performed immediate breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy and evaluated the reconstruction procedure, cosmesis, and complications. Among the 30 patients included in the study, 6 received latissimus dorsi flaps, 1 received a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, 7 received deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 1 received an implant, and 15 received tissue expanders. In addition, the results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 3 patients, and poor in 2 patients. As the number of patients with breast cancer is increasing, the demand for breast reconstruction will increase. Therefore, it is essential to choose an appropriate method of breast reconstruction for each case.

  16. Wild-Type N-Ras, Overexpressed in Basal-like Breast Cancer, Promotes Tumor Formation by Inducing IL-8 Secretion via JAK2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Yi Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs are aggressive, and their drivers are unclear. We have found that wild-type N-RAS is overexpressed in BLBCs but not in other breast cancer subtypes. Repressing N-RAS inhibits transformation and tumor growth, whereas overexpression enhances these processes even in preinvasive BLBC cells. We identified N-Ras-responsive genes, most of which encode chemokines; e.g., IL8. Expression levels of these chemokines and N-RAS in tumors correlate with outcome. N-Ras, but not K-Ras, induces IL-8 by binding and activating the cytoplasmic pool of JAK2; IL-8 then acts on both the cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts. Thus, BLBC progression is promoted by increasing activities of wild-type N-Ras, which mediates autocrine/paracrine signaling that can influence both cancer and stroma cells.

  17. Wild-Type N-Ras, Overexpressed in Basal-like Breast Cancer, Promotes Tumor Formation by Inducing IL-8 Secretion via JAK2 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ze-Yi; Tian, Lin; Bu, Wen; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Xia; Wang, Hai; Liao, Yi-Hua; Li, Yi; Lewis, Michael T; Edwards, Dean; Zwaka, Thomas P; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Medina, Daniel; Perou, Charles M; Creighton, Chad J; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Chang, Eric C

    2015-07-21

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are aggressive, and their drivers are unclear. We have found that wild-type N-RAS is overexpressed in BLBCs but not in other breast cancer subtypes. Repressing N-RAS inhibits transformation and tumor growth, whereas overexpression enhances these processes even in preinvasive BLBC cells. We identified N-Ras-responsive genes, most of which encode chemokines; e.g., IL8. Expression levels of these chemokines and N-RAS in tumors correlate with outcome. N-Ras, but not K-Ras, induces IL-8 by binding and activating the cytoplasmic pool of JAK2; IL-8 then acts on both the cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts. Thus, BLBC progression is promoted by increasing activities of wild-type N-Ras, which mediates autocrine/paracrine signaling that can influence both cancer and stroma cells.

  18. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  19. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  20. [Prevalence of breast cancer sub-types by immunohistochemistry in patients in the Regional General Hospital 72, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality has increased in women 25 years and over, and since 2006 it has surpassed cervical cancer. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several clinical and histological presentations that require a thorough study of all clinical and pathological parameters, including immunohistochemistry to classify it into subtypes, have a better prognosis, provide individualised treatment, increase survival, and reduce mortality. To evaluate the prevalence of sub-types of breast cancer and the association with the clinical and histopathological features of the tumour. An observational, retrospective, cross-sectional and analytical study conducted on 1380 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer have been classified by immunohistochemistry into four subtypes: luminal A, triple negative, luminal B and HER2. An analysis was performed on the association with age, risk factors, and the clinical and histopathological features of the tumour. The mean age of the patients was 53.3 ± 11.4. The frequency was luminal A (65%), triple negative (14%), luminal B (12%), and HER2 (9%). The most frequent characteristics were the 50 to 59 age range, late menopause, the right side, upper external quadrant, stage II, metastatic lymph nodes, and mastectomy. The most frequent sub-type was luminal A, and together with the luminal B are those which have better prognosis compared with the triple negative and HER2. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  2. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  3. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  4. Casting-type calcifications on the mammogram suggest a higher probability of early relapse and death among high-risk breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palka, Istvan [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Ormandi, K atalin [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gaal, Szilvia; Kahan, Zsuzsanna [Dept. of Oncotherapy, Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Boda, Krisztina [Dept. of Medical Informatics, Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2007-11-15

    A retrospective analysis of the relation between the presence of casting-type calcifications on the mammogram and the prognosis of breast cancer was performed. The mammographic tumor features and other characteristics (invasive tumor size, histological tumor type, grade, nodal, hormone receptor and HER2 status, presence of lymphovascular invasion) of 55 high-risk breast cancers were studied. After a median follow-up time of 29.1 months, the median relapse-free survival and overall survival times among breast cancer patients with tumors associated with casting calcifications were 26.6 and 29.6 months, respectively. The corresponding parameters among patients with tumors not accompanied by casting calcifications were 54.4 and >58.5 months, respectively. Significant associations were found between the presence of casting calcifications and the risks of relapse (HR = 3.048, 95% CI: 1.116-8.323, p = 0.030) or death (HR = 3.504, 95% CI: 1.074-11.427, p 0.038). Positive associations were found between casting calcifications and ER/PR negativity (p = 0.015 and p = 0.003, respectively) and HER2 overexpression (p = 0.019). Our findings support the theory that breast tumors associated with casting-type calcifications at mammography comprise a disease entity which exhibits significantly more aggressive behavior and a poorer outcome than do cancers with other mammographic tumor features.

  5. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  6. Seroma formation after surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mandana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seroma formation is the most frequent postoperative complication after breast cancer surgery. We carried out a study to investigate the effect of various demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables on seroma formation. Patients and methods A retrospective cross sectional study of patients who underwent surgical therapy for breast cancer with either modified radical mastectomy (MRM or breast preservation (BP was carried out. The demographic data and clinical information were extracted from case records. Seroma formation was studied in relation to age, type of surgery, tumor size, nodal involvement, preoperative chemotherapy, surgical instrument (electrocautery or scalpel, use of pressure garment, and duration of drainage. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios. Results A total of 158 patients with breast cancer were studied. The mean age of the patients was 46.3 years (SD ± 11.9. Seventy-three percent underwent modified radical mastectomy and the remaining 27% received breast preservation surgery. Seroma occurred in 35% of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis an association of postoperative seroma formation was noted with modified radical mastectomy (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.01–7.90, P = 0.04. No other factor studied was found to significantly effect the seroma formation after breast cancer surgery. Conclusion The findings suggest that the type of surgery is a predicting factor for seroma formation in breast cancer patients.

  7. [Cadherins E and P expression in the molecular types of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ángel; Reigosa, Aldo; Caleiras, Eduardo; Saldivia, Felipe; Hardisson, David; Sanz, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a process by which tumor cells lose their epithelial markers and migrate to distant organs. This process involves several cell adhesion proteins such as E-cadherin and P-cadherin. The present study was performed in 354 pacients diagnosed with breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the Oncology Institute "Dr. Miguel Perez Carreno", Valencia, Venezuela. The expression of 22 molecules was analyzed by tissue micro-arrays and the results were compared with the molecular clases established by immunohistochemistry, according to the'expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and with the overall survival (OS). Based on the results of ER, PR and HER2 molecular classes according to the following per- centages were established: Luminal A 42.4%, Luminal B 20.3%, 9% HER2 and 28.2% triple negative (TN). E-cadherin expression was observed conserved in most of the tumors of this series, 92.5% of cases. TN phenotype tumors showed a high percentage (41.7%) with absent or reduced expression. The P-cadherin was expressed in 40.5% of cases, although expressed in all classes; the proportion was significantly higher in cases TN. No significant prognostic value was observed when analyzing the overall five-year survival of patients with tumors with absent or reduced expression of E-cadherin. The P-cadherin expression had a negative relationship with the OS.

  8. The overexpression and altered localization of the atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota in breast cancer correlates with the pathologic type of these tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuyuki; Akimoto, Kazunori; Nagashima, Yoji; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Shirai, Sumiko; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Ichiro; Ohno, Shigeo; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the common malignant diseases among women in Japan as well as in western countries, and its incidence continues to increase. Normal mammary duct epithelial cells exhibit a well-organized apicobasal polarity, which forms the basis for their specific structure and function. Although the loss of epithelial cell polarity is one of the major changes that occur during the progression of tumor cells, including breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this, as well as their relationship to other changes such as increased proliferation and metastasis, remain to be elucidated. The atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKC lambda/iota) is involved in several signal transduction pathways, including the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. In this study we evaluated the expression and localization of aPKC lambda/iota in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry and compared our findings with the clinicopathologic factors associated with the tumor specimens. We detected aPK Clambda/iota protein overexpression in 88 of the 110 breast cancer cases (80.0%) under study, expect for decreased expression in a few cases. The immunoreactivity of aPK Clambda/iota was generally weak in ductal carcinoma in situ, but strong in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC; P = .022). The correlation between apical or cytoplasmic aPKC lambda/iota localization and tumor pathologic type (ie, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ. or IDC) was also demonstrated (P < .001). These results thus indicate that the normal apicobasal polarity is lost upon the progression of a breast lesion to IDC. This is also the first evidence to show aPKC lambda/iota overexpression in breast cancer and demonstrates that its localization is associated with the trend of pathologic type of the tumor.

  9. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  10. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  11. 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Stimulates Breast Cancer by Dihydrotestosterone Inactivation in Addition to Estradiol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Juliette A.; Mazumdar, Mausumi; Chen, Chang-Qing; Poirier, Donald; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    The active estrogen estradiol (E2) stimulates breast cancer cell (BCC) growth, whereas the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has shown an antiproliferative effect. The principal product synthesized by the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1) is E2, although we have demonstrated that the purified enzyme also inactivates DHT. However, the direct roles of 17β-HSD1 in sex-hormone regulation and BCC proliferation have not been completely established. Here, we show that 17β-HSD1 inhibition suppresses DHT catabolism by 19%, whereas knockdown of the gene expression increases the concentration of DHT by 41% in the T47D BCC line. The 17β-HSD1/DHT complex crystal structure reveals that DHT binds in both normal and reverse modes, but the latter mode leading to O3 reduction is preferred with stronger interactions. Using RNA interference and an inhibitor of 17β-HSD1, we demonstrate that 17β-HSD1 expression is negatively correlated to DHT levels in BCC but positively correlated to estrone reduction, E2 levels, and cell proliferation. 17β-HSD1 inhibition reduces DHT inactivation, increasing the antiproliferative effect by DHT in T47D cells after 8 d treatment. Thus, 17β-HSD1 up-regulates BCC growth by a dual action on estradiol synthesis and DHT inactivation. We have further demonstrated that 17β-HSD1 can enhance the E2-induced expression of the endogenous estrogen-responsive gene pS2, providing an important information regarding the modulation of the estrogen responsiveness by 17β-HSD1 that may also contribute to BCC growth. These results strongly support the rationale for inhibiting 17β-HSD1 in breast cancer therapy to eliminate estrogen activation via the sulfatase pathway while avoiding the deprivation of DHT. PMID:20172961

  12. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. Genome-wide progesterone receptor binding: cell type-specific and shared mechanisms in T47D breast cancer cells and primary leiomyoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progesterone, via its nuclear receptor (PR, exerts an overall tumorigenic effect on both uterine fibroid (leiomyoma and breast cancer tissues, whereas the antiprogestin RU486 inhibits growth of these tissues through an unknown mechanism. Here, we determined the interaction between common or cell-specific genome-wide binding sites of PR and mRNA expression in RU486-treated uterine leiomyoma and breast cancer cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ChIP-sequencing revealed 31,457 and 7,034 PR-binding sites in breast cancer and uterine leiomyoma cells, respectively; 1,035 sites overlapped in both cell types. Based on the chromatin-PR interaction in both cell types, we statistically refined the consensus progesterone response element to G•ACA• • •TGT•C. We identified two striking differences between uterine leiomyoma and breast cancer cells. First, the cis-regulatory elements for HSF, TEF-1, and C/EBPα and β were statistically enriched at genomic RU486/PR-targets in uterine leiomyoma, whereas E2F, FOXO1, FOXA1, and FOXF sites were preferentially enriched in breast cancer cells. Second, 51.5% of RU486-regulated genes in breast cancer cells but only 6.6% of RU486-regulated genes in uterine leiomyoma cells contained a PR-binding site within 5 kb from their transcription start sites (TSSs, whereas 75.4% of RU486-regulated genes contained a PR-binding site farther than 50 kb from their TSSs in uterine leiomyoma cells. RU486 regulated only seven mRNAs in both cell types. Among these, adipophilin (PLIN2, a pro-differentiation gene, was induced via RU486 and PR via the same regulatory region in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies have identified molecular components in a RU486/PR-controlled gene network involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell migration, and extracellular matrix function. Tissue-specific and common patterns of genome-wide PR binding and gene regulation may determine the therapeutic effects of antiprogestins in

  14. High-density lipoprotein of patients with breast cancer complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes cancer cells adhesion to vascular endothelium via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis

  15. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  16. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  17. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  18. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  19. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  20. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  1. Dietary polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type are inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kee W; Killeen, Daniel P; Li, Yan; Paxton, James W; Birch, Nigel P; Scheepens, Arjan

    2014-01-15

    Polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type are present in vegetables such as carrots and parsley. They display interesting bioactivities and hold potential as health-promoting and therapeutic agents. In this study, falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate and falcarindiol 3,8-diacetate were examined for their modulation on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an efflux transporter important for xenobiotic absorption and disposition, and multidrug resistance in cancer. Falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol 3-acetate were extracted from carrots and falcarindiol 3,8-diacetate prepared from falcarindiol. Their modulatory effects on ABCG2 were studied using three methods-mitoxantrone accumulation, vesicular transport, and ATPase assay. The polyacetylenes inhibited mitoxantrone (an ABCG2 substrate) efflux in ABCG2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. The inhibitory effect was confirmed in the vesicular transport assay, in which concentration-dependent inhibition of methotrexate (an ABCG2 substrate) uptake into ABCG2-overexpressing Sf9 membrane vesicles was observed (IC50=19.7-41.7µM). The polyacetylenes also inhibited baseline and sulfasalazine-stimulated vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities in ABCG2-overexpressing Sf9 membrane vesicles (IC50=19.3-79.3µM). This is the first report of an inhibitory effect of polyacetylenes on ABCG2. These results indicate a prospective use of polyacetylenes as multidrug resistance reversal agents, a possible role of ABCG2 in the absorption and disposition of polyacetylenes, and potential food-drug interactions between polyacetylene-rich foods and ABCG2 substrate drugs.

  2. Imaging inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, J-P

    2012-02-01

    Carcinomatous mastitis is a severe form of breast cancer and its diagnosis is essentially clinical and histological. The first examination to perform is still mammography, not only to provide evidence supporting this diagnosis but also to search for a primary intramammary lesion and assess local/regional spread. It is essential to study the contralateral breast for bilaterality. Ultrasound also provides evidence supporting inflammation, but appears to be better for detecting masses and analysing lymph node areas. The role of MRI is debatable, both from a diagnostic point of view and for monitoring during treatment, and should be reserved for selected cases. An optimal, initial radiological assessment will enable the patient to be monitored during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Éditions française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient’s health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products.

  4. Phytotherapy and Nutritional Supplements on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent type of nonskin malignancy among women worldwide. In general, conventional cancer treatment options (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy) are not completely effective. Recurrence and other pathologic situations are still an issue in breast cancer patients due to side effects, toxicity of drugs in normal cells, and aggressive behaviour of the tumours. From this point of view, breast cancer therapy and adjuvant methods represent a promising and challenging field for researchers. In the last few years, the use of some types of complementary medicines by women with a history of breast cancer has significantly increased such as phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements. Despite this, the use of such approaches in oncologic processes may be problematic and patient's health risks can arise such as interference with the efficacy of standard cancer treatment. The present review gives an overview of the most usual phytotherapeutic products and nutritional supplements with application in breast cancer patients as adjuvant approach. Regardless of the contradictory results of scientific evidence, we demonstrated the need to perform additional investigation, mainly well-designed clinical trials in order to establish correlations and allow for further validated outcomes concerning the efficacy, safety, and clinical evidence-based recommendation of these products. PMID:28845434

  5. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to ... are linked by thin tubes called ducts. Enlarge Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola ...

  6. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  7. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  8. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  9. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  10. Prognosis of early breast cancer by immunohistochemistry defined intrinsic sub-types in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the NEAT/BR9601 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa M; Provenzano, Elena; Bartlett, John M S; Abraham, Jean; Driver, Kristy; Munro, Alison F; Twelves, Christopher; Poole, Christopher J; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet A; Earl, Helena M; Caldas, Carlos; Pharoah, Paul D

    2013-09-15

    Breast cancer can be classified into molecular sub-types that have distinct survival patterns. We evaluated the prognostic significance of breast cancer sub-types in a cohort of women taking part in the NEAT and BR9601 clinical trials comparing cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) with ECMF (epirubicin and CMF). Furthermore, we evaluated whether the sub-types were predictive of the added benefit of epirubicin in these trials. Tumour tissue microarrays were stained and scored for ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6. These were used to classify the tumours into six intrinsic sub-types. We used Cox regression to compare overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in the different sub-groups. We also compared the effect of ECMF with CMF by sub-group. Immunohistochemistry data were available for 1,725 cases of whom 805 were luminal 1-basal negative. Median follow-up time was 7 years. The luminal 1-basal negative tumours were associated with the best prognosis in five years after surgery and the HER2-like tumours were associated with the poorest prognosis. There was little evidence for significant heterogeneity of this effect by tumour sub-type (OS p = 0.40, BCSS p = 0.53 RFS p = 0.50) - the largest additional benefit of epirubicin was in women with tumours of the 5-negative phenotype (OS HR = 0.39 95% CI: 0.21-0.73) and the smallest was in Luminal 1-basal negative tumours (OS HR = 0.86 95% CI: 0.64-1.16). We confirmed that breast cancer sub-types show distinct behaviour with differences in short- and long-term survival. The benefit of ECMF over CMF was statistically similar in all disease sub-types.

  11. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts.

  12. Occurrence of thymosin ß4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the cellular distribution of thymosin ß4 in breast cancer. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin ß4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. In addition, endothelial cells showed variable reactivity...... microenvironment produce thymosin ß4 and that such expression varies from tumor to tumor. Such heterogeneity of expression should be taken into account when the role of thymosin ß4 in tumor biology is assessed....

  13. Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L.-I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the cellular distribution of thymosin beta4 in breast cancer. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin beta4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. In addition, endothelial cells showed variable reactivity...... the tumor microenvironment produce thymosin beta4 and that such expression varies from tumor to tumor. Such heterogeneity of expression should be taken into account when the role of thymosin beta4 in tumor biology is assessed....

  14. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  15. [Pregnancy after breast cancer: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, A-L; Berveiller, P; Mir, O; Uzan, C; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Rouzier, R

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancers account for one third of cancer patients of childbearing age. Given the trend for women to delay childbearing, many of them will not fulfill their parental project at diagnosis of a potential breast cancer. Thus, planning pregnancies in young patients with a history of breast cancer is increasingly becoming a common situation. In this difficult context, several issues have to be discussed with the patient, such as post-chemotherapy premature ovarian failure, fertility-sparing techniques, risk of cancer recurrence or optimal time between cancer and future pregnancy. Potential obstetrical complications, long-term teratogenicity of anti-cancer drugs or breast-feeding are another points that have to be discussed with the patient and her husband. The aim of this updated review of literature was to provide answers to the numerous questions that may be encountered in this type of highly difficult situation. Thus, planning a pregnancy in breast cancer patients seems to be possible with, in one hand, a multidisciplinary approach in order to answer different questions and to avoid side effects of chemotherapy. In the other hand, a close and specialized obstetrical monitoring should be proposed in order to anticipate potential obstetrical complications.

  16. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  17. Polymorphisms in angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin I-converting enzyme genes and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Van Den Berg, David; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2005-02-01

    Angiotensin II is converted from its precursor by angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and has been shown to mediate growth in breast cancer cell lines via ligand-induced activity through the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). Earlier we showed that women with the low activity genotype of the ACE gene have a statistically significantly ( approximately 50%) reduced breast cancer risk compared with those possessing the high activity ACE genotype. To further test the hypothesis that angiotensin II participates in breast carcinogenesis through AGTR1, we examined genetic polymorphisms in the 5'-region of the AGTR1 gene (A-168G, C-535T and T-825A) in relation to risk of breast cancer in 258 breast cancer cases and 670 female controls within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Relative to the homozygotes, individual genotypes with one or two copies of the respective allelic variants (putative low risk genotypes) were each associated with an approximately 30% reduction in risk of breast cancer. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of low risk AGTR1 genotypes after adjustment for potential confounders. Relative to those carrying no low risk genotypes (homozygous for A, C and T alleles for the three polymorphisms, respectively), the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.84 (0.51-1.37) for women possessing one low risk genotype and 0.68 (0.46-1.01) for women possessing two or three low risk genotypes (P for trend = 0.05). When both AGTR1 and ACE gene polymorphisms were examined simultaneously, women possessing at least one AGTR1 low risk genotype in combination with the ACE low activity genotype had an odds ratio of 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.62) compared with those possessing the ACE high activity genotype and no AGTR1 low risk genotype. Our findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the angiotensin II effect by blockade of ACE and/or AGTR1 could be potential targets for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Analysis of the Effects of Breast Reconstruction in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy after Mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Hwan Kim; Jeong Min Kim; Sun Hyung Park; Sam Yong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy and delayed breast reconstruction with post-supplementary treatment are the two types of breast reconstruction currently performed when treating breast cancer. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) not only reduces local recurrence but also improves overall survival. However, the complications and survival rates associated with PMRT need to be clear when determining the timing of breast reconstruction. Accordingly, we investigated...

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  1. Germline mutations in NF1 and BRCA1 in a family with neurofibromatosis type 1 and early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Berta; Balmaña, Judith; Gardenyes, Josep; Valenzuela, Irene; Abad, Oscar; Fàbregas, Pere; Volpini, Víctor; Díez, Orland

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common dominant autosomal disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The main manifestations of NF1 are café-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, and malignancy, including peripheral nerve sheath tumors, central nervous system gliomas, and a variety of other tumors not so clearly defined. The association between NF1 and breast cancer or other gynecologic malignancies seems uncommon and has been scarcely referred in the literature. We describe a family with two females affected by both NF1 and early-onset breast cancer, and a male with NF1. We evaluated whether the concomitance of both disorders could be attributed to a NF1 mutation and its supposed increased risk of breast cancer or to the concurrence of two NF1 and BRCA1/2 germline mutations. Mutation analyses identified a frameshift mutation in BRCA1 and a nonsense mutation in NF1. Our findings stress the importance of considering all phenotypic features in families with both NF1 and breast tumors. To offer a specific risk assessment and management of both conditions, NF1 and BRCA1/2 cancer predisposing genes should be analyzed.

  2. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers suppress the cell proliferation effects of angiotensin II in breast cancer cells by inhibiting AT1R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ning; Feng, Jiang; Hu, Li-Juan; Sun, Xin; Sun, Hai-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Yi-Ping; Ren, Hong

    2012-06-01

    Chronic stress and a high-fat diet are well-documented risk factors associated with the renin-angiotensin system in the development of breast cancer. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a novel component of the renin-angiotensin system. Several recent studies have focused on the function of AT1R in cell proliferation during cancer development. Thus, we hypothesized that angiotensin II (Ang Ⅱ) can promote proliferation of breast cancer via activated AT1R; the activation of AT1R may play an important role in promoting breast cancer growth, and AT1R blocker (ARB) may suppress the promotional effect on proliferation by antagonizing AT1R. The expression level of AT1R was found to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells by immunohistochemistry, but no correlation between AT1R expression and ER/PR/Her-2 expression was observed. The AT1R(+)-MCF-7 cell line exhibited high expression of AT1R protein, and we generated the AT1R(-)-MCF-7 cell line using RNA interference. ARBs, and in particular irbesartan, effectively inhibited the effects of Ang II on cell proliferation, cell cycle development and downstream AT1R signaling events, including the activation of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway and the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB. Irbesartan also significantly altered p53, PCNA and cyclin D1 expression, which was also influenced by activated AT1R in AT1R(+)-MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that ARBs may be useful as a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer.

  3. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  4. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. [Breast cancer in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Sami G

    2007-10-01

    The question of the breast cancer in elderly is enlightened by two constituted epidemiological data bases in the United-States: the data basis of San Antonio and the SEER (Surveillance Epidemology and End Results) which represent a follow-up of 26% of the American population. The listed data allow an approach of the clinical and biological constituents according to the age of the disease as well as the factors of comorbidity. The informations relative to the therapeutic choices are more fragmentary and must be developed first and foremost during the programs. double dagger.

  7. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  8. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  9. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  10. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Ivermectin-induced acute cytotoxicity through accumulation of lactate , the final product of glycolysis (Figure 6F). Excessive acidification in cancer cells...2 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0366 TITLE: Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter P. Lee...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  12. Pattern of Breast Cancer in a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Jha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer death in women. Almost all women survive breast cancer if it is detected before it starts to spread. The aim of the study is to analyze the demographical profile, stage of presentation, histological type, and treatment modalities of breast cancer in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: Total 1141 cases of breast cancer had been followed retrospectively from 1999 to 2006 A.D. in a tertiary care center and their patterns were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of presentation of breast cancer was 47.30 +/- 11.57 years in female and 59.03 +/- 14.63 in male, 31 (2.1% cases of breast cancer were male. There were 123 (10.78% stage I, 281 (24.62% stage II, 466 (40.84% stage III, and 271 (23.75% stage IV patients. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest variety 610 (53.5%. Chemotherapy was the mainstay for treatment of breast cancer 341 (29.9% followed by surgery 287 (25.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer trend is rising with more in late and advanced stages, mostly due to lack of awareness. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the commonest variety. Chemotherapy is the most commonly used modality of treatment. Male breast cancer present late and is not so uncommon. Keywords: breast cancer; chemotherapy; infiltrating ductal carcinoma; staging.

  13. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Ji, B.T.; Shu, X.O.; Chow, W.H.; Xue, S.; Yang, G; Li, H.L.; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y.T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reporte

  14. Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Savas D; Tzankov, Alexandar; Muenst, Simone E

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that breast cancer consists not only of neoplastic cells, but also of significant alterations in the surrounding stroma or tumor microenvironment. These alterations are now recognized as a critical element for breast cancer development and progression, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Various components of the breast cancer microenvironment, such as suppressive immune cells, soluble factors and altered extracellular matrix, act together to impede effective antitumor immunity and promote breast cancer progression and metastasis. Stromal cells in the breast cancer microenvironment are characterized by molecular alterations and aberrant signaling pathways, some of which are prognostic of clinical outcome. Several new therapies targeting stromal components are in development or undergoing clinical trials. We focus herein on the composition of the breast cancer microenvironment and concomitant molecular alterations, the specific interplay between various cell types and cancer cells, and the clinical implications of these findings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  16. Breast Cancer Epigenetics: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without change the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal changes cooperation with histone variants with have a specific role in gene regulation have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too. More than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands Hypermethylation. The most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have different roles in cancer cells and could show the ways of new treatment for breast cancer. In this review, various aspects of breast cancer epigenetics and its applications in diagnosis, prediction and treatment are described.

  17. Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses of Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer Association Studies Identify Multiple New Susceptibility Loci Shared by at Least Two Cancer Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kar, S.P.; Beesley, J.; Olama, A. Amin Al; Michailidou, K.; Tyrer, J.; Kote-Jarai, Z.; Lawrenson, K.; Lindstrom, S.; Ramus, S.J.; Thompson, D.J.; Kibel, A.S.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A.; Michael, A.; Dieffenbach, A.K.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Whittemore, A.S.; Wolk, A.; Monteiro, A.; Peixoto, A.; Kierzek, A.; Cox, A; Rudolph, A.; Gonzalez-Neira, A.; Wu, A.H.; Lindblom, A.; Swerdlow, A.; Ziogas, A.; Ekici, A.B.; Burwinkel, B.; Karlan, B.Y.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Blomqvist, C.; Phelan, C.; McLean, C.; Pearce, C.L.; Vachon, C.; Cybulski, C.; Slavov, C.; Stegmaier, C.; Maier, C.; Ambrosone, C.B.; Hogdall, C.K.; Teerlink, C.C.; Kang, D.; Tessier, D.C.; Schaid, D.J.; Stram, D.O.; Cramer, D.W; Neal, D.E.; Eccles, D.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Edwards, D.R.; Wokozorczyk, D.; Levine, D.A.; Yannoukakos, D.; Sawyer, E.J.; Bandera, E.V.; Poole, E.M.; Goode, E.L.; Khusnutdinova, E.; Hogdall, E.; Song, F.; Bruinsma, F.; Heitz, F.; Modugno, F.; Hamdy, F.C.; Wiklund, F.; Giles, G.G.; Olsson, H.; Wildiers, H.; Ulmer, H.U.; Pandha, H.; Risch, H.A.; Darabi, H.; Salvesen, H.B.; Nevanlinna, H.; Gronberg, H.; Brenner, H.; Brauch, H.; Anton-Culver, H.; Song, H.; Lim, H.Y.; McNeish, I.; Campbell, I.; Vergote, I.; Gronwald, J.; Lubinski, J.; Stanford, J.L.; Benitez, J.; Doherty, J.A.; Permuth, J.B.; Chang-Claude, J.; Donovan, J.L.; Dennis, J.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Schleutker, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Park, J.Y.; Figueroa, J.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and

  18. Targeting Prolyl Peptidases in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0025 TITLE: Targeting Prolyl Peptidases in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carl G. Maki, PhD...SUBTITLE Targeting Prolyl Peptidases in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0025 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ABSTRACT Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive sub-type with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. The most life-threatening

  19. Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    TITLE: Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer ? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harikrishna Nakshatri, B.V.Sc., PhD Kasi R... Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0651...as in type II diabetes , to disrupt GATA- 3:FOXA1:ERα network. Insulin induced the expression of T-bet in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells

  20. Signalling networks associated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in breast cancer tissues: new insights from protein microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Claudia; Malinowsky, Katharina; Berg, Daniela; Schragner, Kerstin; Schuster, Tibor; Walch, Axel; Bronger, Holger; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the main uPA inhibitor PAI-1 play important roles in cell migration and invasion in both physiological and pathological contexts. Both factors are clinically applicable predictive markers in node-negative breast cancer patients that are used to stratify patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. In addition to their classical functions in plasmin regulation, both factors are key components in cancer-related cell signalling. Such signalling cascades are well described in cell culture systems, but a better understanding of uPA- and PAI-1-associated signalling networks in clinical tissues is needed. We examined the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and 21 signalling molecules in 201 primary breast cancer tissues using protein microarrays. Expression of uPA was significantly correlated with the expression of ERK and Stat3, while expression of PAI-1 was correlated with the uPA receptor and Akt activation, presumably via integrin and HER-receptor signalling. Analysis of uPA expression did not reveal any significant correlation with staging, grading or age of the patients. The PAI-1 expression was correlated with nodal stage. Network monitoring for uPA and PAI-1 in breast cancer reveals interactions with main signalling cascades and extends the findings from cell culture experiments. Our results reveal possible mechanisms underlying cancer development.

  1. The dog as a naturally-occurring model for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor-overexpressing breast cancer: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaillardon, Laetitia; Abadie, Jérome; Godard, Tiffanie; Campone, Mario; Loussouarn, Delphine; Siliart, Brigitte; Nguyen, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Background Dogs spontaneously develop invasive mammary carcinoma with a high prevalence of the triple-negative (TN) subtype (lack of ER-Estrogen Receptor and PR-Progesterone Receptor expression, lack of HER2-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 overexpression), making this animal model relevant for investigating new therapeutic pathways. Insulin-like growth factor Type-1 receptor (IGF1R) is frequently overexpressed in primary human breast cancers, with a growing role in the TN phenotype. ...

  2. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge .... Table 2: Likert's scale scores on breast cancer-related knowledge levels. Variable. Preclinical. Clinical ... Routine alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer. 50. 41. 9.

  3. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-11-11

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as 'exceptional responders' or as 'rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients.

  4. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  5. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    .6 (1.01–2.69) and 1.4 (1.02–1.81), respectively. For overall survival, the Chalkley count, but not PAI-1, was of significant independent prognostic value. The risk of death was 1.7 (1.30–2.15) for Chalkley counts in the upper tertile compared to the lower one. We conclude that the PAI-1 level......Tumour angiogenesis and the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are both informative prognostic markers in breast cancer. In cell cultures and in animal model systems, PAI-1 has a proangiogenic effect. To evaluate the interrelationship of angiogenesis and the PAI-1 level...... counting technique. The levels of PAI-1 and its target proteinase uPA in tumour extracts were analysed by ELISA. The Chalkley count was not correlated with the levels of uPA or PAI-1. High values of uPA, PAI-1, and Chalkley count were all significantly correlated with a shorter recurrence-free survival...

  6. F-18-FES PET Has Added Value in Staging and Therapy Decision Making in Patients With Disseminated Lobular Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Clasina; de Vries, Erik; Glaudemans, Andor; Poppema, Boelo; Hospers, Geke; Schröder, Carolina

    Lobular breast cancer is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer. Lobular breast cancer lesions are often difficult to detect with conventional imaging because they tend to grow less cohesively than ductal cancer. These images represent 3 lobular breast cancer cases, in whom

  7. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  8. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  9. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  10. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, Maria-Magdalena; Nagy, Péter; Szöllősi, János

    2015-12-17

    The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field.

  11. Metaplastic Breast Cancer in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Shafique Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare malignancy in the breast. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder associated with multiple neoplasms such as optic gliomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The association of breast cancer with neurofibromatosis is very rare. We present a case of a metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. The patient presented with a palpable mass in her left breast with suspicious findings on mammogram and ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy showed metaplastic breast carcinoma with metastasis to an axillary lymph node. This is the third case report in the English literature to show metaplastic breast carcinoma in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. In this report we review recent literature and discuss the association between these two entities.

  12. Metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Umar Shafique; Yang, Limin; Askeland, Ryan W; Fajardo, Laurie L

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare malignancy in the breast. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder associated with multiple neoplasms such as optic gliomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The association of breast cancer with neurofibromatosis is very rare. We present a case of a metaplastic breast cancer in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. The patient presented with a palpable mass in her left breast with suspicious findings on mammogram and ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy showed metaplastic breast carcinoma with metastasis to an axillary lymph node. This is the third case report in the English literature to show metaplastic breast carcinoma in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis. In this report we review recent literature and discuss the association between these two entities.

  13. Diferencias psicológicas en pacientes con cáncer de mama según el tipo de cirugía mamaria Psychological differences of breast cancer patients according to the type of breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Rincón Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las pacientes con cáncer de mama pueden experimentar importantes secuelas psicológicas producidas por la mastectomía, considerándose la reconstrucción mamaria como un procedimiento reversivo de las mismas. Para conocer si la sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas o la calidad de vida manifestada por las pacientes, difiere de unas a otras según el tipo de cirugía realizada (mastectomía unilateral o reconstrucción mamaria se estudiaron 2 grupos. Un primer grupo formado por 36 pacientes sometidas a mastectomía unilateral (simple o radical modificada y un segundo grupo constituido por 36 mujeres con reconstrucción mamaria postmastectomía (inmediata o diferida. Para la evaluación psicológica se empleó una Encuesta Psicosocial, junto a la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión en Hospital (HAD, la Escala de Afrontamiento del Cáncer (MAC y el Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida para Cáncer de la EORTC (QLQ-C30. En general, las pacientes mastectomizadas presentaron una mayor presencia de sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva que las pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria postmastectomía. Igualmente, las pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria emplearon estrategias de afrontamiento más eficaces y gozaron de una mayor calidad de vida que las mujeres mastectomizadas.Breast cancer patients could experiment an important reduction in psychological adjustment due to mastectomy. So, breast reconstruction is considered a procedure to reverse the sequels of breast mastectomy. Two groups were evaluated in order to determine if anxiety and depression symptoms, coping style and quality of life in breast cancer patients are different for each kind of patient, according to the type of surgery (mastectomy or breast reconstruction. A first group was made up of 36 patients with breast cancer who had undergone unilateral mastectomy (simple or modified radical and the second group was formed by 36 patients with breast

  14. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  15. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Hur, Min Hee; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-03-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  16. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium...... then combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption.......04-1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk...

  17. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  18. CDH1 germline mutations and hereditary lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Giovanni; Intra, Mattia; Trentin, Chiara; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-04-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated of CDH1 germline mutations (that encodes for the E-cadherin protein), and lobular breast cancer is the second most frequent type of neoplasia. Recently, novel E-cadherin constitutional alterations have been identified in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast carcinoma without evidence of diffuse gastric tumors and in absence of BRCA1/2 mutations. This first evidence opens novel questions about the inherited correlation between diffuse gastric and lobular breast cancers. In this brief review we revise the literature data about the CDH1 mutation frequency affecting exclusively lobular breast cancer, providing clinical recommendation for asymptomatic mutation carriers.

  19. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  20. BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N C; Reis-Filho, J S; Russell, A M; Springall, R J; Ryder, K; Steele, D; Savage, K; Gillett, C E; Schmitt, F C; Ashworth, A; Tutt, A N

    2007-03-29

    Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations are predominately of basal-like type, suggesting that BRCA1 dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic basal-like cancers. We analysed 37 sporadic breast cancers expressing the basal marker cytokeratin 5/6, and age- and grade-matched controls, for downregulation of BRCA1. Although BRCA1 promoter methylation was no more common in basal-like cancers (basal 14% vs controls 11%, P=0.72), BRCA1 messenger RNA expression was twofold lower in basal-like breast cancers compared to matched controls (P=0.008). ID4, a negative regulator of BRCA1, was expressed at 9.1-fold higher levels in basal-like breast cancer (Prevealing heterogeneity in the basal-like phenotype. Finally, we found that 63% of metaplastic breast cancers, a rare type of basal-like cancers, had BRCA1 methylation, in comparison to 12% of controls (P<0.0001). The high prevalence of BRCA1 dysfunction identified in this study could be exploited in the development of novel approaches to targeted treatment of basal-like breast cancer.

  1. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  2. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Specialised Surgery, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa ... Centralised multidisciplinary management of breast cancer occurs in .... published an updated position statement on quality indicators in the.

  3. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S

    1982-08-01

    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  4. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  5. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E

    2015-01-01

    .... The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  6. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  7. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  8. Metals and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  9. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  10. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy.

  11. Breast cancer: origins and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-11-01

    Breast cancer is not a single disease, but rather is composed of distinct subtypes associated with different clinical outcomes. Understanding this heterogeneity is key for the development of targeted cancer-preventative and -therapeutic interventions. Current models explaining inter- and intratumoral diversity are the cancer stem cell and the clonal evolution hypotheses. Although tumor initiation and progression are predominantly driven by acquired genetic alterations, recent data implicate a role for microenvironmental and epigenetic changes as well. Comprehensive unbiased studies of tumors and patient populations have significantly advanced our molecular understanding of breast cancer, but translating these findings into clinical practice remains a challenge.

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...

  13. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  14. Time-Varying Risk for Breast Cancer Following Initiation of Glucose-Lowering Therapy in Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Exploring Detection Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Samantha L; Lin, Mu; Eurich, Dean T; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    To explore detection bias in the association between glucose-lowering therapies and breast cancer in a cohort of women with type 2 diabetes. This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study. We identified new users of metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin during the index period of January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010. The main outcome was incident breast cancer, and patients were followed up from drug exposure index date until death, diagnosis of another type of cancer, termination of medical insurance or December 31, 2010. To explore detection bias, we split follow-up time into 2 discrete time periods of 0 to 3 months and 3 months to 6 years after drug index date. We performed time-varying Cox regression analyses, including duration of cumulative drug exposure and ever/never drug exposure for each glucose-lowering therapy into our model. The reference was no use of the same drug-exposure category. There were 22,169 women with type 2 diabetes, with a mean (SD) age of 53.0 (9.2) years and mean (SD) follow up of 2.2 (1.5) years. Hazard ratios for breast cancer in the first 3 months following initiation of metformin, sulfonylurea or thiazolidinedione were 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.74 (0.44 to 1.25) and 0.67 (0.38 to 1.18), respectively. In the later period of 3 months to 6 years following drug start, hazard ratios (95% CI) for breast cancer were 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03) and 0.98 (0.95 to 1.01) for metformin, sulfonylurea and thiazolidinedione cumulative exposure, respectively. Our findings suggest that no detection bias exists for glucose-lowering therapies and breast cancer in this population. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  16. Hamartoma Breast, Chondromatous Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an exceedingly rare case of hamartoma of breast with predominantly chondroid stroma. A 45 year old lady presented with a mobile lump in the upper outer quadrant of left breast, clinically diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Mammography and FNAC were not done. She underwent lumpectomy and we received the specimen measuring 7x5x3cm. Cut surface of which revealed grey white nodule with glistening surface. Histopathologically we found a circumscribed lesion with predominantly mature hyaline cartilage separated by fibrocollagenous bands.

  17. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  18. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  19. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. Methods We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. Results HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031. HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670. DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001. Conclusion Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the

  20. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  1. Center of Excellence for Individualization of Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    genes, apoptosis-related genes, DNA repair genes, etc.) (Brabletz et al., 2005; Collado et al., 2005; Dikmen et al., 2005) Validation of the DASL...5-FU resistance in metastatic breast cancer. San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium . 2006. Ref Type: Abstract Collado ,M., Gil,J., Efeyan,A., Guerra

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  3. Down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changcheng; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Yang, Cuixia; Du, Yan; Zhou, Muqing; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guoliang; Wu, Man; Gao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CEA family, which has been found to exist as either soluble forms in body fluids or membrane-bound forms on the cell surface. Aberrant CEACAM1 expression is associated with tumor progression and has been found in a variety of human malignancies. Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression of CEACAM1 in breast cancer, but most of these findings are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate CEACAM1 expression in breast cancer in greater detail. Using immunohistochemical staining, we found that CEACAM1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer tissues compared with noncancerous breast tissues. In addition, soluble CEACAM1 levels in the culture medium of breast cancer cell lines were significantly lower than those in a nontumorigenic breast epithelial cell line. Immunofluorescence analysis consistently showed that breast cancer cell lines have relatively low expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1. Furthermore, CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines as measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate a systematic down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer and suggest that a strategy to restore CEACAM1 expression may be helpful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  4. Adaptive immunity programmes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Frederick S; Mullins, David W; Arias-Pulido, Hugo; Fiering, Steven; Cheng, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The role of the immune system in shaping cancer development and patient prognosis has recently become an area of intense focus in industry and academia. Harnessing the adaptive arm of the immune system for tumour eradication has shown great promise in a variety of tumour types. Differences between tissues, however, necessitate a greater understanding of the adaptive immunity programmes that are active within each tumour type. In breast cancer, adaptive immune programmes play diverse roles depending on the cellular infiltration found in each tumour. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T helper type 1 cells can induce tumour eradication, whereas regulatory T cells and T helper type 2 cells are known to be involved in tumour-promoting immunosuppressive responses. Complicating these matters, heterogeneous expression of hormone receptors and growth factors in different tumours leads to disparate, patient-specific adaptive immune responses. Despite this non-conformity in adaptive immune behaviours, encouraging basic and clinical results have been observed that suggest a role for immunotherapeutic approaches in breast cancer. Here, we review the literature pertaining to the adaptive immune response in breast cancer, summarize the primary findings relating to the breast tumour's biology, and discuss potential clinical immunotherapies.

  5. Is there different correlation with prognostic factors between “non-mass” and “mass” type invasive ductal breast cancers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lei, E-mail: jiang_belinder@sina.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhou_belly@sina.com [Radiology Department, Chaoyang Hospital, Capital University, Baijiazhuang Road 8#, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang, Zheng, E-mail: wangzhengmay@163.com [Pathology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Lu, Xu, E-mail: luxu01@sina.cn [Surgery Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: chenmin62@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhou, Cheng, E-mail: Chengzhou2000@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Beijing Hospital, Peking University, The Ministry of Health, Dahua Road 1#, East District, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the association between non-mass type breast cancer and common clinical–pathological prognostic factors, compared with mass type breast cancer. Materials and methods: After institutional review board approval, retrospective blind review of contrast-enhanced breast MRI was carried out for 88 histologically proven breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients, presenting from January 2008 to December 2011. Two radiologists assessed the images of each lesion for the morphologic enhancement type [mass enhancement or non-mass-like enhancement (NMLE)] and the distribution/internal enhancement of NMLE. Two pathologists evaluated the histological grade of IDC, presence or absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lymph node status, presence or absence of vascular invasion, and expression status of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER-2/p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53)/Ki-67. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with kappa test. Chi-square test and Spearman rank correlation were performed to explore the associations of morphologic enhancement type with the age, lesion size and the above pathological prognostic factors Results: Inter-observer agreement was excellent, with kappa > 0.75. Morphologic enhancement type was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.02), with NMLE more commonly seen in women less than 50 y/o. The size of NMLE was larger than that of mass and, with the increase of lesion size, proportion of NMLE among the cases increased (P = 0.001). NMLE was also significantly correlated with low histologic grade of IDC (P = 0.003) and presence of DCIS (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between morphologic enhancement type and lymph node status, vascular invasion, ER/PR/HER-2/p53/Ki-67 status. The histological grade was higher in clumped enhancement than non-clumped (P = 0.011). There was no correlation between enhancement distribution and prognostic factors Conclusions: Non-mass type breast cancer may

  6. The Risk and Clinical/Molecular Characteristics of Breast Cancer in Women with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Scoliosis All Cancer No 202 63.01 66 63.81 1 202 73.9 66 74.44 1 Yes 72 22.26 22 21.9 72 26.1 22 25.56 0 Missing 47 14.73 15 14.29...patients who underwent radiation therapy for OPG. The history of OPG treatment was not collected in this study. Therefore, the role of treatment ...optic glioma (OPG) than those without tumor, 23.3% v.s. 11.23%; p=0.012. Optic glioma mostly occurs in the early childhood. Treatment for OPG, such as

  7. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  8. Proliferative responses to altered 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2 expression in human breast cancer cells are dependent on endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and the oestradiol receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A; Gunnarsson, C; Stål, O

    2006-09-01

    The primary source of oestrogen in premenopausal women is the ovary but, after menopause, oestrogen biosynthesis in peripheral tissue is the exclusive site of formation. An enzyme group that affects the availability of active oestrogens is the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) family. In breast cancer, 17HSD type 1 and type 2 have been mostly investigated and seem to be the principal 17HSD enzymes involved thus far. The question whether 17HSD type 1 or type 2 is of greatest importance in breast tumour development is still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate how the loss of 17HSD type 2 expression, using siRNA in the non-tumour breast epithelial cells HMEC (human mammal epithelial cells) and MCF10A, and gain of 17HSD type 2 expression, using transient transfection in the breast cancer derived cell lines MCF7 and T47D, affect oestradiol conversion and proliferation rate measured as S-phase fraction. We further investigated how this was related to the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and oestradiol receptors in the examined cell lines. The oestradiol level in the medium changed significantly in the MCF7 transfected cells and the siRNA-treated HMEC cells, but not in T47D or MCF10A. The S-phase fraction decreased in the 17HSD type 2-transfected MCF7 cells and the siRNA-treated HMEC cells. The results seemed to be dependent on the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and the oestradiol receptors. In conclusion, we found that high or low levels of 17HSD type 2 affected the oestradiol concentration significantly. However, the response was dependent on the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1. Expression of 17HSD type 1 seems to be dominant to 17HSD type 2. Therefore, it may be important to investigate a ratio between 17HSD type 1 and 17HSD type 2.

  9. Influence of different types of breast X-ray on diagnosis of breast cancer%乳腺 X线不同分型对乳腺癌诊断的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于书奎; 孙男男

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析乳腺X线不同分型对乳腺癌诊断的影像,提高诊断准确性。方法收集本院2010年6月~2013年6月乳腺癌患者共计160例,行模拟乳腺X线摄影系统+CR图像处理,并经手术病理证实为乳腺癌,对不同X线分型与漏诊的情况进行分析。结果乳腺不同X线分型对乳腺癌诊断有影响,检查160例中漏诊9例,3例为致密型,6例为腺纤维型。结论在X线诊断过程中,仔细阅片,注意方法,加强责任心,规范操作,可减少钼靶X线检查的漏诊。%Objective To analyze effect of different types of breast X-ray for breast cancer diagnosis to improve the diagnostic accuracy .Methods Collected 160 cases of breast cancer patients from June 2010 to June 2013 in our hospital to perform line simulation breast X-ray photography system +CR image processing , and diagnosis of breast cancer confirmed by surgery pathology , the situation of different classification and diag-nosis by X-ray analysis .Results different breast X-ray classification had influence on the breast cancer diag-nosis, out of 160 cases, 9 cases of misdiagnosis , 3 cases of dense type , 6 cases of gland fiber type .Conclusion In the process of X-ray diagnosis , reading carefully and paying attention to methods , strengthening the sense of responsibility , standardizing operation can reduce the molybdenum target X-ray in diagnosis .

  10. Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment : Pooled results from three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Michael E.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoogendoorn, Wilhelmina E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Hollema, Harry; van Boven, Hester; Press, Michael F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subs

  11. Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment : Pooled results from three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Michael E.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoogendoorn, Wilhelmina E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Hollema, Harry; van Boven, Hester; Press, Michael F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subs

  12. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  13. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  14. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  15. Differential roles of Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin Receptor type 1 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Zuloet Ladd, A.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Siemes, C.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    While angiotensinogen (AGT) seems to have anti proliferative properties, angiotensin II (ATII) is a potent growth factor and it mediates its actions through the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1). In the AGT gene, the M235T polymorphism has been associated with the variation in angiotensinogen leve

  16. Differential roles of Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin Receptor type 1 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Zuloet Ladd, A.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Siemes, C.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    While angiotensinogen (AGT) seems to have anti proliferative properties, angiotensin II (ATII) is a potent growth factor and it mediates its actions through the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1). In the AGT gene, the M235T polymorphism has been associated with the variation in angiotensinogen leve

  17. Differential roles of Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin Receptor type 1 polymorphisms in breast cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Zuloet Ladd, A.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Siemes, C.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    While angiotensinogen (AGT) seems to have anti proliferative properties, angiotensin II (ATII) is a potent growth factor and it mediates its actions through the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGTR1). In the AGT gene, the M235T polymorphism has been associated with the variation in angiotensinogen

  18. Modeling precision treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, Anneleen; Griffith, Obi L; Heiser, Laura M; Wang, Nicholas J; Enache, Oana M; Sanborn, Zachary; Pepin, Francois; Durinck, Steffen; Korkola, James E; Griffith, Malachi; Hur, Joe S; Huh, Nam; Chung, Jongsuk; Cope, Leslie; Fackler, Mary Jo; Umbricht, Christopher; Sukumar, Saraswati; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Jakkula, Lakshmi R; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Cho, Raymond J; Collisson, Eric A; van't Veer, Laura J; Spellman, Paul T; Gray, Joe W

    2013-01-01

    First-generation molecular profiles for human breast cancers have enabled the identification of features that can predict therapeutic response; however, little is known about how the various data types can best be combined to yield optimal predictors. Collections of breast cancer cell lines mirror many aspects of breast cancer molecular pathobiology, and measurements of their omic and biological therapeutic responses are well-suited for development of strategies to identify the most predictive molecular feature sets. We used least squares-support vector machines and random forest algorithms to identify molecular features associated with responses of a collection of 70 breast cancer cell lines to 90 experimental or approved therapeutic agents. The datasets analyzed included measurements of copy number aberrations, mutations, gene and isoform expression, promoter methylation and protein expression. Transcriptional subtype contributed strongly to response predictors for 25% of compounds, and adding other molecular data types improved prediction for 65%. No single molecular dataset consistently out-performed the others, suggesting that therapeutic response is mediated at multiple levels in the genome. Response predictors were developed and applied to TCGA data, and were found to be present in subsets of those patient samples. These results suggest that matching patients to treatments based on transcriptional subtype will improve response rates, and inclusion of additional features from other profiling data types may provide additional benefit. Further, we suggest a systems biology strategy for guiding clinical trials so that patient cohorts most likely to respond to new therapies may be more efficiently identified.

  19. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of testosterone and other androgens (male hormones). Most male breast cancers have androgen receptors that may cause the cells ... into estrogens in the body. Orchiectomy shrinks most male breast cancers, and may help make other treatments like tamoxifen ...

  2. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ...

  4. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  6. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  7. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  8. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2016-12-02

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR's therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  9. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  10. Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxin; Brown, Powel H.

    2009-01-01

    The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast cancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-recep...

  11. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer ...

  13. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  14. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  15. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  16. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  17. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  18. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    2016. Active Targeting of Cancer Cells, Masaryk University, CZECH REPUBLIC, May 2016. Websites or other Internet sites none Technologies or... trafficking , thus impacting the efficacy of receptor-mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand...The V, Labrie C, Belanger A, Simard J, Lin SX, Pelletier G. Endocrine and intracrine sources of androgens in women : Inhibition of breast cancer and

  19. Male breast cancer: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodabe Shahidsales

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have devoted relatively scant attention to male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer. Nevertheless, the incidence of male breast cancer has increased considerably in parallel manner with women. There is not comprehensive knowledge regarding the etiology of breast cancer in men. The environmental agents and genetic factors are proposed as the influential parameters in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of breast cancer in men and a palpable mass is the most common presentation. Breast masses might be identified at advanced stages of the disease, if undiagnosed, due to the lower prevalence and lack of awareness in men compared to women. There is not any large sample size trial or retrospective study regarding any specific treatment strategy; the routine treatments are based on existing data. In this review, we studied the risk factors, biological characteristics, and therapeutic strategies of breast cancer in men.

  20. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  1. Epigenetic Testing for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    breast cancer risk. Cancer epidemiology , biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the...markers optimized for fine-needle aspiration samples. Cancer epidemiology , biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for

  2. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  3. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  4. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  6. Downregulation of wild-type p53 protein by HER-2/neu mediated PI3K pathway activation in human breast cancer cells:its effect on cell proliferation and implication for therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHENG; Jia Qiang REN; Hua LI; Zhao Lu KONG; Hong Guang ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Overexpression and activation of HER-2/neu (also known as c-erbB-2), a proto-oncogene, was found in about 30%of human breast cancers, promoting cancer growth and making cancer cells resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy.Wild-type p53 is crucial in regulating cell growth and apoptosis and is found to be mutated or deleted in 60-70% of human cancers. And some cancers with a wild-type p53 do not have normal p53 function, suggesting that it is implicated in a complex process regulated by many factors. In the present study, we showed that the overexpression of HER-2/neu could decrease the amount of wild-type p53 protein via activating PI3K pathway, as well as inducing MDM2 nuclear translocation in MCF7 human breast cancer ceils. Blockage of PI3K pathway with its specific inhibitor LY294002 caused G1-S phase arrest, decreased cell growth rate and increased chemo- and radio-therapeutic sensitivity in MCF7 cells expressing wild-type p53. However, it did not increase the sensitivity to adriamycin in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells containing mutant p53. Our study indicates that blocking PI3K pathway activation mediated by HER-2/neu overexpression may be useful in the treatment of breast tumors with HER-2/neu overexpression and wild-type p53.

  7. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  8. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  10. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  11. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  12. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  13. The therapy of gefitinib towards breast cancer partially through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapy of gefitinib towards breast cancer partially through reversing breast cancer biomarker arginine. ... Background: Breast cancer remains the leading reason of cancer death among women worldwide, and gefitinib is ... Article Metrics.

  14. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Expression of Axl and its prognostic significance in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Gaoyuan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Like; CHEN Yanbin; Yuan, Pengfei; Liu, Dechun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death among women, and its prevalence continues to increase. Axl overexpression has been identified in the many types of human cancer, and it has been demonstrated to participate in signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis and cancer development. In the present study, Axl expression was examined by performing immunohistochemical staining in 60 breast cancer tumors and 40 benign breast lesions (25 ...

  16. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  17. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  18. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  19. GLUL Promotes Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Shaohua; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Dongmei; Wu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-10-28

    Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in an ATP-dependent reaction. Here, we found higher expression of GLUL in the breast cancer patients was associated with larger tumor size and higher level of HER2 expression. In addition, GLUL was heterogeneously expressed in various breast cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GLUL in SK-BR-3 cells were obviously higher than that in the other types of breast cancer cells. Results showed GLUL knockdown in SK-BR-3 cells could significantly decrease the proliferation ability. Furthermore, GLUL knockdown markedly inhibited the p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways in SK-BR-3 cells. Thus, GLUL may represent a novel target for selectively inhibiting p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways and the proliferation potential of breast cancer cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, Maria P., E-mail: patderrico@libero.it [Department of Laboratory Medicine, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Grimaldi, Luca [Department of Medical Physics, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Petruzzelli, Maria F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Gianicolo, Emilio A.L. [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Monetti, Antonio; Placella, Roberto [Department of Laboratory Medicine, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7-333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0-172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 3Gy}(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D{sub 15cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D{sub 15cm}{sup 3}/D{sub 50%} (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 2Gy} (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D{sub 0.5cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub 50%}(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non-RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  2. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  3. Dietary fiber and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A

    1999-01-01

    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  4. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors.

  5. Motivational Interviewing to Increase Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Reinforce appropriate goals IF clients are having trouble coming up with goals, ASK: © Some women with breast cancer have benefited from these types of...clients are having trouble coming up with goals, ASK: © Some women with breast cancer have benefited from these types of activities. Present menu of...minutes (MINIMAL EFFORT, NO PERSPIRATION) Examples: easy walking, yoga , bowling, shuffleboard, horseshoes, golf, fishing from riverbank Fruits and

  6. Alcohol and breast cancer: reconciling epidemiological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible causative role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for breast cancer. However, such conclusions should be interpreted with considerable caution for several reasons. While epidemiological studies can help identify the roots of health problems and disease incidence in a community, they are by necessity associative and cannot determine cause and effect relationships. In addition, all these studies rely on self-reporting to determine the amount and type of alcoholic beverage consumed, which introduces recall bias. This is documented in a recent study which stated that the apparent increased risk of cancer among light-moderate drinkers may be "substantially due to underreporting of intake." Another meta-analysis about alcohol and breast cancer declared "the modest size of the association and variation in results across studies leave the causal role of alcohol in question." Furthermore, breast cancer develops over decades; thus, correlations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer cannot be determined in epidemiological studies with windows of alcohol exposure that captures current or recent alcohol intake, after clinical diagnosis. Numerous risk factors are involved in breast carcinogenesis; some are genetic and beyond the control of a woman; others are influenced by lifestyle factors. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and polygenic disease which is further influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that affect the transciptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and ultimately breast cancer evolution. Environmental factors add another layer of complexity by their interactions with the susceptibility genes for breast cancer and metabolic diseases. The current state-of-knowledge about alcohol and breast cancer association is ambiguous and confusing to both a woman and her physician. Confronting the huge global breast cancer issue should be addressed by sound

  7. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  8. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40–49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient's opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  9. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidreza; Alizadeh; Otaghvar; Mostafa; Hosseini; Adnan; Tizmaghz; Ghazaal; Shabestanipour; Hamid; Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6 160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1 063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case-control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40-49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient’s opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  10. The oncogenic potential of human cytomegalovirus and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eHerbein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. Numerous articles indicate that breast tumors exhibit diverse phenotypes depending on their distinct physiopathological signatures, clinical courses and therapeutic possibilities. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a multifaceted highly host specific betaherpesvirus that is regarded as asymptomatic or mildly pathogenic virus in immunocompetent host. HCMV may cause serious in utero infections as well as acute and chronic complications in immunocompromised individual. The involvement of HCMV in late inflammatory complications underscores its possible role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. HCMV targets a variety of cell types in vivo, including macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, neuronal cells, smooth muscle cells, and hepatocytes. HCMV can be detected in the milk after delivery and thereby HCMV could spread to adjacent mammary epithelial cells. HCMV also infects macrophages and induces an atypical M1/M2 phenotype, close to the tumor associated macrophage phenotype, which is associated with the release of cytokines involved in cancer initiation or promotion and breast cancer of poor prognosis. HCMV antigens and DNA have been detected in tissue biopsies of breast cancers and elevation in serum HCMV IgG antibody levels has been reported to precede the development of breast cancer in some women. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of HCMV in the initiation and progression of breast cancer.

  11. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  12. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  13. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  14. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  15. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  16. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  17. Cancer of the breast. Radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Deutsch, M

    1979-01-01

    There are many questions that have to be answered concerning the role of radiotherapy in the management of primary breast cancer. Hopefully, prospective clinical trials will provide some answers, but more basic research into the biology of breast cancer and the host-tumor relationship will be needed. There are indications that radiotherapy alone, or following minimal extirpative surgery in selected cases, may be as effective for control of breast cancer as conventional mastectomies. The role of radiotherapy following segmental mastectomy, with or without axillary dissection, needs to be clarified. The possibility exists that high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation such as neutron or pi meson beams may provide better local control than conventional radiation. Thus, it may be possible to treat effectively all primary breast cancers with such radiations and obviate the need for any type of mastectomy. It remains to be demonstrated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is as effective as radiotherapy in preventing chest wall and regional node recurrences. If it is not, there may be a place for both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Likewise, effective chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy may increase the local and regional control achieved with radiotherapy alone and make more primary lesions suitable for treatment without mastectomy. Meyer (1970) recently called attention to the leukopenia and cellualr immune deficiency produced by irradiation to the thorax and mediastinum. Further study is necessary to define exactly how much immunosuppression results from radiotherapy, its clinical significance and what can be done to avoid or counter it. If Stjervsward's thesis (1974) concerning the deleterious effects of radiotherapy on survival is correct, then it is of great importance to identify those patients most likely to be adversely affected by radiotherapy. Conversely, it may be possible in the future to identify a

  18. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  19. Hormone therapy with tamoxifen reduces plasma levels of NT-B-type natriuretic peptide but does not change ventricular ejection fraction after chemotherapy in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on the plasma concentration of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and to correlate changes in NT-proBNP with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Over a period of 12 months, we followed 60 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The patients were separated into a group that received only chemotherapy (n=23, a group that received chemotherapy + tamoxifen (n=21, and a group that received only tamoxifen (n=16. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were assessed at 0 (T0, 6 (T6, and 12 (T12 months of treatment, and echocardiography data were assessed at T0 and T12. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were increased in the chemotherapy-only group at T6 and T12, whereas elevated NT-proBNP levels were only found at T6 in the chemotherapy + tamoxifen group. At T12, the chemotherapy + tamoxifen group exhibited a significant reduction in the peptide to levels similar to the group that received tamoxifen alone. The chemotherapy-only group exhibited a significant decrease in LVEF at T12, whereas the chemotherapy + tamoxifen and tamoxifen-only groups maintained levels similar to those at the beginning of treatment. Treatment with tamoxifen for 6 months after chemotherapy significantly reduced the plasma levels of NT-proBNP and did not change LVEF in women with breast cancer.

  20. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  1. The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plodinec, Marija; Loparic, Marko; Monnier, Christophe A.; Obermann, Ellen C.; Zanetti-Dallenbach, Rosanna; Oertle, Philipp; Hyotyla, Janne T.; Aebi, Ueli; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Lim, Roderick Y. H.; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann

    2012-12-01

    Cancer initiation and progression follow complex molecular and structural changes in the extracellular matrix and cellular architecture of living tissue. However, it remains poorly understood how the transformation from health to malignancy alters the mechanical properties of cells within the tumour microenvironment. Here, we show using an indentation-type atomic force microscope (IT-AFM) that unadulterated human breast biopsies display distinct stiffness profiles. Correlative stiffness maps obtained on normal and benign tissues show uniform stiffness profiles that are characterized by a single distinct peak. In contrast, malignant tissues have a broad distribution resulting from tissue heterogeneity, with a prominent low-stiffness peak representative of cancer cells. Similar findings are seen in specific stages of breast cancer in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice. Further evidence obtained from the lungs of mice with late-stage tumours shows that migration and metastatic spreading is correlated to the low stiffness of hypoxia-associated cancer cells. Overall, nanomechanical profiling by IT-AFM provides quantitative indicators in the clinical diagnostics of breast cancer with translational significance.

  2. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Histological type and grade of breast cancer tumors by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a register-based study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuch Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have indicated that reproductive factors affect the risk of histological types of breast cancer differently. The long-term protective effect of a childbirth is preceded by a short-term adverse effect. Few studies have examined whether tumors diagnosed shortly after birth have specific histological characteristics. Methods In the present register-based study, comprising information for 22,867 Norwegian breast cancer cases (20-74 years, we examined whether histological type (9 categories and grade of tumor (2 combined categories differed by parity or age at first birth. Associations with time since birth were evaluated among 9709 women diagnosed before age 50 years. Chi-square tests were applied for comparing proportions, whereas odds ratios (each histological type vs. ductal, or grade 3-4 vs. grade 1-2 were estimated in polytomous and binary logistic regression analyses. Results Ductal tumors, the most common histological type, accounted for 81.4% of all cases, followed by lobular tumors (6.3% and unspecified carcinomas (5.5%. Other subtypes accounted for 0.4%-1.5% of the cases each. For all histological types, the proportions differed significantly by age at diagnoses. The proportion of mucinous and tubular tumors decreased with increasing parity, whereas Paget disease and medullary tumors were most common in women of high parity. An increasing trend with increasing age at first birth was most pronounced for lobular tumors and unspecified carcinomas; an association in the opposite direction was seen in relation to medullary and tubular tumors. In age-adjusted analyses, only the proportions of unspecified carcinomas and lobular tumors decreased significantly with increasing time since first and last birth. However, ductal tumors, and malignant sarcomas, mainly phyllodes tumors, seemed to occur at higher frequency in women diagnosed Conclusion Our results support previous observations that reproductive factors

  4. Immunophenotyping of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; Hogenes, Marieke C; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Hinrichs, Bernd; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, and knowledge of carcinogenesis is limited. Conflicting results, based on small series, have been reported for clinically relevant biomarkers. One hundred and thirty-four cases of male breast cancer were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), BRST2, cyclin D1, bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, Ki67, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. High mitotic count and high grade were correlated with high Ki67, HER2 amplification/overexpression, p53 accumulation, high p21 expression, low PR expression, and low bcl-2 expression. PR negativity (P=0.009) and p53 accumulation (P=0.042) were correlated with decreased 5-year survival and were independent markers for patient outcome in Cox regression. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, four groups were identified that were correlated with distinctive clinicopathological features. The hormone negative/ER-positive/high-grade cluster was significantly associated with decreased survival (P=0.011) and was an independent prognostic factor in Cox regression. Several tissue biomarkers are associated with an aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer. PR and p53 are the most promising individual prognostic markers. On the basis of immunophenotype, four distinctive and prognostically relevant male breast cancer groups were identified, indicating that protein expression profiling may be clinically useful in male breast cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  5. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The psychological impact of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopie, Jessica Premdee

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With

  7. The psychological impact of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopie, Jessica Premdee

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With semi-str

  8. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  9. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  10. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM.......This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM....

  11. An osteogenesis imperfecta case with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Fumi; Shimizu, Hideo; Kosaka, Taijiro; Saito, Mitsue; Kasumi, Fujio

    2014-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen and an increased risk of bone fractures. Several OI cases with malignancies have been reported. Herein, we describe an OI case with breast cancer. A 36-year-old premenopausal woman with OI was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a right breast lump. We diagnosed right breast cancer with axillary and parasternal lymph node metastasis (T2N3M0 stage IIIC). The tumor had increased in size and tumor markers were elevated after 10 months of hormone therapy. We performed a right mastectomy and axillary dissection. She subsequently received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She is currently taking trastuzumab and tamoxifen. Anesthesia is challenging in OI patients because of difficulty with airway control and intubation. We performed the mastectomy in this case without difficulty by working in cooperation with experienced anesthesiologists, orthopedists, and other medical personnel. Some OI patients reportedly have severe 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) toxicity related to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. DPD is the main enzyme involved in the catabolism of 5-FU. Our present case also had low DPD activity and we thus chose epirubicin and cyclophosphamide for chemotherapy. Our search of the literature yielded only two OI cases with breast cancer as of April 2011. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Japan.

  12. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  13. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...

  14. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  15. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  17. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  18. Prognosis value of molecular sub-types in breast cancers free of ganglionary invasion after mastectomy and impact of radiotherapy; Valeur pronostique des sous-types moleculaires dans les cancers du sein indemnes d'envahissement ganglionnaire apres mastectomie et impact de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, J.; Stevens, D.; Jouanneau, L.; Labib, A.; Le Scodan, R. [Hopital Rene-Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the prognosis value in terms of local control of molecular subtypes in patients suffering from breast cancer without ganglionary invasion, and of their predictive value for adjuvant irradiation. Medical files of nearly 700 patients have been analyzed. Some had an irradiation after mastectomy, some hadn't. The distribution of molecular sub-types is indicated, and the relationship with relapse is examined. The different molecular sub-types do not allow sub-groups with high risk of relapse to be defined. Breast cancers of stage pN0 after mastectomy seem to have a very good prognosis. Short communication

  19. Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Kristin; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-12-01

    Between the years 2010 and 2012, the lifetime probability of developing female breast cancer was 12.3%, or approximately 1 in 8. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Survival is increasing. Between 2005 and 2011, the 5-year relative survival was found to be 89%. This is thought to be due to both the increase in utilization of population-wide screening, as well as advances in treatment. Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation. Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable.

  20. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  1. FH535 inhibited migration and growth of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Joji; Dorchak, Jesse; Lehman, John R; Clancy, Rebecca; Luo, Chunqing; Chen, Yaqin; Somiari, Stella; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Hu, Hai; Mural, Richard J; Shriver, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence indicating that the WNT signaling pathway is activated in various cancer cell types including breast cancer. Previous studies reported that FH535, a small molecule inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway, decreased growth of cancer cells but not normal fibroblasts, suggesting this pathway plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we tested FH535 as a potential inhibitor for malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells including migration, invasion, and growth. FH535 significantly inhibited growth, migration, and invasion of triple negative (TN) breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and HCC38) in vitro. We demonstrate that FH535 was a potent growth inhibitor for TN breast cancer cell lines (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231) but not for other, non-TN breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D or SK-Br3) when cultured in three dimensional (3D) type I collagen gels. Western blotting analyses suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with FH535 markedly inhibited the expression of NEDD9 but not activations of FAK, Src, or downstream targets such as p38 and Erk1/2. We demonstrated that NEDD9 was specifically associated with CSPG4 but not with β1 integrin or CD44 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Analyses of gene expression profiles in breast cancer tissues suggest that CSPG4 expression is higher in Basal-type breast cancers, many of which are TN, than any other subtypes. These results suggest not only a mechanism for migration and invasion involving the canonical WNT-signaling pathways but also novel strategies for treating patients who develop TN breast cancer.

  2. FH535 inhibited migration and growth of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Iida

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence indicating that the WNT signaling pathway is activated in various cancer cell types including breast cancer. Previous studies reported that FH535, a small molecule inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway, decreased growth of cancer cells but not normal fibroblasts, suggesting this pathway plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we tested FH535 as a potential inhibitor for malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells including migration, invasion, and growth. FH535 significantly inhibited growth, migration, and invasion of triple negative (TN breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and HCC38 in vitro. We demonstrate that FH535 was a potent growth inhibitor for TN breast cancer cell lines (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231 but not for other, non-TN breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D or SK-Br3 when cultured in three dimensional (3D type I collagen gels. Western blotting analyses suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with FH535 markedly inhibited the expression of NEDD9 but not activations of FAK, Src, or downstream targets such as p38 and Erk1/2. We demonstrated that NEDD9 was specifically associated with CSPG4 but not with β1 integrin or CD44 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Analyses of gene expression profiles in breast cancer tissues suggest that CSPG4 expression is higher in Basal-type breast cancers, many of which are TN, than any other subtypes. These results suggest not only a mechanism for migration and invasion involving the canonical WNT-signaling pathways but also novel strategies for treating patients who develop TN breast cancer.

  3. Posterior breast cancer: Mammographic and ultrasonographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. Methods. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. Results. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BIRADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%, architectural distortion (16.7%, clustered microcalcifications (12.6% and focal asymmetric density (12.6%. The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009, without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083 or histopathological type (p = 0.055. Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006. All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%, lobulated mass (7.2%, abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%, posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%. Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0

  4. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  5. Clinicopathological significance of PTPN12 expression in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xunyi [Breast Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Centre, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong Province (China); Yuan, Zhentao [Department of Anesthesiology, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying Shandong Province (China); Jiang, Dandan; Li, Funian [Breast Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Centre, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong Province (China)

    2012-10-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breast cancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breast cancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breast cancer cases and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyze the promoter CpG island methylation status of PTPN12. PTPN12 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cases (48/150) compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (17/150; P < 0.05). Furthermore, low expression of PTPN12 showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.009), histological grade (P = 0.012), and survival time (P = 0.019). Additionally, promoter CpG island hypermethylation occurs more frequently in breast cancer cases and breast cancer cell lines with low PTPN12 expression. Our findings suggest that PTPN12 is potentially a methylation-silenced TSG for breast cancer that may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis and could potentially serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast cancer patients.

  6. Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Antiestrogen Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    like stem cells and that are resistant to chemotherapy drugs , radiation therapy and antiestrogens provided a reasonable explanation for the...breast cancer patients in the past four decades. However, despite the significant antineoplastic activity ofTAM,most breast tumors are eventually...oestrogen to reverse antihormonal drug resistance in oestrogen re- cepotr positive breast cancer patients. The Breast. Supplement. 2007;2:S105–S113

  7. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  8. Paget Disease of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention Breast Cancer Screening Health Professional Breast Cancer Treatment Male ... Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention ...

  9. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  10. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  11. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  12. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals.

  13. Breast cancer following ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Alexandra; Cass, Ilana; Paik, Daniel; Barmparas, Galinos; Karlan, Beth; Dang, Catherine; Li, Andrew; Walsh, Christine; Rimel, Bobbie J; Amersi, Farin F

    2014-12-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one of the tubal/peritoneal cancers collectively referred to as pelvic serous carcinomas, is not well known. Optimal breast cancer surveillance and detection for these patients have also not been well characterized. To determine the incidence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of EOC and to evaluate the need for breast cancer surveillance for these patients. A retrospective database review of 364 patients who underwent BRCA mutation testing for EOC (stages I-IV) between 1998 and 2012 at an academic medical center with gynecologic and breast cancer centers. Incidence of breast cancer and methods of surveillance. Of 364 patients, 135 (37.1%) were found to carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The mean age of patients at diagnosis of EOC was 49.5 years (range, 28-89 years). Of the 135 patients, 12 (8.9%) developed breast cancer. The median time from diagnosis of EOC to diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.5 months. Annual mammography was performed for 80 patients (59.3%), with annual magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts performed for 60 patients (44.4%). Thirteen patients (9.6%) underwent a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy at a median of 23 months following EOC diagnosis. Breast cancer was most commonly diagnosed by mammography for 7 of the 12 patients (58.3%), 3 (25.0%) of whom had a palpable mass and 2 (16.7%) of whom had incidental breast cancer detected during a prophylactic mastectomy. Seven patients with breast cancer (58.3%) underwent a bilateral mastectomy. All patients had early-stage breast cancer (stages 0-II). Four patients (33.3%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 4 of the 12 patients (33.3%) died of recurrent EOC after a diagnosis of breast cancer. The overall 10-year survival rate for the entire cohort of 135 patients was 17.0%. The risk of

  14. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the prognosis of early stage triple-negative breast cancer in People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma FJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fang-Jing Ma,1–3,* Zhe-Bin Liu,1,2,* Li Qu,4,* Shuang Hao,1,2 Guang-Yu Liu,1,2 Jiong Wu,1,2 Zhi-Ming Shao1,2 1Department of Breast Surgery, Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer in Shanghai, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of General Surgery, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors have contributed equally to this workBackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases. Increased cause-specific mortality and decreased disease-free survival (DFS have been reported among cancer patients with T2DM compared with patients without T2DM, even after adjustments of other comorbidities. However, less is known about the impact of T2DM and other comorbidities on DFS in Chinese patients with early stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC.Patients and methods: We assessed patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage primary TNBC at the Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University, from 2003 to 2011. Of the 1,100 TNBC patients, 865 female patients had invasive and early stage TNBC. The association of the variables in the T2DM and non-T2DM groups was compared using the Pearson's chi-square and independent t-tests. DFS was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The effects of T2DM and other possible risk factors on DFS were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression using univariate or multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 865 early stage primary TNBC cases were studied, including 104 (12.02% subjects with T2DM. Metastatic or recurrent disease was detected in 24 (23.08% patients in the T2DM group and 35 (4.60% patients in the non-T2DM group. Patients with T2DM exhibited a

  15. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  16. Breast cancer genetic risk profile is differentially associated with interval and screen-detected breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Holm, J; Bergh, J; Eriksson, M; Darabi, H; Lindström, L S; Törnberg, S; Hall, P; Czene, K

    2015-03-01

    Polygenic risk profiles computed from multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer have been shown to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether this genetic risk stratification can also be applied to discriminate between screen-detected and interval cancers, which are usually associated with clinicopathological and survival differences. A 77 single-nucleotide polymorphism polygenic risk score (PRS) was constructed for breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. PRS was inspected as a continuous (per standard deviation increment) variable in a case-only design. Modification of the PRS by mammographic density was evaluated by fitting an additional interaction term. PRS weighted by breast cancer overall estimates was found to be differentially associated with 1865 screen-detected and 782 interval cancers in the LIBRO-1 study {age-adjusted odds ratio (OR)perSD [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.91 [0.83-0.99], P = 0.023}. The association was found to be more significant for PRS weighted by ER-positive breast cancer estimates [ORperSD = 0.90 (0.82-0.98), P = 0.011]. This result was corroborated by two independent studies [combined ORperSD = 0.87 (0.76-1.00), P = 0.058] with no evidence of heterogeneity. When enriched for 'true' interval cancers among nondense breasts, the difference in the association with PRS in screen-detected and interval cancers became more pronounced [ORperSD = 0.74 (0.62-0.89), P = 0.001], with a significant interaction effect between PRS and mammographic density (Pinteraction = 0.017). To our knowledge, this is the first report looking into the genetic differences between screen-detected and interval cancers. It is an affirmation that the two types of breast cancer may have unique underlying biology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pharmacogenetics in breast cancer: steps toward personalized medicine in breast cancer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rofaiel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Rofaiel1, Esther N Muo1, Shaker A Mousa1,21The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York, USA; 2King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: There is wide individual variability in the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance to anticancer drugs within the same ethnic group and even greater variability among different ethnicities. Pharmacogenomics (PG has the potential to provide personalized therapy based on individual genetic variability in an effort to maximize efficacy and reduce adverse effects. The benefits of PG include improved therapeutic index, improved dose regimen, and selection of optimal types of drug for an individual or set of individuals. Advanced or metastatic breast cancer is typically treated with single or multiple combinations of chemotherapy regimens including anthracyclines, taxanes, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, platinum drugs, vinca alkaloids, and others. In this review, the PG of breast cancer therapeutics, including tamoxifen, which is the most widely used therapeutic for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer, is reviewed. The pharmacological activity of tamoxifen depends on its conversion by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6 to its abundant active metabolite, endoxifen. Patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity, as a result of either their genotype or induction by the coadministration of other drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 function, produce little endoxifen and hence derive limited therapeutic benefit from tamoxifen; the same can be said about the different classes of therapeutics in breast cancer. PG studies of breast cancer therapeutics should provide patients with breast cancer with optimal and personalized therapy.Keywords: pharmacogenomics, genetic, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, personalized medicine, pharmacotherapy, anticancer drugs, efficacy, safety

  18. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  19. The Breast Cancer-Associated Glycoforms of MUC1, MUC1-Tn and sialyl-Tn, Are Expressed in COSMC Wild-Type Cells and Bind the C-Type Lectin MGL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Beatson

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation occurs in the majority of human cancers and changes in mucin-type O-glycosylation are key events that play a role in the induction of invasion and metastases. These changes generate novel cancer-specific glyco-antigens that can interact with cells of the immune system through carbohydrate binding lectins. Two glyco-epitopes that are found expressed by many carcinomas are Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr and STn (NeuAcα2,6GalNAc-Ser/Thr. These glycans can be carried on many mucin-type glycoproteins including MUC1. We show that the majority of breast cancers carry Tn within the same cell and in close proximity to extended glycan T (Galβ1,3GalNAc the addition of Gal to the GalNAc being catalysed by the T synthase. The presence of active T synthase suggests that loss of the private chaperone for T synthase, COSMC, does not explain the expression of Tn and STn in breast cancer cells. We show that MUC1 carrying both Tn or STn can bind to the C-type lectin MGL and using atomic force microscopy show that they bind to MGL with a similar dead adhesion force. Tumour associated STn is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in breast carcinomas, inhibition of DC maturation, DC apoptosis and inhibition of NK activity. As engagement of MGL in the absence of TLR triggering may lead to anergy, the binding of MUC1-STn to MGL may be in part responsible for some of the characteristics of STn expressing tumours.

  20. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Competing risks to breast cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models analyzing the impact of treatment interventions and screening on the level of breast cancer mortality require an input of mortality from causes other than breast cancer, or competing risks. This chapter presents an actuarial method of creating cohort life tables using published data that removes breast cancer as a cause of death. Mortality from causes other than breast cancer as a percentage of all-cause mortality is smallest for women in their forties and fifties, as small as 85% of the all-cause rate, although the level and percentage of the impact varies by birth cohort. This method produces life tables by birth cohort and by age that are easily included as a common input by the various CISNET modeling groups to predict mortality from other causes. Attention to removing breast cancer mortality from all-cause mortality is worthwhile, because breast cancer mortality can be as high as 15% at some ages.

  2. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  3. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-yuan; Li, Zhi-rong; Luo, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease.

  4. Breast and cervical cancer knowledge and awareness among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Birsen; Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Rizalar, Selda; Oz, Hatice; Meral, Damla

    2015-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are the most common types of cancer in women worldwide. Previous studies in Asia have shown that related knowledge and awareness is low among female university students. The goal of this study was to assess breast and cervical cancer knowledge, practices, and awareness among female university students in Samsun,Turkey. This research was a cross-sectional survey of female university students using a self-administered. questionnaire to investigate participant awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. A total of 301 female university students participated. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used for data analysis. The mean age of the participants in this study was 22.0 ± 5.91 years. Regarding family history, 89.7 % of the students had no known familial history of breast cancer. Students (65.4%) had knowledge about breast self examination and 52.2 % of them had performed breast self examinationm while 55.1% of them had knowledge about prevention of cervical cancer. Although the results are preliminary, the study points to an insufficient knowledge of university students in Samsun about breast and cervical cancer.

  5. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  7. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system.

  8. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer:From Bench to Bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot ifeld of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientiifc researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  9. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  10. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  11. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  12. EXPRESSION OF SURVIVIN AND E-CADHERIN IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-feng; LIU Ji-hong; WANG Li-fen; FENG XIAO-Mei; YAO Ji-hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, and is involved in the regulation of cell division. E-cadherin functionally belongs to transmembrane glycoproteins family, it is responsible for intercellular junction mechanism that is crucial for the mutual association of vertebrate cells. These genes are thought to be associated with cancer aggression. This study was to investigate the relationship between surviving gene, E-cadherin expression and invasion clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Methods: The expression of surviving gene and E-cadherin were detected by SP immunohistochemical technique in tissues of 66 breast cancer, 20 breast fibroadenoma and 20 adjacent breast tissue. Results: The positive rate of surviving gene expression in breast cancer was 42.2%, significantly higher (P=0.025) than those in breast fibroadenoma (35.0%), and adjacent breast tissue (10.0%). The positive rate of E-cadherin in the groups of adjacent breast tissue, breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer were 100%, 100% and 42.4%, there was significant difference between the group of benign and malignant tumor (P=0.005). The positive rate of surviving in breast cancer with local lymph node metastasis was significant higher than that in breast cancer without lymph node metastasis (P=0.01), and E-cadherin in breast cancer with local lymph node metastasis was significant lower than that without lymph node metastasis (P=o.o1). There was no significant difference among the groups of pathological types and TNM stages in the expression of surviving (P=0.966 & P=0.856), but there was significant difference in the expression of E-cadherin among these groups (P=0.01 & P=0.023). Conclusion: The loss or decrease of E-cadherin expression may promote the exfoliation of cancerous cells from original tissues, and surviving gene may promote the viability of the exfoliated cancer cells and the formation of new metastasis focus. These 2 factors cooperate with each other

  13. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  14. Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotko, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

  15. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: MWilliamson@salud.unm.edu Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  16. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  17. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  18. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone ...

  19. Small molecule inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type I inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiang, Jacky M. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Butcher, Neville J., E-mail: n.butcher@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Minchin, Rodney F. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2010-02-26

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 is a phase II metabolizing enzyme that has been associated with certain breast cancer subtypes. While it has been linked to breast cancer risk because of its role in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, recent studies have suggested it may be important in cell growth and survival. To address the possible importance of NAT1 in breast cancer, we have used a novel small molecule inhibitor (Rhod-o-hp) of the enzyme to examine growth and invasion of the breast adenocarcinoma line MDA-MB-231. The inhibitor significantly reduced cell growth by increasing the percent of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Rhod-o-hp also reduced the ability of the MDA-MB-231 cells to grow in soft agar. Using an in vitro invasion assay, the inhibitor significantly reduced the invasiveness of the cells. To test whether this effect was due to inhibition of NAT1, the enzyme was knocked down using a lentivirus-based shRNA approach and invasion potential was significantly reduced. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that NAT1 activity may be important in breast cancer growth and metastasis. The study suggests that NAT1 is a novel target for breast cancer treatment.

  20. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occupation, to characterize the degree of work absenteeism and to investigate the type of relation between surgical technique and absenteeism’s main causes. Method: Cross-sectional study with 74 women diagnosed with breast cancer. A semi-structured interview was used to collect information regarding surgical and clinical aspects, sociodemographic data, work behavior and physical therapy treatments. The data was organized on Microsoft Excel and analyzed by frequency and chi-squared test. The significance level considered was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Breast cancer was most common on the left side (51%, Madden modified radical mastectomy was the most common (50% and lymph node resection was present in 93.2% of cases. The most frequent post-surgery complications were pain, problems with scarring, sensitivity alterations, ROM limitation, lymphedema and seroma. Only 58% of women were treated with physical therapy and 60% withdrew from professional activities, 23% abandoned work, 26% changed their work role and 14% retired due to the disease. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of a direct relation between treatment and work absenteeism.

  1. Targeting Breast Cancer Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Marra, M.A., Prange, C., Morin, P.J., Polyak , K., et al. (1999). A publicAmer, M.H. (1982). Chemotherapy and pattern of metastases in breast can...8217n8 Ftts tm. 492, 7177 3 Abdel-Ghant M. ?l dl. (1993) Trun@ted dip+lidyi peptidaa lv is a prteni dti-adhesion md anti-mebslasis pcptide for rat hread

  2. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  3. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  4. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  5. Interactions between the breast cancer-associated MUC1 mucins and C-type lectin characterized by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjialirezaei, Soosan; Picco, Gianfranco; Beatson, Richard; Burchell, Joy; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Sletmoen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions govern many crucial processes in biological systems including cell recognition events. We have used the sensitive force probe optical tweezers to quantify the interactions occurring between MGL lectins and MUC1 carrying the cancer-associated glycan antigens mucins Tn and STn. Unbinding forces of 7.6 pN and 7.1 pN were determined for the MUC1(Tn)-MGL and MUC1(STn)-MGL interactions, at a force loading rate of ~40 pN/s. The interaction strength increased with increasing force loading rate, to 27 and 37 pN at a force loading rate of ~ 310 pN/s. No interactions were detected between MGL and MUC1(ST), a glycoform of MUC1 also expressed by breast carcinoma cells. Interestingly, this glycan (ST) can be found on proteins expressed by normal cells, although in this case not on MUC1. Additionally, GalNAc decorated polyethylene glycol displayed similar rupture forces as observed for MUC1(Tn) and MUC1(STn) when forced to unbind from MGL, indicating that GalNAc is an essential group in these interactions. Since the STn glycan decoration is more frequently found on the surface of carcinomas than the Tn glycan, the binding of MUC1 carrying STn to MGL may be more physiologically relevant and may be in part responsible for some of the characteristics of STn expressing tumours.

  6. Jewish religion and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, K M; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Trentham-Dietz, A; Baron, J A; Trichopoulos, D; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C

    1996-06-15

    The excess risk of breast cancer among Jewish women has been attributed to the effects of difference in lifestyle and reproductive patterns, but there is now evidence that Jewish women may be more likely than other women to inherit mutations in breast-cancer genes. We investigated whether any excessive risk among Jewish women is confined to those with a family history of breast cancer. We assessed the effect of Jewish religion on breast cancer in a large population-based case-control study (6611 women with breast cancer and 9026 controls) in USA. Participants were given telephone interviews and asked about known and suspected risk factors for breast cancer. Overall, Jewish women had only a slightly raised relative risk of breast cancer (1.10 [95% CI 0.84-1.44]; p=0.49). However, the relative risk was much higher for Jewish women with a first-degree relative who had breast cancer (3.78 [1.74-8.16]; pJewish women than in women of other religions (p interaction = 0.05). These results are consistent with data suggesting that certain groups of Jewish women have a higher than expected rate of mutation in the breast-cancer gene BRCA1.

  7. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F

    1984-03-01

    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  8. Breast cancer growth prevention by statins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Michael J; Esserman, Laura J; Zhou, Yamei; Shoemaker, Mark; Lobo, Margaret; Borman, Elizabeth; Baehner, Frederick; Kumar, Anjali S; Adduci, Kelly; Marx, Corina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Winters, Mary; Benz, Stephen; Benz, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    .... We evaluated the effects of statins on breast cancer cell growth, phosphoprotein signaling intermediates, survival/apoptosis regulators, cell cycle regulators, and activated transcription factors...

  9. [Male Breast Cancer: What is Different?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, Philipp; Bucher, Susanne; Aebi, Stefan

    2016-02-03

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease. Symptoms and signs resemble breast cancer in women: A palpable mass, enlarged lymph nodes or skin changes (ulceration, secretion, peau d'orange) mandate mammography, ultrasound to assess the regional lymph nodes. The definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Men with breast cancer are treated along the same principles as women: resection followed by systemic and radiation therapy. Tamoxifen, not aromatase inhibitors, is the adjuvant therapy of choice for estrogen receptor positive tumors. Therapy of men with metastatic breast cancer follows the same principles as therapy of women.

  10. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  12. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    . DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...... microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS...

  13. Causal attribution among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.

  14. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  15. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  16. Lipoplatin treatment in lung and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Manuela; Gianni, Lorenzo; Santelmo, Carlotta; Drudi, Fabrizio; Castellani, Cinzia; Affatato, Alessandra; Nicolini, Mario; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming.

  17. FGFR-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Antonella; Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Normanno, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and several molecular drivers regulate its progression. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is frequently deregulated in many cancers, including breast cancer. Due the involvement of the FGFR/FGF axis in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors, FGFR-targeted agents might represent a potential therapeutic option for breast cancer patients. Areas covered: This review offers an overview of targeted agents against FGFRs and their clinical development in breast cancer. The most relevant literature and the latest studies in the Clinicaltrial.com database have been discussed. Expert opinion: FGFR inhibition has been recently considered as a promising therapeutic option for different tumor types. However, preliminary results of clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors in breast cancer have been quite disappointing. In order to increase the clinical benefit of FGFR therapies in breast cancer, future studies should focus on: understanding the role of the various FGFR aberrations in cancer progression; identifying potential biomarkers to select patients that could benefit of FGFR inhibitors and developing therapeutic strategies that improve the efficacy of these agents and minimize toxicities.

  18. Immunoexpression analysis and prognostic value of BLCAP in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gromova

    Full Text Available Bladder Cancer Associated Protein (BLCAP, formerly Bc10, was identified by our laboratory as being down-regulated in bladder cancer with progression. BLCAP is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues, and several studies have found differential expression of BLCAP in various cancer types, such as cervical and renal cancer, as well as human tongue carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Here we report the first study of the expression patterns of BLCAP in breast tissue. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry tissue sections of normal and malignant specimens collected from 123 clinical high-risk breast cancer patients within the Danish Center for Translational Breast Cancer Research (DCTB prospective study dataset. The staining pattern, the distribution of the immunostaining, and its intensity were studied in detail. We observed weak immunoreactivity for BLCAP in mammary epithelial cells, almost exclusively localizing to the cytoplasm and found that levels of expression of BLCAP were generally higher in malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Quantitative IHC analysis of BLCAP expression in breast tissues confirmed this differential BLCAP expression in tumor cells, and we could establish, in a 62-patient sample matched cohort, that immunostaining intensity for BLCAP was increased in tumors relative to normal tissue, in more than 45% of the cases examined, indicating that BLCAP may be of value as a marker for breast cancer. We also analyzed BLCAP expression and prognostic value using a set of tissue microarrays comprising an independent cohort of 2,197 breast cancer patients for which we had follow-up clinical information.

  19. Comparison of the prevalence of KRAS-LCS6 polymorphism (rs61764370) within different tumour types (colorectal, breast, non-small cell lung cancer and brain tumours). A study of the Czech population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvirova, Magdalena; Simova, Jarmila; Kubova, Barbora; Dvorackova, Nina; Tomaskova, Hana; Sedivcova, Monika; Dite, Petr

    2015-09-01

    A germline SNP (rs61764370) is located in a let-7 complementary site (LCS6) in the 3'UTR of KRAS oncogene, and it was found to alter the binding capability of the mature let-7 microRNA to the KRAS mRNA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of the KRAS-LCS6 variant allele in different cancer types that included patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain tumour patient subgroups from the Czech Republic. The occurrence of this genetic variant was correlated with the presence of selected somatic mutations representing predictive biomarkers in the respective tumours. DNA of tumour tissues was isolated from 428 colorectal cancer samples, 311 non-small cell lung cancer samples, 195 breast cancer samples and 151 samples with brain tumour. Analysis of SNP (rs61764370) was performed by the PCR+RFLP method and direct sequencing. KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutation status was assessed using real-time PCR. The status of the HER2 gene was assessed using the FISH method. The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype has been detected in 16.4% (32/195) of breast cancer cases (in HER2 positive breast cancer 3.3%, in HER2 negative breast cancer 20.1%), in 12.4% (53/428) of CRC cases (KRAS/BRAF wild type CRC in 10.6%, KRAS mutant CRC in 10.1%, BRAF V600E mutant CRC in 18.5%), in 13.2% (41/311) of NSCLC samples, (EGFR mutant NSCLC patients in 8%, EGFR wild type NSCLC in 12.9%), and 17.9% (27/151) of brain tumour cases. The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was not significantly different across the studied tumours. In our study, the GG genotype has not been found among the cancer samples. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the occurrence of the KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was statistically significantly different in association with status of the HER2 gene in breast cancer. Furthermore, significant association between the mutation status of analysed somatic variants in genes of the EGFR signalling pathway (KRAS, BRAF, EGFR) and the KRAS-LCS6

  20. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  1. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  2. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  3. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  4. Breast cancer awareness among Turkish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Tasdemir, Nurten; Sancak, Hulya; Demirel, Merve; Akman, Ozlem; Kara, Merve

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and influencing factors among nursing students in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May, 2014. The sample was 270 female nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The students' mean age was 21.6±2.09 and 81.1% had knowledge about breast cancer from their academic education. It is found that 63.7% of the students performed Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and 11.1% had a family member diagnosed with breast cancer. The CHBMS mean score of the students was 117.7±14.5. Breast cancer awareness of nursing students is on a good level and was affected by family history of breast cancer and health beliefs.

  5. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  6. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  7. Adeno-associated virus type 2 infection activates caspase dependent and independent apoptosis in multiple breast cancer lines but not in normal mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Apurva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In normal cells proliferation and apoptosis are tightly regulated, whereas in tumor cells the balance is shifted in favor of increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Anticancer agents mediate tumor cell death via targeting multiple pathways of programmed cell death. We have reported that the non-pathogenic, tumor suppressive Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2 induces apoptosis in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive cervical cancer cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. In the current study, we examined the potential of AAV2 to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 (both weakly invasive, as well as MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive human breast cancer derived cell lines. As controls, we used normal human mammary epithelial cells (nHMECs isolated from tissue biopsies of patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. Results AAV2 infected MCF-7 line underwent caspase-independent, and MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Death of MDA-MB-468 cells was marked by caspase-9 activation, whereas death of MDA-MB-231 cells was marked by activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9, and resembled a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cellular demise was correlated with the ability of AAV2 to productively infect and differentially express AAV2 non-structural proteins: Rep78, Rep68 and Rep40, dependent on the cell line. Cell death in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 lines coincided with increased S phase entry, whereas the MDA-MB-468 cells increasingly entered into G2. AAV2 infection led to decreased cell viability which correlated with increased expression of proliferation markers c-Myc and Ki-67. In contrast, nHMECs that were infected with AAV2 failed to establish productive infection or undergo apoptosis. Conclusion AAV2 regulated enrichment of cell cycle check-point functions in G1/S, S and G2 phases could create a favorable environment for Rep protein expression. Inherent Rep associated

  8. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  9. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  10. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  11. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instructor. Exercise. Gentle exercise may help boost your mood and make you feel better. Ask your doctor to recommend appropriate exercise. Creative activities. Certain activities, such as art, dance and music, may help you feel less distressed. Some cancer ...

  12. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  13. Chemical and biological differentiation of three human breast cancer cell types using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, K S; Berman, E F; Knize, M G; Shattuck, D L; Nelson, E J; Wu, L; Montgomery, J L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2006-01-09

    We use Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to image and classify individual cells based on their characteristic mass spectra. Using statistical data reduction on the large data sets generated during TOF-SIMS analysis, similar biological materials can be differentiated based on a combination of small changes in protein expression, metabolic activity and cell structure. We apply this powerful technique to image and differentiate three carcinoma-derived human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231). In homogenized cells, we show the ability to differentiate the cell types as well as cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and membrane). These studies illustrate the capacity of TOF-SIMS to characterize individual cells by chemical composition, which could ultimately be applied to detect and identify single aberrant cells within a normal cell population. Ultimately, we anticipate characterizing rare chemical changes that may provide clues to single cell progression within carcinogenic and metastatic pathways.

  14. MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Alexia L; Kugel, Jennifer L; Rossman, Phillip J; Manduca, Armando; Hartmann, Lynn C; Ehman, Richard L

    2002-06-01

    Motivated by the long-recognized value of palpation in detecting breast cancer, we tested the feasibility of a technique for quantitatively evaluating the mechanical properties of breast tissues on the basis of direct MR imaging visualization of acoustic waves. The prototypic elasticity imaging technique consists of a device for generating acoustic shear waves in tissue, an MR imaging-based method for imaging the propagation of these waves, and an algorithm for processing the wave images to generate quantitative images depicting tissue stiffness. After tests with tissue-simulating phantom materials and breast cancer specimens, we used the prototypic breast MR elastography technique to image six healthy women and six patients with known breast cancer. Acoustic shear waves were clearly visualized in phantoms, breast cancer specimens, healthy volunteers, and patients with breast cancer. The elastograms of the tumor specimens showed focal areas of high shear stiffness. MR elastograms of healthy volunteers revealed moderately heterogeneous mechanical properties, with the shear stiffness of fibroglandular tissue measuring slightly higher than that of adipose tissue. The elastograms of patients with breast cancer showed focal areas of high shear stiffness corresponding to the locations of the known tumors. The mean shear stiffness of breast carcinoma was 418% higher than the mean value of surrounding breast tissues. The results confirm the hypothesis that the prototypic breast MR elastographic technique can quantitatively depict the elastic properties of breast tissues in vivo and reveal high shear elasticity in known breast tumors. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential applications of MR elastography, such as detecting breast carcinoma and characterizing suspicious breast lesions.

  15. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...

  16. [Metrorrhagia disclosing a synchronous bilateral breast cancer: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkerroum, Z; Babahabib, A; Kouach, J; Chahdi, H; Al Bouzidi, A; Moussaoui Rehali, D; Dehayni, M

    2014-05-01

    Genital metastases are very rarely indicative of breast cancer; they are exceptionally located at the cervix. These atypical locations are more common when it comes to a metastatic breast cancer or a histological infiltrating lobular type. The simultaneous association of a lobular and a ductal infiltrating cancer under a synchronous bilateral breast cancer still remains a rare entity. In this work, we report the observation of a woman aged 48 who has a synchronous bilateral breast cancer, of different histological types, and who reported at first a genital bleeding which is caused by a metastasis in the cervix of the uterus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  18. Breast Cancer Worry among Women Awaiting Mammography: Is It Unfounded? Does Prior Counseling Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Steinemann, Susan K; Chun, Maria BJ; Huynh, Dustin H; Loui, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of breast cancer anxiety and risk counseling in women undergoing mammography, and the association with known risk factors for cancer. Women awaiting mammography were surveyed regarding anxiety, prior breast cancer risk counseling, demographic and risk factors. Anxiety was assessed via 7-point Likert-type scale (LS). Risk was defined by Gail model or prior breast cancer. Data were analyzed by nonparametric methods; significance determined...

  19. Analysis of the Effects of Breast Reconstruction in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy after Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImmediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy and delayed breast reconstruction with post-supplementary treatment are the two types of breast reconstruction currently performed when treating breast cancer. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT not only reduces local recurrence but also improves overall survival. However, the complications and survival rates associated with PMRT need to be clear when determining the timing of breast reconstruction. Accordingly, we investigated the optimal timing of breast reconstruction by observing patients who underwent mastectomy followed by PMRT, based on their overall health and aesthetic satisfaction.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who underwent breast reconstruction with PMRT between November 2004 and November 2010. We collected data regarding the various methods of mastectomy, and the modality of adjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiotherapy. Telephone interviews were conducted to study the general and aesthetic satisfaction.ResultsPatients who received PMRT after breast reconstruction showed a greater complication rate than those undergoing breast reconstruction after PMRT (P=0.02. Aesthetic satisfaction was significantly higher in the groups undergoing breast reconstruction after PMRT (P=0.03. Patients who underwent breast reconstruction before PMRT developed complications more frequently, but they expressed greater aesthetic satisfaction with the treatment.ConclusionsIt is recommended that the complication rates and aesthetic satisfaction after breast reconstruction be carefully considered when determining the optimal timing for radiotherapy.

  20. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  1. Alternative splicing of breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 from breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixia, Miao; Zhijian, Cao; Chao, Shen; Chaojiang, Gu; Congyi, Zheng

    2007-01-31

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, and mutations in the BRCA1 gene produce increased susceptibility to these malignancies in certain families. In this study, the forward 1-13 exons of breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 were cloned from breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 by RT-PCR method. Sequence analysis showed that nine BRCA1 splice forms were isolated and characterized, compared with wild-type BRCA1 gene, five splice forms of which were novel. These splice isoforms were produced from the molecular mechanism of 5' and 3' alternative splicing. All these splice forms deleting exon 11b and the locations of alternative splicing were focused on two parts:one was exons 2 and 3, and the other was exons 9 and 10. These splice forms accorded with GT-AG rule. Most these BRCA1 splice variants still kept the original reading frame. Western blot analysis indicated that some BRCA1 splice variants were expressed in ZR-75-30 cell line at the protein level. In addition, we confirmed the presence of these new transcripts of BRCA1 gene in MDA-MB-435S, K562, Hela, HLA, HIC, H9, Jurkat and human fetus samples by RT-PCR analysis. These results suggested that breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 may have unexpectedly a large number of splice variants. We hypothesized that alternative splicing of BRCA1 possibly plays a major role in the tumorigenesis of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Thus, the identification of cancer-specific splice forms will provide a novel source for the discovery of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and tumor antigens suitable as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  3. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease.

  4. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  5. Breast Cancers Found with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: A Comparison of Pathology and Histologic Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Shin; Hardesty, Lara; Borgstede, James; Takahashi, Jayme; Sams, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    To compare the pathology and histologic grading of breast cancers detected with digital breast tomosynthesis to those found with conventional digital mammography. The institutional review board approved this study. A database search for all breast cancers diagnosed from June 2012 through December 2013 was performed. Imaging records for these cancers were reviewed and patients who had screening mammography with tomosynthesis as their initial examination were selected. Five dedicated breast imaging radiologists reviewed each of these screening mammograms to determine whether the cancer was visible on conventional digital mammography or whether tomosynthesis was needed to identify the cancer. A cancer was considered mammographically occult if all five radiologists agreed that the cancer could not be seen on conventional digital mammography. The size, pathology and histologic grading for all diagnosed breast cancers were then reviewed. The Mann-Whitney U and Fisher exact tests were utilized to determine any association between imaging findings and cancer size, pathologic type and histologic grade. Sixty-five cancers in 63 patients were identified. Ten of these cancers were considered occult on conventional digital mammography and detected with the addition of tomosynthesis. These mammographically occult cancers were significantly associated with Nottingham grade 1 histologic pathology (p = 0.02), were smaller (median size: 6 mm versus 10 mm, p = 0.07) and none demonstrated axillary nodal metastases. Breast cancers identified through the addition of tomosynthesis are associated with Nottingham grade 1 histologic pathology and prognostically more favorable than cancers identified with conventional digital mammography alone.

  6. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  7. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  8. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  9. Effects of Breast Cancer and Mastectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer on fibrinolytic activity and the effect of mastectomy on fibrinolysis in African women. Sixty histowpatholically proven ..... in tumor tissue: Implications for cancer therapy. ... British Journal of Surgery 1992; 29; 711 716. Ingram GIC.

  10. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  11. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  12. Metaplastic breast cancer with chondroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Zin W; Raparla, Sandeep; Kamugisha, Lois K

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer with an incidence of nuclear staining. Ki-67 index was 52% with strong nuclear staining. The overall ELSTON grade of invasive carcinoma was grade 3. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (adriamycin, cytoxan, and taxol) and is currently undergoing surveillance for recurrent disease. Metaplastic breast cancer is an extremely rare subtype of breast carcinoma. Initial management of localized disease consists of wide excision with clear surgical margins followed by radiation or mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Although standard breast chemotherapy regimens such as AC-T are routinely used in metaplastic breast cancer in both adjuvant and metastatic settings, outcomes are significantly inferior to other breast subtypes. Further studies are required to explore targeted treatment to achieve better outcomes in this patient population.

  13. Long non-coding RNAs may serve as biomarkers in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weimin; Chen, Bo; Yang, Shifeng; Ding, Xiaowen; Zou, Dehong; Mo, Wenju; He, Xiangming; Zhang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory role in certain type of cancers biology, including breast and lung cancers. However, the lncRNA expression in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, databases of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the lncRNA profiler of contained candidate 192 lncRNAs were utilized. 11 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in breast cancer, 9 candidate lncRNAs were differentially expressed in lung cancer. In order to find the aberrant expression of lncRNAs in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer, seven samples of primary breast cancer and lung cancer were studied for the expression of selected lncRNAs. The results showed that SNHG6 and NEAT1 were reversely expressed in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer compared with primary breast or lung cancer. In addition, a significant correlation of lncRNAs was found in the patients whose age was above 56 in breast cancer. What's more, PVT1 expression was negatively correlated with the pathological stage, and the level of ER, PR, HER2, p53 in breast cancer. Furthermore, lncRNA expression did not have significant relationship with the 5-year survival of patients with breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. The findings revealed that PVT1, SNHG6, NEAT1 may serve as a prognostic marker for breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. Therefore, these lncRNAs are potential molecular indicators in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in the future. PMID:28938549

  14. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-09-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed.

  15. Hsf1 in Her2-Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    these effects were not limited to Her2-positive breast cancer cells, since they were seen in Her2-negative, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7...diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis , and many types of cancer. Various age-associated disorders are characterized by accumulation of damaged proteins (Jana et

  16. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative membrane proteomics analyses of breast cancer cell lines to understand the molecular mechanism of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjing; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Rui; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women. Breast cancer brain metastasis is currently considered an issue of concern among breast cancer patients. Membrane proteins play important roles in breast cancer brain metastasis, involving cell adhesion and penetration of blood-brain barrier. To understand the mechanism of breast cancer brain metastasis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed in conjunction with enrichment of membrane proteins to analyze the proteomes from five different breast cancer and a brain cancer cell lines. Quantitative proteomic data of all cell lines were compared with MDA-MB-231BR which is a brain seeking breast cancer cell line, thus representing brain metastasis characteristics. Label-free proteomics of the six cell lines facilitates the identification of 1238 proteins and the quantification of 899 proteins of which more than 70% were membrane proteins. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) of the label-free proteomics data resulted in a distinct clustering of cell lines, suggesting quantitative differences in the expression of several proteins among the different cell lines. Unique protein expressions in 231BR were observed for 28 proteins. The up-regulation of STAU1, AT1B3, NPM1, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP K and the down-regulation of TUBB4B and TUBB5 were noted in 231BR relative to 231 (precursor cell lines from which 231BR is derived). These proteins might contribute to the breast cancer brain metastasis. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) supported the great brain metastatic propensity of 231BR and suggested the importance of the up-regulation of integrin proteins and down-regulation of EPHA2 in brain metastasis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  19. Data Mining Approach for Breast Cancer Patient Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Maulana Fahrudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second highest cancer type which attacked Indonesian women. There are several factors known related to encourage an increased risk of breast cancer, but especially in Indonesia that factors often depends on the treatment routinely. This research examines the determinant factors of breast cancer and measures the breast cancer patient data to build the useful classification model using data mining approach.The dataset was originally taken from one of Oncology Hospital in East Java, Indonesia, which consists of 1097 samples, 21 attributes and 2 classes. We used three different feature selection algorithms which are Information Gain, Fisher’s Discriminant Ratio and Chi-square to select the best attributes that have great contribution to the data. We applied Hierarchical K-means Clustering to remove attributes which have lowest contribution. Our experiment showed that only 14 of 21 original attributes have the highest contribution factor of the breast cancer data. The clustering algorithmdecreased the error ratio from 44.48% (using 21 original attributes to 18.32% (using 14 most important attributes.We also applied the classification algorithm to build the classification model and measure the precision of breast cancer patient data. The comparison of classification algorithms between Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree were both given precision reach 92.76% and 92.99% respectively by leave-one-out cross validation. The information based on our data research, the breast cancer patient in Indonesia especially in East Java must be improved by the treatment routinely in the hospital to get early recover of breast cancer which it is related with adherence of patient.

  20. Male breast cancer precursor lesions: analysis of the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebar, Shusma C; Slaets, Leen; Cardoso, Fatima; Giordano, Sharon H; Bartlett, John Ms; Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; Dijkstra, Nizet H; Schröder, Caroline P; van Asperen, Christi J; Linderholm, Barbro; Benstead, Kim; Dinjens, Winan Nm; van Marion, Ronald; van Diest, Paul J; Martens, John Wm; van Deurzen, Carolien Hm

    2017-04-01

    In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328 male breast cancer patients, registered in the retrospective joint analysis of the International Male Breast Cancer Program, which included the presence and type of breast cancer precursor lesions. In a subset, invasive breast cancer was compared with the adjacent precursor lesion by immunohistochemistry (n=83) or targeted next generation sequencing (n=7). Additionally, we correlated the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ with outcome. A substantial proportion (46.2%) of patients with invasive breast cancer also had an adjacent precursor lesion, mainly ductal carcinoma in situ (97.9%). The presence of lobular carcinoma in situ and columnar cell-like lesions were very low (cases with adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (n=83), a complete concordance was observed between the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status of both components. Next generation sequencing on a subset of cases with invasive breast cancer and adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (n=4) showed identical genomic aberrations, including PIK3CA, GATA3, TP53, and MAP2K4 mutations. Next generation sequencing on a subset of cases with invasive breast cancer and an adjacent columnar cell-like lesion showed genomic concordance in two out of three patients. A multivariate Cox model for survival showed a trend that the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ was associated with a better overall survival, in particular in the Luminal B HER2+ subgroup. In conclusion, ductal carcinoma in situ is the most commonly observed precursor lesion in male breast cancer and its presence seems to be associated with a better outcome, in particular in Luminal B HER2+ cases. The rate of lobular carcinoma in situ and