WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer tissue

  1. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  2. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  3. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  4. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  5. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  6. Nerve Fibers in Breast Cancer Tissues Indicate Aggressive Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Di; Su, Shicheng; Cui, Xiuying; Shen, Ximing; Zeng, Yunjie; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Fei; He, Chonghua; Liu, Jiang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Ouyang, Nengtai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence has indicated nerve fibers as a marker in the progression of various types of cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, whether nerve fibers are associated with breast cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the presence of nerve fibers in 352 breast cancer specimens and 83 benign breast tissue specimens including 43 cases of cystic fibrosis and 40 cases of fibroadenoma from 2 independent breast tumor center using immun...

  7. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  8. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Chellakkan Selvanesan; Babu, Somasundaram Dinesh; Radhakrishna, Selvi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Ravi Sankar, Bhaskaran

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in the world today. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that can degrade extracellular matrix proteins and promote cell invasion and metastasis. MMPs are differentially expressed and their expressions are often associated with a poor prognosis for patients. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the expression of MMPs in different grades of human breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues. We collected 39 breast cancer samples (24 grade II and 15 grade III) along with 16 normal breast tissues from outside the tumor margin during cancer removal surgery. The samples were analysed for the expression of all known MMPs using real-time quantitative PCR. The results indicate that mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -9,-11,-15,-24 and -25 were upregulated in breast cancer tissues when compared to normal breast tissues. But, the mRNA expressions of MMP-10 and MMP-19 were downregulated in cancer tissue. In membrane associated MMPs like MMP-15 and MMP-24 we found a grade dependent increase of their mRNA expression. Our studies demonstrate that MMPs are differentially regulated in breast cancer tissues and they might play various roles in tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Thus, MMPs are of immense value to be studied as diagnostic markers and drug target.

  9. Nerve fibers in breast cancer tissues indicate aggressive tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Su, Shicheng; Cui, Xiuying; Shen, Ximing; Zeng, Yunjie; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Fei; He, Chonghua; Liu, Jiang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Ouyang, Nengtai

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated nerve fibers as a marker in the progression of various types of cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, whether nerve fibers are associated with breast cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the presence of nerve fibers in 352 breast cancer specimens and 83 benign breast tissue specimens including 43 cases of cystic fibrosis and 40 cases of fibroadenoma from 2 independent breast tumor center using immunohistochemical staining for specific peripheral nerve fiber markers.In all, nerve fibers were present in 130 out of 352 breast cancer tissue specimens, while none were detected in normal breast tissue specimens. Among 352 cases, we defined 239 cases from Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, China, as the training set, and 113 cases from the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University, Guangdong, China, as the validation set. The thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, high clinical staging, and triple negative subtype in breast cancer. More importantly, Cox multifactor analysis indicates that the thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is a previously unappreciated independent prognostic factors associated with shorter disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Our findings are further validated by online Oncomine database. In conclusion, our results show that nerve fiber involvement in breast cancer is associated with progression of the malignancy and warrant further studies in the future.

  10. Nerve Fibers in Breast Cancer Tissues Indicate Aggressive Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Su, Shicheng; Cui, Xiuying; Shen, Ximing; Zeng, Yunjie; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Fei; He, Chonghua; Liu, Jiang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Ouyang, Nengtai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence has indicated nerve fibers as a marker in the progression of various types of cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, whether nerve fibers are associated with breast cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the presence of nerve fibers in 352 breast cancer specimens and 83 benign breast tissue specimens including 43 cases of cystic fibrosis and 40 cases of fibroadenoma from 2 independent breast tumor center using immunohistochemical staining for specific peripheral nerve fiber markers. In all, nerve fibers were present in 130 out of 352 breast cancer tissue specimens, while none were detected in normal breast tissue specimens. Among 352 cases, we defined 239 cases from Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, China, as the training set, and 113 cases from the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University, Guangdong, China, as the validation set. The thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, high clinical staging, and triple negative subtype in breast cancer. More importantly, Cox multifactor analysis indicates that the thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is a previously unappreciated independent prognostic factors associated with shorter disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Our findings are further validated by online Oncomine database. In conclusion, our results show that nerve fiber involvement in breast cancer is associated with progression of the malignancy and warrant further studies in the future. PMID:25501061

  11. Evidence that breast tissue stiffness is associated with risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls. Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. RESULTS: After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02 and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. CONCLUSION: An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement.

  12. Evidence that breast tissue stiffness is associated with risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Norman F; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement.

  13. Evidence That Breast Tissue Stiffness Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Norman F.; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J.; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. Results After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. Conclusion An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement. PMID:25010427

  14. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue from breast cancer patients: association with phenotypes that are common in hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, H Evin; Vanderwerf, Steve; Blair, Cindy; Sweeney, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Lobular inflammation (lobulitis) has been demonstrated in benign breast tissue adjacent to in situ and invasive breast cancers and, more recently, in nonneoplastic tissue from prophylactic mastectomy specimens for hereditary high-risk breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of lobulitis in benign breast tissue of patients with breast cancer and associated clinicopathologic features. We reviewed nonneoplastic breast tissue sections from 334 patients with invasive breast carcinoma to study lobulitis in normal breast tissue and to correlate its presence with clinicopathologic features of the associated tumor. Clinical information (age, menopausal status, and follow-up), tumor characteristics (type, grade, size, lymph node status, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2), and survival were recorded. Characteristics of women with and without lobulitis were cross-classified with categories of clinical, pathologic, and histologic characteristics, and differences in distributions were tested in univariate and multivariate analysis. Lobulitis was found in 26 (8%) of 334 patients. The lymphocytic infiltrate was predominantly T-cell type. In a multivariate model, lobulitis in patients with breast cancer was significantly associated with younger age, triple (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2)-negative cancers, and medullary phenotypes. Lobulitis in nonneoplastic breast tissue, away from tumor, is associated with clinicopathologic features more commonly seen in hereditary breast cancer. © 2013.

  15. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  16. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Human Breast Cancer Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Chellakkan Selvanesan; Babu, Somasundaram Dinesh; Radhakrishna, Selvi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Sankar, Bhaskaran Ravi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in the world today. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that can degrade extracellular matrix proteins and promote cell invasion and metastasis. MMPs are differentially expressed and their expressions are often associated with a poor prognosis for patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the expression of MMPs in different grades of human breast cancer tissues with n...

  17. BCCTBbp: the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank bioinformatics portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Chelala, Claude

    2015-01-01

    BCCTBbp (http://bioinformatics.breastcancertissue bank.org) was initially developed as the data-mining portal of the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank (BCCTB), a vital resource of breast cancer tissue for researchers to support and promote cutting-edge research. BCCTBbp is dedicated to maximising research on patient tissues by initially storing genomics, methylomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and microRNA data that has been mined from the literature and linking to pathways and mechanisms involved in breast cancer. Currently, the portal holds 146 datasets comprising over 227,795 expression/genomic measurements from various breast tissues (e.g. normal, malignant or benign lesions), cell lines and body fluids. BCCTBbp can be used to build on breast cancer knowledge and maximise the value of existing research. By recording a large number of annotations on samples and studies, and linking to other databases, such as NCBI, Ensembl and Reactome, a wide variety of different investigations can be carried out. Additionally, BCCTBbp has a dedicated analytical layer allowing researchers to further analyse stored datasets. A future important role for BCCTBbp is to make available all data generated on BCCTB tissues thus building a valuable resource of information on the tissues in BCCTB that will save repetition of experiments and expand scientific knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction ...

  19. Tissue specific DNA methylation in normal human breast epithelium and in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Avraham

    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC, and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer.

  20. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis, ...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  1. Male breast cancer originating in an ectopic breast tissue in the umbilicus A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanakis, Nikolaos; Tzaida, Olympia; Nikolaou, Georgios; Ermidis, Dimitrios; Manou, Vassiliki; Efstathiou, Elias; Spiliotis, John

    2016-11-04

    Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. Carcinomas of accessory breast tissue account for ∼0.3% of breast cancers, 5% of which are arising within a supernumerary breast. They are usually diagnosed at a later stage compared with breast cancer, due to their rarity and low clinical suspicion. We present the case of a 58 years old male who was admitted to our hospital for an umbilical hernia, surgical repair. During surgery a small skin biopsy was excised and sent for pathological examination as routine procedure. The histological report revealed the presence of a poorly differentiated carcinoma. Immunochemical analysis confirmed adenocarcinoma of breast origin. Carcinomas of accessory breast tissue are rare and therefore they are usually of advanced stage in time of diagnosis. Few cases have been reported in literature of accessory breast tissue carcinomas in men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only case in the literature, of ectopic breast tissue cancer in the umbilicus. Ectopic breast, Male breast cancer, Umbilicus.

  2. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Sørensen, Nanna Møller

    2005-01-01

    Whether patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer are offered adjuvant systemic therapy following surgical removal of the tumor is based on prognosis. Prognosis is estimated in every patient using established prognostic variables. Unfortunately, when using the currently available prognostic...... cancer, as a number of studies have demonstrated an association between high tumor-tissue levels of TIMP-1 mRNA as well as TIMP-1 protein and a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. TIMP-1 is a member of the TIMP family, currently comprising four members (TIMP-1-4), and its main function...

  3. The Microbiota of Breast Tissue and Its Association with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Camilla; Gloor, Gregory B; Brackstone, Muriel; Scott, Leslie; Tangney, Mark; Reid, Gregor

    2016-08-15

    In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. Along with genetics, the environment contributes to disease development, but what these exact environmental factors are remains unknown. We have previously shown that breast tissue is not sterile but contains a diverse population of bacteria. We thus believe that the host's local microbiome could be modulating the risk of breast cancer development. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we show that bacterial profiles differ between normal adjacent tissue from women with breast cancer and tissue from healthy controls. Women with breast cancer had higher relative abundances of Bacillus, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus Escherichia coli (a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family) and Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from breast cancer patients, were shown to induce DNA double-stranded breaks in HeLa cells using the histone-2AX (H2AX) phosphorylation (γ-H2AX) assay. We also found that microbial profiles are similar between normal adjacent tissue and tissue sampled directly from the tumor. This study raises important questions as to what role the breast microbiome plays in disease development or progression and how we can manipulate this for possible therapeutics or prevention. This study shows that different bacterial profiles in breast tissue exist between healthy women and those with breast cancer. Higher relative abundances of bacteria that had the ability to cause DNA damage in vitro were detected in breast cancer patients, as was a decrease in some lactic acid bacteria, known for their beneficial health effects, including anticarcinogenic properties. This study raises important questions as to the role of the mammary microbiome in modulating the risk of breast cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Urbaniak et al.

  4. Tissue androgens and the endocrine autonomy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, M A; Maitimu-Smeele, I; Donker, G H; Daroszewski, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H

    1992-09-01

    To evaluate whether a tumour-directed gradient in androgen levels in fatty tissue can account for the maintenance of intra-tissue oestradiol levels, androstenedione (Adione), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (Testo) and androstenediol (Adiol) were assayed in breast tumour tissues and in fatty tissue taken at different distances from the tumour. The concentration of Adione was significantly lower in tumour tissue (5.6 +/- 1.5 pmol/g tissue; mean +/- SEM; n = 14) than in the adjacent fatty tissue (20.4 +/- 2.2; P less than 0.005). Testo, by contrast, occurred in equal concentrations in tumour (0.80 +/- 0.11) and in adjacent fatty tissue (0.70 +/- 0.07). Adione levels tended to be lower after the menopause only in fatty tissue, not in the tumour tissue; for Testo no differences were observed between samples from pre- and postmenopausal patients. Tumour DHEA levels (57 +/- 12 pmol/g tissue) were lower than those in fatty tissue (117 +/- 17; P less than 0.02). As with Adione, fatty tissue DHEA concentrations tended to be higher in pre- than in postmenopausal patients. Adiol showed a similar pattern as Testo. For none of the aromatase substrates nor their precursors a tumour-directed gradient was observed. The concentration of Adione in breast cancer tissue is much lower than the reported Km of the aromatase system for Adione. We have concluded, therefore, that the maintenance of oestradiol concentrations in tumour tissues is not substrate-driven.

  5. Retinoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast adipose tissue and serum of benign breast disease and breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans, 13-cis, 11-cis, and 9-cis) as well as retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol concentrations were determined in both serum and breast adipose tissue of 22 benign breast disease patients and 52 breast cancer patients categorized into 4 stages by malignancy....

  6. The Linkage between Breast Cancer, Hypoxia, and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Rausch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe development of breast cancer cells is linked to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α influences metastasis through neovascularization. Hypoxia seems to decrease the responsiveness to hormonal treatment due to loss of estrogen receptors (ERs. Obesity is discussed to increase hypoxia in adipocytes, which promotes a favorable environment for tumor cells in mammary fat tissue, whereas, tumor cells profit from good oxygen supply and are influenced by its deprivation as target regions within tumors show. This review gives an overview of the current state on research of hypoxia and breast cancer in human adipose tissue.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed (2000–2016 by applying hypoxia and/or adipocytes and breast cancer as keywords. Review articles were excluded as well as languages other than English or German. There was no restriction regarding the study design or type of breast cancer. A total of 35 papers were found. Eight studies were excluded due to missing at least two of the three keywords. One paper was removed due to Russian language, and one was dismissed due to lack of adherence. Seven papers were identified as reviews. After applying exclusion criteria, 18 articles were eligible for inclusion.ResultsTwo articles describe the impairment of mammary epithelial cell polarization through hypoxic preconditioning. A high amount of adipocytes enhances cancer progression due to the increased expression of HIF-1α which causes the loss of ER α protein as stated in four articles. Four articles analyzed that increased activation of HIF’s induces a series of transcriptions resulting in tumor angiogenesis. HIF inhibition, especially when combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy, holds strong potential for tumor suppression as stated in further four articles. In two articles there is evidence of a strong connection between hypoxia, oxidative stress and a poor prognosis for breast cancer via HIF regulated

  7. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  8. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  9. Identification of different subtypes of breast cancer using tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breast cancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breast cancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breast cancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67.

  10. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. [Studies on human breast cancer tissues with Raman microspectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Xu, Xiao-xuan; Niu, Yun; Wang, Bin; Song, Zeng-fu; Zhang, Chun-ping

    2004-11-01

    The microscopic Raman spectra from normal and malignant human breast tissues have been measured and investigated. The spectral differences and changes between normal and malignant breast tissue samples mainly involve: (1) the band from the symmetric stretching modes of PO2- group in the DNA shifts from 1082 to 1097 cm(-1) and becomes stronger. The intensity of the symmetric stretching modes of O-P-O at 817 cm(-1) in RNA increases greatly. (2) The bands of Amide I and III at 1657 and 1273 cm(-1) change to 1662 and 1264 cm(-1) respectively with their intensity and band width increasing. The peak of the C-O stretching modes in the amino acids shifts to higher wave number. The tryptophan band at 1368 cm(-1) almost disappears. (3) Fewer characteristic Raman bands from lipids are observed. These spectral changes indicate that nucleic acids increase in contents relatively, while their conformation changes in cancer tissues. The proteins show various conformations and disorder structures with their molecular hydrogen bonds nearly broken. The contents of lipids decrease obviously. This investigation shows that Raman microspectroscopy is useful to biochemical study and vivo diagnosis of human breast cancers.

  12. Retrospective Proteomic Screening of 100 Breast Cancer Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci-Minafra, Ida; Di Cara, Gianluca; Musso, Rosa; Albanese, Nadia Ninfa; Roz, Elena; Minafra, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation has been conducted on one hundred tissue fragments of breast cancer, collected and immediately cryopreserved following the surgical resection. The specimens were selected from patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent and potentially aggressive type of mammary cancer, with the objective to increase the knowledge of breast cancer molecular markers potentially useful for clinical applications. The proteomic screening; by 2D-IPG and mass spectrometry; allowed us to identify two main classes of protein clusters: proteins expressed ubiquitously at high levels in all patients; and proteins expressed sporadically among the same patients. Within the group of ubiquitous proteins, glycolytic enzymes and proteins with anti-apoptotic activity were predominant. Among the sporadic ones, proteins involved in cell motility, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in the detoxification appeared prevalent. The data of the present study indicates that the primary tumor growth is reasonably supported by concurrent events: the inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of cellular proliferation, and the increased expression of glycolytic enzymes with multiple functions. The second phase of the evolution of the tumor can be prematurely scheduled by the occasional presence of proteins involved in cell motility and in the defenses of the oxidative stress. We suggest that this approach on large-scale 2D-IPG proteomics of breast cancer is currently a valid tool that offers the opportunity to evaluate on the same assay the presence and recurrence of individual proteins, their isoforms and short forms, to be proposed as prognostic indicators and susceptibility to metastasis in patients operated on for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:28686225

  13. Expression of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Breast Cancer Tissue and Drug-resistant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 in clinical breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells. Methods: The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue and normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma as well as breast cancer cell MCF-7 and paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T were respectively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: The expression of UCP2 in breast cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma, and that in paclitaxel-resistant cell MX-1/T obviously higher than in breast cancer cell MCF-7. Conclusion: UCP2 is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and drug-resistant cells.

  14. Multiple oncogenic viruses are present in human breast tissues before development of virus associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Glenn, Wendy K

    2017-01-01

    Multiple oncogenic viruses including, mouse mammary tumor virus, bovine leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, and Epstein Barr virus, have been identified as separate infectious pathogens in human breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that these four viruses may be present in normal and benign breast tissues 1 to 11 years before the development of same virus breast cancer in the same patients. We combined the data we developed during investigations of the individual four oncogenic viruses and breast cancer. Patients who had benign breast biopsies 1-11 years prior to developing breast cancer were identified by pathology reports from a large Australian pathology service (Douglas Hanly Moir Pathology). Archival formalin fixed specimens from these patients were collected. The same archival specimens were used for (i) investigations of mouse mammary tumour virus (also known as human mammary tumour virus) conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York and at the University of Pisa, Italy, (ii) bovine leukemia virus conducted at the University of California at Berkeley,(iii) human papilloma virus and Epstein Barr virus conducted at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Seventeen normal breast tissues from cosmetic breast surgery conducted on Australian patients were used as controls. These patients were younger than those with benign and later breast cancer. Standard and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the four viruses. The detailed methods are outlined in the separate publications.: mouse mammary tumor virus, human papilloma virus and Epstein Barr virus (Infect Agent Cancer 12:1, 2017, PLoS One 12:e0179367, 2017, Front Oncol 5:277, 2015, PLoS One 7:e48788, 2012). Epstein Barr virus and human papilloma virus were identified in the same breast cancer cells by in situ PCR. Mouse mammary tumour virus was identified in 6 (24%) of 25 benign breast specimens and in 9 (36%) of 25 breast cancer specimens

  15. RELATIONSHIP OF MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND GENE EXPRESSION: ANALYSIS OF NORMAL BREAST TISSUE SURROUNDING BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Williams, Tyisha; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Boyd, Norman F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies of breast tissue gene expression have demonstrated that the extratumoral microenvironment has substantial variability across individuals, some of which can be attributed to epidemiologic factors. To evaluate how mammographic density (MD) and breast tissue composition relate to extratumoral microenvironment gene expression, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Design Breast cancer cases were classified based on a previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature with two subtypes: an Active subtype, which is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis and wound response, and an Inactive subtype, which has high expression of cellular adhesion genes. MD of the contralateral breast was assessed using pre-treatment mammograms and a quantitative, reliable computer-assisted thresholding method. Breast tissue composition was evaluated based on digital image analysis of tissue sections. Results The Inactive extratumoral subtype was associated with significantly higher percentage mammographic density (PD) and dense area (DA) in univariate analysis (PD: p=0.001; DA: p=0.049) and in multivariable analyses adjusted for age and body mass index (PD: p=0.004; DA: p=0.049). Inactive/higher MD tissue was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of stroma and a significantly lower percentage of adipose tissue, with no significant change in epithelial content. Analysis of published gene expression signatures suggested that Inactive/higher MD tissue expressed increased estrogen response and decreased TGF-β signaling. Conclusions By linking novel molecular phenotypes with MD, our results indicate that MD reflects broad transcriptional changes, including changes in both epithelia- and stroma-derived signaling. PMID:23918601

  16. Tumor tissue protein signatures reflect histological grade of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Petter; Ohlsson, Mattias; Fernö, Mårten; Rydén, Lisa; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Histological grade is one of the most commonly used prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with breast cancer. However, conventional grading has proven technically challenging, and up to 60% of the tumors are classified as histological grade 2, which represents a heterogeneous cohort less informative for clinical decision making. In an attempt to study and extend the molecular puzzle of histologically graded breast cancer, we have in this pilot project searched for additional protein biomarkers in a new space of the proteome. To this end, we have for the first time performed protein expression profiling of breast cancer tumor tissue, using recombinant antibody microarrays, targeting mainly immunoregulatory proteins. Thus, we have explored the immune system as a disease-specific sensor (clinical immunoproteomics). Uniquely, the results showed that several biologically relevant proteins reflecting histological grade could be delineated. In more detail, the tentative biomarker panels could be used to i) build a candidate model classifying grade 1 vs. grade 3 tumors, ii) demonstrate the molecular heterogeneity among grade 2 tumors, and iii) potentially re-classify several of the grade 2 tumors to more like grade 1 or grade 3 tumors. This could, in the long-term run, lead to improved prognosis, by which the patients could benefit from improved tailored care.

  17. Breast Cancer and Estrogen Biosynthesis in Adipose Tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bulin, Serdar

    1998-01-01

    .... Our results are supportive of the following hypothesis: Regional differences in relative proportions of histological components of the breast adipose tissue (e.g., fibroblasts vs. mature adipocytes...

  18. Computerized Prediction of Risk for Developing Breast Cancer Based on Bilateral Mammographic Breast Tissue Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xiao Hui; Zheng, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study developed and assessed a computerized scheme to detect breast abnormalities and predict the risk of developing cancer based on bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. A digital mammography database of 100 randomly selected negative cases and 100 positive cases for having high-risk of developing breast cancer was established. Each case includes four images of craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views of the left and right breast. To detect bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry, a pool of 20 computed features was assembled. A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal features and build an artificial neural network based classifier to predict the likelihood of a test case being positive. The leave-one-case-out validation method was used to evaluate the classifier performance. Several approaches were investigated to improve the classification performance including extracting asymmetrical tissue features from either selected regions of interests or the entire segmented breast area depicted on bilateral images in one view, and the fusion of classification results from two views. The results showed that (1) using the features computed from the entire breast area, the classifier yielded the higher performance than using ROIs, and (2) using a weighted average fusion method, the classifier achieved the highest performance with the area under ROC curve of 0.781±0.023. At 90% specificity, the scheme detected 58.3% of high-risk cases in which cancers developed and verified 6 to 18 months later. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a computerized scheme to detect cases with high risk of developing breast cancer based on computer-detected bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. PMID:21482168

  19. Difference in fatty acids composition of breast adipose tissue in women with breast cancer and benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Lisiane Lopes da; Dias, Mariana De Moura; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Pena, Geórgia Das Graças; Mendes, Maria Carolina Santos; Neves, Cristiane Vilas Boas; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Freitas, Renata Nascimento; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2016-11-29

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the most frequent cancer among women. Moreover, there are factors that influence the risk for breast cancer including the age, genetic and endocrine factors, and lifestyle. To evaluate the consumption of fatty acids; compare the fatty acids composition in the breast adipose tissue of women with breast cancer and benign breast disease as well as potential risk factors; and describe the genotypic frequency of the Pro12Ala PPARγ polymorphism. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted including incident cases (n= 38 breast cancer; n= 75 benign breast disease; n= 166 control). Lifestyle features, socioeconomic issues, dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood and tissue data were assessed. No differences were observed for fatty acids intake. Interestingly, lauric acid (p = 0.001), myristic acid (p = 0.036), stearic acid (p = 0.031), and total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (p = 0.048) had lower concentrations in BC than in BBD women, while palmitoleic acid (p = 0.022), erucic acid (p = 0.002), total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (p = 0.039) and oleic acid/stearic acid ratio (p = 0.015) increased. There was no significant association between PPARγ polymorphism and studied groups (p = 0.977). The age at first full pregnancy (p = 0.004) was significantly associated with the development BC, whereas BMI (p = 0.005); percentage of body fat (p = 0.024); physical activity (p = 0.036); and age at menarche (p = 0.008), at first full pregnancy (p breast adipose tissue, a biomarker of long-term dietary intake, particularly for SFAs, MUFA and 18: 1 n-9/18: 00 ratio. Our findings also show that are differences in the factors related to the development of BC and BBC.

  20. Identification and prognostic value of anterior gradient protein 2 expression in breast cancer based on tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jilong; Gong, Guohua; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer has attracted substantial attention as one of the major cancers causing death in women. It is crucial to find potential biomarkers of prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, the expression pattern of anterior gradient protein 2 in breast cancer was identified based on the main molecular subgroups. Through analysis of 69 samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we found that anterior gradient protein 2 expression was significantly higher in non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues and triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p Cancer Genome Atlas were analysed. The data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and results from quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction also verified the anterior gradient protein 2 expression pattern. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis. The quantification results revealed that anterior gradient protein 2 is highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and grade 1 + 2 (triple-negative breast cancer excluded) tumours compared with normal tissues. Anterior gradient protein 2 was significantly highly expressed in non-triple-negative breast cancer (grade 3 excluded) and non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues compared with triple-negative breast cancer tissues (p breast cancer excluded) and grade 1 + 2 tissues compared with grade 3 tissues (p breast cancer and can be regarded as a putative biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.

  1. On the significance of in situ production of oestrogens in human breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, M A; Maitimu-Smeele, I; Donker, G H; Daroszewski, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H

    1992-03-01

    We have previously shown that human breast cancer is autonomous in the regulation of its intra-tissue oestradiol concentration. Breast fatty tissue does not have this capacity, but rather reflects changes in the peripheral oestradiol concentration. To further evaluate the relative contribution of breast cancer and fatty tissue to the maintenance of tumour oestradiol we investigated whether a tumour-directed gradient in aromatase activity and oestrogen levels existed in mastectomy specimens. No such gradient was found, however, for aromatase, oestrone, oestradiol and their sulphates. Aromatase activity (expressed per gram of tissue) and the concentrations of oestradiol, oestradiol sulphate and oestrone sulphate were higher in tumour than in breast fatty tissue. Fatty tissue had a higher oestrone concentration. It is tentatively concluded that breast tumour aromatase activity is more important for the maintenance of tumour oestradiol levels than aromatase in breast fatty tissue.

  2. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  3. Benign breast tissue composition in breast cancer patients: association with risk factors, clinical variables, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezheng; Sandhu, Rupninder; Figueroa, Jonine D; Gierach, Gretchen L; Sherman, Mark E; Troester, Melissa A

    2014-12-01

    Breast tissue composition (epithelium, non-fatty stroma, and adipose) changes qualitatively and quantitatively throughout the lifespan, and may mediate relationships between risk factors and breast cancer initiation. We sought to identify relationships between tissue composition, risk factors, tumor characteristics, and gene expression. Participants were 146 patients from the Polish Breast Cancer Study, with data on risk factor and clinicopathological characteristics. Benign breast tissue composition was evaluated using digital image analysis of histologic sections. Whole-genome microarrays were performed on the same tissue blocks. Mean epithelial, non-fatty stromal, and adipose proportions were 8.4% (SD = 4.9%), 27.7% (SD = 24.0%), and 64.0% (SD = 24.0%), respectively. Among women associated with obesity (7.6% in nonobese vs. 10.1% in obese; P = 0.02) and with poorly differentiated tumors (7.8% in well/moderate vs. 9.9% in poor; P = 0.05). Gene expression signatures associated with epithelial and stromal proportion were identified and validated. Stroma-associated genes were in metabolism and stem cell maintenance pathways, whereas epithelial genes were enriched for cytokine and immune response pathways. Breast tissue composition was associated with age, body mass index, and tumor grade, with consequences for breast gene expression. Breast tissue morphologic factors may influence breast cancer etiology. Composition and gene expression may act as biomarkers of breast cancer risk and progression. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Expression of BMI-1 and Mel-18 in breast tissue - a diagnostic marker in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollan Hilde S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycomb Group (PcG proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 has been studied in tumor tissue, but not in adjacent non-cancerous breast epithelium. Our study compares the expression of the two genes in normal breast epithelium of cancer patients and relates it to the level of expression in the corresponding tumors as well as in breast epithelium of healthy women. Methods A total of 79 tumors, of which 71 malignant tumors of the breast, 6 fibroadenomas, and 2 DCIS were studied and compared to the reduction mammoplastic specimens of 11 healthy women. In addition there was available adjacent cancer free tissue for 23 of the malignant tumors. The tissue samples were stored in RNAlater, RNA was isolated to create expression microarray profile. These two genes were then studied more closely first on mRNA transcription level by microarrays (Agilent 44 K and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan and then on protein expression level using immunohistochemistry. Results Bmi-1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in adjacent normal breast tissue in breast cancer patients compared to normal breast tissue from noncancerous patients. Conversely, mRNA transcription level of Mel-18 is lower in normal breast from patients operated for breast cancer compared to breast tissue from mammoplasty. When protein expression of these two genes was evaluated, we observed that most of the epithelial cells were positive for Bmi-1 in both groups of tissue samples, although the expression intensity was stronger in normal tissue from cancer patients compared to mammoplasty tissue samples. Protein expression of Mel-18 showed inversely stronger intensity in tissue samples from mammoplasty compared to normal breast tissue from patients operated for breast cancer. Conclusion Bmi-1 mRNA level is consistently increased and Mel-18 mRNA level is consistently decreased

  5. Aromatase overexpression in dysfunctional adipose tissue links obesity to postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuyi; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2015-09-01

    The number of breast cancer cases has increased in the last a few decades and this is believed to be associated with the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. The risk of breast cancer increases with age beyond menopause and the relationship between obesity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women is well established. The majority of postmenopausal breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and estrogens produced in the adipose tissue promotes tumor formation. Obesity results in the secretion of inflammatory factors that stimulate the expression of the aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens into estrogens in the adipose tissue. Evidence demonstrating a link between obesity and breast cancer has led to the investigation of metabolic pathways as novel regulators of estrogen production, including pathways that can be targeted to inhibit aromatase specifically within the breast. This review aims to present some of the key findings in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  7. Association between local inflammation and breast tissue age-related lobular involution among premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirette Hanna

    Full Text Available Increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory markers in the breast tissue can result in local inflammation. We aimed to investigate whether local inflammation in the breast tissue is associated with age-related lobular involution, a process inversely related to breast cancer risk. Levels of eleven pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissue obtained from 164 pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Involution status of the breast (degree of lobular involution and the predominant lobule type was microscopically assessed in normal breast tissue on hematoxylin-eosin stained mastectomy slides. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the associations. In age-adjusted analyses, higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, COX-2, leptin, SAA1 and IL-8; and anti-inflammatory marker IL-10, were inversely associated with the prevalence of complete lobular involution (all P≤0.04. Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory marker COX-2 were also associated with lower prevalence of predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules in the breast, an indicator of complete involution, in age-adjusted analysis (P = 0.017. Higher tissue levels of inflammatory markers, mainly the pro-inflammatory ones, are associated with less involuted breasts and may consequently be associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

  8. Raising an Antibody Specific to Breast Cancer Subpopulations Using Phage Display on Tissue Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael Rubner

    2016-01-01

    fragments specific against breast cancer subpopulations, aiding the discovery of novel biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant antibody fragments were selected by phage display. A novel shadowstick technology enabled the direct selection using tissue sections of antibody fragments specific against......BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary tumors display a great level of intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. The current lack of prognostic and predictive biomarkers limits accurate stratification and the ability to predict response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to select recombinant antibody...... small subpopulations of breast cancer cells. Selections were performed against a subpopulation of breast cancer cells expressing CD271(+), as these previously have been indicated to be potential breast cancer stem cells. The selected antibody fragments were screened by phage ELISA on both breast cancer...

  9. Investigating breast cancer cell behavior using tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiro, Khadidiatou; Patel, Shyam A; Greco, Steven J; Rameshwar, Pranela; Arinzeh, Treena L

    2015-01-01

    Despite early detection through the use of mammograms and aggressive intervention, breast cancer (BC) remains a clinical dilemma. BC can resurge after >10 years of remission. Studies indicate that BC cells (BCCs) with self-renewal and chemoresistance could be involved in dormancy. The majority of studies use in vitro, two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cultures, which do not recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. Thus, to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironment on BCCs, this study fabricated tissue engineering scaffolds made of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) having aligned or random fibers. Random and aligned fibers mimic, respectively, the random and highly organized collagen fibers found in the tumor extracellular matrix. Chemoresistant BCCs were obtained by treating with carboplatin. Western blot analysis of carboplatin resistant (treated) MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive, basal-like) and T47D (low-invasive, luminal) BCCs showed an increase in Bcl-2, Oct-4 and Sox-2, suggesting protection from apoptosis and increase in stem-like markers. Further studies with MDA-MB-231 BCCs seeded on the scaffolds showed little to no change in cell number over time for non-treated BCCs whereas on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), non-treated BCCs displayed a significant increase in cell number at days 4 and 7 as compared to day 1 (pbehavior of BCCs.

  10. Selection of a breast cancer subpopulation-specific antibody using phage display on tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla J

    2015-01-01

    on cryostat sections of human breast cancer tissue. This method allows for selection of recombinant antibodies binding to antigens specifically expressed in a small part of the tissue section. In this case, a CD271(+) subpopulation of breast cancer cells was targeted, and these may be potential breast cancer...... it is possible to better target cellular heterogeneity in proteomic studies. The identification of novel biomarkers is relevant for our understanding and intervention in human diseases. The selection of the breast cancer-specific antibody fragment LH 7 may reveal novel subpopulation-specific biomarkers, which......Breast cancer tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations. These populations display a high variance in morphology, growth and metastatic propensity. They respond differently to therapeutic interventions, and some may be more prone to cause recurrence. Studying individual subpopulations...

  11. Human breast adipose tissue: characterization of factors that change during tumor progression in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Pistone-Creydt, Mercedes; Coló, Federico Andrés; Serra, María Florencia; Santino, Flavia Eliana; Sasso, Corina Verónica; Lopez-Fontana, Constanza Matilde; Carón, Rubén Walter; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Pistone-Creydt, Virginia

    2017-02-07

    Adipose microenvironment is involved in signaling pathways that influence breast cancer. We aim to characterize factors that are modified: 1) in tumor and non tumor human breast epithelial cell lines when incubated with conditioned media (CMs) from human breast cancer adipose tissue explants (hATT) or normal breast adipose tissue explants (hATN); 2) in hATN-CMs vs hATT-CMs; 3) in the tumor associated adipocytes vs. non tumor associated adipocytes. We used hATN or hATT- CMs on tumor and non-tumor breast cancer cell lines. We evaluated changes in versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression on cell lines or in the different CMs. In addition we evaluated changes in the morphology and expression of these factors in slices of the different adipose tissues. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc tests were performed within each individual treatment. hATT-CMs increase versican, CD44, ADAMTS1 and Adipo R1 expression in breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, hATT-CMs present higher levels of versican expression compared to hATN-CMs. In addition, we observed a loss of effect in cellular migration when we pre-incubated hATT-CMs with chondroitinase ABC, which cleaves GAGs chains bound to the versican core protein, thus losing the ability to bind to CD44. Adipocytes associated with the invasive front are reduced in size compared to adipocytes that are farther away. Also, hATT adipocytes express significantly higher amounts of versican, CD44 and Adipo R1, and significantly lower amounts of adiponectin and perilipin, unlike hATN adipocytes. We conclude that hATT secrete a different set of proteins compared to hATN. Furthermore, versican, a proteoglycan that is overexpressed in hATT-CMs compared to hATN-CMs, might be involved in the tumorogenic behavior observed in both cell lines employed. In addition, we may conclude that adipocytes from the tumor microenvironment show a less differentiated

  12. Identification of Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Metastasis Using Tissue Specific Virus Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jechlinger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To investigate breast cancer metastasis we propose to use a tissue-specific viral delivery system that will allow the somatic delivery of secondary lesions in the background of a tumor-inducing primary oncogene...

  13. Identification of Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Metastasis Using Tissue Specific Virus Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jechlinger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate breast cancer metastasis, we propose to use a tissue specific viral delivery system that will allow the somatic delivery of secondary lesions in the background of a tumor-inducing primary oncogene...

  14. HER1-4 protein concentrations in normal breast tissue from breast cancer patients are expressed by the same profile as in the malignant tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Aa; Ostergaard, Birthe; Bokmand, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 is overexpressed or amplified in 25%-30% of patients with breast cancer. The mechanism behind HER2 amplification is unknown, but may be a patho-physiological phenomenon caused by continuous stimulation and activation of the HER1......-4 system. We have mapped the protein concentrations of HER1-4 in breast cancer tissue, autologous reference tissue, normal breast tissue and serum samples, to see whether non-cancer cells from these patients express a protein profile indicating general activation. Methods: Tissue samples from malignant...... and the proteins extracted. The tissue and serum concentrations of HER1-4 were determined quantitatively using a commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: HER1 was down regulated in cancer tissue when compared to autologous reference tissue (p=8x10(-6)), while HER2 (p

  15. Breast Cancer and Estrogen Biosynthesis in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    translational cancer research. • 1997 Research Fellowship in Clinical Research: This Fellowship, sponsored by Bristol-Myers Squibb Oncology , will provide...was relatively unremarkable. Cynthia Bethea: Nursing decreases incidence of breast cancer, so does prolactin play a role in aromatase activity? 214...topical inunction of estrogen containing ointment. Helv Paediatr Acta. 38:361-366. 4. Salles G, Vital-Durand D, Mackiewicz R, Pugeat M, Levrat R. 1987

  16. Invasive Breast Cancer Preferably and Predominantly Occurs at the Interface Between Fibroglandular and Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Harvey, Susan; Macura, Katarzyna J; Euhus, David M; Artemov, Dmitri

    2017-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests adipocyte involvement in malignant breast tumor invasive front or margin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the location of invasive breast tumors in relation to fibroglandular and adipose tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Pretreatment breast DCE-MRI images of 294 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer from 2008 to 2014 were studied. Invasive breast tumors were visualized as enhanced lesions in the postcontrast subtraction images. Positive identification of biopsy-confirmed invasive breast tumors on DCE-MRI images was achieved by correlation of findings from breast MRI and pathology reports. Tumor location in relation to fibroglandular and adipose tissue was investigated using precontrast T1-weighted MRI images. Of 294 patients, 291 had DCE-MRI discernable invasive breast tumors located at the interface between fibroglandular and adipose tissues, regardless of the tumor size, type, receptor status, or breast composition. Invasive breast cancer preferably and predominantly occurs adjacent to breast adipose tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    endo- peptidase activity via distinct mechanisms of transition state stabilization. Bio- chemistry 2007; 46: 4598–4605. 64 O’Brien P, O’Connor BF...breast cancer in vivo. Onco- gene 2013; 32: 2622–2630. 101 Jallal H, Valentino ML, Chen G, Boschelli F, Ali S, Rabbani SA. A Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, SKI

  18. Identification of vitamin D3 target genes in human breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Anderson, Paul H; Turner, Andrew G; Pishas, Kathleen I; Dhatrak, Deepak J; Gill, Peter G; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2016-11-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that high vitamin D3 status is strongly associated with improved breast cancer survival. To determine the molecular pathways influenced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in breast epithelial cells we isolated RNA from normal human breast and cancer tissues treated with 1,25D in an ex vivo explant system. RNA-Seq revealed 523 genes that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues in response to 1,25D treatment, and 127 genes with altered expression in normal breast tissues. GoSeq KEGG pathway analysis revealed 1,25D down-regulated cellular metabolic pathways and enriched pathways involved with intercellular adhesion. The highly 1,25D up-regulated target genes CLMN, SERPINB1, EFTUD1, and KLK6were selected for further analysis and up-regulation by 1,25D was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in breast cancer cell lines and in a subset of human clinical samples from normal and cancer breast tissues. Ketoconazole potentiated 1,25D-mediated induction of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 mRNA through inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) activity. Elevated expression levels of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 are associated with prolonged relapse-free survival for breast cancer patients. The major finding of the present study is that exposure of both normal and malignant breast tissue to 1,25D results in changes in cellular adhesion, metabolic pathways and tumor suppressor-like pathways, which support epidemiological data suggesting that adequate vitamin D3 levels may improve breast cancer outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  20. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Department (Spain); Garde, C. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, B. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada (Spain); Expósito, J. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); Torne, P. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); and others

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  1. Discrimination of Breast Cancer from Normal Tissue with Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.-B.; Wang, W.; Liu, Ch.-H.; Zhang, G.-J.

    2015-07-01

    Conventional Raman spectra of normal and cancerous breast tissues were acquired at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm and subjected to a discrimination analysis. First the spectra were pretreated with wavelet transform and polynomial fitting; next, cancerous tissue was identified by applying an adaptive local hyperplane K-nearest neighbor (ALHK) method to the pretreated spectra. The best discrimination accuracy of the ALHK method was 93.2%. In summary, normal and cancerous breast tissue were accurately distinguished by a miniature laser Raman spectrometer and the chemometrics method (ALHK), which might prove to be a portable and accessible diagnostic system.

  2. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-11-01

    Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (p<0.05). The redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ˜27% higher in the cancerous tissues (p<0.05). Additionally, Fp, or NADH, or the redox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients.

  3. Age-associated gene expression in normal breast tissue mirrors qualitative age-at-incidence patterns for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Jason R; D'Arcy, Monica; Stewart, Delisha A; Hines, William C; Johnson, Melissa; Gould, Michael N; Yaswen, Paul; Jerry, D Joseph; Smith Schneider, Sallie; Troester, Melissa A

    2012-10-01

    Age is the strongest breast cancer risk factor, with overall breast cancer risk increasing steadily beginning at approximately 30 years of age. However, while breast cancer risk is lower among younger women, young women's breast cancer may be more aggressive. Although, several genomic and epidemiologic studies have shown higher prevalence of aggressive, estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer in younger women, the age-related gene expression that predisposes to these tumors is poorly understood. Characterizing age-related patterns of gene expression in normal breast tissues may provide insights on etiology of distinct breast cancer subtypes that arise from these tissues. To identify age-related changes in normal breast tissue, 96 tissue specimens from patients with reduction mammoplasty, ages 14 to 70 years, were assayed by gene expression microarray. Significant associations between gene expression levels and age were identified for 802 probes (481 increased, 321 decreased with increasing age). Enriched functions included "aging of cells," "shape change," and "chemotaxis," and enriched pathways included Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, Ephrin receptor signaling, and JAK/Stat signaling. Applying the age-associated genes to publicly available tumor datasets, the age-associated pathways defined two groups of tumors with distinct survival. The hazard rates of young-like tumors mirrored that of high-grade tumors in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, providing a biologic link between normal aging and age-related tumor aggressiveness. These data show that studies of normal tissue gene expression can yield important insights about the pathways and biologic pressures that are relevant during tumor etiology and progression. 2012 AACR

  4. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  5. BCNTB bioinformatics: the next evolutionary step in the bioinformatics of breast cancer tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaleta, Emanuela; Pirrò, Stefano; Dayem Ullah, Abu Zafer; Marzec, Jacek; Chelala, Claude

    2017-10-09

    Here, we present an update of Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank bioinformatics, a rich platform for the sharing, mining, integration and analysis of breast cancer data. Its modalities provide researchers with access to a centralised information gateway from which they can access a network of bioinformatic resources to query findings from publicly available, in-house and experimental data generated using samples supplied from the Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank. This in silico environment aims to help researchers use breast cancer data to their full potential, irrespective of any bioinformatics barriers. For this new release, a complete overhaul of the IT and bioinformatic infrastructure underlying the portal has been conducted and a host of novel analytical modules established. We developed and adopted an automated data selection and prioritisation system, expanded the data content and included tissue and cell line data generated from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, designed a host of novel analytical modalities and enhanced the query building process. Furthermore, the results are presented in an interactive format, providing researchers with greater control over the information on which they want to focus. Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank bioinformatics can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.breastcancertissuebank.org/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Variation of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast cancer and gynecological cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Youxiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses 1000 cases of patients with breast cancer and 2000 cases of patients with gynecological cancer (1000 cases of malignant tumor, 1000 cases of benign tumors, where breast cancer and malignant tumor patients comprise the observation group, while patients with benign tumors comprise the control group. Through DNA extraction, STR genotyping and variation verification, microdissection, individual STR mutation rate and loci STR mutation rate of the two groups of patients were calculated. Results show that there are no significant (P > 0.05 differences in the STR variation of autosomes and X chromosome between patients in the observation group and those in the reference group. However, significant (P < 0.05 intergroup differences were found for STR variation typing between patients with malignant and benign tumors. Using STR genotyping for autosomes and X chromosomes, gynecological cancer patients were found to be more likely to mutate, with a clear relationship between STR variation and tumor differentiation degrees. The study on the variation analysis of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast and gynecological cancer tissues is expected to have a high application value when applied to medical research and identification processes.

  7. Ex-vivo assessment of drug response on breast cancer primary tissue with preserved microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Manuele G; Muenst, Simone; Mele, Valentina; Quagliata, Luca; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Tzankov, Alexandar; Weber, Walter P; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Soysal, Savas D

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between cancerous, non-transformed cells, and non-cellular components within the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in response to treatment. However, short-term culture or xenotransplantation of cancer specimens in immunodeficient animals results in dramatic modifications of the tumor microenvironment, thus preventing reliable assessment of compounds or biologicals of potential therapeutic relevance. We used a perfusion-based bioreactor developed for tissue engineering purposes to successfully maintain the tumor microenvironment of freshly excised breast cancer tissue obtained from 27 breast cancer patients and used this platform to test the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens as well as checkpoint-inhibitors on the cancer cells. Viability and functions of tumor and immune cells could be maintained for over 2 weeks in perfused bioreactors. Next generation sequencing authenticated cultured tissue specimens as closely matching the original clinical samples. Anti-estrogen treatment of cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer tissue as well as administration of pertuzumab to a Her2 positive breast cancer both had an anti-proliferative effect. Treatment with anti-programmed-death-Ligand (PD-L)-1 and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 antibodies lead to immune activation, evidenced by increased lymphocyte proliferation, increased expression of IFNγ, and decreased expression of IL10, accompanied by a massive cancer cell death in ex vivo triple negative breast cancer specimens. In the era of personalized medicine, the ex vivo culture of breast cancer tissue represents a promising approach for the pre-clinical evaluation of conventional and immune-mediated treatments and provides a platform for testing of innovative treatments.

  8. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  9. Measurement of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA in breast cancer and corresponding normal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, C; Raggi, C Casini; Bianchi, S; Distante, V; Simi, L; Vezzosi, V; Gelmini, S; Pinzani, P; Smith, M Cameron; Buonamano, A; Lazzeri, E; Pazzagli, M; Cataliotti, L; Maggi, M; Serio, M

    2004-06-01

    Somatostatin analogs are effective in inhibiting growth of human breast cancer cell lines. These antiproliferative effects are mediated by specific receptors located on cell membranes. The somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) is the principal mediator of somatostatin effects in normal and cancer cells, and its presence has already been demonstrated in breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the expression of sst2 by quantifying its mRNA in a large group of infiltrating breast cancers and their corresponding normal tissues. The expression of sst2 mRNA was measured with quantitative real time RT-PCR in 169 breast cancers and in their corresponding unaffected tissues. We evaluated the association of sst2 expression with the commonest clinical-pathologic features of breast cancer. The correlation with a marker of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and with receptor concentration was also evaluated. In cancer tissues, we found that the absolute concentrations of sst2 mRNA were significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive samples (P=0.002) as well as in lymph-node-negative cancers (P=0.04) (Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA). In addition, sst2 mRNA was significantly higher in breast cancers than in corresponding unaffected tissues (P=0.0002). However, when the clinical-pathologic parameters were considered, this gradient maintained its statistical significance only in tumors expressing positive prognostic markers, such as the presence of ER (P=0.0005) and progesterone receptors (PgR) (P=0005), and the lack of lymph-node involvement (P=0.0003). The same difference was also significant in postmenopausal women (P=0.001) and in T1 patients (P=0.001). In addition, sst2 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P=0.008) in low-proliferating breast cancers. Finally, we found that the quantitative expression of sst2 mRNA was directly related to the PgR concentration in breast cancer tissues (Pbreast cancers which, on the basis of

  10. Computerized prediction of breast cancer risk: comparison between the global and local bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xiao Hui; Zheng, Bin

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and preliminarily tested a new breast cancer risk prediction model based on computerized bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. In this study, we investigated and compared the performance difference of our risk prediction model when the bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetrical features were extracted in two different methods namely (1) the entire breast area and (2) the mirror-matched local strips between the left and right breast. A testing dataset including bilateral craniocaudal (CC) view images of 100 negative and 100 positive cases for developing breast abnormalities or cancer was selected from a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database. To detect bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry, a set of 20 initial "global" features were extracted from the entire breast areas of two bilateral mammograms in CC view and their differences were computed. Meanwhile, a pool of 16 local histogram-based statistic features was computed from eight mirror-matched strips between the left and right breast. Using a genetic algorithm (GA) to select optimal features, two artificial neural networks (ANN) were built to predict the risk of a test case developing cancer. Using the leave-one-case-out training and testing method, two GAoptimized ANNs yielded the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.754+/-0.024 (using feature differences extracted from the entire breast area) and 0.726+/-0.026 (using the feature differences extracted from 8 pairs of local strips), respectively. The risk prediction model using either ANN is able to detect 58.3% (35/60) of cancer cases 6 to 18 months earlier at 80% specificity level. This study compared two methods to compute bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry and demonstrated that bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry was a useful breast cancer risk indicator with high discriminatory power.

  11. A Cohort Study of p53 Mutations and Protein Accumulation in Benign Breast Tissue and Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Kabat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and accumulation of its protein in breast tissue are thought to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated the association of p53 immunopositivity and/or p53 alterations in women with benign breast disease in relation to the subsequent risk of invasive breast cancer. We carried out a case-control study nested within a large cohort of women biopsied for benign breast disease in order to address this question. After exclusions, 491 breast cancer cases and 471 controls were available for analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Neither p53 immunopositivity nor genetic alterations in p53 (either missense mutations or polymorphisms was associated with altered risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, the combination of both p53 immunopositivity and any p53 nucleotide change was associated with an approximate 5-fold nonsignificant increase in risk (adjusted OR 4.79, 95% CI 0.28–82.31 but the confidence intervals were extremely wide. Our findings raise the possibility that the combination of p53 protein accumulation and the presence of genetic alterations may identify a group at increased risk of breast cancer.

  12. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  13. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  14. Combinations of parabens at concentrations measured in human breast tissue can increase proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Amelia K; Darbre, Philippa D

    2013-05-01

    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), which are used as preservatives in consumer products, possess oestrogenic activity and have been measured in human breast tissue. This has raised concerns for a potential involvement in the development of human breast cancer. In this paper, we have investigated the extent to which proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells can be increased by exposure to the five parabens either alone or in combination at concentrations as recently measured in 160 human breast tissue samples. Determination of no-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC), lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC), EC50 and EC100 values for stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7 cells by five parabens revealed that 43/160 (27%) of the human breast tissue samples contained at least one paraben at a concentration ≥ LOEC and 64/160 (40%) > NOEC. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells could be increased by combining all five parabens at concentrations down to the 50(th) percentile (median) values measured in the tissues. For the 22 tissue samples taken at the site of ER + PR + primary cancers, 12 contained a sufficient concentration of one or more paraben to stimulate proliferation of MCF-7 cells. This demonstrates that parabens, either alone or in combination, are present in human breast tissue at concentrations sufficient to stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, and that functional consequences of the presence of paraben in human breast tissue should be assessed on the basis of all five parabens and not single parabens individually. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Association of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and Ki67 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Christina Annette; Knoop, Ann; Bjerre, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer remains to be fully elucidated. We evaluated TIMP-1 as a prognostic marker in patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen and investigated TIMP-1s association with Ki67 and ER/progesterone ....../progesterone receptor (PR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) profiles.......The role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer remains to be fully elucidated. We evaluated TIMP-1 as a prognostic marker in patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen and investigated TIMP-1s association with Ki67 and ER...

  16. Elucidation of a Conserved Proteomic Pattern of Breast Cancer Tissue and Metastatic Axillary Lymph Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Gurler; Simsek, Turgay; Guler, Ata; Kasap, Murat; Canturk, Nuh Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most devastating cancer types affecting women. For critical decision making regarding the fate of cancerous breast tissue, the assessment of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is required. However, such ALN involvement is difficult to predict without surgical intervention. Therefore, an easy predictive test using protein markers may be a desirable approach. In this study, we performed a whole proteome analysis to reveal the presence of a putative biomarker panel using primary breast tumor tissue. Materials and Methods: Proteins were extracted from tumor tissues and were subjected to two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. The resulting gel images were used for inter-gel spot comparisons using PDQuest Advance software. The paterns thus obtained were used for differentiating invasive tumor types from non-invasive ones. Results: The analysis of 2D gel images revealed the presence of 24 conserved protein spots whose intensities were moderately regulated high on the gels. Those protein spots were used to create a conserved 2D pattern spanning a pH range of 4 to 8. Protein spots generating a preserved model among pattern between primary breast cancer and its axillary lymph node indicated that a robust and highly reliable proteomic approach, e.g., 2DE may be used to differentiate metastatic forms of breast cancer from non-metastatic ones. Celsius.

  17. Adipose Tissue Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Content and Breast Cancer in the EURAMIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Neal; Pieter van 't Veer; Strain, John J.; Martin-Moreno, José M.; Huttunen, Jussi K; Navajas, Joaquin Femández-Crehuet; Martin, Blaise C.; Thamm, Michael; Kardinaal, Alwine F. M.; Kok, Frans J; Kohlmeier, Lenore

    2017-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991 -1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that fatty acids of the omega-3 family inhibit breast cancer and that the degree of inhibition depends on background levels of omega-6 polyunsaturates. Considered in isolation, the level of omega-3 or om...

  18. Microbiota of human breast tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbaniak, Camilla; Cummins, Joanne; Brackstone, Muriel; Macklaim, Jean M; Gloor, Gregory B; Baban, Chwanrow K; Scott, Leslie; O'Hanlon, Deidre M; Burton, Jeremy P; Francis, Kevin P; Tangney, Mark; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    .... We decided to investigate whether there is a microbiome within the mammary tissue. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and culture, we analyzed breast tissue from 81 women with and without cancer in Canada and Ireland...

  19. Quantitation of human mammary epithelial antigens in cells cultured from normal and cancerous breast tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1981-02-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay technique was developed to quantitate the level of human breast celltype specific antigens on cells from normal breast and from various established cell lines of breast and nonbreast origins. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four major proteinaceous components (150,000; 75,000; 60,000; and 48,000) in human milk fat globule membranes that were used to immunize rabbits in order to elicit antimammary epithelial cell antibody. Antisera obtained were rendered specific by absorptions and were able to recognize three specific mammary epithelial components of the breast epithelial cell. Human mammary epithelial (HME) antigen expression was highest (1290 ng/10(6) cells) in normal breast epithelial cells from primary cultures of normal breasts. Lower levels (range: 955 to 330 ng/10(6) cells) were found in breast epithelial cells from cell lines established from cancerous breast tissue. Cells of nonbreast origins as well as fibroblasts from breast gave much lower values (less than 30 ng/10(6) cells). On treatment, with trypsin, of two breast epithelial cell lines (MDA-MB-157 and MCF-7) 80 to 85% of their HME antigen expression was lost, suggesting that a majority of these breast antigens reside on the cell surface.

  20. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that

  1. Basic physics and doubts about relationship between mammographically determined tissue density and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopans, Daniel B

    2008-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested a link between breast tissue patterns, as defined with mammography, and risk for breast cancer. There may be a relationship, but the author believes all of these studies have methodological flaws. It is impossible, with the parameters used in these studies, to accurately measure the percentage of tissues by volume when two-dimensional x-ray mammographic images are used. Without exposure values, half-value layer information, and knowledge of the compressed thickness of the breast, an accurate volume of tissue cannot be calculated. The great variability in positioning the breast for a mammogram is also an uncontrollable factor in measuring tissue density. Computerized segmentation algorithms can accurately assess the percentage of the x-ray image that is "dense," but this does not accurately measure the true volume of tissue. Since the percentage of dense tissue is ultimately measured in relation to the complete volume of the breast, defining the true boundaries of the breast is also a problem. Studies that purport to show small percentage differences between groups are likely inaccurate. Future investigations need to use three-dimensional information. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  2. Expression of YES-associated protein (YAP) and its clinical significance in breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lanqing; Sun, Ping-Li; Yao, Min; Jia, Meng; Gao, Hongwen

    2017-09-09

    The transcriptional co-activator YES-associated protein (YAP) has been reported to act as both an oncogene and tumor suppressor in breast cancers. In this study, we evaluated YAP expression immunohistochemically in 324 breast cancer tissues and correlated the expression with clinicopathological findings and patient survival data. Additionally, we reviewed the literature to clarify the role of YAP in breast cancer. We detected YAP, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2) expression and a Ki67 labeling index >20% in 53.4%, 49.0%, 45.0%, 28.3%, and 57.4% of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues, respectively. YAP is mainly localized within the tumor cell nuclei, and its expression was associated with the PR status and Luminal A subtype. YAP expression also inversely correlated with the HER2 and Ki67 levels and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed associations of YAP expression with favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with Luminal A subtype breast cancer and with favorable DFS association among patients with IDC, Luminal B (HER2-) and Luminal B (HER2+) subtype breast cancers. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that YAP expression and PR status were independent favorable predictors of DFS and OS, respectively, among patients with breast cancer, whereas TNM stage and an old age were independent predictors of a poor DFS. Our results, together with the literature review findings, suggest that YAP could be a prognostic marker in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers, and recognized as the third leading cause of mortality in women. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables three dimensional visualization of biological tissue with micrometer level resolution at high speed, and can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment guidance of breast cancer. In particular, ultra-high resolution (UHR) OCT provides images with better histological correlation. This paper compared UHR OCT performance with standard OCT in breast cancer imaging qualitatively and quantitatively. Automatic tissue classification algorithms were used to automatically detect invasive ductal carcinoma in ex vivo human breast tissue. Human breast tissues, including non-neoplastic/normal tissues from breast reduction and tumor samples from mastectomy specimens, were excised from patients at Columbia University Medical Center. The tissue specimens were imaged by two spectral domain OCT systems at different wavelengths: a home-built ultra-high resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800 nm (measured as 2.72 μm axial and 5.52 μm lateral) and a commercial OCT system at 1,300 nm with standard resolution (measured as 6.5 μm axial and 15 μm lateral), and their imaging performances were analyzed qualitatively. Using regional features derived from OCT images produced by the two systems, we developed an automated classification algorithm based on relevance vector machine (RVM) to differentiate hollow-structured adipose tissue against solid tissue. We further developed B-scan based features for RVM to classify invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) against normal fibrous stroma tissue among OCT datasets produced by the two systems. For adipose classification, 32 UHR OCT B-scans from 9 normal specimens, and 28 standard OCT B-scans from 6 normal and 4 IDC specimens were employed. For IDC classification, 152 UHR OCT B-scans from 6 normal and 13 IDC specimens, and 104 standard OCT B-scans from 5 normal and 8 IDC specimens

  4. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min B Pang

    Full Text Available To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31 slides and correlated to mammographic density.Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22 = 0.5226, p = 0.0088 and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22 = -0.5409, p = 0.0064. Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%. There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026.The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  5. Designing a tunable 3D heterocellular breast cancer tissue test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C C; Burg, K J L

    2015-03-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the tissue microenvironment is crucial in cell signaling and regulation of normal and malignant cell function. Components and properties of the microenvironment such as extracellular matrix, adhesion integrins, tissue architectures and tissue modulus regulate growth, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. These properties control cell fate through complex signals that are influenced either by interactions between neighbouring cells or by stimulated cell surface receptors. In this study, we established an in vitro engineered microenvironment: i.e., a tissue test system that combined heterocellular tumour spheroids, polymeric microcarriers and adipocytes, an abundant stromal cell type in breast tissue, to investigate the behaviour of breast cancer cells in response to different environmental stimuli in a more relevant 3D microenvironment. Results showed the engineered microenvironment influenced breast cancer cell proliferation, differentiation and migration through multi-cellular interactions and changes in microenvironmental stiffness and that stromal cells such as adipocytes play a critical role in the breast cancer process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Complex Interaction of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Migration of Cancer Cells through Breast Tissue Stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J. Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality is directly linked to metastatic spread. The metastatic cell must exhibit a complex phenotype that includes the capacity to escape from the primary tumour mass, invade the surrounding normal tissue, and penetrate into the circulation before proliferating in the parenchyma of distant organs to produce a metastasis. In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones leading to regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases. Their primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix to allow ductal progression through the basement membrane. A complex balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors regulate these changes. These proteinases interact with cytokines, growth factors, and tumour necrosis factors to stimulate branching morphologies in normal breast tissues. In breast cancer this process is disrupted facilitating tumour progression and metastasis and inhibiting apoptosis increasing the life of the metastatic cells. This paper highlights the role of matrix metalloproteinases in cell progression through the breast stroma and reviews the complex relationships between the different proteinases and their inhibitors in relation to breast cancer cells as they metastasise.

  7. Raising an Antibody Specific to Breast Cancer Subpopulations Using Phage Display on Tissue Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Meldgaard, Theresa; Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael Rubner

    2016-01-01

    fragments specific against breast cancer subpopulations, aiding the discovery of novel biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant antibody fragments were selected by phage display. A novel shadowstick technology enabled the direct selection using tissue sections of antibody fragments specific against......BACKGROUND/AIM: Primary tumors display a great level of intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. The current lack of prognostic and predictive biomarkers limits accurate stratification and the ability to predict response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to select recombinant antibody...

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  9. Identification of cell-surface markers for detecting breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge T A; Hilders, Carina G J M; Sier, Cornelis F M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Baptist Trimbos, J; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-08-01

    The safety of ovarian tissue autotransplantation in oncology patients cannot be ensured, as current tumor-detection methods compromise the ovarian tissue viability. Although non-destructive methods (for instance near-infrared fluorescence imaging) can discriminate malignant from healthy tissues while leaving the examined tissues unaffected, they require specific cell-surface tumor markers. We determined which tumor markers are suitable targets for tumor-specific imaging to exclude the presence of breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of ten ovaries from premenopausal patients. Additionally, we screened a tissue microarray containing tumor tissue cores from 24 breast cancer patients being eligible for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The following cell-surface tumor markers were tested: E-cadherin, EMA (epithelial membrane antigen), Her2/neu (human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2), αvβ6 integrin, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), FR-α (folate receptor-alpha), and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor). For each tumor, the percentage of positive breast tumor cells was measured. None of the ten ovaries were positive for any of the markers tested. However, all markers (except CEA and uPAR) were present on epithelial cells of inclusion cysts. E-cadherin was present in the majority of breast tumors: ≥90 % of tumor cells were positive for E-cadherin in 17 out of 24 tumors, and 100 % of tumor cells were positive in 5 out of 24 tumors. Of the markers tested, E-cadherin is the most suitable marker for a tumor-specific probe in ovarian tissue. Methods are required to distinguish inclusion cysts from breast tumor cells.

  10. Quantification of effects of cancer on elastic properties of breast tissue by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansardamavandi, Arian; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Omidvar, Ramin; Jahanzad, Iisa

    2016-07-01

    Different behaviors of cells such as growth, differentiation and apoptosis widely differ in case of diseases. The mechanical properties of cells and tissues can be used as a clue for diagnosis of pathological conditions. Here, we implemented Atomic Force Microscopy to evaluate the extent of alteration in mechanical stiffness of tissue layers from patients affected by breast cancer and investigated how data can be categorized based on pathological observations. To avoid predefined categories, Fuzzy-logic algorithm as a novel method was used to divide and categorize the derived Young׳s modulus coefficients (E). Such algorithm divides data among groups in such way that data of each group are mostly similar while dissimilar with other groups. The algorithm was run for different number of categories. Results showed that three (followed by two with small difference) groups categorized data best. Three categories were defined as (E7000Pa) among which data were allocated. The first cluster was assumed as the cellular region while the last cluster was referred to the fibrous parts of the tissue. The intermediate region was due to other non-cellular parts. Results indicated 50% decline of average Young׳s modulus of cellular region of cancerous tissues compared to healthy tissues. The average Young׳s modulus of non-cellular area of normal tissues was slightly lower than that of cancerous tissues, although the difference was not statistically different. Through clustering, the measured Young׳s moduli of different locations of cancerous tissues, a quantified approach was developed to analyze changes in elastic modulus of a spectrum of components of breast tissue which can be applied in diagnostic mechanisms of cancer development, since in cancer progression the softening cell body facilitates the migration of cancerous cells through the original tumor and endothelial junctions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. [In vitro sensitivity of breast cancer tissue to adriablastin in the presence and absence of estrogen receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinia, A Ia; Vitola, G Ia; Nuke, I Ia; Zeĭkate, G A; Emzin'sh, D E

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with a comparison of estrogen receptor concentration in tumor tissue of breast cancer patients and sensitivity of the said tissue to adriablastin in short-term organ cultures. No relationship was established between tumor tissue sensitivity to adriablastin and presence or absence of estrogen receptors. It is necessary to identify both the concentration of specific hormone receptors and individual sensitivity to chemotherapy in order to work out individually-tailored schemes of treatment of breast cancer patients.

  13. Large-scale proteomic identification of S100 proteins in breast cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancemi Patrizia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to reduce morbidity and mortality in breast cancer is based on efforts to identify novel biomarkers to support prognosis and therapeutic choices. The present study has focussed on S100 proteins as a potentially promising group of markers in cancer development and progression. One reason of interest in this family of proteins is because the majority of the S100 genes are clustered on a region of human chromosome 1q21 that is prone to genomic rearrangements. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that S100 proteins are often up-regulated in many cancers, including breast, and this is frequently associated with tumour progression. Methods Samples of breast cancer tissues were obtained during surgical intervention, according to the bioethical recommendations, and cryo-preserved until used. Tissue extracts were submitted to proteomic preparations for 2D-IPG. Protein identification was performed by N-terminal sequencing and/or peptide mass finger printing. Results The majority of the detected S100 proteins were absent, or present at very low levels, in the non-tumoral tissues adjacent to the primary tumor. This finding strengthens the role of S100 proteins as putative biomarkers. The proteomic screening of 100 cryo-preserved breast cancer tissues showed that some proteins were ubiquitously expressed in almost all patients while others appeared more sporadic. Most, if not all, of the detected S100 members appeared reciprocally correlated. Finally, from the perspective of biomarkers establishment, a promising finding was the observation that patients which developed distant metastases after a three year follow-up showed a general tendency of higher S100 protein expression, compared to the disease-free group. Conclusions This article reports for the first time the comparative proteomic screening of several S100 protein members among a large group of breast cancer patients. The results obtained strongly support the hypothesis

  14. Large-scale proteomic identification of S100 proteins in breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Albanese, Nadia Ninfa; Costantini, Francesca; Marabeti, Maria Rita; Musso, Rosa; Lupo, Carmelo; Roz, Elena; Pucci-Minafra, Ida

    2010-09-03

    Attempts to reduce morbidity and mortality in breast cancer is based on efforts to identify novel biomarkers to support prognosis and therapeutic choices. The present study has focussed on S100 proteins as a potentially promising group of markers in cancer development and progression. One reason of interest in this family of proteins is because the majority of the S100 genes are clustered on a region of human chromosome 1q21 that is prone to genomic rearrangements. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that S100 proteins are often up-regulated in many cancers, including breast, and this is frequently associated with tumour progression. Samples of breast cancer tissues were obtained during surgical intervention, according to the bioethical recommendations, and cryo-preserved until used. Tissue extracts were submitted to proteomic preparations for 2D-IPG. Protein identification was performed by N-terminal sequencing and/or peptide mass finger printing. The majority of the detected S100 proteins were absent, or present at very low levels, in the non-tumoral tissues adjacent to the primary tumor. This finding strengthens the role of S100 proteins as putative biomarkers. The proteomic screening of 100 cryo-preserved breast cancer tissues showed that some proteins were ubiquitously expressed in almost all patients while others appeared more sporadic. Most, if not all, of the detected S100 members appeared reciprocally correlated. Finally, from the perspective of biomarkers establishment, a promising finding was the observation that patients which developed distant metastases after a three year follow-up showed a general tendency of higher S100 protein expression, compared to the disease-free group. This article reports for the first time the comparative proteomic screening of several S100 protein members among a large group of breast cancer patients. The results obtained strongly support the hypothesis that a significant deregulation of multiple S100 protein members is

  15. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  16. Evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and breast tumor tissues and their link with breast cancer prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Daniela; Lemieux, Julie; Côté, Marc-André; Provencher, Louise; Laflamme, Christian; Barabé, Frédéric; Jacob, Simon; Michaud, Annick; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is associated with worse prognosis and decreased overall survival in breast cancer patients. The HER2 gene contains several polymorphisms; two of the best-characterized HER2 polymorphisms are Ile655Val and Ala1170Pro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these two HER2 polymorphisms in normal breast and breast cancer tissues and known breast cancer prognostic factors in a retrospective cohort study of 73 women with non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 polymorphisms were assessed in breast cancer tissue and normal breast tissue using TaqMan assay. Ala1170Pro polymorphism in normal breast tissue was associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.007), tumor size (p = 0.004) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.06). Similar significant associations in cancer tissues were observed. No association between the Ile655Val polymorphism and prognostic factors were observed. However, we found significant differences in the distribution of Ile655Val (p = 0.03) and Ala1170Pro (p = 0.01) genotypes between normal breast and breast tumor tissues. This study demonstrates that only the Ala1170Pro polymorphism is associated with prognostic factors in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Moreover, our results suggest that both HER2 polymorphisms could play a significant role in carcinogenesis in non-metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed IGFBP5-Related Genes in Breast Cancer Tumor Tissues Using cDNA Microarray Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akkiprik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available IGFBP5 is an important regulatory protein in breast cancer progression. We tried to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs between breast tumor tissues with IGFBP5 overexpression and their adjacent normal tissues. In this study, thirty-eight breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissue samples were used to determine IGFBP5 expression by qPCR. cDNA microarrays were applied to the highest IGFBP5 overexpressed tumor samples compared to their adjacent normal breast tissue. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 186 genes were differentially expressed in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues. Of the 186 genes, 169 genes were downregulated and 17 genes were upregulated in the tumor samples. KEGG pathway analyses showed that protein digestion and absorption, focal adhesion, salivary secretion, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and phenylalanine metabolism pathways are involved. Among these DEGs, the prominent top two genes (MMP11 and COL1A1 which potentially correlated with IGFBP5 were selected for validation using real time RT-qPCR. Only COL1A1 expression showed a consistent upregulation with IGFBP5 expression and COL1A1 and MMP11 were significantly positively correlated. We concluded that the discovery of coordinately expressed genes related with IGFBP5 might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanism of the function of IGFBP5 in breast cancer. Further functional studies on DEGs and association with IGFBP5 may identify novel biomarkers for clinical applications in breast cancer.

  18. A comparative study of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in plasma and tumour tissue from patients with primary breast cancer and in plasma from patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Mueller, Volkmar; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been investigated as a potential tumour marker in breast cancer. Here we investigated the correlation between TIMP-1 in tumour tissue and plasma to evaluate whether TIMP-1 in plasma is actually a surrogate marker for TIMP-1 in primary...... tumours. Furthermore, we assessed whether increased TIMP-1 levels in plasma could be indicative of tumour progression in patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Tumour tissue and preoperatively collected plasma samples from 96 primary breast cancer patients were included together with plasma...... samples from 46 patients with advanced disease. TIMP-1 levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: TIMP-1 levels in plasma (median 81.5 ng/ml, range 41.9-174.9) and tumour tissue (median 25.4 ng/mg of total protein, range 0-110.2) from primary breast cancer patients were not correlated (r = 0.05, p = 0...

  19. Estrogens in plasma and fatty tissue from breast cancer patients and women undergoing surgery for non-oncological reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, M A; Szymczak, J; Daroszewski, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H

    1992-03-01

    Breast cancer tissue is able to maintain the tissue estradiol level in spite of the massive decrease in plasma estradiol associated with menopause, whereas fatty tissue from breasts with malignancies more closely reflects the changes in plasma. In the present study estrone and estradiol levels in fatty tissues from different origins were compared to evaluate the capacity of distant fatty tissues to act as estrogen reservoirs. Abdominal fat was obtained from 25 premenopausal and 20 postmenopausal women who underwent surgery for non-oncological reasons. Estrone and estradiol levels in these tissues were compared to those in breast fatty tissue from breast cancer patients. Plasma estrogen levels were not different in the two groups. In both groups, median plasma estradiol levels dropped sharply with menopause (from 363 to 40 pmol/l in breast cancer patients; from 280 to 45 pmol/l in the non-oncological patients; p less than 0.002), whereas a significant decrease in plasma estrone was observed only in the breast cancer patients (from 238 to 140 pmol/l; p less than 0.02). In premenopausal women, median estrone and estradiol levels in breast fatty tissue (1135 and 375 fmol/g, respectively) and abdominal tissue (1390 and 470 fmol/g, respectively) were not different. In postmenopausal women, however, significantly higher estrone levels (663 vs. 508 fmol/g; p less than 0.01) and estradiol levels (245 vs. 187 fmol/g; p less than 0.02) were found in abdominal fatty tissue. In view of the absolute estrogen levels in breast and abdominal fatty tissue and in plasma, we conclude, however, that it is unlikely that remote fat contributes substantially to the maintenance of estrogen levels in breast cancer tissue.

  20. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  1. A tissue microRNA signature that predicts the prognosis of breast cancer in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hironaka-Mitsuhashi

    Full Text Available Since breast cancers in young women are generally aggressive, young patients tend to be intensively treated with anti-cancer drugs. To optimize the strategy for treatment, particularly in young women, prognostic biomarkers are urgently required. The objective of this study was to identify a tissue microRNA (miRNA signature that predicts prognosis in young breast cancer patients. Total RNA from 45 breast cancer patients aged 0.7. Five of the miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, and the expression levels of three of those five (miR-183-5p, miR-194-5p, and miR-1285-5p, both alone and in combination, were associated with OS. In conclusion, we identified three candidate miRNAs that could be used separately or in combination as prognostic biomarkers in young breast cancer patients. This miRNA signature may enable selection of better treatment choices for young women with this disease.

  2. Study of Br, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in healthy and cancer breast tissues by TXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; von Bohlen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tissue samples of fifteen breasts were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in order to compare the elemental concentration in healthy and carcinoma regions of the same individual. Five women were from Germany and ten from Portugal living in big cities. The elemental distribution of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br present in both normal and cancerous breast tissues were studied. Several contiguous thin sections (up to 10 μm thickness) of each tissue were analyzed by TXRF in order to study the homogeneity in the elemental concentration along each tissue. Correlations between elemental concentrations were established. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the presence of Br which is assumed to play an important role in breast carcinoma development. A similar pattern for almost all the analyzed tissues was obtained: levels of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br increased in carcinoma tissues when compared with the corresponding healthy ones. Contrarily to the findings of this study, those of early studies showed decreased Br levels for different carcinoma tissues, unlike to most other heavy elements.

  3. Normal breast tissue DNA methylation differences at regulatory elements are associated with the cancer risk factor age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin C; Houseman, E Andres; King, Jessica E; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-07-10

    The underlying biological mechanisms through which epidemiologically defined breast cancer risk factors contribute to disease risk remain poorly understood. Identification of the molecular changes associated with cancer risk factors in normal tissues may aid in determining the earliest events of carcinogenesis and informing cancer prevention strategies. Here we investigated the impact cancer risk factors have on the normal breast epigenome by analyzing DNA methylation genome-wide (Infinium 450 K array) in cancer-free women from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (n = 100). We tested the relation of established breast cancer risk factors, age, body mass index, parity, and family history of disease, with DNA methylation adjusting for potential variation in cell-type proportions. We identified 787 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites that demonstrated significant associations (Q value age. Notably, DNA methylation was not strongly associated with the other evaluated breast cancer risk factors. Age-related DNA methylation changes are primarily increases in methylation enriched at breast epithelial cell enhancer regions (P = 7.1E-20), and binding sites of chromatin remodelers (MYC and CTCF). We validated the age-related associations in two independent populations, using normal breast tissue samples (n = 18) and samples of normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue (n = 97). The genomic regions classified as age-related were more likely to be regions altered in both pre-invasive (n = 40, P = 3.0E-03) and invasive breast tumors (n = 731, P = 1.1E-13). DNA methylation changes with age occur at regulatory regions, and are further exacerbated in cancer, suggesting that age influences breast cancer risk in part through its contribution to epigenetic dysregulation in normal breast tissue.

  4. Role of deregulated microRNAs in breast cancer progression using FFPE tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs contribute to cancer initiation and progression by silencing the expression of their target genes, causing either mRNA molecule degradation or translational inhibition. Intraductal epithelial proliferations of the breast are histologically and clinically classified into normal, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. To better understand the progression of ductal breast cancer development, we attempt to identify deregulated miRNAs in this process using Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE tissues from breast cancer patients. Following tissue microdissection, we obtained 8 normal, 4 ADH, 6 DCIS and 7 IDC samples, which were subject to RNA isolation and miRNA expression profiling analysis. We found that miR-21, miR-200b/c, miR-141, and miR-183 were consistently up-regulated in ADH, DCIS and IDC compared to normal, while miR-557 was uniquely down-regulated in DCIS. Interestingly, the most significant miRNA deregulations occurred during the transition from normal to ADH. However, the data did not reveal a step-wise miRNA alteration among discrete steps along tumor progression, which is in accordance with previous reports of mRNA profiling of different stages of breast cancer. Furthermore, the expression of MSH2 and SMAD7, two important molecules involving TGF-β pathway, was restored following miR-21 knockdown in both MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. In this study, we have not only identified a number of potential candidate miRNAs for breast cancer, but also found that deregulation of miRNA expression during breast tumorigenesis might be an early event since it occurred significantly during normal to ADH transition. Consequently, we have demonstrated the feasibility of miRNA expression profiling analysis using archived FFPE tissues, typically with rich clinical information, as a means of miRNA biomarker discovery.

  5. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  6. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. © 2013.

  8. An Examination of Ultrasound Measured Tissue Perfusion on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    fractional reduction increased with increasing acoustic output in some rabbits but not in others. In the latter case, maximal reduction was achieved by even...each pair of adjacent images, the images were shifted in the axial and lateral directions to maximize the correlation. The result of the measurement...Measurements: The Multiple Pinhole Degassing System. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 1996;99(6):3857-3859. Kaushik SP, Desle BY, Sodhi JS (1975) Breast

  9. Clotrimazole disrupts glycolysis in human breast cancer without affecting non-tumoral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Raquel Guimarães; Calaça, Isadora de Castro; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Correia, Ana Helena; Costa, Mauricio Augusto Silva Magalhães; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2011-08-01

    Human breast cancer tissues, as well as normal tissues from the same patients, were treated with clotrimazole (CTZ) and have their capacities for glucose consumption and lactate production evaluated. This treatment strongly decreased the lactate production rate by tumor tissues (85% inhibition) without affecting the other measurements made, i.e. lactate production by control tissues or glucose consumption by both, control and tumor tissues. This result directly correlates with the inhibition promoted by CTZ on the activity of the major regulatory glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) that was observed in tumor tissues (84% inhibition) but not in control tissues. Fractionation of the tissues revealed that this inhibition does not occur in the soluble fraction of the enzyme, but is exclusive of a particulate fraction. It has been previously shown that the particulate fraction of PFK activity in tumors is associated to actin filaments (f-actin). Thus, we investigated whether CTZ would affect the association between PFK and f-actin and we found that the drug directly induces the dissociation of the two proteins in the same extent that it inhibits lactate production, total PFK activity and the particulate PFK activity. We concluded that CTZ disrupts glycolysis on human breast tumor tissues, inhibiting PFK activity by dissociating the enzyme from f-actin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue antioxidants and postmenopausal breast cancer : the European Community Multicentre Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction and Cancer of the Breast (EURAMIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Fernandez-Crehuet, J.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kohlmeier, L.; Huttunen, J.K.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidants may protect against free radical mediated carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies have not confirmed this hypothesis for breast cancer, possibly because of methodological limitations. Time-integrated exposure of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue, and selenium in toenails was

  11. Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Azorides R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. Methods Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. Results The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p Conclusion The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.

  12. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  13. Detection and identification of mouse mammary tumor virus-like DNA sequences in blood and breast tissues of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Wasifa; Bin Rahat, Talha; Gomez, Miriam Kathleen; Ashiq, Muhammad Taimoor; Younas, Muhammad; Sadia, Hajra

    2014-08-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a well-known cause of mammary tumors in mice transmitted as endogenous proviruses or exogenously as infectious virions. The hypothesis that a retrovirus homologous to MMTV is involved in human breast cancers has resulted in renewed interest in the etiology of human breast cancer. Therefore, the detection of MMTV-like exogenous sequences in 30-40 % of invasive breast cancer has increased attention towards this hypothesis. To detect the prevalence of MMTV in Pakistani population, 666-bp-long MMTV envelop and 630-bp LTR sequences were amplified from breast cancer patient samples (tissue biopsies and peripheral blood) using mouse with mammary tumor as control. MMTV-like virus env and LTR DNA sequences were detected in 20 and 26 % of breast tumor samples, respectively, from the total of 80 breast cancer patients' blood and tissue samples. No significant association was observed between age, grade of disease, and lymph node involvement with the prevalence of MMTV-like sequences. Our data add to the growing number of studies implicating MMTV-like virus in human breast cancer, but still clear causal association of MMTV to breast cancer remains to be reputable.

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  17. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to inhibit collagen crosslinking . We tested various dose used and the delivery routes (orally through drinking water vs. intraperitoneal injection...disorganized collagen ’ in tumours having either collagen fibres with a high degree of circularity (that is, curved) or low/no SHG signal. Tumour...Ho MWY, Lang G, et al. LOX- mediated collagen crosslinking is responsible for fibrosis-enhancedmetas- tasis. Cancer Res 2013;73: 1721–32. 58. Chen L-C

  18. Optical spectral fingerprints of tissues from patients with different breast cancer histologies using a novel fluorescence spectroscopic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Laura A; Pu, Yang; Sordillo, Peter P; Budansky, Yury; Alfano, R R

    2013-10-01

    The fluorescence of paired human breast malignant and normal tissue samples was investigated using a novel fluorescence spectroscopic (S3-LED) ratiometer unit with no moving parts. This device can measure the emission spectra of key native organic biomolecules such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen and elastin within tissues by using LED (light emitting diode) excitation sources coupled to an optical fiber. With this device, the spectral profiles of 11 paired breast cancerous and normal samples from 11 patients with breast carcinoma were obtained. In each of the 11 cases, marked increases in the tryptophan levels were found in the breast carcinoma samples when compared to the normal breast tissues. In the breast cancer samples, there were also consistently higher ratios of the 340 to 440 nm and the 340 to 460 nm intensity peaks after 280 nm excitation, likely representing an increased tryptophan to NADH ratio in the breast cancer samples. This difference was seen in the spectral profiles of the breast cancer patients regardless of whether they were HER2 positive or negative or hormone receptor positive or negative, and was found regardless of menopausal status, histology, stage, or tumor grade.

  19. Genomic aberrations in normal tissue adjacent to HER2-amplified breast cancers: field cancerization or contaminating tumor cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandam, Anguraj; Lal, Aseem; Benz, Stephen C; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Scott, Gary; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul; Waldman, Fred; Benz, Christopher C

    2012-12-01

    Field cancerization effects as well as isolated tumor cell foci extending well beyond the invasive tumor margin have been described previously to account for local recurrence rates following breast conserving surgery despite adequate surgical margins and breast radiotherapy. To look for evidence of possible tumor cell contamination or field cancerization by genetic effects, a pilot study (Study 1: 12 sample pairs) followed by a verification study (Study 2: 20 sample pairs) were performed on DNA extracted from HER2-positive breast tumors and matching normal adjacent mammary tissue samples excised 1-3 cm beyond the invasive tumor margin. High-resolution molecular inversion probe (MIP) arrays were used to compare genomic copy number variations, including increased HER2 gene copies, between the paired samples; as well, a detailed histologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) re-evaluation of all Study 2 samples was performed blinded to the genomic results to characterize the adjacent normal tissue composition bracketing the DNA-extracted samples. Overall, 14/32 (44 %) sample pairs from both studies produced genome-wide evidence of genetic aberrations including HER2 copy number gains within the adjacent normal tissue samples. The observed single-parental origin of monoallelic HER2 amplicon haplotypes shared by informative tumor-normal pairs, as well as commonly gained loci elsewhere on 17q, suggested the presence of contaminating tumor cells in the genomically aberrant normal samples. Histologic and IHC analyses identified occult 25-200 μm tumor cell clusters overexpressing HER2 scattered in more than half, but not all, of the genomically aberrant normal samples re-evaluated, but in none of the genomically normal samples. These genomic and microscopic findings support the conclusion that tumor cell contamination rather than genetic field cancerization represents the likeliest cause of local clinical recurrence rates following breast conserving surgery, and mandate caution

  20. Oxidative stress associated to dysfunctional adipose tissue: a potential link between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A B; Díaz-Lagares, A; Carreira, M C; Amil, M; Casanueva, F F

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer are two important health problems. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are closely linked with both being associated with breast cancer. Despite abundant epidemiological data, there is no definitive evidence regarding the mechanisms responsible for this association. The proposed mechanisms by which diabetes affects breast cancer risk and prognosis are the same as the mechanisms hypothesised for the contribution of obesity to breast cancer risk. The obesity-induced inflammation promoted by adipose tissue dysfunction is a key feature, which is thought to be an important link between obesity and cancer. Inflammation induces an increase in free radicals and subsequently promotes oxidative stress, which may create a microenvironment favourable to the tumor development in obese persons. Oxidative stress is also proposed as the link between obesity and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, obesity-related oxidative stress could be a direct cause of neoplastic transformation associated with obesity and T2DM in breast cancer cells. This review is focused on the role of obesity-related oxidative stress in the context of chronic inflammation, on the time of breast cancer onset and progression, which provide targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies in the fields of diabetes and obesity-related breast cancer.

  1. Can texture of tissue surrounding microcalcifications in mammography be used for breast cancer diagnosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahaliou, A.; Boniatis, I.; Sakellaropoulos, P.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Panayiotakis, G. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece); Costaridou, L. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates whether texture properties of the tissue surrounding microcalcifications (MCs) can contribute to breast cancer diagnosis. A case sample of 100 MC clusters (46 benign, 54 malignant) from 85 dense mammographic images included in the Digital Database for Screening Mammography, is analyzed. Regions of interest containing clusters are processed using wavelet-based enhancement and individual MCs are segmented by local thresholding. The segmented MCs are removed from original image data and the surrounding tissue area is subjected to texture analysis. The feasibility of four texture feature sets (first-order statistics, gray level co-occurrence matrices, gray level run length matrices and Laws' texture energy measures) in discriminating malignant from benign tissue was investigated using a k-nearest neighbor classifier. Laws' texture energy measures achieved the best classification accuracy 89% (sensitivity 90.74% and specificity 86.96%)

  2. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  3. Monitoring Dynamic Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and Human Bone Tissue in a Co-Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contag, Christopher H.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Bammer, Marie C.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Schmidt, Tobi L.; Maloney, William J.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bone is a preferential site of breast cancer metastasis and models are needed to study this process at the level of the microenvironment. We have used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and multiplex biomarker immunoassays to monitor dynamic breast cancer cell behaviors in co-culture with human bone tissue. Procedures Femur tissue fragments harvested from hip replacement surgeries were co-cultured with luciferase-positive MDA-MB-231-fLuc cells. BLI was performed to quantify breast cell division and track migration relative to bone tissue. Breast cell colonization of bone tissues was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Biomarkers in co-culture supernatants were profiled with MILLIPLEX® immunoassays. Results BLI demonstrated increased MDA-MB-231-fLuc proliferation (pbones, and revealed breast cell migration toward bone. Immunohistochemistry illustrated MDA-MB-231-fLuc colonization of bone, and MILLIPLEX® profiles of culture supernatants suggested breast/bone crosstalk. Conclusions Breast cell behaviors that facilitate metastasis occur reproducibly in human bone tissue co-cultures and can be monitored and quantified using BLI and multiplex immunoassays. PMID:24008275

  4. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  5. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  6. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Eyal; Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. • CT breast glandular tissue diameter correlates with log(b-HCG) • Gynaecomastia in CT is associated with worse prognosis • Gynaecomastia in CT is associated with non-seminoma histological subtype.

  7. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  8. Datamining approach for automation of diagnosis of breast cancer in immunohistochemically stained tissue microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Keerthana; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna; Pai, Muktha

    2010-05-28

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common human neoplasm, accounting for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females after cervical carcinoma. Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesteron receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) expressions play an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique is a high throughput technique which provides a standardized set of images which are uniformly stained, facilitating effective automation of the evaluation of the specimen images. TMA technique is widely used to evaluate hormone expression for diagnosis of breast cancer. If one considers the time taken for each of the steps in the tissue microarray process workflow, it can be observed that the maximum amount of time is taken by the analysis step. Hence, automated analysis will significantly reduce the overall time required to complete the study. Many tools are available for automated digital acquisition of images of the spots from the microarray slide. Each of these images needs to be evaluated by a pathologist to assign a score based on the staining intensity to represent the hormone expression, to classify them into negative or positive cases. Our work aims to develop a system for automated evaluation of sets of images generated through tissue microarray technique, representing the ER expression images and HER-2/neu expression images. Our study is based on the Tissue Microarray Database portal of Stanford university at http://tma.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/cx?n=her1, which has made huge number of images available to researchers. We used 171 images corresponding to ER expression and 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression of breast carcinoma. Out of the 171 images corresponding to ER expression, 104 were negative and 67 were representing positive cases. Out of the 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression, 112 were negative and 102 were representing positive cases. Our method has 92

  9. Epigenetic Changes of the ESR1 Gene in Breast Tissue of Healthy Women: A Missing Link with Breast Cancer Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraei, Abdolreza; Izadi, Pantea; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Nafissi, Nahid; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Younosi, Nasim; Meysamie, Alipasha; Mansoori, Yaser; Bastami, Milad; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad

    2017-08-01

    Reproductive history and obesity are among the well-recognized risk factors in the development of breast cancer, which are partially mediated by the increased exposure of breast tissues to estrogens. However, only a few studies have investigated the link between these risk factors and the pattern of methylation signatures in the breast tissue of healthy women. The role of the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene hypermethylation is reportedly important in the development of breast cancer. Thus, it is speculated that such ESR1 epigenetic changes may be influenced or shaped by obesity and reproductive history-related factors before and during breast carcinogenesis. Breast samples were collected from 120 cancer-free women who had undergone cosmetic mammoplasty. DNA was extracted from the breast tissues and, then, the methylation levels at the promoter and exon 1 regions of the ESR1 gene CpG island were determined by using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assay. The methylation level of the ESR1 promoter observed in women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) (p ≤ 0.001) was higher than in the subgroups of women of BMI cancer-free women. In terms of lifestyle intervention opportunities, this study also highlights the significance and feasibility of such interventions for BMI as a modifiable risk factor.

  10. Gene expression variation between distinct areas of breast cancer measured from paraffin-embedded tissue cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugger Mathias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and prognosis in breast cancer are mainly based on histology and immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE material. Recently, gene expression analysis was shown to elucidate the biological variance between tumors and molecular markers were identified that led to new classification systems that provided better prognostic and predictive parameters. Archived FFPE samples represent an ideal source of tissue for translational research, as millions of tissue blocks exist from routine diagnostics and from clinical studies. These should be exploited to provide clinicians with more accurate prognostic and predictive information. Unfortunately, RNA derived from FFPE material is partially degraded and chemically modified and reliable gene expression measurement has only become successful after implementing novel and optimized procedures for RNA isolation, demodification and detection. Methods In this study we used tissue cylinders as known from the construction of tissue microarrays. RNA was isolated with a robust protocol recently developed for RNA derived from FFPE material. Gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results Sixteen tissue blocks from 7 patients diagnosed with multiple histological subtypes of breast cancer were available for this study. After verification of appropriate localization, sufficient RNA yield and quality, 30 tissue cores were available for gene expression measurement on TaqMan® Low Density Arrays (16 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and 6 normal tissue, and 14 tissue cores were lost. Gene expression values were used to calculate scores representing the proliferation status (PRO, the estrogen receptor status and the HER2 status. The PRO scores measured from entire sections were similar to PRO scores determined from IDC tissue cores. Scores determined from normal tissue cores consistently revealed lower PRO scores

  11. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause). Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure. Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm) on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content), blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level), and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power). The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated. Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc.) and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  15. Cancer Grafted in Aberrant Breast Tissue Cáncer injertado en tejido mamario aberrante

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2012-01-01

    Among the anomalies during embryonic development of the breasts we may find supernumerary breasts and aberrant ectopic tissue. In both of them, malignant tumors of the breast can proliferate, mostly in aberrant tissue. We present the case of a female patient aged 73, who refers to have always had a "little mammary gland in the left submammary that never caused discomfort to the last two months when its volume increased and the skin retracted". Excisional biopsy allowed diagnosing an infiltrat...

  16. Effect of implant vs. tissue reconstruction on cancer specific survival varies by axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ouyang

    Full Text Available To compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS between patients who underwent tissue or implant reconstruction after mastectomy.We used the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER registries and compared the BCSS between patients who underwent tissue and implant reconstruction after mastectomy. Cox-regression models were fitted, adjusting for known clinicopathological features. The interaction between the reconstruction types (tissue/implant and nodal status (N-stage was investigated.A total of 6,426 patients with a median age of 50 years were included. With a median follow up of 100 months, the 10-year cumulative BCSS and non-BCSS were 85.1% and 95.4%, respectively. Patients who underwent tissue reconstruction had tumors with a higher T-stage, N-stage, and tumor grade and tended to be ER/PR-negative compared to those who received implant reconstruction. In univariate analysis, implant-reconstruction was associated with a 2.4% increase (P = 0.003 in the BCSS compared with tissue-reconstruction. After adjusting for significant risk factors of the BCSS (suggested by univariate analysis and stratifying based on the N-stage, there was only an association between the reconstruction type and the BCSS for the N2-3 patients (10-year BCSS of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction: 68.7% and 59.0%, P = 0.004. The 10-year BCSS rates of implant vs. tissue-reconstruction were 91.7% and 91.8% in N0 patients (P>0.05 and 84.5% and 84.4% in N1 patients (P>0.05, respectively.The implant (vs. tissue reconstruction after mastectomy was associated with an improved BCSS in N2-3 breast cancer patients but not in N0-1 patients. A well-designed, prospective study is needed to further confirm these findings.

  17. Distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive stem cells in benign mammary tissue from women with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfoss, Björn L; Holmqvist, Bo; Alm, Per; Olsson, Håkan

    2012-03-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in female breast tissue has been linked to stem cells, but little is known about the benign cellular organization in situ. We investigated the distribution of ALDH1-immunoreactive (ALDH1+) cells in histomorphologically benign breast tissue from 28 women with or without breast cancer. ALDH1+ cells were detected in benign tissue of women aged 20-72 years, located most commonly at the luminal and intermediate ductular levels and in the stroma. ALDH1+ cell populations and Ki67+ cell populations were present in separate ductules, both cell types rarely showing epithelial differentiation. ALDH1+ cells were non-reactive to Ki67 and oestrogen receptor. Stromal round/oval ALDH1+ non-leukocyte cells in both age groups expressed contractile protein. There was a lower concentration of luminal and intermediate ductular ALDH1+ cells in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women, and in cancer patients than in non-cancer patients, and a higher concentration in women receiving exogenous hormones. This study provides further evidence for the stem cell character of ALDH1+ cells, here in benign breast tissue of cancer and non-cancer patients throughout non-lactating adult life, and contributes evidence of benign stromal ALDH1+ cells. The distribution of ductular ALDH1+ stem cells appears to be influenced by hormonal status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  19. A molecular 'signature' of primary breast cancer cultures; patterns resembling tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhenhang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the spectrum of malignant attributes maintained outside the host environment, we have compared global gene expression in primary breast tumors and matched short-term epithelial cultures. Results In contrast to immortal cell lines, a characteristic 'limited proliferation' phenotype was observed, which included over expressed genes associated with the TGFβ signal transduction pathway, such as SPARC, LOXL1, RUNX1, and DAPK1. Underlying this profile was the conspicuous absence of hTERT expression and telomerase activity, a significant increase in TβRII, its cognate ligand, and the CDK inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1. Concurrently, tumor tissue and primary cultures displayed low transcript levels of proliferation-related genes, such as, TOP2A, ANKT, RAD51, UBE2C, CENPA, RRM2, and PLK. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that commonly used immortal cell lines do not reflect some aspects of tumor biology as closely as primary tumor cell cultures. The gene expression profile of malignant tissue, which is uniquely retained by cells cultured on solid substrates, could facilitate the development and testing of novel molecular targets for breast cancer.

  20. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  1. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  2. Label-free biomolecular characterization of human breast cancer tissue with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectral imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fa-Ke F.; Calligaris, David; Suo, Yuanzhen; Santagata, Sandro; Golby, Alexandra J.; Xie, X. Sunney; Mallory, Melissa A.; Golshan, Mehra; Dillon, Deborah A.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has been used for rapid label-free imaging of various biomolecules and drugs in living cells and tissues (Science, doi:10.1126/science.aaa8870). Our recent work has demonstrated that lipid and protein mapping of cancer tissue renders pathology-like images, providing essential histopathological information with subcellular resolution of the entire specimen (Cancer Research, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-027). We have also established the first SRS imaging Atlas of human brain tumors (Harvard Dataverse, doi: (doi:10.7910/DVN/EZW4EK). SRS imaging of tissue could provide invaluable information for cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance in two aspects: rapid surgical pathology and quantitative biomolecular characterization. In this work, we present the use of SRS microscopy for characterization of a few essential biomolecules in breast cancer. Human breast cancer tissue specimens at the tumor core, tumor margin and normal area (5 cm away from the tumor) from surgical cases will be imaged with SRS at multiple Raman shifts, including the peaks for lipid, protein, blood (absorption), collagen, microcalcification (calcium phosphates and calcium oxalate) and carotenoids. Most of these Raman shifts have relatively strong Raman cross sections, which ensures high-quality and fast imaging. This proof-of-principle study is sought to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of SRS imaging for ambient diagnosis and surgical guidance of breast cancer.

  3. Tissue-Doppler assessment of cardiac left ventricular function during short-term adjuvant epirubicin therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Jon M; Sogaard, Peter; Mortensen, Christiane E

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the extent of acute anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity reflects the risk for late development of heart failure. The aim of this study was to examine if short-term changes in cardiac function can be detected even after low-dose adjuvant epirubicin therapy for breast...... cancer when using Doppler tissue imaging of longitudinal left ventricular function....

  4. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  5. Development of an ELISA for measurement of BCAR1 protein in human breast cancer tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebenchtchikov, N.J.; Brinkman, A.B.; Broekhoven, S.P. van; Jong, D. de; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Span, P.N.; Peters, H.A.; Portengen, H.; Foekens, J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Dorssers, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High concentrations of breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1) protein measured by Western blotting in primary breast tumor cytosols are associated with early disease progression and failure of tamoxifen therapy. The aim of the present study was to develop an ELISA to measure

  6. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  7. Enhanced Metastatic Potential in a 3D Tissue Scaffold toward a Comprehensive in Vitro Model for Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, Gowri Manohari; Balaji, Sai A; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-12-23

    Metastasis is clinically the most challenging and lethal aspect of breast cancer. While animal-based xenograft models are expensive and time-consuming, conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems fail to mimic in vivo signaling. In this study we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold system that better mimics the topography and mechanical properties of the breast tumor, thus recreating the tumor microenvironment in vitro to study breast cancer metastasis. Porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds of modulus 7.0 ± 0.5 kPa, comparable to that of breast tumor tissue were fabricated, on which MDA-MB-231 cells proliferated forming tumoroids. A comparative gene expression analysis revealed that cells growing in the scaffolds expressed increased levels of genes implicated in the three major events of metastasis, viz., initiation, progression, and the site-specific colonization compared to cells grown in conventional 2D tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes. The cells cultured in scaffolds showed increased invasiveness and sphere formation efficiency in vitro and increased lung metastasis in vivo. A global gene expression analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of genes involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and tissue remodeling, cancer inflammation, and the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, NF-kappaB, and HIF1 signaling pathways-all of which are implicated in metastasis. Thus, culturing breast cancer cells in 3D scaffolds that mimic the in vivo tumor-like microenvironment enhances their metastatic potential. This system could serve as a comprehensive in vitro model to investigate the manifold mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis.

  8. Potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI in the characterization of malignant, benign and healthy breast tissues and molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma eSharma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCEMRI was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 x 10-3 mm2/s breast tissues. A cut-off ADC value of 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; AUC 0.96 to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen while their ADC value showed as positive for malignancy implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with the tumor volume, stage, hormonal receptors [estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermal growth factor (HER2] and menopausal status was investigated. A significant difference was seen in tumor volume between breast cancer patients of stages IIA and IIIA; IIB and IIIA; and IIB and III (B + C (p<0.05. A statistically significant lower ADC and a lower tumor volume was seen in patients with early (n=52 compared to those with locally advanced breast cancer (n=207. No association was found in ADC and tumor volume with the menopausal status. Breast cancers with ER-, PR- and triple negative (TN status showed a significantly larger tumor volume compared to ER+, PR+ and non-triple negative (nTN cancers, respectively. Also, TN cancers showed a significantly higher ADC compared to ER+, PR+ and nTN cancers. Patients with ER- and TN cancers were of younger age compared to those with ER+ and nTN cancers. The present study demonstrated that ADC may increase the diagnostic specificity of

  9. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  10. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  11. Upregulation of Mrps18a in breast cancer identified by selecting phage antibody libraries on breast tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Meldgaard, Theresa; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: We identified the mitochondrial ribosomal protein s18a (Mrps18a) as a protein which is upregulated in breast cancer. However, Mrps18a was not homogeneously upregulated in all cancer cells, suggesting the existence of sub-populations within the tumor. The upregulation was not confined...... to cytokeratin 19 and cytokeratin 14 double positive cells. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates how phage display can be applied towards the discovery of proteins which exhibit changes in their expression patterns. We identified the mitochondrial protein Mrps18a as being upregulated in human breast cancer cells...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  13. A 'waterfall' transfer-based workflow for improved quality of tissue microarray construction and processing in breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberländer, M; Alkemade, H; Bünger, S; Ernst, F; Thorns, C; Braunschweig, T; Habermann, J K

    2014-07-01

    A major focus in cancer research is the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis, therapy prediction and prognosis. Hereby, validation of target proteins on clinical samples is of high importance. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent an essential advancement for high-throughput analysis by assembling large numbers of tissue cores with high efficacy and comparability. However, limitations along TMA construction and processing exist. In our presented study, we had to overcome several obstacles in the construction and processing of high-density breast cancer TMAs to ensure good quality sections for further research. Exemplarily, 406 breast tissue cores from formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded samples of 245 patients were placed onto three recipient paraffin blocks. Sectioning was performed using a rotary microtome with a "waterfall" automated transfer system. Sections were stained by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for nine proteins. The number and quality of cores after sectioning and staining was counted manually for each marker. In total, 97.1 % of all cores were available after sectioning, while further 96 % of the remaining cores were evaluable after staining. Thereby, normal tissue cores were more often lost compared to tumor tissue cores. Our workflow provides a robust method for manufacturing high-density breast cancer TMAs for subsequent IHC or IF staining without significant sample loss.

  14. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  15. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  16. Human Breast Cancer Tissues Contain Abundant Phosphatidylcholine(36∶1) with High Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Nishio, Tomohisa; Morita, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koizumi, Kei; Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Hosokawa, Yuko; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shiiya, Norihiko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer and mortality in women worldwide. Recent studies have argued that there is a close relationship between lipid synthesis and cancer progression because some enzymes related to lipid synthesis are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. However, lipid distribution in breast cancer tissues has not been investigated. We aimed to visualize phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysoPCs (LPCs) in human breast cancer tissues by performing matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a novel technique that enables the visualization of molecules comprehensively. Twenty-nine breast tissue samples were obtained during surgery and subjected to MALDI-IMS analysis. We evaluated the heterogeneity of the distribution of PCs and LPCs on the tissues. Three species [PC(32∶1), PC(34∶1), and PC(36∶1)] of PCs with 1 mono-unsaturated fatty acid chain and 1 saturated fatty acid chain (MUFA-PCs) and one [PC(34∶0)] of PCs with 2 saturated fatty acid chains (SFA-PC) were relatively localized in cancerous areas rather than the rest of the sections (named reference area). In addition, the LPCs did not show any biased distribution. The relative amounts of PC(36∶1) compared to PC(36∶0) and that of PC(36∶1) to LPC(18∶0) were significantly higher in the cancerous areas. The protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is a synthetic enzyme of MUFA, showed accumulation in the cancerous areas as observed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The ratios were further analyzed considering the differences in expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67. The ratios of the signal intensity of PC(36∶1) to that of PC(36∶0) was higher in the lesions with positive ER expression. The contribution of SCD1 and other enzymes to the formation of the observed phospholipid composition is discussed. PMID:23613812

  17. Upregulation of Mrps18a in breast cancer identified by selecting phage antibody libraries on breast tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Meldgaard, Theresa; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the hallmarks of cancer is an altered energy metabolism, and here, mitochondria play a central role. Previous studies have indicated that some mitochondrial ribosomal proteins change their expression patterns upon transformation. METHOD: In this study, we have used the selection...... of recombinant antibody libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage as a proteomics discovery tool for the identification of breast cancer biomarkers. A small subpopulation of breast cells expressing both cytokeratin 19 and cytokeratin 14 was targeted using a novel selection procedure...

  18. Background enhancement of mammary glandular tissue on breast dynamic MRI: imaging features and effect on assessment of breast cancer extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-07-01

    Just as mammographic breast density influences mammographic sensitivity, the degree of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may influence the sensitivity of breast MRI. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of background enhancement on the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment using MRI and to assess the correlation between the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment and the kinetic analysis of background enhancement in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Seventy bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumor. Background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual assessment: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked, in the early dynamic phase and in the late dynamic phase. The correlation of the results with histological findings was examined. Background enhancement grade showed a significant tendency to increase during dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. When classifying background enhancement at early dynamic phase, the accuracy of tumor extent assessment by MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement was 60%, which was lower than the 78% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement, but not significantly so (p = 0.153). When classifying background enhancement at late dynamic phase, the accuracy with moderate/marked background enhancement was 61%, which was significantly lower than the 83% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement (p = 0.034). There was no tumor-size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.089). The degree of background enhancement on breast MRI affects the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment, especially at late dynamic phase.

  19. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  20. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. To clip or not to clip the breast tumor bed? A retrospective look at the geographic miss index and normal tissue index of 110 patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Florian; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Rempen, Andreas; Mohr, Peter; de Gregorio, Amelie; Wöckel, Achim; Janni, Wolfgang; Witucki, Gerlo

    2017-06-01

    Planning of breast radiation for patients with breast conserving surgery often relies on clinical markers such as scars. Lately, surgical clips have been used to identify the tumor location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geographic miss index (GMI) and the normal tissue index (NTI) for the electron boost in breast cancer treatment plans with and without surgical clips. A retrospective descriptive study of 110 consecutive post-surgical patients who underwent breast-conserving treatment in early breast cancer, in which the clinical treatment field with the radiologic (clipped) field were compared and GMI/NTI for the electron boost were calculated respectively. The average clinical field was 100 mm (range, 100-120 mm) and the clipped field was 90 mm (range, 80-100 mm). The average GMI was 11.3% (range, 0-44%), and the average NTI was 27.5% (range, 0-54%). The GMI and NTI were reduced through the use of intra-surgically placed clips. The impact of local tumor control on the survival of patients with breast cancer is also influenced by the precision of radiotherapy. Additionally, patients demand an appealing cosmetic result. This makes "clinical" markers such as scars unreliable for radiotherapy planning. A simple way of identifying the tissue at risk is by intra-surgical clipping of the tumor bed. Our results show that the use of surgical clips can reduce the diameter of the radiotherapy field and increase the accuracy of radiotherapy planning. With the placement of surgical clips, more tissue at risk is included in the radiotherapy field. Less normal tissue receives radiotherapy with the use of surgical clips.

  2. Background Parenchymal Enhancement and Fibroglandular Tissue Proportion on Breast MRI: Correlation with Hormone Receptor Expression and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mesut; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Süllü, Yurdanur; Tomak, Leman; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) proportion on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hormone receptor expression and molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. This retrospective study enrolled 75 breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before treatment. T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine the FGT proportion, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images were reviewed to determine BPE. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2-neu (HER2) status, and molecular subtypes of the tumors were compared with the BPE and FGT proportions. Women with high BPE tended to have increased rate of ER and PR positive tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.013). FGT proportion was associated with ER positivity (p=0.009), but no significant differences between FGT proportion and PR positivity were found (p=0.256). There was no significant difference between HER2 status and any of the imaging features (p=0.453 and p=0.922). For premenopausal women, both FGT proportion and BPE were associated with molecular subtypes (p=0.025 and p=0.042). FGT proportion was also associated with BPE (pbreast cancer, both high FGT containing breasts and high BPE breasts tended to have ER positive tumors.

  3. c-Kit-Positive Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote the Growth and Angiogenesis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs improve the regenerative ability and retention of fat grafts for breast reconstruction in cancer patients following mastectomy. However, ASCs have also been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. For the safety of ASC application, we aimed to identify specific markers for the subpopulation of ASCs that enhance the growth of breast cancer. Methods. ASCs and bone marrow-derived vascular endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs were isolated from Balb/c mice. c-Kit-positive (c-Kit+ or c-Kit-negative (c-Kit- ASCs were cocultured with 4T1 breast cancer cells. Orthotropic murine models of 4T1, EPCs + 4T1, and c-Kit+/-ASCs + 4T1/EPCs were established in Balb/c mice. Results. In coculture, c-Kit+ ASCs enhanced the viability and proliferation of 4T1 cells and stimulated c-Kit expression and interleukin-3 (IL-3 release. In mouse models, c-Kit+ASCs + 4T1/EPCs coinjection increased the tumor volume and vessel formation. Moreover, IL-3, stromal cell-derived factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A in the c-Kit+ASCs + 4T1/EPCs coinjection group were higher than those in the 4T1, EPCs + 4T1, and c-Kit-ASCs + 4T1/EPCs groups. Conclusions. c-Kit+ ASCs may promote breast cancer growth and angiogenesis by a synergistic effect of c-Kit and IL-3. Our findings suggest that c-Kit+ subpopulations of ASCs should be eliminated in fat grafts for breast reconstruction of cancer patients following mastectomy.

  4. Tissue microarray analysis of eIF4E and its downstream effector proteins in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E is elevated in many cancers and is a prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Many pro-tumorigenic proteins are selectively translated via eIF4E, including c-Myc, cyclin D1, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Tousled-like kinase 1B (TLK1B. However, western blot analysis of these factors in human breast cancer has been limited by the availability of fresh frozen tissue and the labor-intensive nature of the multiple assays required. Our goal was to validate whether formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues arranged in a tissue microarray (TMA format would be more efficient than the use of fresh-frozen tissue and western blot to test multiple downstream gene products. Results Breast tumor TMAs were stained immunohistochemically and quantitated using the ARIOL imaging system. In the TMAs, eIF4E levels correlated strongly with c-Myc, cyclin D1, TLK1B, VEGF, and ODC. Western blot comparisons of eIF4E vs. TLK1B were consistent with the immunohistochemical results. Consistent with our previous western blot results, eIF4E did not correlate with node status, ER, PR, or HER-2/neu. Conclusion We conclude that the TMA technique yields similar results as the western blot technique and can be more efficient and thorough in the evaluation of several products downstream of eIF4E.

  5. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Interactions between Breast Cancer or Melanoma Cells and the Tissue Microenvironment during Brain Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryo; Nakano, Teppei; Hosonaga, Mari; Sampetrean, Oltea; Harigai, Ritsuko; Sasaki, Takashi; Koya, Ikuko; Okano, Hideyuki; Kudoh, Jun; Saya, Hideyuki; Arima, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the treatment of primary tumors, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis of cancer cells to the brain have remained unclear. Metastasizing cancer cells interact with their microenvironment in the brain to establish metastases. We have now developed mouse models of brain metastasis based on intracardiac injection of human breast cancer or melanoma cell lines, and we have performed RNA sequencing analysis to identify genes in mouse brain tissue and the human cancer cells whose expression is associated specifically with metastasis. We found that the expressions of the mouse genes Tph2, Sspo, Ptprq, and Pole as well as those of the human genes CXCR4, PLLP, TNFSF4, VCAM1, SLC8A2, and SLC7A11 were upregulated in brain tissue harboring metastases. Further characterization of such genes that contribute to the establishment of brain metastases may provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies and consequent improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients.

  6. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Interactions between Breast Cancer or Melanoma Cells and the Tissue Microenvironment during Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non–small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the treatment of primary tumors, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis of cancer cells to the brain have remained unclear. Metastasizing cancer cells interact with their microenvironment in the brain to establish metastases. We have now developed mouse models of brain metastasis based on intracardiac injection of human breast cancer or melanoma cell lines, and we have performed RNA sequencing analysis to identify genes in mouse brain tissue and the human cancer cells whose expression is associated specifically with metastasis. We found that the expressions of the mouse genes Tph2, Sspo, Ptprq, and Pole as well as those of the human genes CXCR4, PLLP, TNFSF4, VCAM1, SLC8A2, and SLC7A11 were upregulated in brain tissue harboring metastases. Further characterization of such genes that contribute to the establishment of brain metastases may provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies and consequent improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients.

  7. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  8. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: the tubular breast cancer pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrame Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue areas within paraffin blocks: no utilities have been developed for the identification of areas to be punched from the donor block and assembled in the recipient block. Results The presented work supports, in the specific case of a primary subtype of breast cancer (tubular breast cancer, the semi-automatic discrimination and localization between normal and pathological regions within the tissues. The diagnosis is performed by analysing specific morphological features of the sample such as the absence of a double layer of cells around the lumen and the decay of a regular glands-and-lobules structure. These features are analysed using an algorithm which performs the extraction of morphological parameters from images and compares them to experimentally validated threshold values. Results are satisfactory since in most of the cases the automatic diagnosis matches the response of the pathologists. In particular, on a total of 1296 sub-images showing normal and pathological areas of breast specimens, algorithm accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are respectively 89%, 84% and 94%. Conclusions The proposed work is a first attempt to demonstrate that automation in the Tissue MicroArray field is feasible and it can represent an important tool for scientists to cope with this high-throughput technique.

  9. Moffitt Cancer Center Experience of Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Increase Return to the Operating Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Brielle; Kumar, Ambuj; Smith, Paul; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2018-01-24

    Tissue expander and implant remains the most common technique for breast reconstruction. A controversial topic within this method is routine use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Acellular dermal matrices have increased risks of infection, seroma, hematoma, skin flap necrosis, and total complications. After an institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was conducted of 756 tissue expander with implant cases from November 2010 to November 2016 at Moffitt Cancer Center with 2 breast reconstruction surgeons. Patients were grouped in 2 groups: tissue expander alone reconstruction (TE) and tissue expander with ADM (TE + ADM). Complications were defined by return visits to the operating room for irrigation and debridement as well as for subsequent tissue expander placement. There were 703 patients in the TE group and 53 in the TE + ADM group. Patients undergoing TE + ADM reconstruction were 3 times more likely to experience return to operating room compared with patients undergoing TE alone (7.5% vs 2.4%). Patients were significantly more likely to undergo 3 or more subsequent tissue expander placement procedures with TE + ADM (54.7%) compared with TE alone (4.8%) (P < 0.0001). Although ADM may be appropriate for specific patients, its use in tissue expander breast reconstruction should be judiciously selected, because there is an observed increase in complications needing return to the operating room.

  10. Identification of immune cell infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin stained breast cancer samples: texture-based classification of tissue morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkki, Riku; Linder, Nina; Kovanen, Panu E.; Pellinen, Teijo; Lundin, Johan

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer capture clinically important information. Despite the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, it has been shown that the degree of infiltration assessed by visual evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin (H and E) stained samples has prognostic and possibly predictive value. However, quantification of the infiltration in H and E-stained tissue samples is currently dependent on visual scoring by an expert. Computer vision enables automated characterization of the components of the tumor microenvironment, and texture-based methods have successfully been used to discriminate between different tissue morphologies and cell phenotypes. In this study, we evaluate whether local binary pattern texture features with superpixel segmentation and classification with support vector machine can be utilized to identify immune cell infiltration in H and E-stained breast cancer samples. Guided with the pan-leukocyte CD45 marker, we annotated training and test sets from 20 primary breast cancer samples. In the training set of arbitrary sized image regions (n=1,116) a 3-fold cross-validation resulted in 98% accuracy and an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.98 to discriminate between immune cell -rich and - poor areas. In the test set (n=204), we achieved an accuracy of 96% and AUC of 0.99 to label cropped tissue regions correctly into immune cell -rich and -poor categories. The obtained results demonstrate strong discrimination between immune cell -rich and -poor tissue morphologies. The proposed method can provide a quantitative measurement of the degree of immune cell infiltration and applied to digitally scanned H and E-stained breast cancer samples for diagnostic purposes.

  11. Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    channels specific for each region of interest. Histone H3 and dsDNA are being used as nuclear markers; lamin A/C and nuclear pore complex are...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0180 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  13. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  14. Quality Assessments of Long-Term Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Xenograft Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying [Department; Chen, Lijun [Department; Zhang, Bai [Department; Tian, Yuan [Department; Liu, Tao [Biological; Thomas, Stefani N. [Department; Chen, Li [Department; Schnaubelt, Michael [Department; Boja, Emily [Office; Hiltke, Tara [Office; Kinsinger, Christopher R. [Office; Rodriguez, Henry [Office; Davies, Sherri R. [Department; Li, Shunqiang [Department; Snider, Jacqueline E. [Department; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra [Department; Tabb, David L. [Department; Townsend, R. Reid [Department; Ellis, Matthew J. [Department; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological; Smith, Richard D. [Biological; Carr, Steven A. [The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States; Zhang, Zhen [Department; Chan, Daniel W. [Department; Zhang, Hui [Department

    2017-09-21

    The identification of protein biomarkers requires large-scale analysis of human specimens to achieve statistical significance. In this study, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) based quantitative proteomics strategy using one channel for universal normalization across all samples. A total of 307 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analyses were completed, generating 107 one-dimensional (1D) LC-MS/MS datasets and 8 offline two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS/MS datasets (25 fractions for each set) for human-in-mouse breast cancer xenograft tissues representative of basal and luminal subtypes. Such large-scale studies require the implementation of robust metrics to assess the contributions of technical and biological variability in the qualitative and quantitative data. Accordingly, we developed a quantification confidence score based on the quality of each peptide-spectrum match (PSM) to remove quantification outliers from each analysis. After combining confidence score filtering and statistical analysis, reproducible protein identification and quantitative results were achieved from LC-MS/MS datasets collected over a 16 month period.

  15. Milk duct segmentation in microscopic HE images of breast cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świderski Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to recognize and extract the milk duct in haematoxylin and eosin (HE stained breast cancer tissues. The paper presents the modified K-means approach to segmentation of the milk duct in HE stained images. Instead of using single pixels we propose to consider the defined region of pixels in the process. Thanks to such modification more accurate extraction of the milk ducts has been achieved. To compare the results in a numerical way the GT images prepared by the medical expert have been subtracted from the corresponding images created by the segmentation methods. The numerical experiments performed for many preparations have confirmed the superiority of such approach. The proposed method has allowed reducing significantly the error of duct segmentation in comparison to the classical K-means approaches. The results show, that our method is superior to the standard K-means and to the K-means preceded by averaging or Gaussian filtration at different size of filtration mask.

  16. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine M Snijders

    Full Text Available High dose ionizing radiation (IR is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, <10 cGy exposures remain highly uncertain. We explored a systems approach that compared LD-induced chromosome damage and transcriptional responses in strains of mice with genetic differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6 for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a diminished immune response, (b increased cellular stress, (c altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001, and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (p<0.0001. There is concordant direction of expression in the LD-exposed sensitive mouse strain, in biomarkers of human DCIS and in biomarkers of human breast tumors. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic mechanisms that determine susceptibility to LD radiation induced mammary cancer in mice are similar to the tissue mechanisms that determine poor-survival in breast cancer patients. We observed non-linearity of the LD responses providing molecular evidence against the LNT risk model and obtained new evidence that LD responses are

  17. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. Evaluation of HER2/neu oncoprotein in serum & tissue samples of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that elevated serum HER2 level was associated with a clinicopathological aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma and was related to tissue HER2 overexpression. Therefore, serum HER2 may be useful for monitoring the course of the disease and response to treatment.

  19. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  20. Metabolic Portraits of Breast Cancer by HR MAS MR Spectroscopy of Intact Tissue Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje H. Haukaas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in early detection and therapeutic strategies, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women globally. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of tumor biology, breast cancer patients with similar diagnosis might have different prognosis and response to treatment. Thus, deeper understanding of individual tumor properties is necessary. Cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production, which requires reprogramming of central metabolic processes in the cells. This phenomenon is increasingly recognized as a potential target for treatment, but also as a source for biomarkers that can be used for prognosis, risk stratification and therapy monitoring. Magnetic resonance (MR metabolomics is a widely used approach in translational research, aiming to identify clinically relevant metabolic biomarkers or generate novel understanding of the molecular biology in tumors. Ex vivo proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS MR spectroscopy is widely used to study central metabolic processes in a non-destructive manner. Here we review the current status for HR MAS MR spectroscopy findings in breast cancer in relation to glucose, amino acid and choline metabolism.

  1. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontchos, Brian N; Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C; Korde, Larissa A; Lam, Diana L; Scheel, John R; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for

  2. Association between computed tissue density asymmetry in bilateral mammograms and near-term breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Tan, Maxine; Ramalingam, Pandiyarajan; Gur, David

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated association between bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and near-term breast cancer risk. A data base of digital mammograms acquired from 690 women was retrospectively collected. All images were originally interpreted as negative by radiologists. During the next subsequent screening examinations (between 12 and 36 months later), 230 women were diagnosed positive for cancer, 230 were recalled for additional diagnostic workups and proved to be benign, and 230 remained negative (not recalled). We applied a computerized scheme to compute the differences of five image features between the left and right mammograms, and trained an artificial neural network (ANN) to compute a bilateral mammographic density asymmetry score. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess associations between the ANN-generated scores and risk of women having detectable cancers during the next screening examinations. A logistic regression method was applied to test for trend as a function of the increase in ANN-generated scores. The results were also compared with ORs computed using other existing cancer risk factors. The ORs showed an increasing risk trend with the increase in ANN-generated scores (from 1.00 to 9.07 between positive and negative case groups). The regression analysis also showed a significant increase trend in slope (p breast density, or family history of breast cancer. This study demonstrated that the computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry had potential to be used as a new risk factor to improve discriminatory power in predicting near-term risk of women developing breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cancer Grafted in Aberrant Breast Tissue Cáncer injertado en tejido mamario aberrante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the anomalies during embryonic development of the breasts we may find supernumerary breasts and aberrant ectopic tissue. In both of them, malignant tumors of the breast can proliferate, mostly in aberrant tissue. We present the case of a female patient aged 73, who refers to have always had a "little mammary gland in the left submammary that never caused discomfort to the last two months when its volume increased and the skin retracted". Excisional biopsy allowed diagnosing an infiltrating ductal carcinoma, the first case of carcinoma grafted in aberrant breast tissue diagnosed in the province.

    Entre las anomalías del desarrollo embrionario de las mamas se encuentran las mamas supernumerarias y el tejido ectópico aberrante. Ambas pueden ser asiento de tumores malignos de la mama, en mayor número  el tejido aberrante. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 73 años, que refiere tiene desde siempre una “mamita pequeña en el surco submamario izquierdo la cual nunca le ocasiono molestias hasta hace 2 meses en que aumentó de volumen y se le retrajo la piel". Mediante biopsia escisional se le diagnostica un carcinoma ductal infiltrante, siendo así  el primer caso de carcinoma injertado en tejido mamario aberrante diagnosticado en nuestra provincia.

  4. The prognostic and therapeutic application of microRNAs in breast cancer: Tissue and circulating microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afsane; Aledavood, Amir; Anvari, Kazem; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Maftouh, Mina; Yaghobzade, Ali; Salarzaee, Omid; ShahidSales, Soodabeh; Avan, Amir

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy diagnosed in women, supporting the need for identification of novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as molecular regulators that can have key roles in pathogenesis and progression of different malignancies, including breast cancer. Micro-RNAs can be circulated in body fluid, suggesting their values as non-invasive marker. There is growing body of evidence showing the aberrant activation of some known circulating miRNAs, for example let-151a, miR-21, miR-155, miR-,145 miR-18a, miR-16 as well as tissue specific-miRNAs, for example miR-182, miR-145, miR-21, miR-155/154, miR-203, miR-213, miR-7 in patients affected by breast cancer. In addition, there is growing body of evidences on the value of miRNAs to be associated with drug-resistance, suggesting their values as a potential approach to overcome chemo-resistance. Attuned with these facts, this review highlights recent preclinical and clinical investigation performed on tissue-specific miRNAs and circulating as novel promising biomarkers for detection of patients at early stages, prediction of prognosis, and monitoring of the patients in response to therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of contralateral and ipsilateral reference tissue selection on self-referencing differential spectroscopy for breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Cerussi, Albert E; Tanamai, Wendy; Durkin, Amanda F; Compton, Montana; Gratton, Enrico; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2011-11-01

    We previously developed a self-referencing differential spectroscopic (SRDS) method to detect lesions by identifying a spectroscopic biomarker of breast cancer, i.e., the specific tumor component (STC). The SRDS method is based on the assumption of the exclusive presence of this spectroscopic biomaker in malignant disease. Although clinical results using this method have already been published, the dependence of the STC spectra on the choice of reference tissue has not yet been addressed. In this study, we explore the impact of the selection of the reference region size and location on the STC spectrum in 10 subjects with malignant breast tumors. Referencing from both contralateral and ipsilateral sides was performed. Regardless of the referencing, we are able to obtain consistent high contrast images of malignant lesions using the STC with less than 13% deviation. These results suggest that the STC measurements are independent of any type, location, and amount of normal breast tissue used for referencing. This confirms the initial assumption of the SRDS analysis, that there are specific tumor components in cancer that do not exist in normal tissue. This also indicates that bilateral measurements are not required for lesion identification using the STC method.

  6. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  7. A Cohert Study of the Relationship Between c-erbB-2 and Cyclin D1 Overexpression, p53 Mutation and/or Protein Accumulation, and Risk of Progression from Benign Breast Disease to Breast Cancer; and Creation of a Bank of Benign Breast Tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kandel, Rita

    2000-01-01

    ... increase in risk to develop breast cancer. The purpose of this project is: 1) collect paraffm-embedded benign breast tissue from the remaining 4,336 cohort members who were not part of the case-control study. (2...

  8. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+ and Negative (ER- Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Semaan, Xu Wang, Alan G. Marshall, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+ tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER- tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples.

  9. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We...

  10. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  11. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  12. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  13. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Estrogen receptor (ER)α-regulated lipocalin 2 expression in adipose tissue links obesity with breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Brian G; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J; Krum, Susan A; Calkin, Anna C; Parks, Brian W; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Slamon, Dennis J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Hevener, Andrea L

    2015-02-27

    Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ERα binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Because adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ERα deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned medium from ERα-null adipocytes and medium containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a subset of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and promigratory effects of ERα-deficient adipocyte-conditioned medium on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. SLC22A17 and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ERα expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Expression of estrogen receptors in non-malignant mammary tissue modifies the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoli, E; Lagiou, A; Zourna, P; Barbouni, A; Georgila, C; Tsikkinis, A; Vassilarou, D; Minaki, P; Sfikas, C; Spanos, E; Trichopoulos, D; Lagiou, P

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have reported that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is positively associated with estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] breast cancer risk, whereas there is little or no association with respect to ER(-) breast cancer. All comparisons of ER(+) breast cancer cases, however, have been made versus healthy controls, for whom there is no information about the ER expression in their mammary gland. In the context of a case-control investigation conducted in Athens, Greece, we studied 102 women with incident ERα(+) breast cancer and compared their IGF-1 blood levels with those of 178 ERα(+) and 83 ERα(-) women with benign breast disease (BBD) who underwent biopsies in the context of their standard medical care. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression and controlling for potential confounding variables. ERα(+) breast cancer patients had higher IGF-1 levels compared with women with BBD [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.94, per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-1 levels]. When ERα status of women with BBD was taken into account, the difference in IGF-1 levels between ERα(+) breast cancer patients and women with BBD was clearly driven by the comparison with BBD women who were ERα(+) (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.89 per 1 SD increase in IGF-1 levels), whereas there was essentially no association with IGF-1 levels when ERα(+) breast cancer patients were compared with ERα(-) BBD women. These contrasts were particularly evident among post/peri-menopausal women. We found evidence in support of an interaction of IGF-1 with the expression of ERα in the non-malignant mammary tissue in the context of breast cancer pathogenesis. This is in line with previous evidence suggesting that IGF-1 increases the risk of ER(+) breast cancer. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology 2014.

  16. Tumor markers cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen for monitoring metastatic breast cancer during first-line chemotherapy and follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether model systems integrating stochastic variation into criteria for marker assessment could be used for monitoring metastatic breast cancer. A total of 3989 serum samples was obtained from 204 patients receiving first-line chemotherapy and from 112 of these patients during...... follow-up. Each sample was analyzed for cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen. The efficiency for identifying progression and nonprogression was 94% during therapy and 85% during follow-up, with no false-positive marker results for progressive disease. At clinical...... unnecessary toxicity. Marker information may also be useful in studies investigating whether early treatment during follow-up will alter the prognosis of metastatic breast cancer....

  17. BDNF is associated with SFRP1 expression in luminal and basal-like breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancer tissues: a novel role in tumor suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Huth

    Full Text Available Secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1 functions as an important inhibitor of the Wnt pathway and is a known tumor suppressor gene, which is epigenetically silenced in a variety of tumors e.g. in breast cancer. However, it is still unclear how SFRP1 exactly affects the Wnt pathway. Our aim was to decipher SFRP1 involvement in biochemical signaling in dependency of different breast cancer subtypes and to identify novel SFRP1-regulated genes. We generated SFRP1 over-expressing in vitro breast cancer models, reflecting the two major subtypes by using basal-like BT20 and luminal-like HER2-positive SKBR3 cells. DNA microarray expression profiling of these models revealed that SFRP1 expression potentially modulates Bone morphogenetic protein- and Smoothened signaling (p<0.01, in addition to the known impact on Wnt signaling. Importantly, further statistical analysis revealed that in dependency of the cancer subtype model SFRP1 may affect the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway (p<0.01, respectively. While SFRP1 re-expression generally mediated distinct patterns of transcriptionally induced or repressed genes in BT20 and SKBR3 cells, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was identified as a SFRP1 induced gene in both cell lines. Although BDNF has been postulated as a putative oncogene, the co-regulation with SFRP1 indicates a potential suppressive function in breast cancer. Indeed, a positive correlation between SFRP1 and BDNF protein expression could be shown (p<0.001 in primary breast cancer samples. Moreover, TCGA dataset based analysis clearly underscores that BDNF mRNA is down-regulated in primary breast cancer samples predicting a poor prognosis of these patients. In line, we functionally provide evidence that stable BDNF re-expression in basal-like BT20 breast cancer cells blocks tumor cell proliferation. Hence, our results suggest that BDNF might rather mediate suppressive than promoting function in human breast cancer whose mode of

  18. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  19. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  20. Tumor tissue levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P.; Gelder, Marion E. Meijer-van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome...... after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. METHODS: From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we...... an association between shorter survival after treatment in TIMP-1 high patients compared with TIMP-1 low patients, especially in patients receiving anthracycline-based therapy. This suggests that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 might be associated with reduced benefit from classical adjuvant chemotherapy. Our...

  1. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  2. Breast-cancer extracellular vesicles induce platelet activation and aggregation by tissue factor-independent and -dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fausto G; Sandim, Vanessa; Almeida, Vitor H; Rondon, Araci M R; Succar, Barbara B; Hottz, Eugenio D; Leal, Ana Carolina; Verçoza, Brunno Renato F; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola F; Bozza, Patrícia T; Zingali, Russolina B; Monteiro, Robson Q

    2017-11-01

    Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the major causes of worse prognosis among tumor-bearing patients. Extracellular vesicles derived from cancer cells, which can be divided mainly into microvesicles and exosomes, can participate in several tumor progression phenomena. Tumor-derived microvesicles positive for tissue factor (TF) have been associated with thrombotic risk in certain cancer types. Cancer cell-derived exosomes, however, have not. In this study we evaluated the capacity of extracellular vesicles (EVs, containing both microvesicles and exosomes) derived from breast-cancer cell lines in promoting platelet activation, aggregation and plasma coagulation, in experiments that access both TF-dependent and -independent activities. EVs were isolated from the conditioned media of two human mammary carcinoma cell lines: MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MCF-7 (less invasive). TF-independent EV/platelet interaction, platelet P-selectin exposure and aggregation were evaluated. Western blotting, plasma clotting and platelet aggregation in the presence of plasma were performed for the measurement of TF-dependent activity in EVs. Interaction between MDA-MB-231 EVs and washed platelets led to increased platelet P-selectin exposure and platelet aggregation compared to MCF-7 EVs. MDA-MB-231 EVs had higher TF protein levels and TF-dependent procoagulant activity than MCF-7 EVs. Consequently, TF-dependent platelet aggregation was also induced by MDA-MB-231 EVs, but not by MCF-7 EVs. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 EVs induce TF-independent platelet activation and aggregation, as well as TF-dependent plasma clotting and platelet aggregation by means of thrombin generation. In this context, aggressive breast cancer-derived EVs may contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  4. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  5. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  6. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  8. Luminoimmunometric Assay of Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (Tpa and Cancer Antigen 125 (Ca-125 in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. El-Ahmady

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum TPA and CA-125 were determined in 86 individuals (66 with breast cancer representing the different stages and grades of the disease and 20 normal healthy controls. TPA and CA-125 were estimated using the L1A reagents supplied by BYK Sangtec. TPA showed sensitivity rates of 31.8%, 42.4% and 51.5% while CA-125 showed sensitivities of 16.3%, 18.6% and 25.6% at specificity levels of 100%, 95% and 90% respectively. Combined determination of the two markers resulted in some improvement in sensitivity. For follow-up of breast cancer patients after surgery both markers were of value and showed near-identical patterns.

  9. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  10. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Kynamro) has recently gained FDA approval for the treatment of high cholesterol , a major contributor to Coronary Heart Disease (CDH). Kynamro is a...stage II colon cancer into groups at low and high risk of disease recurrence, thereby adding prognostic value to the traditional clinicopathological... risk factors (11). miRNAs can be further used as biomarkers for identifying tissue origin in metastatic tumors (13, 14). By measuring miRNA

  11. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  12. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation: no evidence of malignant cell contamination in ovarian tissue from patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Timmermans Wielenga, Vera; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreserved ovarian cortical biopsies from 51 patients with breast cancer were examined by histologic and immunohistochemical analysis and showed no sign of metastases. Autotransplantation of ovarian cortex to patients with low-stage breast cancer disease appears safe, but confirmatory studies...

  13. Magnetic resonance metabolic profiling of breast cancer tissue obtained with core needle biopsy for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Choi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic profiling of core needle biopsy (CNB samples using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS could be used for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained, CNB tissue samples were collected from 37 malignant lesions in 37 patients before NAC treatment. The metabolic profiling of CNB samples were performed by HR-MAS MRS. Metabolic profiles were compared according to pathologic response to NAC using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Various metabolites including choline-containing compounds were identified and quantified by HR-MAS MRS in all 37 breast cancer tissue samples obtained by CNB. In univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations and metabolic ratios of CNB samples obtained with HR-MAS MRS were not significantly different between different pathologic response groups. However, there was a trend of lower levels of phosphocholine/creatine ratio and choline-containing metabolite concentrations in the pathologic complete response group compared to the non-pathologic complete response group. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between the pathologic response groups. This study showed OPLS-DA multivariate analysis using metabolic profiles of pretreatment CNB samples assessed by HR- MAS MRS may be used to predict pathologic response before NAC, although we did not identify the metabolite showing statistical significance in univariate analysis. Therefore, our preliminary results raise the necessity of further study on HR-MAS MR metabolic profiling of CNB samples for a large number of cancers.

  14. Field-Specific Intensity-modulated Proton Therapy Optimization Technique for Breast Cancer Patients with Tissue Expanders Containing Metal Ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maura; Freedman, Gary; Ostrander, Thorsten; Dong, Lei

    2017-09-18

    This report aims to propose and present an evaluation of a robust pencil beam scanning proton multi-field optimized treatment planning technique for postmastectomy radiation of breast cancer patients with implanted tissue expanders containing an internal metal port. Field-specific split targets were created for optimization to prevent spots from traveling through the metal port, while providing uniform coverage of the target with the use of a multi-field intensity modulated optimization approach. Two beam angles were strategically selected to provide complementary target coverage and plan robustness. The plan was compared with an independently developed photon plan and evaluated for robustness with respect to isocenter shifts, range shifts, and variation of the water-equivalent thickness of the port. The proton plan resulted in clinically acceptable target coverage and dosage to neighboring normal tissues. The D95% coverage was 95.3% in the nominal proton plan, with a worst-case coverage of 90.1% (when considering 0.3 cm isocenter shifts combined with 3.5% range uncertainty), and the coverage varied less than 1% under a hypothetically extreme variation of the port density. The proton plan had improved dose homogeneity compared with the photon plan, and reduced ipsilateral lung and mean heart doses. We demonstrated that a practical, field-specific intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization technique can be used to deal with the challenge of metal port in breast cancer patients with tissue expanders. The resulting proton plan has superior dosimetric characteristics over the best-case scenario photon plan, and is also robust to setup and proton range uncertainties.

  15. Recurrent read-through fusion transcripts in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Roberts, Brian S.; Davis, Nicholas S.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Kirby, Marie K.; Nesmith, Amy S.; Oliver, Patsy G.; Grizzle, William E.; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Myers, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Read-through fusion transcripts that result from the splicing of two adjacent genes in the same coding orientation are a recently discovered type of chimeric RNA. We sought to determine if read-through fusion transcripts exist in breast cancer. We performed paired-end RNA-seq of 168 breast samples, including 28 breast cancer cell lines, 42 triple negative breast cancer primary tumors, 42 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer primary tumors, and 56 non-malignant breast tissue samples....

  16. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  17. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  18. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, Prabhjot, E-mail: Prabhjot.Juneja@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna M. [Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue

  19. Contribution of bone tissue modulus to breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelcher, Scott A; Sterling, Julie A

    2011-12-01

    Certain tumors, such as breast, frequently metastasize to bone where they can induce bone destruction. Currently, it is well-accepted that the tumor cells are influenced by other cells and growth factors present in the bone microenvironment that lead to tumor-induced bone disease. Over the past 20 years, many groups have studied this process and determined the major contributing factors; however, these results do not fully explain the changes in gene expression and cell behavior that occur when tumor cells metastasize to bone. More recently, groups studying metastasis from soft tissue sites have determined that the rigidity of the microenvironment, which increases during tumor progression in soft tissue, can regulate tumor cell behavior and gene expression. Therefore, we began to investigate the role of the rigid bone extracellular matrix in the regulation of genes that stimulate tumor-induced bone disease. We found that the rigidity of bone specifically regulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and Gli2 expression in a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and mechanotransduction-dependent mechanism. In this review, we summarize the mechanotransduction signaling pathway and how this influences TGF-β signaling and osteolytic gene expression.

  20. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  1. Breast tissue-based microRNA panel highlights microRNA-23a and selected target genes as putative biomarkers for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Sanaa; Matboli, Marwa; Shehata, Hanan H

    2015-03-01

    We explored the differential expression of breast tissue-based panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential application as prognostic markers of breast cancer (BC). This study was divided into the following phases: (1) A panel of 6 BC characteristic miRNAs, which were retrieved based on the microarray signature profiling (released by miRWalk), was explored using SYBR Green-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array in 16 cancerous and 16 noncancerous breast tissue; (2) pathway enrichment analysis of the key miRNA target genes; (3) marker choice and validation by real-time PCR in a larger set of 76 patients with BC, 36 benign breast conditions, and 36 healthy volunteers; (4) validation of miRNA (miR)-23a target genes (forkhead box m [FOXM1] and histidine-rich glycoprotein [HRG]) by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR; and (5) the prognostic significance of the investigated parameters in the BC validation group was explored. In PCR array-based miRNA expression analysis, 4 miRNAs were found to be altered more than twice (miR-96, miR-29c, miR-221, and miR-23a). Bioinformatic analysis of the target genes revealed enrichment for special biological process categories, that is, cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion. miR-23a, HRG messenger RNA, and FOX messenger RNA were positive in BC by 82.9%, 72.4%, and 71.1%, respectively. The overall concordance rates between miR-23a with HRG and FOXM1 tissue RNAs were 91% and 79%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 49 months. mi-23a and HRG RNA were significant independent prognostic markers in relapse-free survival. miR-23a may have an oncogenic function and enhance BC progression by directly activating FOXM1 and HRG at RNA level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Gene Expression Signature for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Frozen Fresh Tissue before Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santuario-Facio, Sandra K.; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Perez-Paramo, Yadira X; Trevino, Victor; Hernandez-Cabrera, Francisco; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Uscanga-Perales, Grecia; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jorge L; Martinez-Jacobo, Lizeth; Padilla-Rivas,Gerardo; Mu��oz-Maldonado, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan Francisco; Valero-Gomez, Javier; Vazquez-Guerrero, Ana L; Herminia G Martinez-Rodriguez

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer tumors. Comparisons between TNBC and non���triple-negative breast cancer (nTNBC) may help to differentiate key components involved in TNBC neoplasms. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression profile of TNBC versus nTNBC tumors in a homogeneous population from northeastern Mexico. A prospective study of 50 patients (25 TNBC and 25 nTNBC) was conducted. Clinic parameters were equally distributed for TNB...

  3. Bilateral Changes in Deep Tissue Environment After Manual Lymphatic Drainage in Patients with Breast Cancer Treatment-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Paula M C; Crescenzi, Rachelle; Scott, Allison O; Braxton, Vaughn; Desai, Aditi; Smith, Seth A; Jordi, John; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Grau, Ana M; Kauffmann, Rondi M; Sweeting, Raeshell S; Spotanski, Kandace; Ridner, Sheila H; Donahue, Manus J

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) arises from a mechanical insufficiency following cancer therapies. Early BCRL detection and personalized intervention require an improved understanding of the physiological processes that initiate lymphatic impairment. Here, internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of the tissue microenvironment were paired with clinical measures of tissue structure to test fundamental hypotheses regarding structural tissue and muscle changes after the commonly used therapeutic intervention of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD). Measurements to identify lymphatic dysfunction in healthy volunteers (n = 29) and patients with BCRL (n = 16) consisted of (1) limb volume, tissue dielectric constant, and bioelectrical impedance (i.e., non-MRI measures); (2) qualitative 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI; and (3) quantitative multi-echo T2 MRI of the axilla. Measurements were repeated in patients immediately following MLD. Normative control and BCRL T2 values were quantified and a signed Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was applied (significance: two-sided p < 0.05). Non-MRI measures yielded significant capacity for discriminating between arms with versus without clinical signs of BCRL, yet yielded no change in response to MLD. Alternatively, a significant increase in deep tissue T2 on the involved (pre T2 = 0.0371 ± 0.003 seconds; post T2 = 0.0389 ± 0.003; p = 0.029) and contralateral (pre T2 = 0.0365 ± 0.002; post T2 = 0.0395 ± 0.002; p < 0.01) arms was observed. Trends for larger T2 increases on the involved side after MLD in patients with stage 2 BCRL relative to earlier stages 0 and 1 BCRL were observed, consistent with tissue composition changes in later stages of BCRL manifesting as breakdown of fibrotic tissue after MLD in the involved arm. Contrast consistent with relocation of fluid to the contralateral quadrant was observed in all stages. Quantitative

  4. Changes in arm tissue composition with slowly progressive weight-lifting among women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Brown, Justin C; Paskett, Electra D; Zemel, Babette S; Cheville, Andrea L; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-07-01

    Studies in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BRCL) have exclusively examined total arm volume, but not the specific tissue composition that contributes to total volume. We evaluated baseline differences in arm tissue composition [fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD)] between the affected and unaffected arms in women with BRCL. We compared changes in arm tissue composition and self-reported lymphedema symptoms after 1 year of weight-lifting versus control. We utilized data from physical activity and lymphedema trial that included 141 women with BRCL. Arm tissue composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The severity of lymphedema was quantified using self-report survey. Weight-lifting was performed at community fitness facilities. At baseline, the affected arm had more fat (∆ = 89.7 g; P composition of the affected arm was improved: lean mass (71.2 g; P = 0.01) and BMD (14.0 mg/cm 2 ; P = 0.02) increased, arm fat percentage decreased (-1.5%; P = 0.003). Composition of the unaffected arm was only improved in lean mass (65.2 g; P = 0·04). Increases in lean mass were associated with less severe BCRL symptoms. Among women with BRCL, slowly progressive weight-lifting could improve arm tissue composition. Changes in arm tissue composition predict changes in symptom burden. Investigating the combined effects of exercise and weight loss on arm tissue composition and BCRL symptoms may provide additional insight into the benefits of lifestyle modification on lymphedema biology.

  5. Comparison of ESR1 Mutations in Tumor Tissue and Matched Plasma Samples from Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takeshita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ESR1 mutation in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA is emerging as a noninvasive biomarker of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, but there is a paucity of data comparing the status of ESR1 gene in cfDNA with that in its corresponding tumor tissue. The objective of this study is to validate the degree of concordance of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue. METHODS: ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations Y537S, Y537N, Y537C, and D538G were analyzed using droplet digital PCR in 35 patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC (35 tumor tissue samples and 67 plasma samples. RESULTS: Of the 35 paired samples, 26 (74.3% were concordant: one patient had detectable ESR1 mutations both plasma (ESR1 Y537S/Y537N and tumor tissue (ESR1 Y537S/Y537C, and 25 had WT ESR1 alleles in both. Nine (25.7% had discordance between the plasma and tissue results: five had mutations detected only in their tumor tissue (two Y537S, one Y537C, one D538G, and one Y537S/Y537N/D538G, and four had mutations detected only in their plasma (one Y537S, one Y537N, and two Y537S/Y537N/D538G. Furthermore, longitudinal plasma samples from 19 patients were used to assess changes in the presence of ESR1 mutations during treatment. Eleven patients had cfDNA ESR1 mutations over the course of treatment. A total of eight of 11 patients with MBC with cfDNA ESR1 mutations (72.7% had the polyclonal mutations. CONCLUSION: We have shown the independent distribution of ESR1 mutations between plasma and tumor tissue in 35 patients with MBC.

  6. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  7. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  8. ESR1 gene promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA and its correlation with estrogen receptor protein expression in tumor tissue in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Torres-Torres, Blanca; Núñez, María Isabel; López-Peñalver, Jesús; Del Moral, Rosario; Ruiz De Almodóvar, José Mariano; Menjón, Salomón; Concha, Angel; Chamorro, Clara; Ríos, Sandra; Delgado, Juan Ramón

    2014-02-04

    Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is an important marker of prognosis, and is predictive of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Several studies have observed that epigenetic events, such methylation of cytosines and deacetylation of histones, are involved in the complex mechanisms that regulate promoter transcription. However, the exact interplay of these factors in transcription activity is not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between ER expression status in tumor tissue samples and the methylation of the 5' CpG promoter region of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) isolated from free circulating DNA (fcDNA) in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Patients (n = 110) with non-metastatic breast cancer had analyses performed of ER expression (luminal phenotype in tumor tissue, by immunohistochemistry method), and the ESR1-DNA methylation status (fcDNA in plasma, by quantitative methylation specific PCR technique). Our results showed a significant association between presence of methylated ESR1 in patients with breast cancer and ER negative status in the tumor tissue (p = 0.0179). There was a trend towards a higher probability of ESR1-methylation in those phenotypes with poor prognosis i.e. 80% of triple negative patients, 60% of HER2 patients, compared to 28% and 5.9% of patients with better prognosis such as luminal A and luminal B, respectively. Silencing, by methylation, of the promoter region of the ESR1 affects the expression of the estrogen receptor protein in tumors of breast cancer patients; high methylation of ESR1-DNA is associated with estrogen receptor negative status which, in turn, may be implicated in the patient's resistance to hormonal treatment in breast cancer. As such, epigenetic markers in plasma may be of interest as new targets for anticancer therapy, especially with respect to endocrine treatment.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other common tissue prognostic indicators in breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, A; Campani, D; Miccoli, P; Spinelli, C; Carpi, A; Menicagli, M; Ferrari, P; Gadducci, G; Rossi, G; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Bonazzi, V; Giardino, R

    2004-01-01

    VEGF is a specific mitogen and survival factor for endothelial cells and a key promoter of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, VEGF tissue evaluation in cancer patients as a prognostic factor compared to the conventional histological and biological parameters is still controversial. In this case-control study, tissue VEGF was retrospectively determined by immunohistochemistry and related to T, N, ER, PgR, c-erbB-2, p53, MIB-1 and cyclin D1 in 129 breast cancer patients. Seventy-four of these patients had developed distant metastases postoperatively. The remaining 55 patients had remained disease-free >10 years after surgery. In 17 (13%) of the 129 patients (six with distant metastases and eleven disease-free) tissue and plasma VEGF were concomitantly evaluated. In univariate analysis no significant differences in VEGF and tumor size were found between metastatic and disease-free patients, whereas there were significant differences in N, ER, PgR, c-erbB-2, p53, MIB-1 and cyclin D1 (p ranging from 0.001 to 0.0001). In multivariate analysis VEGF showed less significance than N, ER, c-erbB-2, MIB-1 and cyclin D1 (p = 0.012, p = 0.007, p = 0.005, p = 0.005, p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). VEGF was a significant unfavorable prognostic indicator only in the N+ subset (p = 0.015), while ER (p = 0.05 and p = 0.021) and MIB-1 (p = 0.031 and p = 0.022) were significant in both the N+ and N- subgroups. In multivariate analysis in the 74 metastatic cases VEGF did not show any significance in relation to disease-free interval and overall survival from the time of mastectomy and from the time of relapse, whereas N and PgR did (p ranging from 0.018 to 0.001). In conclusion, tissue VEGF does not seem a suitable candidate to replace conventional histological and other common biological prognostic factors in breast cancer.

  10. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  12. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  13. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RUNX2 correlates with subtype-specific breast cancer in a human tissue microarray, and ectopic expression of Runx2 perturbs differentiation in the mouse mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McDonald

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RUNX2, a master regulator of osteogenesis, is oncogenic in the lymphoid lineage; however, little is known about its role in epithelial cancers. Upregulation of RUNX2 in cell lines correlates with increased invasiveness and the capacity to form osteolytic disease in models of breast and prostate cancer. However, most studies have analysed the effects of this gene in a limited number of cell lines and its role in primary breast cancer has not been resolved. Using a human tumour tissue microarray, we show that high RUNX2 expression is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor (ER/progesterone receptor (PR/HER2-negative breast cancers and that patients with high RUNX2 expression have a poorer survival rate than those with negative or low expression. We confirm RUNX2 as a gene that has a potentially important functional role in triple-negative breast cancer. To investigate the role of this gene in breast cancer, we made a transgenic model in which Runx2 is specifically expressed in murine mammary epithelium under the control of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV promoter. We show that ectopic Runx2 perturbs normal development in pubertal and lactating animals, delaying ductal elongation and inhibiting lobular alveolar differentiation. We also show that the Runx2 transgene elicits age-related, pre-neoplastic changes in the mammary epithelium of older transgenic animals, suggesting that elevated RUNX2 expression renders such tissue more susceptible to oncogenic changes and providing further evidence that this gene might have an important, context-dependent role in breast cancer.

  15. Rising pattern of breast cancer in young women | Adeniji | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...

  16. Changes in mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for breast cancer is high mammographic density. Mammographic density represents the amount of fibroglandular tissue relative to the fat tissue in the breast. Women with >75% of their

  17. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  18. Description of a computer program to assess cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen information during monitoring of metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Schiøler, V

    2000-01-01

    It is time-consuming to process and compare the clinical and marker information registered during monitoring of breast cancer patients. To facilitate the assessment, we developed a computer program for interpreting consecutive measurements. The intraindividual biological variation, the analytical...... of individual breast cancer patients with tumor marker measurements. It may also be implemented in trials investigating the utility of potential new markers in breast cancer as well as in other malignancies....

  19. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.cn; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  20. Residual breast tissue after mastectomy: how often and where is it located?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griepsma, M.; de Roy van Zuidewijn, D.B.W.; Grond, A.J.K.; Siesling, Sabine; Groen, H.; de Bock, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual breast tissue after a mastectomy can lead to a (second) primary breast cancer. The development of breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy and the finding of normal breast tissue around a local recurrence support this assumption. The aim of the present study was to investigate

  1. Residual Breast Tissue after Mastectomy : How Often and Where Is It Located?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griepsma, M.; van Zuidewijn, D. B. W. de Roy; Grond, A. J. K.; Siesling, S.; Groen, H.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background. Residual breast tissue after a mastectomy can lead to a (second) primary breast cancer. The development of breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy and the finding of normal breast tissue around a local recurrence support this assumption. The aim of the present study was to

  2. Primary tumor levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 are predictive of resistance to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E.; Holten-Andersen, Mads N.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Only about 50% of metastatic breast cancer patients benefit from cytotoxic chemotherapy. Today, no validated markers exist for prediction of chemotherapy sensitivity/resistance in this patient group. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been shown to protect against...... tumor expression levels of TIMP-1 protein and objective response to first-line chemotherapy in 173 patients with metastatic breast cancer. RESULTS: When analyzed as a continuous log-transformed variable, increasing TIMP-1 levels were significantly associated with lack of response to cyclophosphamide...... TIMP-1, we identified a group of patients with metastatic breast cancer, which hardly respond to the most frequently used chemotherapy regimes (i.e., cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil and anthracyclines)....

  3. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  4. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal....... DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained...

  5. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  6. miRNA expression patterns in normal breast tissue and invasive breast cancers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Shoko; Vesuna, Farhad; Raman, Venu; van Diest, Paul J.; van der Groep, Petra

    2015-01-01

    miRNA deregulation has been found to promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about miRNA deregulation in hereditary breast tumors as no miRNA expression profiling studies have been performed in normal breast tissue of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. miRNA profiles of 17 BRCA1- and 9

  7. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  8. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  9. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  10. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  11. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  12. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  13. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  14. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  15. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  16. Contrast Enhancement in Breast Cancer and Background Mammary-Gland Tissue During the Super-Early Phase of Dynamic Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, Tetsuya; Urikura, Atsushi; Uematsu, Takayoshi; Shirata, Kensei; Nakaya, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to compare the contrast enhancement between tumor and mammary-gland tissue to distinguish lesions in the super-early phase, during which minimal contrast media uptake is observed in mammary-gland tissue. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, including the super-early phase with bolus tracking (BT) method (to determine the optimal imaging start time), was performed by using identical parameters to obtain transverse fat-suppressed T1-weighted images of both breasts. The percent enhancement (PE) and the contrast ratio (CR) indicators for tumor and mammary-gland tissue were assessed in each dynamic phase. The PE values of the tumor were 62.4% and 151.6%, and those of the mammary gland were 0.3% and 20.7% in the super-early and early phases, respectively. Therefore, virtually no background parenchymal enhancement was observed in the super-early phase. The variation in the PE values during the super-early phase was significantly smaller when the values were determined with the BT method (P cancer cases than in noninvasive cancer cases (P imaging start time was observed for the anatomic side factor by the BT method. Background parenchymal enhancement almost never appeared in the super-early phase, but the CR was lower in the super-early phase than in the early phase. The BT method allowed for an optimal imaging start time for the super-early phase and yielded images with less deviation of contrast enhancement. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. In vivo MR spectroscopic imaging of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in healthy and cancerous breast tissues by selective multiple-quantum coherence transfer (Sel-MQC): a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuhong; Shkarin, Pavel; Hooley, Regina J; Lannin, Donald R; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Bossuyt, Veerle Ilse Julie

    2007-12-01

    The spatial distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in healthy and cancerous human breast tissues was measured in vivo with a selective multiple-quantum coherence transfer (Sel-MQC) technique. This method selectively detected the olefinic methylene protons (-CH = CH-) of PUFA at 5.3 ppm that were coupled with allylic methylene protons (-CH(2)-CH(2)-CH=) of unsaturated acyl chain at 2.8 ppm. Unwanted lipid coherences and tissue water signal were dephased in a single scan. Breast PUFA were mapped at 1 cm(3) voxel resolution in sagittal slices of nine breasts in six healthy female volunteers that were compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in one breast cancer patient. The healthy breast tissue displayed continuous PUFA distribution. In some individuals, PUFA appeared throughout the breast tissue; in others they were only located in the central breast area. Decreased PUFA levels were detected in the IDC of the breast cancer patient. The magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) measurement was consistent with the histological findings, ultrasound, and mammography images. PUFA patterns are sensitive to abnormal breast tissue changes including malignant transformations, and thus may serve as a biomarker for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of breast disease. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Tissue-simulating phantoms for assessing potential near-infrared fluorescence imaging applications in breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleijhuis, Rick; Timmermans, Arwin; De Jong, Johannes; De Boer, Esther; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Van Dam, Gooitzen

    2014-09-19

    Inaccuracies in intraoperative tumor localization and evaluation of surgical margin status result in suboptimal outcome of breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Optical imaging, in particular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, might reduce the frequency of positive surgical margins following BCS by providing the surgeon with a tool for pre- and intraoperative tumor localization in real-time. In the current study, the potential of NIRF-guided BCS is evaluated using tissue-simulating breast phantoms for reasons of standardization and training purposes. Breast phantoms with optical characteristics comparable to those of normal breast tissue were used to simulate breast conserving surgery. Tumor-simulating inclusions containing the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) were incorporated in the phantoms at predefined locations and imaged for pre- and intraoperative tumor localization, real-time NIRF-guided tumor resection, NIRF-guided evaluation on the extent of surgery, and postoperative assessment of surgical margins. A customized NIRF camera was used as a clinical prototype for imaging purposes. Breast phantoms containing tumor-simulating inclusions offer a simple, inexpensive, and versatile tool to simulate and evaluate intraoperative tumor imaging. The gelatinous phantoms have elastic properties similar to human tissue and can be cut using conventional surgical instruments. Moreover, the phantoms contain hemoglobin and intralipid for mimicking absorption and scattering of photons, respectively, creating uniform optical properties similar to human breast tissue. The main drawback of NIRF imaging is the limited penetration depth of photons when propagating through tissue, which hinders (noninvasive) imaging of deep-seated tumors with epi-illumination strategies.

  20. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Cite as: Cao Z-G, Qin X-B, Liu F-F, Zhou L-L. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer. Afri Health Sci. 2015;15(3):982-5. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Introduction. Breast cancer, developing from breast tissue, remains the top reason for death of women.

  1. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  2. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  3. Identification of cell-surface markers for detecting breast cancer cells in ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Inge T. A.; Hilders, Carina G. J. M.; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Baptist Trimbos, J.; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The safety of ovarian tissue autotransplantation in oncology patients cannot be ensured, as current tumor-detection methods compromise the ovarian tissue viability. Although non-destructive methods (for instance near-infrared fluorescence imaging) can discriminate malignant from healthy tissues while leaving the examined tissues unaffected, they require specific cell-surface tumor markers. We determined which tumor markers are suitable targets for tumor-specific imaging to exclude the...

  4. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  5. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.

  6. The miRNA-200 family and miRNA-9 exhibit differential expression in primary versus corresponding metastatic tissue in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Karina H; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    progression. Global miRNA expression profiling was performed on 47 tumor samples from 14 patients with paired samples from primary breast tumors and corresponding lymph node and distant metastases using LNA-enhanced miRNA microarrays. The identified miRNA expression alterations were validated by real-time PCR......Metastases are the major cause of cancer-related deaths, but the mechanisms of the metastatic process remain poorly understood. In recent years, the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer has become apparent, and the objective of this study was to identify miRNAs associated with breast cancer......, and tissue distribution of the miRNAs was visualized by in situ hybridization. The patients, in which the miRNA profile of the primary tumor and corresponding distant metastasis clustered in the unsupervised cluster analysis, showed significantly shorter intervals between the diagnosis of the primary tumor...

  7. Cathepsin-D, a key protease in breast cancer, is up-regulated in obese mouse and human adipose tissue, and controls adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Masson

    Full Text Available The aspartic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D is overexpressed by human epithelial breast cancer cells and is closely correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. The adipocyte is one of the most prominent cell types in the tumor-microenvironment of breast cancer, and clinical studies have shown that obesity increases the incidence of breast cancer. Here, we provide the first evidence that cath-D expression is up-regulated in adipose tissue from obese human beings, as well as in adipocytes from the obese C57BI6/J mouse. Cath-D expression is also increased during human and mouse adipocyte differentiation. We show that cath-D silencing in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes leads to lipid-depleted cells after adipogenesis induction, and inhibits of the expression of PPARγ, HSL and aP2 adipocyte differentiation markers. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the key role of cath-D in the control of adipogenesis, and suggest that cath-D may be a novel target in obesity.

  8. Bevacizumab Inhibits Breast Cancer-Induced Osteolysis, Surrounding Soft Tissue Metastasis, and Angiogenesis in Rats as Visualized by VCT and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bäuerle

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an antiangiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis and to monitor osteolysis, soft tissue tumor, and angiogenesis in bone metastasis noninvasively by volumetric computed tomography (VCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. After inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into nude rats, bone metastasis was monitored with contrast-enhanced VCT and MRI from day 30 to day 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively. Thereby, animals of the treatment group (10 mg/kg bevacizumab IV weekly, n = 15 were compared with sham-treated animals (n = 17. Treatment with bevacizumab resulted in a significant difference versus control in osteolytic as well as soft tissue lesion sizes (days 50 to 70 and 40 to 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively; P < .05. This observation was paralleled with significantly reduced vascularization in the treatment group as shown by reduced increase in relative signal intensity in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from days 40 to 70 (P < .05. Contrast-enhanced VCT and histology confirmed decreased angiogenesis as well as new bone formation after application of bevacizumab. In conclusion, bevacizumab significantly inhibited osteolysis, surrounding soft tissue tumor growth, and angiogenesis in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis as visualized by VCT and MRI.

  9. Performance comparison of machine learning methods for prognosis of hormone receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinli, Adem; Sarikoc, Fatih; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen

    2013-06-01

    We examined the classification and prognostic scoring performances of several computer methods on different feature sets to obtain objective and reproducible analysis of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples. Radial basis function network, k-nearest neighborhood search, support vector machines, naive bayes, functional trees, and k-means clustering algorithm were applied to the test datasets. Several features were employed and the classification accuracies of each method for these features were examined. The assessment results of the methods on test images were also experimentally compared with those of two experts. According to the results of our experimental work, a combination of functional trees and the naive bayes classifier gave the best prognostic scores indicating very good kappa agreement values (κ=0.899 and κ=0.949, p<0.001) with the experts. This combination also gave the best dichotomization rate (96.3%) for assessment of estrogen receptor status. Wavelet color features provided better classification accuracy than Laws texture energy and co-occurrence matrix features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observation with Calcifications of Breast Tissue Phantoms Using Acoustic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Goo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Myeung Jin [Haesung OB and GY Clinic, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Diagnosis of breast ultrasound is better than mammography in the early detection of breast cancer, but, it is difficult to detect microcalcification. We studied on detection for calcification of breast tissue using acoustic resonance and power doppler with 7.5 MHz linear probe in breast ultrasound. We first constructed breast tissue phantom made of gelatin and saw breast, and then observed calcification by the change of external vibration. Calcification injected breast tissue phantom visualized the difference for brightness and region of color in ROI regions of power doppler. Acoustic resonance almost never visualized in low frequency regions, plateau constituted in about 300-400 Hz and colors vanished according to the increase of frequency.

  11. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  12. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  13. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and CYR61 in primary breast cancers associated with more advanced features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, D; Nakachi, K; Wang, H; Elashoff, R; Koeffler, H P

    2001-12-15

    To gain insight into the role of the CCN genes in human breast carcinomas, we quantified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), WISP-1, CYR61, and human NOV (NOVH) mRNA expression levels in samples from 44 primary breast tumors and seven normal breasts using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Overexpression of CTGF, WISP-1, CYR61, and NOVH was found in 55 (24 of 44), 46 (20 of 44), 39 (17 of 44), and 11% (5 of 44) primary breast tumors, respectively. Statistical univariate analysis was performed to explore the links between expression of the CCN genes and clinical and pathological parameters. Interestingly, significant associations were found between CTGF expression versus stage, tumor size, lymph node status, and age at diagnosis; WISP-1 mRNA levels versus stage, tumor size, lymph node, and HER-2/neu overexpression; and CYR61 expression with stage, tumor size, lymph node, age, and estrogen receptor expression. In contrast to CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61, no significant correlation was found between NOVH expression and any of the clinical and pathological factors. Furthermore, multivariate classification tree model analysis showed that stage and lymph node involvement were important for predicting CTGF expression in breast cancers; the stage, age, and HER-2/neu status were key factors for WISP-1 expression; and the stage, age, and estrogen receptor were valuable predictors for CYR61 expression. In summary, these results suggest that CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61 may play a role in the progression of breast cancer and might serve as a valuable tool for monitoring tumor status of breast cancer patients.

  15. Quality assessment of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor testing in breast cancer using a tissue microarray-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.A. Dekker; S. ter Borg; J. Hooijer; S.L. Meijer (Sybren); J. Wesseling (Jelle); J.E. Boers (James); E. Schuuring; J. Bart; J. van Gorp (Joost); P. Bult (Peter); S. Riemersma (Sietske); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); H.F. Sleddens (Hein); W.E. Mesker; J.R. Kroep (Judith); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); M.J. Vijver (Marc )

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAssessing hormone receptor status is an essential part of the breast cancer diagnosis, as this biomarker greatly predicts response to hormonal treatment strategies. As such, hormone receptor testing laboratories are strongly encouraged to participate in external quality control schemes

  16. Association between tumor tissue TIMP-1 levels and objective response to first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintman, Marie; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    patients who later developed metastatic breast cancer and these levels were related to the objective response to first-line chemotherapy. Increasing levels of TIMP-1 were associated with a decreasing probability of response to treatment, reaching borderline significance (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.97-2.62, P = 0...

  17. Determining sensitivity and specificity of HER2 testing in breast cancer using a tissue micro-array approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Tim J. A.; Borg, Susan Ter; Hooijer, Gerrit K. J.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Wesseling, Jelle; Boers, James E.; Schuuring, Ed; Bart, Jos; van Gorp, Joost; Mesker, Wilma E.; Kroep, Judith R.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as a result of HER2 gene amplification is associated with a relatively poor prognosis in breast cancer and is predictive of HER2-targeting therapy response. False-positive rates of up to 20% for HER2 testing have

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for late radiation-induced tissue toxicity: prospectively patient-reported outcome measures in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teguh, David N.; Bol Raap, René; Struikmans, Henk; Verhoef, Cees; Koppert, Linetta B.; Koole, Arne; Huang, Yadi; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines patient reported outcome measures of women undergoing hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) after breast-conserving therapy. Included were 57 women treated with HBOT for late radiation-induced tissue toxicity (LRITT) referred in the period January 2014-December 2015. HBOT consisted

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for late radiation-induced tissue toxicity: Prospectively patient-reported outcome measures in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Teguh (David); R. Bol Raap (René); H. Struikmans (Henk); C. Verhoef (Kees); L.B. Koppert (Lisa); A. Koole (Arne); Y. Huang (Yadi); R.A. van Hulst (R.)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction:__ This study examines patient reported outcome measures of women undergoing hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) after breast-conserving therapy. __Method:__ Included were 57 women treated with HBOT for late radiation-induced tissue toxicity (LRITT) referred in the

  20. Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S; Shafer-Peltier, Karen E; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Crowe, Joseph; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2005-08-30

    We employ Raman spectroscopy to diagnose benign and malignant lesions in human breast tissue based on chemical composition. In this study, 130 Raman spectra are acquired from ex vivo samples of human breast tissue (normal, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating carcinoma) from 58 patients. Data are fit by using a linear combination model in which nine basis spectra represent the morphologic and chemical features of breast tissue. The resulting fit coefficients provide insight into the chemical/morphological makeup of the tissue and are used to develop diagnostic algorithms. The fit coefficients for fat and collagen are the key parameters in the resulting diagnostic algorithm, which classifies samples according to their specific pathological diagnoses, attaining 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal and benign tissues. The excellent results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be applied in vivo to accurately classify breast lesions, thereby reducing the number of excisional breast biopsies that are performed.

  1. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  3. Preparation of a novel antiserum to aromatase with high affinity and specificity: Its clinicopathological significance on breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Naoki; Matsuura, Shiro; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Moriya, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated with pT (p = 0.019), pN (p = 0.001), stage (p cancer aromatase expression was independent of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses. This antiserum will be applicable to clinicopathological examination of aromatase in addition to ER and PgR for an appropriate use of aromatase inhibitor on the treatment of breast cancer. Further studies on the relationship between Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated with pT (p = 0.019), pN (p = 0.001), stage (p cancer aromatase expression was independent of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and

  4. Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Sharma, Uma

    2017-06-07

    Metabolic alterations are known to occur with oncogenesis and tumor progression. During malignant transformation, the metabolism of cells and tissues is altered. Cancer metabolism can be studied using advanced technologies that detect both metabolites and metabolic activities. Identification, characterization, and quantification of metabolites (metabolomics) are important for metabolic analysis and are usually done by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or by mass spectrometry. In contrast to the magnetic resonance imaging that is used to monitor the tumor morphology during progression of the disease and during therapy, in vivo NMR spectroscopy is used to study and monitor tumor metabolism of cells/tissues by detection of various biochemicals or metabolites involved in various metabolic pathways. Several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo NMR studies using ¹H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) nuclei have documented increased levels of total choline containing compounds, phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in human breast cancer tissues, which is indicative of altered choline and phospholipid metabolism. These levels get reversed with successful treatment. Another method that increases the sensitivity of substrate detection by using nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-lableled substrates by dynamic nuclear polarization has revived a great interest in the study of cancer metabolism. This review discusses breast tissue metabolism studied by various NMR/MRS methods.

  5. Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranamangalam R. Jagannathan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic alterations are known to occur with oncogenesis and tumor progression. During malignant transformation, the metabolism of cells and tissues is altered. Cancer metabolism can be studied using advanced technologies that detect both metabolites and metabolic activities. Identification, characterization, and quantification of metabolites (metabolomics are important for metabolic analysis and are usually done by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR or by mass spectrometry. In contrast to the magnetic resonance imaging that is used to monitor the tumor morphology during progression of the disease and during therapy, in vivo NMR spectroscopy is used to study and monitor tumor metabolism of cells/tissues by detection of various biochemicals or metabolites involved in various metabolic pathways. Several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo NMR studies using 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS nuclei have documented increased levels of total choline containing compounds, phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in human breast cancer tissues, which is indicative of altered choline and phospholipid metabolism. These levels get reversed with successful treatment. Another method that increases the sensitivity of substrate detection by using nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-lableled substrates by dynamic nuclear polarization has revived a great interest in the study of cancer metabolism. This review discusses breast tissue metabolism studied by various NMR/MRS methods.

  6. Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R.; Sharma, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic alterations are known to occur with oncogenesis and tumor progression. During malignant transformation, the metabolism of cells and tissues is altered. Cancer metabolism can be studied using advanced technologies that detect both metabolites and metabolic activities. Identification, characterization, and quantification of metabolites (metabolomics) are important for metabolic analysis and are usually done by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or by mass spectrometry. In contrast to the magnetic resonance imaging that is used to monitor the tumor morphology during progression of the disease and during therapy, in vivo NMR spectroscopy is used to study and monitor tumor metabolism of cells/tissues by detection of various biochemicals or metabolites involved in various metabolic pathways. Several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo NMR studies using 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) nuclei have documented increased levels of total choline containing compounds, phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in human breast cancer tissues, which is indicative of altered choline and phospholipid metabolism. These levels get reversed with successful treatment. Another method that increases the sensitivity of substrate detection by using nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-lableled substrates by dynamic nuclear polarization has revived a great interest in the study of cancer metabolism. This review discusses breast tissue metabolism studied by various NMR/MRS methods. PMID:28590405

  7. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  8. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  9. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  10. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  11. Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?nberg, Malin; Ahlin, Cecilia; Naeser, Ylva; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Holmberg, Lars; Fj?llskog, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer...

  12. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  13. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tissue through syndecan-1 inhibition of the MEK-Erk pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Hu, Yunping; Gu, Zhennan; Owens, Rick T; Chen, Yong Q; Edwards, Iris J

    2011-10-01

    Human epidemiological studies have shown that diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are associated with a lower incidence of cancers including breast cancer. Our previous studies showed that the n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), upregulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) expression to induce apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We now present evidence of a signaling pathway that is impacted by SDC-1 in these cells and in mouse mammary tissues to result in apoptosis. In MCF-7 cells and SK-BR-3 cells, DHA and a SDC-1 ectodomain impaired signaling of the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Bad to induce apoptosis. SDC-1 siRNA significantly enhanced phosphorylation of these signal molecules and blocked the inhibitory effects of DHA on their phosphorylation. SDC-1 siRNA diminished apoptosis of MCF-7 cells, an effect that was markedly blocked by MEK inhibitor, PD98059. In vivo studies used (i) Fat-1 mice, a genetic model able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA to result in higher SDC-1 levels in Fat-1 mammary tissue compared with that of wild-type (wt) mice. Phosphorylation of MEK, Erk and Bad was lower in the Fat-1 versus wt tissue and (ii) SDC-1(-/-) mice that demonstrated markedly higher levels of phosphorylated MEK, Erk and Bad in mammary gland tissue compared with those of SDC(+/+) mice. These data elucidate a pathway whereby SDC-1, upregulated by DHA, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through inhibition of MEK/Erk/Bad signaling.

  15. Aquaporins in human breast cancer: identification and involvement in carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Liang; Zhao, Hua; Cheng, Jing; Xiang, Jingying; Zhao, Chun

    2012-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in water and glycerol transport. Recently, the role of AQPs in human carcinogenesis has become an area of great interest. However, little is known about the function of AQPs in human breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in human breast cancer and its significance. In this study, we screened the expression profile of AQP0-12 in breast cancer tissues and corresponding normal tissues by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. AQP1, 3-5, and 10-12 were expressed in human breast cancer and/or normal breast tissues, and AQP1 and 3-5 exhibited differential expression. AQP1 was expressed in cell membranes and its expression was higher in cancer than that in normal tissues. AQP4 was expressed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm and was detected markedly stronger in normal than in cancer tissues. AQP5 was expressed mainly in cell membranes in carcinoma tissues, but was almost absent in normal breast tissues. Expression of AQP5 was associated with cellular differentiation, lymph node invasion, and clinicopathological staging. These observations suggested that several subtypes of the AQP family play a role in human breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantitative detection of HER2 protein concentration in breast cancer tissue does not increase the number of patients eligible for adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Troels; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 15-20% of breast cancer patients and is associated with an aggressive tumor and a poor prognosis. Currently, patients are selected for adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy based on HER2 status by immunohistochemistry (IHC...... by Centaur, but not treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy, compared to patients defined as HER2-positive by IHC/FISH and therefore treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy. Tumor tissue was obtained at primary surgery from 415 breast cancer patients between 2004 and 2010. HER2 status was determined...... for invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and 4.2 years for overall survival (OS). The quantitative Centaur assay defined a greater number of patients (100 patients, 26.4%) as HER2-positive than IHC/FISH (63 patients, 16.6%) (P...

  17. ImmunoPET of tissue factor expression in triple-negative breast cancer with a radiolabeled antibody Fab fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Sixiang [University of Wisconsin, Materials Science Program, Madison, WI (United States); Hong, Hao; Orbay, Hakan; Yang, Yunan; Ohman, Jakob D. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Graves, Stephen A.; Nickles, Robert J. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Bai; Wong, Hing C. [Altor BioScience, Miramar, FL (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin, Materials Science Program, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To date, there is no effective therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a dismal clinical outcome. Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types, including TNBC. Our goal was to employ the Fab fragment of ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF mAb, for PET imaging of TNBC, which can be used to guide future TNBC therapy. ALT-836-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. SDS-PAGE and FACS studies were performed to evaluate the integrity and TF binding affinity of ALT-836-Fab before NOTA conjugation and {sup 64}Cu-labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out to evaluate the tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC model, which expresses high levels of TF on the tumor cells. Blocking studies, histological assessment, as well as RT-PCR were performed to confirm TF specificity of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab. ALT-836-Fab was produced with high purity, which exhibited superb TF binding affinity and specificity. Serial PET imaging revealed rapid and persistent tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab (5.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection; n = 4) and high tumor/muscle ratio (7.0 ± 1.2 at 24 h post-injection; n = 4), several-fold higher than that of the blocking group and tumor models that do not express significant level of TF, which was confirmed by biodistribution studies. TF specificity of the tracer was also validated by histology and RT-PCR. {sup 64}Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab exhibited prominent tissue factor targeting efficiency in MDA-MB-231 TNBC model. The use of a Fab fragment led to fast tumor uptake and good tissue/muscle ratio, which may be translated into same-day immunoPET imaging in the clinical setting to improve TNBC patient management. (orig.)

  18. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  19. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  20. Ectopic breasts: familial functional axillary breasts and breast cancer arising in an axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Sandra S; Osswald, Michael B; Elston, Dirk M

    2011-06-01

    Supernumerary breasts and nipples are not uncommon and have familial and syndrome associations. Although usually of only cosmetic concern, hormonal changes and inflammatory or neoplastic conditions that affect primary breast tissue also may occur in areas of ectopic breast tissue. We describe cases of familial functional axillary breasts and primary carcinoma of the breast arising in ectopic axillary breast tissue.

  1. The Differential Expression of Aqueous Soluble Proteins in Breast Normal and Cancerous Tissues in Relation to Stage and Grade of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of female deaths worldwide. In Malaysia, it is the most common form of female cancer while Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC is the most common form of breast cancer. A proteomic approach was used to identify changes in the protein profile of breast cancerous and normal tissues. The patients were divided into different cohorts according to tumour stage and grade. We identified twenty-four differentially expressed hydrophilic proteins. A few proteins were found significantly related to various stages and grades of IDC, amongst which were SEC13-like 1 (isoform b, calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein zeta, and 14-3-3 protein eta. In this study, we found that by defining the expression of the proteins according to stages and grades of IDC, a significant relationship between the expression of the proteins with the stage or grade of IDC can be established, which increases the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers for IDC.

  2. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  3. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  5. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center: A Unique Resource for Defining the “Molecular Histology” of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Henry, Jill E.; Clare, Susan E.; Rufenbarger, Connie; Storniolo, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    “Molecular histology” of the breast may be conceptualized as encompassing the normative ranges of histological structure and marker expression in normal breast tissues in relation to a woman’s age and life experiences. Studies of molecular histology can aid our understanding of early events in breast carcinogenesis and provide data for comparison with diseased breast tissues. Until recently, lack of epidemiologically annotated, optimally prepared normal breast tissues obtained from healthy women presented a barrier to breast cancer research. The Komen Tissue Bank at Indiana University is a unique biorepository that was developed to overcome this limitation. The Bank enrolls healthy donors who provide questionnaire data, blood, and up to four breast biopsies, which are prepared as both formalin fixed paraffin embedded and frozen tissues. The resource is accessible to researchers worldwide through a proposal submission, review, and approval process. As of November 2010, the Bank had collected specimens and information from 1,174 donors. In this review, we discuss the importance of studying normal breast tissues, assess the strengths and limitations of studying normal tissues obtained from different sources, and summarize the features of the Komen Tissue Bank. As research projects are completed, results will be posted on the Bank’s website. PMID:22345117

  6. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  8. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  9. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  10. Recurrent triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC tissues contain a higher amount of phosphatidylcholine (32:1 than non-recurrent TNBC tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is one of the breast cancer subtype that displays a high risk of early recurrence and short overall survival. Improvement of the prognosis of patients with TNBC requires identifying a predictive factor of recurrence, which would make it possible to provide beneficial personalized treatment. However, no clinically reliable predictive factor is currently known. In this study, we investigated the predictive factor of recurrence in TNBC using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry for lipid profiling of breast cancer specimens obtained from three and six patients with recurrent and non-recurrent TNBC, respectively. The signal for phosphatidylcholine (PC (32:1 at m/z 732.5 was significantly higher in the recurrence group compared to the non-recurrence group (P = 0.024. PC (32:1 was more abundant in the cancer epithelial area than it was in the surrounding stroma, suggesting that abnormal lipid metabolism was associated with malignant transformation. Our results indicate PC (32:1 as a candidate predictive factor of TNBC recurrence. A future prospective study investigating whether personalized therapy based on PC (32:1 intensity improves the prognosis of patients with TNBC is recommended.

  11. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  12. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  13. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  14. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  15. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  16. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  17. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  19. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  20. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  1. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  2. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  3. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  6. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  7. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste

    2013-10-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  9. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center: a unique resource for defining the "molecular histology" of the breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, Mark E; Figueroa, Jonine D; Henry, Jill E; Clare, Susan E; Rufenbarger, Connie; Storniolo, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    "Molecular histology" of the breast may be conceptualized as encompassing the normative ranges of histologic structure and marker expression in normal breast tissues in relation to a woman's age and life experiences...

  10. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  11. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  12. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  13. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  14. Identification of Specific miRNA Signature in Paired Sera and Tissue Samples of Indian Women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Seema; Grover, Rajesh K; Gupta, Sanjay; Yadav, Ajay K; Das, Bhudev C

    2016-01-01

    Of several subtypes of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor that lacks expression of hormone receptors for estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and shows a worst prognosis. The small noncoding RNAs (miRNAs) considered as master regulator of gene expression play a key role in cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance and have emerged as attractive molecular biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment targets in cancer. We have done expression profiling of selected miRNAs in paired serum and tissue samples of TNBC patients and corresponding cell lines and compared with that of other subtypes, in order to identify novel serum miRNA biomarkers for early detection and progression of TNBC. A total of 85 paired tumor tissues and sera with an equal number of adjacent normal tissue margins and normal sera from age matched healthy women including tissue and sera samples from 15 benign fibroadenomas were employed for the study. We report for the first time an extremely high prevalence (73.9%) of TNBC in premenopausal women below 35 years of age and a significant altered expression of a panel of three specific oncogenic miRNAs- miR-21, miR-221, miR-210, and three tumor suppressor miRNAs- miR-195, miR-145 and Let-7a in both tissues and corresponding sera of TNBC patients when compared with triple positive breast cancer (TPBC) patients. While miR-21, miR-221 and miR-210 showed significant over-expression, miR-195 and miR-145 were downregulated and well correlated with various clinicopathological and demographic risk factors, tumor grade, clinical stage and hormone receptor status. Interestingly, despite being a known tumor suppressor, Let-7a showed a significant overexpression in TNBCs. It is suggested that this panel of six miRNA signature may serve as a minimally invasive biomarker for an early detection of TNBC patients.

  15. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  16. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  17. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  18. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-valuebreast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  20. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2014-05-01

    Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, α-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (Pflax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  2. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in breast screening assessment cases and women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen W; Morrish, Oliver W E; Allgood, Prue C; Black, Richard; Gillan, Maureen G C; Willsher, Paula; Cooke, Julie; Duncan, Karen A; Michell, Michael J; Dobson, Hilary M; Maroni, Roberta; Lim, Yit Y; Purushothaman, Hema N; Suaris, Tamara; Astley, Susan M; Young, Kenneth C; Tucker, Lorraine; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic density has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of breast cancer and a causative factor in reducing the sensitivity of mammography. There remain questions as to the use of mammographic density information in the context of screening and risk management, and of the association with cancer in populations known to be at increased risk of breast cancer. To assess the association of breast density with presence of cancer by measuring mammographic density visually as a percentage, and with two automated volumetric methods, Quantra™ and VolparaDensity™. The TOMosynthesis with digital MammographY (TOMMY) study of digital breast tomosynthesis in the Breast Screening Programme of the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom (UK) included 6020 breast screening assessment cases (of whom 1158 had breast cancer) and 1040 screened women with a family history of breast cancer (of whom two had breast cancer). We assessed the association of each measure with breast cancer risk in these populations at enhanced risk, using logistic regression adjusted for age and total breast volume as a surrogate for body mass index (BMI). All density measures showed a positive association with presence of cancer and all declined with age. The strongest effect was seen with Volpara absolute density, with a significant 3% (95% CI 1-5%) increase in risk per 10 cm 3 of dense tissue. The effect of Volpara volumetric density on risk was stronger for large and grade 3 tumours. Automated absolute breast density is a predictor of breast cancer risk in populations at enhanced risk due to either positive mammographic findings or family history. In the screening context, density could be a trigger for more intensive imaging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRa) tissue expression in ductal invasive breast cancer: A study combining quantitative immunohistochemistry with digital slide image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampoudis, P; Agrogiannis, G; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Sotiropoulos, G C

    2017-08-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal receptors hold promise for developing novel targeted therapies. The thyroid exerts its actions via the thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta. The clinical significance of the expression of thyroid hormone receptors in breast cancer is unclear. We studied thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRa) expression in 82 samples from 41 women with ductal invasive breast cancer and no thyroid disease. We performed quantitative immunohistochemistry with digital image analysis and correlated TRa expression with clinicopathological parameters. TRa was expressed in both normal breast epithelium and breast cancer, but expression in breast cancer was significantly lower. TRa was expressed significantly less in larger and grade III tumors. Conversely, breast cancers with lymphovascular invasion showed increased TRa expression compared to cancers without lymphovascular invasion. TRa expression was not significantly different between node-positive and node-negative breast cancers, or among different hormonal profiles and intrinsic subtypes. This is the first-in-human study to combine quantitative immunohistochemistry with image analysis to study TRa expression in women with ductal invasive breast cancer and no clinical or biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction. We confirm that TRa is expressed in both normal and malignant breast epithelium and suggest that TRa expression is downregulated during breast carcinogenesis. Larger and higher grade breast cancers demonstrate partial loss in TRa expression. Alterations in TRa expression take place even in the absence of clinical or biochemical thyroid disease. The underlying mechanism of these findings and their potential significance in survival and relapse mandate further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  5. Low Expression of Estrogen Receptor-α and Progesterone Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Tissues Is Associated With High-Grade Human Cytomegalovirus Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Afsar; Touma, Joel; Costa, Helena; Davoudi, Belghis; Bukholm, Ida Rashid; Sauer, Torill; Vetvik, Katja; Geisler, Jürgen; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms for breast cancer (BC) are largely unknown. We investigated possible correlations between the expression levels of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins and established histopathological markers of BC, including expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, the progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2. We retrospectively examined paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of BC (n = 62), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 19), and adjacent normal breast tissue (n = 42) for HCMV immediate-early protein (IE), HCMV late antigen, HCMV DNA and RNA, and investigated possible correlations between them and expression of ER-α, PgR, and HER2. HCMV DNA and RNA were detected in all examined infiltrating BCs. High-grade positivity for HCMV-IE was detected in 77% of infiltrating BCs, 39% of ductal carcinomas in situ, and 7% of tumor-free breast tissue samples. HCMV expression correlated inversely with ER-α (P = .02) and PgR (P = .003) expression. HER2 expression was also reduced in HCMV-positive samples without reaching a level of statistical significance (P = .09). The negative correlation between high-grade expression HCMV-IE and hormone receptor expression suggests a role for HCMV in hormone receptor-negative BC tumors, possibly by forcing BC cells into a more aggressive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  7. SU-F-T-499: Anatomic Features for Selection of Electronic Tissue Compensation Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y; Gan, L; Chen, X; Zhang, T; Ren, G [Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, Chongqing (China); Zhang, M [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers The State University of New, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the correlations between anatomic features and dose-volumetric parameters in 3DCRT and eComp whole breast irradiation and identify the feasibility of anatomic parameters to predict the planning method selection. Methods: We compared the effectiveness between conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and electronic tissue compensation (eComp) for whole breast irradiation. 3DCRT and eComp planning techniques were used to generate treatment plans for 60 whole breast patients, respectively. The planning goal was to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescription dose while minimizing dose to lung, heart, and skin. Statistical analyses were performed between critical organ doses and patient anatomic features, i.e., central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), maximal heart length (MHL) and breast separation (BS). Results: Comparing to 3DCRT plans, on the average, eComp treatment planning process was about 7 minutes longer, but resulted in lower lung V20Gy, lower mean skin dose, with similar heart dose. The benefits were more pronounced for larger breast patients. To keep the lung V20Gy lower than 20% and mean skin dose lower than 85% of the prescription dose, eComp was the preferred method for patients with more than 2.3 cm CLD or larger than 22.5 cm BS. Conclusion: The study results may be useful in providing a handy criterion in clinical practice allowing us to easily choose between different planning techniques to satisfy the planning goal with minimal increase in complexity and cost. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 31420103915) and Chongqing Health and Family Planning Commission Project (2015MSXM012).

  8. Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teresa Araújo; Guilherme Aresta; Eduardo Castro; José Rouco; Paulo Aguiar; Catarina Eloy; António Polónia; Aurélio Campilho

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis...

  9. Development of a Diagnostic Blood Test for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    .... During the second year of this study, a small number of serum samples from breast cancer patients were tested for methylation of genes previously determined to be methylated in the cancer tissue...

  10. Breast cancer and fertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Ruth; Holzer, Hananel

    2015-09-01

    This review will summarize key fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. The detrimental effects of treatment modalities on ovarian and hormonal function will be reviewed. Options for fertility protection and preservation will also be outlined, as well as the unique issues facing women in pregnancy with a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues continue to be in debate for their protective impact on the ovaries during the time of gonadotoxic treatment. Success rates in the cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes and gonadal tissue continue to improve. Concurrently, advancing reproductive technologies are developing promising techniques for obtaining mature oocytes from ovarian tissue and from early ovarian follicles. The pursuit of a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment is an additional challenge. Increasing bodies of evidence support the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer and the possibly improved survival. Still, there is an uncertainty regarding recommended intervals from diagnosis to conception. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast cancer mutations is also becoming of increasing interest. The fertility impact of breast cancer treatment in young women is of ongoing concern. The effects should be universally addressed and options should be outlined with young women prior to commencement of treatment.

  11. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  12. The Microbiome of Aseptically Collected Human Breast Tissue in Benign and Malignant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieken, Tina J; Chen, Jun; Hoskin, Tanya L; Walther-Antonio, Marina; Johnson, Stephen; Ramaker, Sheri; Xiao, Jian; Radisky, Derek C; Knutson, Keith L; Kalari, Krishna R; Yao, Janet Z; Baddour, Larry M; Chia, Nicholas; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-08-03

    Globally breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. The breast consists of epithelium, stroma and a mucosal immune system that make up a complex microenvironment. Growing awareness of the role of microbes in the microenvironment recently has led to a series of findings important for human health. The microbiome has been implicated in cancer development and progression at a variety of body sites including stomach, colon, liver, lung, and skin. In this study, we assessed breast tissue microbial signatures in intraoperatively obtained samples using 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing. Our results indicate a distinct breast tissue microbiome that is different from the microbiota of breast skin tissue, breast skin swabs, and buccal swabs. Furthermore, we identify distinct microbial communities in breast tissues from women with cancer as compared to women with benign breast disease. Malignancy correlated with enrichment in taxa of lower abundance including the genera Fusobacterium, Atopobium, Gluconacetobacter, Hydrogenophaga and Lactobacillus. This work confirms the existence of a distinct breast microbiome and differences between the breast tissue microbiome in benign and malignant disease. These data provide a foundation for future investigation on the role of the breast microbiome in breast carcinogenesis and breast cancer prevention.

  13. Tumor markers of breast cancer: New prospectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Kabel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are substances produced by the tumors or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign conditions. Although most of these markers are made by the normal cells as well as by cancer cells, they are produced at much higher levels in cancerous conditions. These markers are used to evaluate the patient's response to treatment and to detect the presence of metastasis or recurrence. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in females worldwide. The CA 27-29, CA 15-3, CA27.29, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide specific antigen, p53, cathepsin D, cyclin E, nestin and HER-2 are tumor markers that are often expressed in people with breast cancer. They play a crucial role in diagnosis, monitoring response to therapy, early detection of metastasis and determination of recurrence in patients with breast cancer.

  14. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  15. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  16. X-Ray Phase Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a contrast -detail phantom, an acrylic step- edge, and a breast tissue-equivalent phantom. As current breast imaging ( mammography and breast... contrast enhancement of x-ray mam- mography: A design study,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2853–2866 (1999). 6F. Arfelli et al., “ Mammography with synchrotron...breast tissue produces very low attenuation contrast [5–7], which presents a considerable challenge for cancer detection in mammography . Unfortunately

  17. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikata Hara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are very rare. As characteristics of breast cancer metastases to the stomach, metastases of lobular carcinoma, mainly with signet ring cells, are frequently observed, and they are often difficult to distinguish from a primary gastric cancer with signet ring cells. Moreover, because no characteristic symptoms are shown and they involve a submucosal lesion, it is difficult to make a radiographic diagnosis. However, if a gastric lesion is observed after breast carcinoma surgery, differentiation between a gastric primary lesion and a metastatic lesion is very important in order to determine treatment. We encountered a case that was diagnosed as early gastric cancer discovered using an endoscope 2 years after surgery and which was found to be breast cancer metastasis to the stomach by gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP and cytokeratin (CK 7/20 immunostaining of the biopsy tissue. Here, we report our findings of this unique case.

  18. Up-regulation of cell cycle arrest protein BTG2 correlates with increased overall survival in breast cancer, as detected by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirström Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that the ADIPOR1, ADORA1, BTG2 and CD46 genes differ significantly between long-term survivors of breast cancer and deceased patients, both in levels of gene expression and DNA copy numbers. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of the corresponding proteins in breast carcinoma and to determine their correlation with clinical outcome. Methods Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in an independent breast cancer cohort of 144 samples represented on tissue microarrays. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the differences in protein expression between dead and alive patients. We used Cox-regression multivariate analysis to assess whether the new markers predict the survival status of the patients better than the currently used markers. Results BTG2 expression was demonstrated in a significantly lower proportion of samples from dead patients compared to alive patients, both in overall expression (P = 0.026 and cell membrane specific expression (P = 0.013, whereas neither ADIPOR1, ADORA1 nor CD46 showed differential expression in the two survival groups. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis showed that a model containing BTG2 expression in combination with HER2 and Ki67 expression along with patient age performed better than a model containing the currently used prognostic markers (tumour size, nodal status, HER2 expression, hormone receptor status, histological grade, and patient age. Interestingly, BTG2 has previously been described as a tumour suppressor gene involved in cell cycle arrest and p53 signalling. Conclusions We conclude that high-level BTG2 protein expression correlates with prolonged survival in patients with breast carcinoma.

  19. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  1. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach.

  2. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  3. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  4. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  5. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  6. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  7. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2017-03-01

    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  8. Immunoexpression analysis and prognostic value of BLCAP in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Kroman, Niels

    2012-01-01

    , such as cervical and renal cancer, as well as human tongue carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Here we report the first study of the expression patterns of BLCAP in breast tissue. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry tissue sections of normal and malignant specimens collected from 123 clinical high-risk breast cancer...... sample matched cohort, that immunostaining intensity for BLCAP was increased in tumors relative to normal tissue, in more than 45% of the cases examined, indicating that BLCAP may be of value as a marker for breast cancer. We also analyzed BLCAP expression and prognostic value using a set of tissue...

  9. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  10. Automated Image Analysis of HER2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to Refine Definitions of Genetic Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedmante Radziuviene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene- (HER2- targeted therapy for breast cancer relies primarily on HER2 overexpression established by immunohistochemistry (IHC with borderline cases being further tested for amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Manual interpretation of HER2 FISH is based on a limited number of cells and rather complex definitions of equivocal, polysomic, and genetically heterogeneous (GH cases. Image analysis (IA can extract high-capacity data and potentially improve HER2 testing in borderline cases. We investigated statistically derived indicators of HER2 heterogeneity in HER2 FISH data obtained by automated IA of 50 IHC borderline (2+ cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Overall, IA significantly underestimated the conventional HER2, CEP17 counts, and HER2/CEP17 ratio; however, it collected more amplified cells in some cases below the lower limit of GH definition by manual procedure. Indicators for amplification, polysomy, and bimodality were extracted by factor analysis and allowed clustering of the tumors into amplified, nonamplified, and equivocal/polysomy categories. The bimodality indicator provided independent cell diversity characteristics for all clusters. Tumors classified as bimodal only partially coincided with the conventional GH heterogeneity category. We conclude that automated high-capacity nonselective tumor cell assay can generate evidence-based HER2 intratumor heterogeneity indicators to refine GH definitions.

  11. Automated Image Analysis of HER2 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to Refine Definitions of Genetic Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziuviene, Gedmante; Rasmusson, Allan; Augulis, Renaldas; Lesciute-Krilaviciene, Daiva; Laurinaviciene, Aida; Clim, Eduard; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2017-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene- (HER2-) targeted therapy for breast cancer relies primarily on HER2 overexpression established by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with borderline cases being further tested for amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Manual interpretation of HER2 FISH is based on a limited number of cells and rather complex definitions of equivocal, polysomic, and genetically heterogeneous (GH) cases. Image analysis (IA) can extract high-capacity data and potentially improve HER2 testing in borderline cases. We investigated statistically derived indicators of HER2 heterogeneity in HER2 FISH data obtained by automated IA of 50 IHC borderline (2+) cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Overall, IA significantly underestimated the conventional HER2, CEP17 counts, and HER2/CEP17 ratio; however, it collected more amplified cells in some cases below the lower limit of GH definition by manual procedure. Indicators for amplification, polysomy, and bimodality were extracted by factor analysis and allowed clustering of the tumors into amplified, nonamplified, and equivocal/polysomy categories. The bimodality indicator provided independent cell diversity characteristics for all clusters. Tumors classified as bimodal only partially coincided with the conventional GH heterogeneity category. We conclude that automated high-capacity nonselective tumor cell assay can generate evidence-based HER2 intratumor heterogeneity indicators to refine GH definitions.

  12. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  13. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Guldberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA...... hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients...... occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients...

  14. Microbial dysbiosis is associated with human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Xuan

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects one in eight women in their lifetime. Though diet, age and genetic predisposition are established risk factors, the majority of breast cancers have unknown etiology. The human microbiota refers to the collection of microbes inhabiting the human body. Imbalance in microbial communities, or microbial dysbiosis, has been implicated in various human diseases including obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. Therefore, we investigated the potential role of microbiota in breast cancer by next-generation sequencing using breast tumor tissue and paired normal adjacent tissue from the same patient. In a qualitative survey of the breast microbiota DNA, we found that the bacterium Methylobacterium radiotolerans is relatively enriched in tumor tissue, while the bacterium Sphingomonas yanoikuyae is relatively enriched in paired normal tissue. The relative abundances of these two bacterial species were inversely correlated in paired normal breast tissue but not in tumor tissue, indicating that dysbiosis is associated with breast cancer. Furthermore, the total bacterial DNA load was reduced in tumor versus paired normal and healthy breast tissue as determined by quantitative PCR. Interestingly, bacterial DNA load correlated inversely with advanced disease, a finding that could have broad implications in diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Lastly, we observed lower basal levels of antibacterial response gene expression in tumor versus healthy breast tissue. Taken together, these data indicate that microbial DNA is present in the breast and that bacteria or their components may influence the local immune microenvironment. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized link between dysbiosis and breast cancer which has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  15. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  16. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  17. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  18. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  19. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  20. Recurrent read-through fusion transcripts in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Roberts, Brian S; Davis, Nicholas S; Bowling, Kevin M; Kirby, Marie K; Nesmith, Amy S; Oliver, Patsy G; Grizzle, William E; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J; LoBuglio, Albert F; Myers, Richard M

    2014-07-01

    Read-through fusion transcripts that result from the splicing of two adjacent genes in the same coding orientation are a recently discovered type of chimeric RNA. We sought to determine if read-through fusion transcripts exist in breast cancer. We performed paired-end RNA-seq of 168 breast samples, including 28 breast cancer cell lines, 42 triple negative breast cancer primary tumors, 42 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer primary tumors, and 56 non-malignant breast tissue samples. We analyzed the sequencing data to identify breast cancer associated read-through fusion transcripts. We discovered two recurrent read-through fusion transcripts that were identified in breast cancer cell lines, confirmed across breast cancer primary tumors, and were not detected in normal tissues (SCNN1A-TNFRSF1A and CTSD-IFITM10). Both fusion transcripts use canonical splice sites to join the last splice donor of the 5' gene to the first splice acceptor of the 3' gene, creating an in-frame fusion transcript. Western blots indicated that the fusion transcripts are translated into fusion proteins in breast cancer cells. Custom small interfering RNAs targeting the CTSD-IFITM10 fusion junction reduced expression of the fusion transcript and reduced breast cancer cell proliferation. Read-through fusion transcripts between adjacent genes with different biochemical functions represent a new type of recurrent molecular defect in breast cancer that warrant further investigation as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Both breast cancer associated fusion transcripts identified in this study involve membrane proteins (SCNN1A-TNFRSF1A and CTSD-IFITM10), which raises the possibility that they could be breast cancer-specific cell surface markers.

  1. Over surgery in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Fiona; Karakatsanis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery. As tumour biology dictates cancer outcomes not surgery extent, surgery can safely be 'minimum required' rather than 'more is better' with the focus on removal of disease rather than healthy tissue. Surgeons can reduce the burden of surgery further but it is important that less surgery is not over-compensated by more radical or unnecessary systemic therapies and/or radiotherapy with their own toxicities and morbidity. We all need to be alert to the potential drivers of over treatment and over surgery such as failure to work within a multidisciplinary team, failure to design a multimodality treatment plan at diagnosis or overuse of novel assessment technologies of uncertain clinical utility. Pursuit of wide margins and the removal of the contra-lateral healthy breast for marginal risk-reduction gains are also to be discouraged as is routine local/regional surgery in stage 4 disease. The surgeon has a pivotal role in minimizing breast surgery to what is required to achieve the best oncological, functional and aesthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  4. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  5. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  6. Two-dimensional electrophoretic comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic human breast tumors using in vitro cultured epithelial cells derived from the cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buršíková Eva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors diverse in behavior, outcome, and response to therapy. Identification of proteins resembling the tumor biology can improve the diagnosis, prediction, treatment selection, and targeting of therapy. Since the beginning of the post-genomic era, the focus of molecular biology gradually moved from genomes to proteins and proteomes and to their functionality. Proteomics can potentially capture dynamic changes in protein expression integrating both genetic and epigenetic influences. Methods We prepared primary cultures of epithelial cells from 23 breast cancer tissue samples and performed comparative proteomic analysis. Seven patients developed distant metastases within three-year follow-up. These samples were included into a metastase-positive group, the others formed a metastase-negative group. Two-dimensional electrophoretical (2-DE gels in pH range 4–7 were prepared. Spot densities in 2-DE protein maps were subjected to statistical analyses (R/maanova package and data-mining analysis (GUHA. For identification of proteins in selected spots, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was employed. Results Three protein spots were significantly altered between the metastatic and non-metastatic groups. The correlations were proven at the 0.05 significance level. Nucleophosmin was increased in the group with metastases. The levels of 2,3-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and glutathione peroxidase 1 were decreased. Conclusion We have performed an extensive proteomic study of mammary epithelial cells from breast cancer patients. We have found differentially expressed proteins between the samples from metastase-positive and metastase-negative patient groups.

  7. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  8. Imaging breast tumor vascularization for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Klaase, J.M.; van den Engh, F.M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western women. Current screening and diagnostic imaging modalities, like x-ray mammography and ultrasonography, focus on morphological changes of breast tissue. However, these techniques still miss some cancers and often falsely

  9. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van der Groep, Petra; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: When breast cancer patients develop distant metastases, the choice of systemic treatment is usually based on tissue characteristics of the primary tumor as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or molecular analysis. Several previous studies have shown that the immunophenotype

  10. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  11. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50 patient number cancer normal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0.95. 0.96. 0.97. 0.98. 0.99. 1 levels. Normalized low pass power cancer normal. (a). (b). Figure 1. (a) Standard deviation of percentage fluctuation (of difference of intensities of parallel and ...

  13. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  14. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  15. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  16. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  17. Overexpression of L1 cell adhesion molecule correlates with aggressive tumor progression of patients with breast cancer and promotes motility of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhen, Linlin; Han, Xuedong; Jiao, Feng; Tang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been observed to be aberrantly expressed and implicated in progression of several types of human cancers. However, its roles in breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of L1CAM in human breast cancer and to validate whether it participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of 100 breast cancer and matched non-cancerous breast tissues was performed to detect the expression and sub-cellular localization of L1CAM protein. Its associations with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients were statistically analyzed and its phenotypic effects were also evaluated in vitro. Of the 100 breast cancer patients, 89 (89.0%) were positive for L1CAM immunostaining localized in the membrane of cancer cells. The immunoreactive scores of L1CAM protein in breast cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in matched non-cancerous breast tissues (Pbreast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of L1CAM could inhibit the migration and invasion abilities of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our results suggest that the overexpression of L1CAM may be related to several established markers of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. L1CAM might be a potential therapeutic target against metastatic breast cancer.

  18. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  19. Sustained Interruption of Anterior Interfaces Between Adipose Tissues and Mammary Glands in Ultrasonography After Complete Pathological Remission After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Junko; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Nakamura, Seigo; Yamauchi, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    Interruptions of the anterior interfaces between adipose tissues and mammary glands ultrasonographically are considered highly indicative of invasive ductal carcinoma. However, ultrasonography (US) revealed sustained interruptions in some cases of complete pathological remission (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), although invasive carcinomas remained absent. Thus, in the present study, we examined the influences of interruptions on pathology observations after pCR after NAC for primary breast cancer. A total of 337 patients received NAC at St Luke's International Hospital from April 2004 to September 2006, and 46 had pCRs despite residual in situ lesions (pCR ratio, 13.6%). Subsequently, the medical records of these 46 patients were retrospectively reviewed and US findings were compared with pathological findings. On US, interruptions remained in 18 of 46 pCR patients. Complete fibril formations were detected in 15 cases and associated in situ lesions were detected in 4 cases. US findings of interruptions of the anterior interface between adipose tissues and mammary glands were pathologically correlated with fibril formations and might not always indicate the presence of residual invasive cancer after NAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of field cancerization on the extent of duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in breast tissue after conservative excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asioli, S; Morandi, L; Cavatorta, C; Cucchi, M C; Foschini, M P

    2016-12-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the risk of residual neoplastic foci, in patients treated with breast conservative surgery, based on duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) grading. The study is based on a retrospective analysis of 419 resection specimens relative to 161 patients. All these patients underwent surgical re-excision when the first specimen had shown one or more margins involved by DCIS. Margins were oriented and the side of margin involved was recorded. Clonal analysis, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) technique, was obtained in selected cases. Residual neoplastic foci were found in 145 out of 419 (34.6%) re-excised specimens. Specifically, residual foci of DCIS grade 2 and 3 were found more frequently in the margin facing the nipple (33.3% and 51.6%, respectively). On the contrary foci of DCIS grade 1 did not show any specific distribution. Clonal mt DNA analysis evidenced that DCIS grade 3 foci present in the re-excision specimens were genetically similar to the tumor removed in the first specimen, while DCIS grade 1 foci were not clonally related each other. The present data further confirm that DCIS grade 3 is characterized by a circumscribed neoplastic process extending along the large ducts probably of a single mammary lobe. On the contrary DCIS grade 1 is characterized by multiple independent neoplastic foci, dispersed through several lobes indicating a field where multiple independent foci of cancer harbor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  2. Quantitation of CDH1 promoter methylation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer patients using differential high resolution melting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Naghitorabi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In summary, quantitation of CDH1 promoter methylation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in breast cancer. Also D-HRMA can be used as a fast and reliable method for quantitation of promoter methylation.

  3. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  4. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  5. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  6. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  7. Digital Mammography: Improvements in Breast Cancer Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño Zetina, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    X-ray mammography is the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of breast cancer (diagnostics). It is performed by a radiological system equipped with a rotating molybdenum (Mo) anode tube with an additional Mo filter. In the production of X-ray, bremsstrahlung photons produce an intense diffuse radiation, affecting the contrast between normal and cancerous tissue. So it is known that a good mammographic imaging can help to detect cancer in the first stages avoiding surgery, amputation or even death. In the last years there has been some developments in new imaging techniques to improve the contrast spatial resolution between different tissues: digital imaging, or the so call digital mammography. Digital mammographic imaging is considered an improvement in the prevention of breast cancer due to the advantages it offers.

  8. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  9. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  10. Immunoexpression analysis and prognostic value of BLCAP in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gromova

    Full Text Available Bladder Cancer Associated Protein (BLCAP, formerly Bc10, was identified by our laboratory as being down-regulated in bladder cancer with progression. BLCAP is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues, and several studies have found differential expression of BLCAP in various cancer types, such as cervical and renal cancer, as well as human tongue carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Here we report the first study of the expression patterns of BLCAP in breast tissue. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry tissue sections of normal and malignant specimens collected from 123 clinical high-risk breast cancer patients within the Danish Center for Translational Breast Cancer Research (DCTB prospective study dataset. The staining pattern, the distribution of the immunostaining, and its intensity were studied in detail. We observed weak immunoreactivity for BLCAP in mammary epithelial cells, almost exclusively localizing to the cytoplasm and found that levels of expression of BLCAP were generally higher in malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Quantitative IHC analysis of BLCAP expression in breast tissues confirmed this differential BLCAP expression in tumor cells, and we could establish, in a 62-patient sample matched cohort, that immunostaining intensity for BLCAP was increased in tumors relative to normal tissue, in more than 45% of the cases examined, indicating that BLCAP may be of value as a marker for breast cancer. We also analyzed BLCAP expression and prognostic value using a set of tissue microarrays comprising an independent cohort of 2,197 breast cancer patients for which we had follow-up clinical information.

  11. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman’s laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. [A Case of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Treated with Nipple-Sparing Mastectomywith Immediate Reconstruction Using a Tissue Expander after Nab-Paclitaxel Combined with Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Ayami; Aomatsu, Naoki; Tei, Seika; Haraoka, Goichi; Tsujio, Gen; Yamakoshi, Yoshihito; Wang, En; Nagashima, Daisuke; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Iwauchi, Takehiko; Nishii, Takafumi; Morimoto, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazunori; Uchima, Yasutake; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    A 59-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a mass in her left breast. Mammography and ultrasound showed a 9 ×11×12mm mass in her left breast, and left axillary lymph adenopathy. Core needle biopsy and pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-positive invasive ductal carcinoma with axillary lymph metastasis. Dynamic computed tomography(CT)and bone scintigraphy showed no metastasis. A diagnosis ofbreast cancer with stage II A(T1N1M0)was made, and we started neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil/ epirubicin/cyclophosphamide in 3-weekly cycles, we administered combination chemotherapy ofnab -paclitaxel and trastuzumab in 3-weekly cycles. After 7 months, the tumor disappeared and the axillary lymph node got significantly smaller. We performed nipple-sparing mastectomy/axillary lymph nodes dissection/tissue-expander placement. The pathological examination ofthe resected tumor confirmed a pathological complete response(pCR). The patient was treated with implant reconstruction and adjuvant therapy. One year has passed after the surgery, and no significant problem has been observed.

  14. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  17. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  18. Assessment of segmental arm soft tissue composition in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a pilot study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniec, Sharon Anne; Ward, Leigh C; Meerkin, Jarrod D; Kilbreath, Sharon L

    2015-03-01

    Changes in arm soft tissue composition, especially increased adipose tissue, has been found in advanced, non-pitting breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). The aim of this study was to examine whether these changes were localized to any particular region of the arm and whether they occurred in lymphedema which still pitted to pressure. Secondary aims were to explore relationships between arm segment volumes, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements of extracellular fluid (ECF), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of tissue composition. Nine women with unilateral BCRL participated. The dominant arm was affected in 4 women, and all presented with lymphedema that pitted to pressure. Arm volume was calculated from circumferences by the truncated cone method, ECF was determined with BIS and fat and lean tissue content measured by DXA. BIS and DXA measurements for women with lymphedema were made of the whole arm and also of four 10 cm-segments measured from the ulnar styloid at the wrist. Whole arm DXA data were compared to those of 45 women of similar age and body mass index without lymphedema. All women with lymphedema had a significantly larger absolute fat mass in their affected arm compared to their unaffected arm, (median difference between arms 146.9 g). The forearm segment 10 - 20 cm proximal to the wrist had the highest median inter-limb fat difference of all four arm segments. The soft tissue composition changes associated with BCRL may occur in the presence of pitting and predominantly affect the proximal forearm.

  19. Spinal Intramedullary Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Basaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all cancers in females. Approximately 8.5 % of all central nervous system metastases are located in the spinal cord. These patients have rapidly progressing neurological deficits and require immediate examination. The aim of surgery is decompression of neural tissue and histological evaluation of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of breast cancer metastasis in thoracic spinal intramedullary area which had been partially excised and then given adjuvant radiotherapy. Case. A 43-year-old female patient with breast cancer for 8 years was admitted to our hospital with complaints of weakness in both legs. Eight years ago, she received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On her neurological examination, she had paraparesis (left lower extremity: 2/5, right lower extremity: 3/5 and urinary incontinence. Spinal MRI revealed a gadolinium enhancing intramedullary lesion. Pathologic examination of the lesion was consistent with breast carcinoma metastasis. The patient has been taken into radiotherapy. Conclusion. Spinal intramedullary metastasis of breast cancer is an extremely rare situation, but it has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Microsurgical resection is necessary for preservation or amelioration of neurological state and also for increased life expectancy and quality.

  20. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  1. Targeting a Novel Vector for Breast Cancer Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bzik, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The primary purpose and scope of this IDEA award project is to experimentally examine approaches to safely target the Toxoplasma gondii parasite gene therapy vector to breast cancer tissue using...

  2. Prevalence of Ectopic Breast Tissue and Tumor: A 20-Year Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Fausto; Cicciú, Marco; Sindoni, Alessandro; Scarfó, Paola; Pollicino, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Taranto, Filippo; Palella, Jessica; Gioffré-Florio, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Ectopic breast tissue, which includes both supernumerary breast and aberrant breast tissue, is the most common congenital breast abnormality. Ectopic breast cancers are rare neoplasms that occur in 0.3% to 0.6% of all cases of breast cancer. We retrospectively report, using a large series of breast abnormalities diagnosed and treated, our clinical experience on the management of the ectopic breast cancer. In 2 decades, we observed 327 (2.7%) patients with ectopic breast tissue out of a total of 12,177 subjects undergoing a breast visit for lesions. All patients were classified into 8 classes, according to the classification of Kajava, and assessed by a physician examination, ultrasounds, and, when appropriate, further studies with fine needle aspiration cytology and mammography. All specimens were submitted to the anatomo-pathologist. The most frequent benign histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease. A rare granulosa cell tumor was also found in the right anterior thoracic wall of 1 patient. Four malignancies were also diagnosed in 4 women: an infiltrating lobular cancer in 1 patient with a lesion classified as class I, and an infiltrating apocrine carcinoma, an infiltrating ductal cancer, and an infiltrating ductal cancer with tubular pattern, occurring in 3 patients with lesions classified as class IV. Only 1 recurrence was observed. We recommend an earlier surgical approach for patients with lesions from class I to IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  4. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  5. Local aromatase activity in human breast tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H; Daroszewski, J; Milewicz, A; Blankenstein, M A

    1993-03-01

    The presence of oestradiol in malignant breast cells is considered to be an important factor in the promotion of growth of the tumor. Therefore the regulation of the local high intra-tissue oestradiol concentrations, regardless of plasma concentrations, has been investigated. Experimental evidence suggests that in situ biosynthesis of oestrogens is at least partly responsible for the local accumulation of these steroids. In this paper we report further data on measurements in fatty and tumor tissues of local aromatase activities and of concentrations of substrates and products of this enzyme. Data are given on localization of aromatase and on steroid concentrations in tumors and in adipose tissues dissected from different quadrants of breasts with malignant tumors. In adipose tissues small variations in steroid concentrations in fatty tissues were found. No tumor-directed gradients in the adipose tissue-concentrations of the androgens dehydro-epiandrosterone, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and testosterone and of the oestrogens oestradiol, oestrone and their sulfates could be detected. Furthermore no consistent pattern could be recognized in the aromatase activities in the fatty tissues dissected from tumor-bearing and non-affected quadrants of the same breast. No correlations between aromatase activity measured in vitro and product concentrations in vivo were found. Therefore the mechanisms for regulation of the local oestradiol levels in breast tissues remain unknown.

  6. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  8. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expressed in thyroid and breast tissues shows similar antigenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Marlena; Arczewska, Katarzyna D; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Łyczkowska, Anna; Krasuska, Wanda; Hanusek, Karolina; Ruf, Jean; Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Czarnocka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is essential for physiological function of the thyroid gland. The high prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) in patients with breast cancer and their protective role had previously been demonstrated, indicating a link between breast cancer and thyroid autoimmunity. Recently, TPO was shown to be present in breast cancer tissue samples but its antigenicity has not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated TPO expression levels in a series of fifty-six breast cancer samples paired with normal (peri-tumoral) tissue and its antigenic activity using a panel of well-characterized murine anti-human TPOAbs. We have shown that TPO transcripts were present in both normal and cancer tissue samples, although the amounts in the latter were reduced. Additionally, we observed that TPO levels are lower in more advanced cancers. TPO protein expression was confirmed in all tissue samples, both normal and cancerous. We also found that the antigenicity of the immunodominant regions (IDRs) in breast TPO resembles that of thyroid TPO, which is crucial for effective interactions with human TPOAbs. Expression of TPO in breast cancer together with its antigenic activity may have beneficial effects in TPOAb-positive breast cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial role of TPOAbs and to better understand the underlying mechanism.

  9. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  11. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  13. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  14. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of magnetic hyperthermia induced by remote actuation of magnetic nanoparticles in 3D micrometastasic tumor tissue analogs for triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; Chan, Ryan; Arnold, Susanne M; Hilt, J Zach; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs. While application of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles or magnetic nanocomposites (MnMs) to the micrometastatic TNBC model comprised of TTA generated from cancer and stromal cells, showed no measureable adverse effects in the absence of AMF-exposure, magnetic hyperthermia generated under the influence of an AMF in TTA incubated in a high concentration of MNP (1 mg/mL) caused significant increase in cellular death/damage with mechanical disintegration and release of cell debris indicating the potential of these inhalable composites as a promising approach for thermal treatment of diseased lungs. The novelty and significance of this study lies in the development of methods to evaluate in vitro the application of inhalable composites containing MNPs in thermal therapy using a physiologically relevant metastatic TNBC model representative of the microenvironmental characteristics in secondary lung malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  18. Breast Cancer by the Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 40,000 women will die from breast cancer this year. But thanks to steady progress in the war on cancer, millions of U.S. women with a history of the disease are alive today. Key statistics on survival rates, therapies in use, and treatment costs are provided.

  19. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  20. Gene expression programs of human smooth muscle cells: tissue-specific differentiation and prognostic significance in breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tsan Chi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle is present in a wide variety of anatomical locations, such as blood vessels, various visceral organs, and hair follicles. Contraction of smooth muscle is central to functions as diverse as peristalsis, urination, respiration, and the maintenance of vascular tone. Despite the varied physiological roles of smooth muscle cells (SMCs, we possess only a limited knowledge of the heterogeneity underlying their functional and anatomic specializations. As a step toward understanding the intrinsic differences between SMCs from different anatomical locations, we used DNA microarrays to profile global gene expression patterns in 36 SMC samples from various tissues after propagation under defined conditions in cell culture. Significant variations were found between the cells isolated from blood vessels, bronchi, and visceral organs. Furthermore, pervasive differences were noted within the visceral organ subgroups that appear to reflect the distinct molecular pathways essential for organogenesis as well as those involved in organ-specific contractile and physiological properties. Finally, we sought to understand how this diversity may contribute to SMC-involving pathology. We found that a gene expression signature of the responses of vascular SMCs to serum exposure is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis in human cancers, potentially linking vascular injury response to tumor progression.

  1. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K Reaves

    Full Text Available The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  2. Predictors for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Zhuang, Zhigang; Dewing, Michelle; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, radical breast cancer surgery has been largely replaced by breast conservation treatment, due to early diagnosis and more effective adjuvant treatment. While breast conservation is mostly preferred, the trend of bilateral mastectomy has risen in the United States. The aim of this study is to determine factors influencing patients' choice for having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). This is a retrospective study of 373 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who were treated by bilateral or unilateral mastectomy (BM or UM) at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between Jan. 2002 and Dec. 2010. In the BM group, only those with unilateral breast cancer who chose CPM were included in the analysis. When compared with the UM group, the following factors were found to be associated with BM: younger age, pre-menopausal, a family history of breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA mutation, more breast biopsies, history of breast augmentation, having MRI study within 6 months before the surgery, more likely to have reconstruction and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and fewer had neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy/radiation. When patients with bilateral breast cancer were excluded, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated younger patients with negative nodes, SLNB as the only nodal surgery and positive family history were significant factors predicting CPM and immediate reconstruction using tissue expanders or implants. Younger age, lower TN stage, requiring only SLNB and high risk family history predict contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Tissue expander/implant-based reconstructions were more frequently chosen by patients with BM.

  3. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  4. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA2, and others increase your risk. Gene mutations account for about 10% of all breast cancer cases. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  7. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  8. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  9. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  10. The effect of exercise training on the level of tissue IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Amani Shalamzari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The goal of this study was assessing the prophylactic effect of exercise and its role as an adjuvant therapy on level of cytokines involved in angiogenesis in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to exercise-tumor-exercise (ETE, exercise-tumor-rest (ETR, rest-tumor-exercise (RTE and rest-tumor-rest (RTR groups. After orientation in the environment, two groups of mice performed continuous endurance exercise for 8 weeks, and thereafter estrogen-dependent MC4L2 cancer cells were injected to them. Then, one group of each of trained and non-trained mice performed endurance exercise 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by a digital caliper weekly. Finally, the mice were sacrificed; tumor tissue was removed, immediately frozen and kept in              -70°C. Tumor sample was homogenized; levels of cytokines were measured and quantified using ELISA. Results: There was significant reduction in the level of interlukin-6 (IL-6 (P=0.001, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (P=0.0001 and tumor volume (P=0.0001 among the groups performing endurance exercise after malignancy (RTE and ETE in comparison with groups not performing endurance exercise (ETR and RTR, and these results were in agreement with tumor growth rate. Conclusion: Exercise can cause reduction in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumor tissue. Decreased IL-6 production could reduce the generation of VEGF, resulting in reduced intra-tumor angiogenesis. Due to reduction of the level of these cytokines in groups doing exercise before and after malignancy, exercise is presumed to be an adjuvant therapy in estrogen-receptor dependent tumors in addition to its effective prophylactic role.

  11. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  12. Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, M. C.; Pearce, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic “high-risk” benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721–1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813–819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343–349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT ‘enhances’ (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863–880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation

  13. Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, M C; Pearce, C L

    2013-11-01

    Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic

  14. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  15. Chapter 4- Fertility preservation in women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A.; Oktay, Kutluk

    2010-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an important issue for young women diagnosed with breast cancer. The most well-established options for fertility preservation in cancer patients, embryo and oocyte cryopreservation, have not been traditionally offered to breast cancer patients as estradiol rise during standard stimulation protocols may not be safe for those patients. Potentially safer stimulation protocols using tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors induce lower levels of estradiol while similar results in terms of number of oocyte and embryo obtained to standard protocols. Cryopreservation of immature oocytes and ovarian cortical tissue, both still experimental methods, are also fertility preservation options for breast cancer patients. PMID:21048442

  16. Optical Transillumination Spectroscopy of Breast Tissue to Determine the Cancer Risk in Pre and Post-Menopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilge, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    Cancer risk assessment is becoming an important tool in determining an individual's screening and surveillance needs in order to maximize the probability of early cancer detection, or to initiate interventions...

  17. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  19. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  20. AutoIHC-scoring: a machine learning framework for automated Allred scoring of molecular expression in ER- and PR-stained breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, S; Arun, I; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C

    2017-11-01

    In prognostic evaluation of breast cancer Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers namely, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are widely used. The expert pathologist investigates qualitatively the stained tissue slide under microscope to provide the Allred score; which is clinically used for therapeutic decision making. Such qualitative judgment is time-consuming, tedious and more often suffers from interobserver variability. As a result, it leads to imprecise IHC score for ER and PR. To overcome this, there is an urgent need of developing a reliable and efficient IHC quantifier for high throughput decision making. In view of this, our study aims at developing an automated IHC profiler for quantitative assessment of ER and PR molecular expression from stained tissue images. We propose here to use CMYK colour space for positively and negatively stained cell extraction for proportion score. Also colour features are used for quantitative assessment of intensity scoring among the positively stained cells. Five different machine learning models namely artificial neural network, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbours, decision tree and random forest are considered for learning the colour features using average red, green and blue pixel values of positively stained cell patches. Fifty cases of ER- and PR-stained tissues have been evaluated for validation with the expert pathologist's score. All five models perform adequately where random forest shows the best correlation with the expert's score (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.9192). In the proposed approach the average variation of diaminobenzidine (DAB) to nuclear area from the expert's score is found to be 7.58%, as compared to 27.83% for state-of-the-art ImmunoRatio software. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Sex hormone receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreo, Nina; Hindenburg, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The dependency of certain breast cancers on estrogen is undeniably one of the most important observations in oncology. Since this early observation, there has been a tremendous effort to define the precise roles of the estrogen receptor (ER) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Estrogen signaling pathways can also be exploited as effective targets for cancer treatment. Both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent receptor activation pathways have been successfully blocked by hormonal therapies including selective ER modulators such as tamoxifen, by blocking and accelerating the degradation of ER (fulvestrant), and by depleting tissue levels of estrogen (aromatase inhibitors). Because of the immense prognostic and predictive value of the ER and PR receptor, accurately defining hormone dependency is also of paramount importance. Despite this avalanche of discovery and development resulting in improved outcome for the patient, resistance to these therapies, both intrinsic and acquired, is well known. Uncovering the various mechanisms of resistance has deepened scientific understanding of posttranslational modifications of these receptors, as well as their cross talk with other receptor families such as the HER-2/neu receptor. The recent discovery that orphan estrogen-related receptors may also play an important role in breast cancer is just starting to be appreciated. A clear understanding of the historical perspective and the intricacies of ER structure and function is required to improve current therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  3. Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.

  4. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  5. Semi-automatic identification of punching areas for tissue microarray building: The tubular breast cancer pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Viti (Federica); I. Merelli (Ivan); A.M. Timmermans (Mieke); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); F. Beltrame (Francesco); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); L. Milanesi (Luciano)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Tissue MicroArray technology aims to perform immunohistochemical staining on hundreds of different tissue samples simultaneously. It allows faster analysis, considerably reducing costs incurred in staining. A time consuming phase of the methodology is the selection of tissue

  6. Tissue-simulating Phantoms for Assessing Potential Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Applications in Breast Cancer Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleijhuis, Rick; Timmermans, Arwin; de Jong, Johannes; de Boer, Esther; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Van Dam, Gooitzen

    Inaccuracies in intraoperative tumor localization and evaluation of surgical margin status result in suboptimal outcome of breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Optical imaging, in particular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, might reduce the frequency of positive surgical margins following BCS

  7. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  8. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  9. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  10. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  11. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  12. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Nachabe, R.; Vrancken Peeters, M.J.; van der Hage, J.A.; Oldenburg, H.S.; Rutgers, E.J.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Hendriks, B.H.; Wesseling, J.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a promising new technique for breast cancer diagnosis. However, inter-patient variation due to breast tissue heterogeneity may interfere with the accuracy of this technique. To tackle this issue, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy of DRS in

  13. Breast cancer risk in female survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Sparidans, Judith; van't Veer, Mars B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the long-term risk of breast cancer (BC) after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We focused on the volume of breast tissue exposed to radiation and the influence of gonadotoxic chemotherapy (CT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study among 1,122 female 5-year...

  14. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  15. Expression of breast cancer metastasis suppressor-1, BRMS-1, in human breast cancer and the biological impact of BRMS-1 on the migration of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulu; Ye, Lin; Tan, Yuxia; Sun, Pinghui; Ji, Ke; Jiang, Wen G

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor-1 (BRMS1) is a candidate metastasis-suppressing gene and has been shown to potentially inhibit tumor progression without blocking the growth of orthotopic tumors, in different tumor types including non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian, melanoma and breast cancers. BRMS-1 gene transcript was quantified in breast cancer sample tissues and analyzed against histological and clinical patient outcome. Human breast cancer cell lines, MDA MB-231 and MCF-7 were used to genetically-modify the expression of BRMS-1 and test for biological responses following BRMS-1 modifications. Key candidate signal pathways, influenced by BRMS-1 were also explored. BRMS1 was present in MDA MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. Using anti-BRMS1 transgenes, we knocked-down the transcripts of BRMS1 in both cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of BRMS1 gave both cells a faster cell growth rate, rapid pace of cellular migration and invasion, compared to respective wild-type and control cells (pmetastasis (p=0.05) and those who died of breast cancer (p=0.0037). In addition, patients with low levels of BRMS1 had a significantly shorter overall survival (p=0.035). BRMS-1 is aberrantly expressed in human breast cancer and is inversely-correlated with disease progression and patient survival. This is likely to be occurring via its influence on invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

  16. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  17. Evaluating Serum Markers for Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèl Schummer

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Death rates have been declining, largely as a result of early detection through mammography and improved treatment, but mammographic screening is controversial because of over-diagnosis of breast disease that might not require treatment, and under-diagnosis of cancer in women with dense breasts. Breast cancer screening could be improved by pairing mammography with a tumor circulating marker, of which there are currently none. Given genomic similarities between the basal breast cancer subtype and serous ovarian cancer, and given our success in identifying circulating markers for ovarian cancer, we investigated the performance in hormone receptor-negative breast cancer detection of both previously identified ovarian serum markers and circulating markers associated with transcripts that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy breast tissue from reduction mammaplasties.We evaluated a total of 15 analytes (13 proteins, 1 miRNA, 1 autoantibody in sera drawn at or before breast cancer surgery from 43 breast cancer cases (28 triple-negative-TN-and 15 hormone receptor-negative-HRN-/ HER2-positive and 87 matched controls.In the analysis of our whole cohort of breast cancer cases, autoantibodies to TP53 performed significantly better than the other selected 14 analytes showing 25.6% and 34.9% sensitivity at 95% and 90% specificity respectively with AUC: 0.7 (p<0.001. The subset of 28 TN cancers showed very similar results. We observed no correlation between anti-TP53 and the 14 other markers; however, anti-TP53 expression correlated with Body-Mass-Index. It did not correlate with tumor size, positive lymph nodes, tumor stage, the presence of metastases or recurrence.None of the 13 serum proteins nor miRNA 135b identified women with HRN or TN breast cancer. TP53 autoantibodies identified women with HRN breast

  18. The association of breast density with breast cancer mortality in African American and white women screened in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting

  19. Biomechanical properties of breast tissue, a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramião, Nilza G; Martins, Pedro S; Rynkevic, Rita; Fernandes, António A; Barroso, Maria; Santos, Diana C

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the tests used to determine the mechanical properties of women breast tissues (fat, glandular and tumour tissue) as well as the different values of these properties. The knowledge of the mechanical properties of breast tissue is important for cancer detection, study and planning of surgical procedures such as surgical breast reconstruction using pre-surgical methods and improving the interpretation of clinical tests. Based on the data collected from the analysed studies, some important conclusions were achieved: (1) the Young's modulus of breast tissues is highly dependent on the tissue preload compression level, and (2) the results of these studies clearly indicate a wide variation in moduli not only among different types of tissue but also within each type of tissue. These differences were most evident in normal fat and fibroglandular tissues.

  20. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  1. Strain Elastography of Breast and Prostata Cancer: Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniaux, M; Auer, T; De Zordo, T; Junker, D; Santner, W; Hubalek, M; Jaschke, W; Aigner, F

    2016-03-01

    Typically both breast and prostate cancer present as tissue with decreased elasticity. Palpation is the oldest technique of tumor detection in both organs and is based on this principle. Thus an operator can grade a palpable mass as suspicious for cancer. Strain elastography as modern ultrasound technique allows the visualization of tissue elasticity in a color coded elastogram and can be understood as technical finger. The following article shows similarities and differences of ultrasound strain elastography in the diagnosis of breast and prostate cancer. • In prostata cancer elastography, in breast cancer B-mode is the primary sonographic search modality. • The diagnostic value of the search modalities change with increasing age.• A cut-off value for a strain ratio is hard to obtain in the elastography of the prostata, because there is no stabile reference tissue in the prostata. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  3. Intratumoral levels of estrogens in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, M A; van de Ven, J; Maitimu-Smeele, I; Donker, G H; de Jong, P C; Daroszewski, J; Szymczak, J; Milewicz, A; Thijssen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer tissue is an endocrine organ and particularly the estrogen biosynthetic properties of this tissue have been well studied. The concentration of estradiol in breast cancer tissue from postmenopausal patients is considerably higher than that in the circulation and appears to depend largely on local production. Androgenic precursor steroids are abundantly present, but estrogen storage pools like fatty acid derivatives appear to be less important than initially thought. New, potent and highly specific aromatase inhibitors effectively inhibit peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens (Cancer Res. 53: 4563, 1993) as well as intratumour aromatase, median aromatase activity being 89% lower in the tissue from patients pretreated with aromatase inhibitor 7 days prior to surgery (P < 0.001). Also the intratissu