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Sample records for breast cancer study

  1. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  2. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  3. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  4. Breast cancer education for schoolgirls: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola; Smith, Jenny; Brasher, Amanda; Omrani, Atefeh; Wakefield-Scurr, Joanna

    2017-03-30

    Adolescent girls are an important target group for breast cancer education and promoting breast awareness. However, research has not established schoolgirls' perceived importance of breast cancer education or explored factors that may impact engagement. This study aimed to identify schoolgirls' concerns about breast cancer, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer education, and explored associations with demographic factors. Of 2089 schoolgirls (11-18 years) surveyed, 1958 completed all relevant breast cancer questions and demographic factors (ethnicity, school type, breast size, physical activity level and age). χ-Tests assessed associations between demographics, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer. Overall, 44% of schoolgirls reported concerns about breast cancer, 72% wanted to know more and 77% rated the topic as extremely important. Breast size was not associated with wanting to know more about breast cancer. Schoolgirls who wanted to know more about breast cancer were White, from single-sex schools with boys at sixth form, more physically active and older. However, among other ethnic groups, school types and physical activity levels, the proportion of girls who wanted to know more about breast cancer was still high (≥61%). This study provides evidence of the need for breast cancer education for schoolgirls across all school types, irrespective of breast size or physical activity levels. The results highlight the need to be inclusive and engage schoolgirls from all ethnic groups and to promote breast awareness at a young age to ensure effective breast cancer education.

  5. Study of the association between blood types and breast cancer among Isfahanian women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Mirlohi Flavarjani; Behnood Hedayatpour; Nasrollah Bashardoost; Sayed Mohammad Nourian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest a possible association between ABO blood group and the risk of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of a possible association between breast cancer and blood groups ABO and Rh. Materials and Methods: 549 women including 173 cases and 376 controls were selected. The case group included patients with breast cancer and the cancer diagnosis was confirmed for all of them. The control group included women with no reports of bre...

  6. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  7. The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer Study: Review and Future Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-01-01

    .... In 2007, the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) Study was established to obtain evidence for the accurate risk assessment and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in Korea...

  8. Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  9. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to refine estimates of the effect of diet on breast cancer. Besides diet we will measure adult weight history and physical activity in women undergoing a diagnostic work-up for breast cancer...

  10. Study of the association between blood types and breast cancer among Isfahanian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavarjani, Amir Hossein Mirlohi; Hedayatpour, Behnood; Bashardoost, Nasrollah; Nourian, Sayed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest a possible association between ABO blood group and the risk of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of a possible association between breast cancer and blood groups ABO and Rh. 549 women including 173 cases and 376 controls were selected. The case group included patients with breast cancer and the cancer diagnosis was confirmed for all of them. The control group included women with no reports of breast cancer. Blood group sampling of all cases was performed. The obtained information regarding presence or absence of cancer, blood type, age group and type of cancer were analyzed. There is no significant association between blood types ABO (Rh) and the breast cancer. (P > 0.05) It has been found that the prevalence of invasive intraductal carcinoma was 85% among the cases. About 5% of the total diagnosed cancers in the case group were allocated to modularly carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and Paget's disease. There was no relative frequency in specific blood group for these three types of cancer. The blood types ABO (Rh) and breast cancer type showed no significant relation (P = 0.2). According to the obtained results from this study, there was no relative frequency in specific blood group for these three types of cancer and the blood type could not be influenced as a risk factor in breast cancer.

  11. Study of the association between blood types and breast cancer among Isfahanian women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirlohi Flavarjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results from this study, there was no relative frequency in specific blood group for these three types of cancer and the blood type could not be influenced as a risk factor in breast cancer.

  12. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Li [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China)]. E-mail: luckylouli@eyou.com; Cong Xinli [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Yu Guofang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Li Jichang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Ma Yuxiang [Department of Ultrasound, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, 324 Jing 5 Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer.

  13. Beta Blockers and Breast Cancer Mortality: A Population- Based Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas I. Barron; Roisin M. Connolly; Linda Sharp; Kathleen Bennett; Kala Visvanathan

    2011-01-01

    .... A series of population-based observational studies were conducted to examine associations between beta blocker use and breast tumor characteristics at diagnosis or breast cancer-specific mortality...

  14. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L; Couch, Fergus J; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B; Blows, Fiona; ver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Van Leeuwen, Flora E; Anulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B; Wachter, David L; Jud, Sebastian M. S; Loehberg, Christian R; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Reed, Malcolm W. R; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Aneas; Karstens, Johann H; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Roiguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Sue M; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian P; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2011-01-01

    ...) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium...

  15. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann A

    2006-01-01

    .... These factors may exert powerful influences on physiologic processes leading to cancer. This case-control study aims to investigate the relationship between physical activity, diet, adult weight history, and breast cancer...

  16. Predictors of competing mortality to invasive breast cancer incidence in the Canadian National Breast Screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Sharareh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening requires estimates of the absolute risk of breast cancer, which is modified by various risk factors. Breast cancer incidence, and thus mortality, is altered by the occurrence of competing events. More accurate estimates of competing risks should improve the estimation of absolute risk of breast cancer and benefit from breast cancer screening, leading to more effective preventive, diagnostic, and treatment policies. We have previously described the effect of breast cancer risk factors on breast cancer incidence in the presence of competing risks. In this study, we investigate the association of the same risk factors with mortality as a competing event with breast cancer incidence. Methods We use data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, consisting of two randomized controlled trials, which included data on 39 risk factors for breast cancer. The participants were followed up for the incidence of breast cancer and mortality due to breast cancer and other causes. We stratified all-cause mortality into death from other types of cancer and death from non-cancer causes. We conducted separate analyses for cause-specific mortalities. Results We found that “age at entry” is a significant factor for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific and non-cancer mortality. “Menstruation length” and “number of live births” are significant factors for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific mortality. “Ever noted lumps in right/left breasts” is a factor associated with all-cause mortality, and non-cancer mortality. Conclusions For proper estimation of absolute risk of the main event of interest common risk factors associated with competing events should be identified and considered.

  17. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  19. Risk factors for pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a report from the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ningqi; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Zheng, Yonglan; Fackenthal, James; Adebamowo, Clement; Anetor, Imaria; Akinleye, Stella; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC), diagnosed during pregnancy or postpartum. We enrolled 1715 premenopausal women from the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study from 1998 to 2011. Based on recency of last pregnancy from diagnosis, breast cancer cases were categorized as (1) PABC diagnosed 2 years or longer postpartum, (2) PABC diagnosed 3 to 5 years postpartum, or (3) non-PABC diagnosed more than 5 years postpartum. Controls were matched to cases on recency of last pregnancy. Multiple logistic regressions were performed comparing cases and controls within each group. Of the 718 cases, 152 (21.2%) had PABC 2 or more years postpartum, and 145 (20.2%) 3 to 5 years postpartum. Although not statistically significant, women with higher parity tend to have an elevated risk of PABC but reduced risk of non-PABC (p for heterogeneity = 0.097). Family history of breast cancer might be a strong predictor particularly for PABC 2 or more years postpartum (odds ratio, 3.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-10.3). Compared with non-PABC cases, PABC 2 or more years postpartum cases were more likely to carry BRCA1/2 mutations (P = .03). Parity may have different roles in the development of PABC versus other premenopausal breast cancer in Nigerian women. Prospective mothers with multiple births and a family history of breast cancer may have an elevated risk of breast cancer during their immediate postpartum period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  1. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology St...

  2. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  3. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  4. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...... after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history...... was added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all...

  6. Breast Density and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Lebanese Population: Results from a Retrospective Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Christine; Atallah, David; Safi, Joelle; Chahine, Georges; Haddad, Antoine; El Kassis, Nadine; Maalouly, Laura-Maria; Moubarak, Malak; Dib, Mary; Ghossain, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To study the distribution of breast mammogram density in Lebanese women and correlate it with breast cancer (BC) incidence. Methods Data from 1,049 women who had screening or diagnostic mammography were retrospectively reviewed. Age, menopausal status, contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), parity, breastfeeding, history of BC, breast mammogram density, and final BI-RADS assessment were collected. Breast density was analyzed in each age category and compared according t...

  7. A case cancer control study of reproductive in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee B; Chaudhury S; Sengupta S

    1994-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as, parity, age at menarche, age at first child′s birth have been investigated in a hospital based case-control study, for their independent as well as combined influences on the incidence of female breast cancer. The study indicates that except for parity, these factors have no influence on the age at onset of the disease. Parity is positively correlated with age at onset. The patient and the control groups were found to be similar in respect of ...

  8. Beta blockers and breast cancer mortality: a population- based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Thomas I; Connolly, Roisin M; Sharp, Linda; Bennett, Kathleen; Visvanathan, Kala

    2011-07-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that antagonism of β₂-adrenergic signaling inhibits several pathways necessary for breast tumor progression and metastasis. A series of population-based observational studies were conducted to examine associations between beta blocker use and breast tumor characteristics at diagnosis or breast cancer-specific mortality. Linked national cancer registry and prescription dispensing data were used to identify women with a diagnosis of stage I to IV invasive breast cancer between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Women taking propranolol (β₁/β₂ antagonist; n = 70) or atenolol (β₁ antagonist; n = 525), in the year before breast cancer diagnosis were matched (1:2) to women not taking a beta blocker (n = 4,738). Associations between use of propranolol or atenolol and risk of local tumor invasion at diagnosis (T4 tumor), nodal or metastatic involvement at diagnosis (N2/N3/M1 tumor), and time to breast cancer-specific mortality were assessed. Propranolol users were significantly less likely to present with a T4 (odds ratio [OR], 0.24, 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.85) or N2/N3/M1 (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.88) tumor compared with matched nonusers. The cumulative probability of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly lower for propranolol users compared with matched nonusers (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.60). There was no difference in T4 or N2/N3/M1 tumor incidence or breast cancer-specific mortality between atenolol users and matched nonusers. The results provide evidence in humans to support preclinical observations suggesting that inhibiting the β₂-adrenergic signaling pathway can reduce breast cancer progression and mortality.

  9. Insomnia and the Risk of Breast Cancer: The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Abhijit; Opdahl, Signe; Strand, Linn Beate; Vatten, Lars Johan; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre

    2017-05-01

    The association of insomnia with subsequent breast cancer risk is largely unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether different symptoms of insomnia and their combination are associated with incident breast cancer in a large population-based study. In a prospective cohort study, 33,332 women were followed to monitor the occurrence of their first invasive breast cancer identified by the Cancer Registry of Norway. Insomnia symptoms including () nonrestorative sleep and () difficulty initiating and () maintaining sleep were self-reported using a study specific measure reflecting the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiadjusted Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 862 incident breast cancer cases occurred during a mean follow-up of 14.7 years. No consistent association was observed between the individual insomnia symptoms and breast cancer risk. However, compared to women reporting no insomnia complaints, those who reported having all three aspects of insomnia simultaneously were at increased risk (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-5.09). Our results suggest that having only some aspects of insomnia may not predispose someone to breast cancer. In contrast, experiencing all insomnia symptoms simultaneously might confer considerable excess risk.

  10. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormona, l Factors; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: Women with a family history of breast cancer are

  11. Breast Density and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Lebanese Population: Results from a Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the distribution of breast mammogram density in Lebanese women and correlate it with breast cancer (BC incidence. Methods. Data from 1,049 women who had screening or diagnostic mammography were retrospectively reviewed. Age, menopausal status, contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT, parity, breastfeeding, history of BC, breast mammogram density, and final BI-RADS assessment were collected. Breast density was analyzed in each age category and compared according to factors that could influence breast density and BC incidence. Results. 120 (11.4% patients had BC personal history with radiation and/or chemotherapy; 66 patients were postmenopausal under HRT. Mean age was 52.58±11.90 years. 76.4% of the patients (30–39 years had dense breasts. Parity, age, and menopausal status were correlated to breast density whereas breastfeeding and personal/family history of BC and HRT were not. In multivariate analysis, it was shown that the risk of breast cancer significantly increases 3.3% with age (P=0.005, 2.5 times in case of menopause (P=0.004, and 1.4 times when breast density increases (P=0.014. Conclusion. Breast density distribution in Lebanon is similar to the western society. Similarly to other studies, it was shown that high breast density was statistically related to breast cancer, especially in older and menopausal women.

  12. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  13. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  14. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  15. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  17. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  18. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.......Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors....

  19. Active smoking and risk of Luminal and Basal-like breast cancer subtypes in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Bell, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, Kathleen; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests an association between active cigarette smoking and increased breast cancer risk. However, the weak magnitude of association and conflicting results have yielded uncertainty and it is unknown whether associations differ by breast cancer subtype. Using population-based case-control data from phases I and II of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, we examined associations between self-reported measures of smoking and risk of Luminal and Basal-like breast cancers. We used logistic regression models to estimate case-control odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Ever smoking (current and former) was associated with a weakly increased risk of Luminal breast cancer (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.92-1.36) and was not associated with risk of Basal-like breast cancer (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.69-1.32). Similarly, smoking duration of more than 20 years was associated with increased risk of Luminal (OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.19-1.93), but not Basal-like breast cancer (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.57-1.43). When stratified by race, elevated odds ratios between smoking and Luminal breast cancer risk were found among black women across multiple exposure measures (ever smoking, duration, and dose); conversely, among white women odds ratios were attenuated or null. Results from our study demonstrate a positive association between smoking and Luminal breast cancer risk, particularly among black women and women with long smoking histories. Addressing breast cancer heterogeneity in studies of smoking and breast cancer risk may elucidate associations masked in prior studies.

  20. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Ripping, Theodora M; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening programme (1975-2008), which invites women (aged 50-74 years) biennially. Performance measures were determined. Furthermore, a case-control study was performed for women having dense and women having fatty breasts. Breast density was assessed visually with a dichotomized Wolfe scale. Breast density data were available for cases. The prevalence of dense breasts among controls was estimated with age-specific rates from the general population. Sensitivity analyses were performed on these estimates. Screening performance was better in the fatty than in the dense group (sensitivity 75.7% vs 57.8%). The mortality reduction appeared to be smaller for women with dense breasts, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 (95% CI 0.52-1.45) in the dense and 0.59 (95% CI 0.44-0.79) in the fatty group. We can conclude that high density results in lower screening performance and appears to be associated with a smaller mortality reduction. Breast density is thus a likely candidate for risk-stratified screening. More research is needed on the association between density and screening harms. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients

  2. Dose to the contralateral breast from radiotherapy and risk of second primary breast cancer in the WECARE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovall, M.; Smith, S.A.; Langholz, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the risk of second primary breast cancer in the contralateral breast (CB) after radiotherapy (RT) for first breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study population included participants in the Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology study: 708 cases (wome...

  3. Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Bakic, Predrag R.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Troxel, Andrea B.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Studies have demonstrated a relationship between mammographic parenchymal texture and breast cancer risk. Although promising, texture analysis in mammograms is limited by tissue superimposition. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that alleviates the effect of tissue superimposition, offering superior parenchymal texture visualization compared to mammography. Our study investigates the potential advantages of DBT parenchymal texture analysis for breast cancer risk estimation. Materials and Methods DBT and digital mammography (DM) images of 39 women were analyzed. Texture features, shown in studies with mammograms to correlate with cancer risk, were computed from the retroareolar breast region. We compared the relative performance of DBT and DM texture features in correlating with two measures of breast cancer risk: (i) the Gail and Claus risk estimates, and (ii) mammographic breast density. Linear regression was performed to model the association between texture features and increasing levels of risk. Results No significant correlation was detected between parenchymal texture and the Gail and Claus risk estimates. Significant correlations were observed between texture features and breast density. Overall, the DBT texture features demonstrated stronger correlations with breast percent density (PD) than DM (p ≤0.05). When dividing our study population in groups of increasing breast PD, the DBT texture features appeared to be more discriminative, having regression lines with overall lower p-values, steeper slopes, and higher R2 estimates. Conclusion Although preliminary, our results suggest that DBT parenchymal texture analysis could provide more accurate characterization of breast density patterns, which could ultimately improve breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:19201357

  4. Systemic therapy for breast cancer and risk of subsequent contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langballe, Rikke; Mellemkjær, Lene; Malone, Kathleen E; Lynch, Charles F; John, Esther M; Knight, Julia A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brooks, Jennifer; Andersson, Michael; Reiner, Anne S; Liang, Xiaolin; Woods, Meghan; Concannon, Patrick J; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2016-07-12

    Treatment with tamoxifen or chemotherapy reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). However, it is uncertain how long the protection lasts and whether the protective effect is modified by patient, tumor, or treatment characteristics. The population-based WECARE Study included 1521 cases with CBC and 2212 age- and year of first diagnosis-matched controls with unilateral breast cancer recruited during two phases in the USA, Canada, and Denmark. Women were diagnosed with a first breast cancer before age 55 years during 1985-2008. Abstraction of medical records provided detailed treatment information, while information on risk factors was obtained during telephone interviews. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC were obtained from multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Compared with never users of tamoxifen, the RR of CBC was lower for current users of tamoxifen (RR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.55-0.97) and for past users within 3 years of last use (RR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.53-1.00). There was no evidence of an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative CBC associated with ever use of tamoxifen or use for 4.5 or more years. Use of chemotherapy (ever versus never use) was associated with a significantly reduced RR of developing CBC 1-4 years (RR = 0.59; 95 % CI = 0.45-0.77) and 5-9 years (RR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.56-0.95) after first breast cancer diagnosis. RRs of CBC associated with tamoxifen or with chemotherapy use were independent of age, family history of breast cancer, body mass index and tumor characteristics of the first breast cancer with the exception that the RR of CBC was lower for lobular histology compared with other histologies. Our findings are consistent with previous studies showing that treatment with tamoxifen or chemotherapy is associated with a lower risk of CBC although the risk reduction appears to last for a limited time period after treatment is completed.

  5. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D. van der; Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening

  6. A multilevel data integration resource for breast cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types. Due to the complexity of this disease, it is important to face its study with an integrated and multilevel approach, from genes, transcripts and proteins to molecular networks, cell populations and tissues. According to the systems biology perspective, the biological functions arise from complex networks: in this context, concepts like molecular pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs, mathematical models and ontologies play an important role for dissecting such complexity. Results In this work we present the Genes-to-Systems Breast Cancer (G2SBC Database, a resource which integrates data about genes, transcripts and proteins reported in literature as altered in breast cancer cells. Beside the data integration, we provide an ontology based query system and analysis tools related to intracellular pathways, PPIs, protein structure and systems modelling, in order to facilitate the study of breast cancer using a multilevel perspective. The resource is available at the URL http://www.itb.cnr.it/breastcancer. Conclusions The G2SBC Database represents a systems biology oriented data integration approach devoted to breast cancer. By means of the analysis capabilities provided by the web interface, it is possible to overcome the limits of reductionist resources, enabling predictions that can lead to new experiments.

  7. [Study of 14 cases of breast cancer and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernandez, Victor Manuel; Garcia-Rodriguez, Francisco Mario; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicotencatl; Hernandez-Rubio, Ángela; Aboharp-Hassan, Ziad; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is diagnosed in pregnant women during pregnancy or the first year after childbirth, and is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. We don't know the frequency of this disease or the characteristics of the women affected at the Juarez Hospital of Mexico. This paper analyzed the cases of pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer treated in the Oncology Department over a period of 10 years (1990-2000). We performed a retrospective descriptive study of pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer, treated at the hospital. Of the cases found, the following indicators were studied: maternal age, type of cancer, weeks of gestation at the time of diagnosis, resolution of pregnancy and perinatal outcome, and treatment monitoring. Descriptive statistics were performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion. There were 14 cases of pregnant women with breast cancer. The mean age of patients was 28 years, with a mean of 23 weeks gestation at diagnosis. The resolution of pregnancy was favorable in 73% of cases. 78.6% of the patients were treated, 72.7% had follow-up for 2 years that found 62.5% of patients without tumor activity. The frequency of pregnant women with breast cancer is low, affecting young people. The choice of treatment allowed the resolution of pregnancy and survival of women without tumor activity.

  8. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Background Family history is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Although some important genetic factors have been identified, the extent to which familial risk can be attributed to genetic factors versus common environment remains unclear. Methods We estimated the familial concordance...... and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3......,933 twins were diagnosed with breast cancer. The cumulative lifetime incidence of breast cancer taking competing risk of death into account was 8.1% for both zygosities, while the cumulative risk for twins whose co-twins had breast cancer was 28% among monozygotic and 20% among dizygotic twins...

  9. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  10. Reproductive history, breast-feeding and risk of triple negative breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Etiology in Minorities (BEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Hines, Lisa M; Phipps, Amanda I; Koo, Jocelyn; Longacre, Teri A; Ingles, Sue A; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Slattery, Martha L; Wu, Anna H

    2018-01-13

    Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data from three population-based studies (558 TNBC and 5,111 controls) and examined associations of TNBC risk with reproductive history and breast-feeding. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression. For younger women, aged breast-fed compared to nulliparous women (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.12-3.63). For younger parous women, longer duration of lifetime breast-feeding was associated with a borderline reduced risk (≥24 vs. 0 months: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.26-1.04, P trend  = 0.06). Considering the joint effect of parity and breast-feeding, risk was increased two-fold for women with ≥3 full-term pregnancies (FTPs) and no or short-term (breast-feeding compared to women with 1-2 FTPs and breast-feeding ≥12 months (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.22-5.35). None of these associations were observed among older women (≥50 years). Differences in reproductive patterns possibly contribute to the ethnic differences in TNBC incidence. Among controls aged breast-feeding and ≥3 FTPs was highest for Hispanics (22%), followed by African Americans (18%), Asian Americans (15%) and non-Hispanic whites (6%). Breast-feeding is a modifiable behavioral factor that may lower TNBC risk and mitigate the effect of FTPs in women under age 50 years. © 2018 UICC.

  11. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Victor G; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Cronin, Walter M; Cecchini, Reena S; Atkins, James N; Bevers, Therese B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Pajon, Eduardo R; Wade, 3rd, James L; Robidoux, André; Margolese, Richard G; James, Joan; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Ganz, Patricia A; Reis, Steven E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G; Jordan, V Craig; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    .... The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR...

  12. Breast cancer biology and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in new zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biological characteristics between Māori and NZ European women were explored adjusting for age and socioeconomic deprivation in logistic regression models. Impacts of socioeconomic deprivation, stage and cancer biological characteristics on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women were explored in Cox regression models. Compared with NZ European women (n=2304), Māori women (n=429) had significantly higher rates of advanced and higher grade cancers. Māori women also had non-significantly higher rates of ER/PR negative and HER-2 positive breast cancers. Higher odds of advanced stage and higher grade remained significant for Māori after adjusting for age and deprivation. Māori women had almost a 100% higher age and deprivation adjusted breast cancer mortality hazard compared with NZ European women (HR=1.98, 1.55-2.54). Advanced stage and lower proportion of screen detected cancer in Māori explained a greater portion of the excess breast cancer mortality (HR reduction from 1.98 to 1.38), while the additional contribution through biological differences were minimal (HR reduction from 1.38 to 1.35). More advanced cancer stage at diagnosis has the greatest impact while differences in biological characteristics appear to be a minor contributor for inequities in breast cancer mortality between Māori and NZ European women. Strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer mortality in Māori should focus on earlier diagnosis, which will likely have a greater impact on reducing breast cancer

  13. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  14. A Discussion of Explanatory Discourses in Studies of Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    of statistical correlations between the incidence of breast cancer and the individuals’ social characteristics, risk behaviour or life-style factors. In this paper we document the development of the disease in Denmark, and discuss from a sociological point of view the assumptions underlying the various......Sociology of health research has often focused on quality of life and individual coping strategies of female breast cancer patients. Another important research field is the search for explanations of the disease. Here, epidemiologists and medical sociologists have concentrated on the study...... explanations of the occurrence of the disease. With the help of meta-analysis of selected studies of the risk factors/causes of breast cancer we demonstrate how the conclusions in these studies are biased by assumptions originating from dominant health discourses and gender representations....

  15. Arsenic and breast cancer: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Narges; Jafarnejad, Abu-Bakr; Tavakkoli, Leila

    2017-09-26

    Arsenic is one of the heavy metals known to be a cause of cancer and many other serious human health problems. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), has classified arsenic as a Group 1 carcinogen. Studies were performed in different populations to investigate the association between arsenic and breast cancer and the present paper attempts to review these studies. Accessible electronic resources including, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and Scopus and Google Scholar were searched, with relevant phrases up to October 30, 2016. All articles were reviewed by two people separately and among them, original epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between breast cancer and exposure to arsenic were included. Eventually seven articles were selected from 126 retrieved articles. Although three studies (one case-control and two ecological) were not able to show a significant affect, others provide some evidence of a relation between arsenic and breast cancer in specific subgroups. Exposure to arsenic may increase the risk of breast cancer. The strength of this relation can vary due to regional and individual differences.

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  19. Associations of reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhezhou; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dai, Qi; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-07-01

    While there is clear evidence for an association between later age at first live birth and increased breast cancer risk, associations with the timing of other reproductive events are less clear. As breast tissues undergo major structural and cellular changes during pregnancy, we examined associations between reproductive time events and intervals with breast cancer risk among parous women from the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS). Unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with breast cancer risk for 3,269 cases and 3,341 controls. In addition to later age at first live birth, later ages at first pregnancy and last pregnancy were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (p-trend = 0.002, 0.015, 0.008, respectively); longer intervals from menarche to first or last live birth were also associated with increased risk (p-trend associations for later age at first pregnancy or live birth and longer intervals from menarche to first or last live birth occurred among premenopausal women and ER+/PR+ breast cancers, whereas the association for later age at last pregnancy occurred among postmenopausal women and women with ER+/PR- or ER-/PR+ breast cancers. Because of the high correlation with other reproductive variables, models did not include adjustment for age at first live birth; when included, the significance of all associations was attenuated. These findings suggest that while reproductive time events and intervals play an important role in breast cancer etiology, contributions may differ by menopausal status and hormone receptor status of breast cancers. © 2013 UICC.

  20. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  1. What Is Hope For Breast Cancer Patients? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Saita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the function of hope in the life experience of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Despite its relevance, hope is a psychosocial concept still not fully explored by the literature. Aim of the present contribution is therefore to conduct a qualitative examination of semi-structure interviews of women with breast cancer. In particular the connection between hope and eight domains (diagnosis, life events, supportive network, healthcare network, medical treatment, acceptance of the disease, ability to make projects and spirituality associated with it is investigated. The analysis of the interviews of four breast cancer patients met during their hospital staying reveals that hope is an essential aspect of the ability to cope with the illness. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that hope can be placed on a continuum between Cognitive and Emotional dimensions, from the intersections of which 4 possible scenarios (Despairing Space, Fleeting Space, Hesitating Space and Hoping Space can be identified.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CAREGIVER BURDEN IN CANCER CERVIX AND CANCER BREAST ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caregivers of individuals suffering from cancer illnesses are at risk of having subjected to mental health consequences. There is a paucity of data comparing the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the caregiver burden of cancer breast and cancer cervix patients. To study the association of caregiver burden with demographic factors like age, gender, duration of caregiving etc. Materials & Methods: This Cross sectional study is performed on the key relatives of patients of 31 cancer cervix and 31 cancer breast patients. Burden assessment schedule was used. Results: Our findings suggest burden is more in male caregivers of breast cancer patients. It is not so in caregivers of cancer cervix patients. Whenever the caregiver is closely related to the patients the burden is high in both groups. Whenever the burden scores were high the depression scores were also high. Treatment modalities as a whole correlates with burden scores in caregivers of breast cancer patients but not in cancer cervix patients. Conclusion: Caregivers with breast and cervical cancer patients are vulnerable if the caregiver is male, from low socioeconomical background, more closely related and when the patients received poor treatment modalities.

  3. EZH2 protein expression in normal breast epithelium and risk of breast cancer: results from the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Francisco; Kensler, Kevin; Glass, Benjamin; Schnitt, Stuart J; Tamimi, Rulla M; Beck, Andrew H

    2017-03-02

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a polycomb-group protein that is involved in stem cell renewal and carcinogenesis. In breast cancer, increased EZH2 expression is associated with aggressiveness and has been suggested to identify normal breast epithelium at increased risk of breast cancer development. However, the association between EZH2 expression in benign breast tissue and breast cancer risk has not previously been evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We examined the association between EZH2 protein expression and subsequent breast cancer risk using logistic regression in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer within the Nurses' Health Studies. EZH2 immunohistochemical expression in normal breast epithelium and stroma was evaluated by computational image analysis and its association with breast cancer risk was analyzed after adjusting for matching factors between cases and controls, the concomitant BBD diagnosis, and the Ki67 proliferation index. Women with a breast biopsy in which more than 20% of normal epithelial cells expressed EZH2 had a significantly increased risk of developing breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-7.84) compared to women with less than 10% EZH2 epithelial expression. The risk of developing breast cancer increased for each 5% increase in EZH2 expression (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46, p value 0.026). Additionally, women with high EZH2 expression and low estrogen receptor (ER) expression had a 4-fold higher risk of breast cancer compared to women with low EZH2 and low ER expression (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.29-12.59). These results provide further evidence that EZH2 expression in the normal breast epithelium is independently associated with breast cancer risk and might be used to assist in risk stratification for women with benign breast biopsies.

  4. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm{sup -1} with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  5. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  6. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  7. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Michael B. Krawinkel

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case?control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. Methods A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast ...

  8. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  9. Prognostic value of ABO blood types in young patients with breast cancer; a nationwide study in Korean Breast Cancer Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Kim, Ku Sang; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Han, Wonshik; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lee, Seokwon; Jeon, Ye Won; Lee, Se Kyung; Yu, Jonghan; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between ABO blood types and breast cancer survival in young Korean patients. This was a retrospective study of 115,474 patients who were surgically treated for primary breast cancer between 1987 and 2011 in Korea. All data were collected by the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) online breast cancer registry. Each hospital serologically examined the ABO blood types of patients before surgery. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) or breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) among ABO blood types. Type of surgery; T stage; N stage; histologic grade; status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2; and chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors of OS and BCSS in univariate analysis and multivariate analyses. Compared to women with blood type O, there was a difference in OS and BCSS for blood type A, blood type B, or blood type AB. Compared to blood group non-O, patients with blood group O were more likely to have favorable prognosis when younger than 40 years. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of the impact of ABO blood types on prognosis of breast cancer.

  10. Breast implants and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noels, Eline C.; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Bastiaannet, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the

  11. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  12. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Tirunelveli Medical College. Ethical committee approval was obtained.100 breast cancer cases were taken and 100 healthy women with no reports of breast cancer were taken as controls. Blood grouping was done by Standard Agglutination method. Association of ABO blood groups and breast cancer was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. ABO blood group distribution among patients with breast cancer was as follows: Group A- 39%, Group O-31%, Group B- 26% and Group AB- 4% Among 100 healthy controls, ABO blood groups percentage was: Group O- 32%, Group A- 15 %, Group B- 46%, and Group AB- 7%. There is significant association between blood group A and breast Cancer since the p value was <0.05This study showed that there is strong association between ABO blood group system and female breast cancer and the highest risk for breast cancer was in blood group A and minimum in blood group AB.

  13. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3...

  14. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  15. Breast feeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether breast feeding is related to subsequent risk of breast cancer. DESIGN--Population based case-control study designed primarily to investigate the relation between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer; data obtained from questionnaires administered by interviewers, general practitioner notes, and family planning clinic records. SETTING--11 health regions in Britain. SUBJECTS--Women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 36 living in the defined study areas. One control per case, matched for age, was selected from the list of the case's general practitioner. 755 case-control pairs were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of breast feeding each liveborn infant; timing of return of menses; hormone use; other risk factors for breast cancer. RESULTS--Risk of breast cancer fell with increasing duration of breast feeding (relative risk = 0.94 per three months' breast feeding; test for trend p = 0.026) and with number of babies breast fed (relative risk = 0.86; test for trend, p = 0.017). Breast feeding each baby for longer than three months conferred no additional benefit. Breast feeding was more strongly negatively associated with risk of breast cancer than duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (chi 2 test for trend, p = 0.69). Hormonal suppression of lactation was unrelated to risk of breast cancer (relative risk = 0.96 per episode of suppressed lactation; test for trend, p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that breast feeding protects against the development of breast cancer in young women. PMID:8343660

  16. SEPP1 influences breast cancer risk among women with greater native american ancestry: the breast cancer health disparities study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Pellatt

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls and non-Hispanic white (NHW (1481 cases, 1586 controls women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69, and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09 and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA ancestry (PARTP=0.06. The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002 and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04. GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060 significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05 only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.

  17. SEPP1 influences breast cancer risk among women with greater native american ancestry: the breast cancer health disparities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Andrew J; Wolff, Roger K; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Lundgreen, Abbie; Slattery, Martha L

    2013-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP) analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69), and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09) and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA) ancestry (PARTP=0.06). The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002) and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04). GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060) significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05) only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.

  18. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.; Ginsburg, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and path...

  19. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  20. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  1. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  2. A Study of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Cancer Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homogenous disease, it is a very heterogeneous disease despite their common tissue of origin .... study and the median age of first full‑term pregnancy was. 22 years with minimum ..... or inflammatory breast cancer participating in the. NeOAdjuvant ... Findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel. Project B‑18.

  3. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conduct...

  4. Understanding the breast cancer experience: a qualitative study of Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Azlina; Ab Hadi, Imi Sairi; Mahamood, Zainal; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Keng, Soon Lean

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and leading cause of cancer mortality among Malaysian women. Despite good survival rates, the diagnosis of cancer still invokes the feeling of stress, fear and uncertainty. Because very little is known about the experiences of Malaysian women with breast cancer, a qualitative study using semi- structured interviews to explore the lived experience of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Using a purposive sampling method, 20 Malaysian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, including Malays (n=10) and Chinese (n=10) were recruited in two main public hospitals in Kelantan. Similarities and divergence in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Three themes emerged from the data: uncertainty experience of the illness, transition process and fatalistic view of breast cancer. In many ways, these findings were parallel with previous studies, suggesting that the experience of breast cancer is to a certain extent similar among women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. This study adds to the sparse literature concerning the experience of illness following breast cancer diagnosis among the Malays and Chinese. More importantly, this study addressed areas that were previously lacking, specifically in depth information on breast cancer experience from a developing country with a multi-ethnic population. The results of this investigation provide preliminary information to healthcare professionals on the impact of illness and cultural influence on survivorship to plan for appropriate education and supportive programme in order to meet the needs of breast cancer women more effectively.

  5. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  6. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  8. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  9. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  10. Validity of Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry data used in the predictors of breast cancer recurrence (ProBeCaRe) premenopausal breast cancer cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Ahern, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow-up. In a longit......BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow......-up. In a longitudinal study, we validated DBCG data using medical records as the gold standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a cohort of 5959 premenopausal women diagnosed during 2002-2010 with stage I-III breast cancer, we selected 151 patients - 77 estrogen-receptor-positive and 74 estrogen-receptor-negative - from......). The PPV for DBCG-recorded recurrence was 100%. However, of 19 patients who had a recurrence documented in their medical record, 13 had the recurrence registered in DBCG. CONCLUSIONS: DBCG data are valid for most epidemiological studies of breast cancer treatment. Data on menopausal transition may be less...

  11. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  12. The Interaction between Genetic Ancestry and Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Hispanic Women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lisa M; Sedjo, Rebecca L; Byers, Tim; John, Esther M; Fejerman, Laura; Stern, Mariana C; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Wolff, Roger K; Harrall, Kylie K; Slattery, Martha L

    2017-05-01

    Background: Hispanic women have lower breast cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. To what extent genetic versus nongenetic factors account for this difference is unknown. Methods: Using logistic regression, we evaluated the interactive influences of established risk factors and ethnicity (self-identified and identified by ancestral informative markers) on breast cancer risk among 2,326 Hispanic and 1,854 NHW postmenopausal women from the United States and Mexico in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Results: The inverse association between the percentage of Native American (NA) ancestry and breast cancer risk was only slightly attenuated after adjusting for known risk factors [lowest versus highest quartile: odds ratio (OR) =1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.92 among U.S. Hispanics; OR = 1.92 (95% CI, 1.29-2.86) among Mexican women]. The prevalence of several risk factors, as well as the associations with certain factors and breast cancer risk, differed according to genetic admixture. For example, higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with reduced risk among women with lower NA ancestry only [BMI 30: OR = 0.65 (95% CI, 0.44-0.98) among U.S. Hispanics; OR = 0.53 (95% CI, 0.29-0.97) among Mexicans]. The average number of risk factors among cases was inversely related to the percentage of NA ancestry. Conclusions: The lower NA ancestry groups were more likely to have the established risk factors, with the exception of BMI. Although the majority of factors were associated with risk in the expected directions among all women, BMI had an inverse association among Hispanics with lower NA ancestry. Impact: These data suggest that the established risk factors are less relevant for breast cancer development among women with more NA ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 692-701. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  15. Attending the breast screening programme after breast cancer treatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Linda; Kwast, Annemiek; Reiding, Dick; de Bock, Geertruida H; Otter, Renée; Willemse, Pax H B; Siesling, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    In the Netherlands, breast cancer patients are treated and followed at least 5 years after diagnosis. Furthermore, all women aged 50-74 are invited biennially for mammography by the nationwide screening programme. The relation between the outpatient follow-up (follow-up visits in the outpatient clinic for 5 years after treatment) and the screening programme is not well established and attending the screening programme as well as outpatient follow-up is considered undesirable. This study evaluates potential factors influencing women to attend the screening programme during their outpatient follow-up (overlap) and the (re-)attendance to the screening programme after 5 years of outpatient follow-up. Data of breast cancer patients aged 50-74 years, treated for primary breast cancer between 1996 and 2007 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and linked to the National Breast Cancer Screening Programme in the Northern region. Cox regression analyses were used to study women (re-)attending the screening programme over time, possible overlap with the outpatient follow-up and factors influencing this. In total 11227 breast cancer patients were included, of whom 19% attended the screening programme after breast cancer treatment, 4.4% within 5 years and 15.4% after more than 5 years. Factors that independently influenced attendance within 5 years as well as more than 5 years after treatment were: interval tumours (HR 0.77; 95%CI 0.61-0.97 and HR 0.69; 95%CI 0.53-0.88, ref: screen-detected tumours), receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.65; 95%CI 0.47-0.90 and HR 0.66; 95%CI 0.47-0.93; ref: none) and diagnosis of in situ tumours (HR 1.67; 95%CI 1.25-2.23 and HR 1.39; 95%CI 1.05-1.85; ref: stage I tumours). Non-screen related tumours (HR 0.41; 95%CI 0.29-0.58) and recent diagnosis (HR 0.89 per year; 95%CI 0.86-0.92) were only associated with attendance within 5 years after treatment. The interrelation between outpatient follow-up and screening should be improved to

  16. Living with newly diagnosed breast cancer: a qualitative study of 10 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Bjorg T; Wahl, Astrid

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to describe from the perspective of 10 women (aged 39-69 years), their experience of living with breast cancer. Although there is increasing research into a variety of aspects associated with breast cancer, there is a continuing need for research to increase nurses' understanding of how women experience living with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Following ethical approval, open-ended interviews were analysed, using methods influenced by Grounded Theory. Verifiability and empirical grounding of the theory was established through use of the constant comparative method. Existential issues arose as an important aspect of living with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The will to live emerged as the central theme. All energy was channelled into a tenacious fight for life. Furthermore, results revealed other aspects in the women's awareness of living with breast cancer, such as their experiences in relation to emotional reactions, bodily physical changes, their female identity, meaningful activities and their social network. An understanding of how women experience their new and changed life situation is important to the support nurses give in the process of healing. Nurses need this knowledge to be better able to assist women and their families in their development of coping strategies.

  17. [Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer: An analytical observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulies, Sonia; Cusidó, Maite; Tresserra, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Ubeda, Belén; Ara, Carmen; Fábregas, Rafael

    2014-03-04

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and up to one year postpartum. A retrospective, analytical, observational study comparing 56 cases of breast cancer and pregnancy (PABC) diagnosed 1976-2008 with 73 patients with breast cancer not associated with pregnancy (non-PABC) was performed. Demographic data, prognostic factors, treatment and survival were reviewed and compared. The prevalence of PABC in our center is 8.3/10,000. The highest frequency (62%) appeared during the postpartum period. The stages are higher in PABC, being 31.3% advanced (EIII and EIV) in PABC versus 13.3% in non-PABC (P < .05). Regarding prognostic factors, 27.3% in PABC had a tumoral grade 3 versus 15.8% of non-PABC. Among women with PABC, 33.3% had negative estrogen receptors, 48.7% negative progesterone receptors and 34.5% positive Her2Neu compared with 22.2, 24.1 and 31%, respectively of non-PABC patients. Finally, positive lymph nodes were found in 52.8% of PABC, versus 33.8% non-PABC (P < .05). Overall and disease-free survival rate at 5 years for PABC was 63.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The poorer survival observed is possibly due to the presence of adverse prognostic features such as lymph node metastases, negative hormone receptors, tumoral grade iii, as well as a delay in diagnosis with a higher rate of advanced stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  19. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  20. Association Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Initiation: The Breast Cancer Quality of Care (BQUAL) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Neugut, Alfred I; Falci, Laura; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Buono, Donna; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Roh, Janise M; Ergas, Isaac J; Kwan, Marilyn L; Lee, Marion; Tsai, Wei Yann; Shi, Zaixing; Lamerato, Lois; Kushi, Lawrence H; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-09-01

    Not all women initiate clinically indicated breast cancer adjuvant treatment. It is important for clinicians to identify women at risk for noninitiation. To determine whether complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is associated with decreased breast cancer chemotherapy initiation. In this multisite prospective cohort study (the Breast Cancer Quality of Care [BQUAL] study) designed to examine predictors of breast cancer treatment initiation and adherence, 685 women younger than 70 years with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer were recruited from Columbia University Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, and Henry Ford Health System and enrolled between May 2006 and July 31, 2010. Overall, 306 patients (45%) were clinically indicated to receive chemotherapy per National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Participants were followed for up to 12 months. Baseline interviews assessed current use of 5 CAM modalities (vitamins and/or minerals, herbs and/or botanicals, other natural products, mind-body self-practice, mind-body practitioner-based practice). CAM use definitions included any use, dietary supplement use, mind-body use, and a CAM index summing the 5 modalities. Chemotherapy initiation was assessed via self-report up to 12 months after baseline. Multivariable logistic regression models examined a priori hypotheses testing whether CAM use was associated with chemotherapy initiation, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates, and delineating groups by age and chemotherapy indication. A cohort of 685 women younger than 70 years (mean age, 59 years; median age, 59 years) with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer were recruited and followed for up to 12 months to examine predictors of breast cancer treatment initiation. Baseline CAM use was reported by 598 women (87%). Chemotherapy was initiated by 272 women (89%) for whom chemotherapy was indicated, compared with 135 women (36%) for whom chemotherapy was discretionary. Among

  1. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  2. A Study of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Cancer Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer among females in urban India.[1] With development of various modern technologies, with collaboration of pathology and genetic study, breast cancer now no more considered as homogenous disease, it is a very heterogeneous disease despite their common tissue of origin. Research in molecular pathology.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  4. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  5. Parameter estimates for invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, S; Banjevic, D; Miller, A B; Montgomery, N; Jardine, A K S; Harvey, B J

    2013-02-19

    The aim of screening is to detect a cancer in the preclinical state. However, a false-positive or a false-negative test result is a real possibility. We describe invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study and construct progression models with and without covariates. The effect of risk factors on transition intensities and false-negative probability is investigated. We estimate the transition rates, the sojourn time and sensitivity of diagnostic tests for women aged 40-49 and 50-59. Although younger women have a slower transition rate from healthy state to preclinical, their screen-detected tumour becomes evident sooner. Women aged 50-59 have a higher mortality rate compared with younger women. The mean sojourn times for women aged 40-49 and 50-59 are 2.5 years (95% CI: 1.7, 3.8) and 3.0 years (95% CI: 2.1, 4.3), respectively. Sensitivity of diagnostic procedures for older women is estimated to be 0.75 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.88), while women aged 40-49 have a lower sensitivity (0.61, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.77). Age is the only factor that affects the false-negative probability. For women aged 40-49, 'age at entry', 'history of breast disease' and 'families with breast cancer' are found to be significant for some of the transition rates. For the age-group 50-59, 'age at entry', 'history of breast disease', 'menstruation length' and 'number of live births' are found to affect the transition rates. Modelling and estimating the parameters of cancer progression are essential steps towards evaluating the effectiveness of screening policies. The parameters include the transition rates, the preclinical sojourn time, the sensitivity, and the effect of different risk factors on cancer progression.

  6. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, RH; Davies, EA; Robinson, D; Sainsbury, R.; Moller, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resid...

  8. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Robinson, D; Sainsbury, R.; Møller, H

    2007-01-01

    Background: Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods: 35,354 women r...

  9. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  10. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment : a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-01-01

    Background A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. Methods The ABLATIVE study is a prosp...

  11. Preliminary study on association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study did not find any significant association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer besides higher rates of seropositivity and serointensity in patients compared with healthy volunteers.

  12. [Studies on human breast cancer tissues with Raman microspectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Xu, Xiao-xuan; Niu, Yun; Wang, Bin; Song, Zeng-fu; Zhang, Chun-ping

    2004-11-01

    The microscopic Raman spectra from normal and malignant human breast tissues have been measured and investigated. The spectral differences and changes between normal and malignant breast tissue samples mainly involve: (1) the band from the symmetric stretching modes of PO2- group in the DNA shifts from 1082 to 1097 cm(-1) and becomes stronger. The intensity of the symmetric stretching modes of O-P-O at 817 cm(-1) in RNA increases greatly. (2) The bands of Amide I and III at 1657 and 1273 cm(-1) change to 1662 and 1264 cm(-1) respectively with their intensity and band width increasing. The peak of the C-O stretching modes in the amino acids shifts to higher wave number. The tryptophan band at 1368 cm(-1) almost disappears. (3) Fewer characteristic Raman bands from lipids are observed. These spectral changes indicate that nucleic acids increase in contents relatively, while their conformation changes in cancer tissues. The proteins show various conformations and disorder structures with their molecular hydrogen bonds nearly broken. The contents of lipids decrease obviously. This investigation shows that Raman microspectroscopy is useful to biochemical study and vivo diagnosis of human breast cancers.

  13. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  14. Effect of antihypertensive drugs on breast cancer risk in female hypertensive patients: Evidence from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Wang, Qiongying; Zhao, Xu; Meng, Huitao; Yu, Jing

    2017-11-08

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between antihypertensive drugs and risk of breast cancer, and provide therapeutic implications for female hypertensive patients with different physical appearance. The prevalence of hypertension and female breast cancer is on the rise with age. It has been suggested that ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers), ACEi (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), CCBs (calcium channel blockers), and BBs (beta-blockers) were widely used in hypertensive patients. Some researches have shown ARBs, ACEis, and beta-blockers to be effective drugs for blood pressure lowering as well as for reducing the risk of breast cancer in women. However, the research conclusions were inconsistent. To address the conflicting evidence from previous study, the study evaluates the risk of breast cancer in hypertensive women. In conclusion, we report the evidence that beta-blockers can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence, while ACEi and CCBs were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

  15. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  17. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  18. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Han, Sileny N; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bontenbal, Marijke; Ring, Alistair; Giermek, Jerzy; Fehm, Tanja; Van Calsteren, Kristel; Linn, Sabine C; Schlehe, Bettina; Gziri, Mina Mhallem; Westenend, Pieter J; Müller, Volkmar; Heyns, Liesbeth; Rack, Brigitte; Van Calster, Ben; Harbeck, Nadia; Lenhard, Miriam; Halaska, Michael J; Kaufmann, Manfred; Nekljudova, Valentina; Amant, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether treatment for breast cancer during pregnancy is safe for both mother and child. We recruited patients from seven European countries with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy; data were collected retrospectively if the patient was diagnosed before April, 2003 (when the registry began), or prospectively thereafter, irrespective of the outcome of pregnancy and the type and timing of treatment. The primary endpoint was fetal health for up to 4 weeks after delivery. The registry is ongoing. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00196833. From April, 2003, to December, 2011, 447 patients were registered, 413 of whom had early breast cancer. Median age was 33 years (range 22-51). At the time of diagnosis, median gestational age was 24 weeks (range 5-40). 197 (48%) of 413 women received chemotherapy during pregnancy with a median of four cycles (range one to eight). 178 received an anthracycline, 15 received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, and 14 received a taxane. Birthweight was affected by chemotherapy exposure after adjustment for gestational age (p=0·018), but not by number of chemotherapy cycles (p=0·71). No statistical difference between the two groups was observed for premature deliveries before the 37th week of gestation. 40 (10%) of 386 infants had side-effects, malformations, or new-born complications; these events were more common in infants born before the 37th week of gestation than they were in infants born in the 37th week or later (31 [16%] of 191 infants vs nine [5%] of 195 infants; p=0·0002). In infants for whom maternal treatment was known, adverse events were more common in those who received chemotherapy in utero compared with those who were not exposed (31 [15%] of 203 vs seven [4%] of 170 infants; p=0·00045). Two infants died; both were exposed to chemotherapy and delivered prematurely, but

  19. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, M.C. van; Munck, L.; Bock, G.H. de; Jobsen, J.J.; Dalen, T. van; Linn, S.C.; Poortmans, P.; Strobbe, L.J.A.; Siesling, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving

  20. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  1. Preliminary study on association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Kalantari; Salman Ghaffari; Masomeh Bayani; Maryam Mitra Elmi; Daryush Moslemi; Novin Nikbakhsh; Fariedh Ghavipanjeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and breast cancer by examining the seropositivity and serointensity rate of anti-T. gondii antibodies in breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study was carried out on 66 women with breast cancer which consists of 29 newly diagnosed patients (Group 1) and 37 cases undergoing treatment and regular checkups (Group 2). Also, 60 healthy women (Group 3) with no history of ca...

  2. Development of a Bayesian Classifier for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    mammographic microcalcifications and predict false-positive mammograms.21,22 We believe that clinical data collected as part of breast cancer screening...Leung WK. Bayesian network to predict breast cancer risk of mammographic microcalcifications and reduce number of benign biopsy results: initial...Development of a Bayesian Classifier for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: A Feasibility Study Alexander Stojadinovic, MD,a,b Christina Eberhardt,a

  3. A case control study on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening by clinical breast examination in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, S; Tsuji, I; Ohuchi, N; Takei, H; Yokoe, T; Koibuchi, Y; Ohnuki, K; Fukao, A; Satomi, S; Hisamichi, S

    1999-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Miyagi and Gunma prefectures, Japan, to evaluate the effectiveness of breast cancer screening by clinical breast examination (CBE) alone in reducing breast cancer mortality. Case subjects, who were female and had died of breast cancer, were collected from residential registry files and medical records. Control subjects matched in sex, age and residence were randomly selected from residential registry files. The screening histories during 5 years prior to the cases having been diagnosed as breast cancer were surveyed using the examinee files of the screening facilities. Finally, the data of 93 cases and 375 controls were analyzed. The odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer death for participating in screening at least once during 5 years was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.48-1.79). The cases were more symptomatic than the controls when screened. If the participants who had had symptoms in their breasts were classified as not screened, the OR decreased to 0.56 (95% CI 0.27-1.18). The case control study suggests that the current screening modality (CBE) lacks effectiveness (OR = 0.93), although it might be effective for an asymptomatic population (OR = 0.56). The number of cases was small, and a larger case-control study is desirable to define whether CBE is effective or not. However, it is necessary to consider the introduction of mammographic screening to reduce breast cancer mortality in Japan.

  4. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  5. Breast cancer biologic and etiologic heterogeneity by young age and menopausal status in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Anders, Carey K; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Bell, Mary Beth; Yang, Yang Claire; Carey, Lisa A; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-08-04

    Young-onset breast cancer (Breast cancer risk factors may contribute to distinct tumor biology and distinct age at onset, but understanding of these relationships has been hampered by limited representation of young women in epidemiologic studies and may be confounded by menopausal status. We examined tumor characteristics and epidemiologic risk factors associated with premenopausal women's and young women's breast cancer in phases I-III of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (5309 cases, 2022 control subjects). Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by age (breast cancer risk among young women but with elevated risk among older women. Parity was associated with increased risk among young women and reduced risk among older women, while breastfeeding was more strongly protective for young women. Longer time since last birth was protective for older women but not for young women. In comparison, when we stratified by age, menopausal status was not associated with distinct risk factor or tumor characteristic profiles, except for progesterone receptor status, which was more commonly positive among premenopausal women. Age is a key predictor of breast cancer biologic and etiologic heterogeneity and may be a stronger determinant of heterogeneity than menopausal status. Young women's breast cancer appears to be etiologically and biologically distinct from that among older women.

  6. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  7. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  8. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  9. Cohort study of women at risk for breast cancer and gross cystic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jennifer; Joseph, Kathie-Ann; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Rundle, Andrew; Jacobson, Judith; Schnabel, Freya

    2005-10-01

    Gross cystic disease (GCD) is a common benign breast condition. Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship of GCD and subsequent risk of developing breast cancer. This cohort study was conducted to investigate the association of GCD and breast cancer among women at high risk for breast cancer. The Women At Risk Registry provided the study population. The variables of interest included age at enrollment, age at breast cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), presence of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and Gail scores. Statistical significance was determined by calculating multivariable-adjusted rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards regression model with years of follow-up as the time scale. The study population included 1317 high-risk women, including 363 (28%) with GCD. The mean follow-up was 5.9 years for the GCD cohort, and 5.1 years for the non-GCD cohort (P breast cancer (P breast cancer; 28 (35%) out of the 79 had a prior history of GCD. Results from the Cox proportional hazards regression model showed a nonstatistically significant association of GCD and breast cancer (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval 0.88-2.51). The Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimate between the exposed and unexposed groups indicate that there are no differences in overall survival between the 2 groups (P = .5). These results do not support the contention that gross cystic disease is a significant risk factor for breast cancer.

  10. A clinicopathologic study of triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana L Gaopande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC are defined by absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR and absence of overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2. They are associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to study the clinicopathologic parameters of TNBC such as age, tumor size, stage, grade, and lymph node involvement and compare them with nonTNBC tumors. There are many studies which have shown that TNBC are similar to basal-like breast cancers (BBC. We have found the proportion of BBC in the TNBC group using surrogate immunohistochemical (IHC markers cytokeratin5 (CK5 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Materials and Methods : This is a retrospective study of 102 cases of carcinoma breast. Clinical records of the cases were retrieved. Histopathology slides and the IHC slides (ER, PR, Her2 were reviewed. Thus, two groups of patients were made TNBC and nonTNBC. Using the software SPSS version 16 statistical significance of the difference between clinicopathologic variables of the two groups was calculated. TNBC group was later studied for the presence of basal markers CK5 and EGFR using tissue microarray. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in the variables such as mean age at diagnosis, mean tumor size, tumor grade, and the presence of lymphovascular invasion. Conclusions: TNBC formed 23.5% of total cases. Overall, TNBC were high grade tumors with larger size at diagnosis, presenting in younger women and showing lymphovascular invasion in a higher number of cases. 87.5% of TNBC were BBC.

  11. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3 and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0. Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6 and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed

  12. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and

  13. Exercise after diagnosis and Metabolic Syndrome among Breast Cancer Survivors: A report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Nechuta, Sarah; Gu, Kai; Cai, Hui; Peng, Peng; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Limited data are available on the prevalence of MetS and its association with exercise among breast cancer survivors. The present study included 1696 breast cancer survivors from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a population-based prospective cohort study conducted between April 2002 and October 2011 in Shanghai, China. All women had a physical examination taken at study clinic approximately 60 months post-diagnosis. Exercise was assessed at approximately 6, 18, 36, and 60 months post-diagnosis. Information on medical history, tumor characteristics, cancer treatment, anthropometrics, and lifestyle were collected at study enrollment. Associations between exercise and MetS at 60 months post-diagnosis were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models. The mean age of the study population was 56.68 at 60-month survey and the mean follow-up since cancer diagnosis was 63.66 months. The prevalence of MetS using NCEP-ATPIII criteria at approximately 60 months after diagnosis was 33.14%. Among overweight and obesity breast cancer survivors (BMI≥25 kg/m2 at baseline), the prevalence was 55.18%. The most common type of exercise in this population was walking (45.40%) at baseline. Exercise participation between 6 and 60 months post-diagnosis was inversely associated with the prevalence of MetS with the adjusted OR for exercise participation of ≥3.5 hours/week (30 minutes/day) being 0.69 (95% CI: 0. 0.48–0.98). In addition consistent exercise participation reduced the prevalence of MetS (adjusted OR 0.70 (95%CI: 0.50–1.00). Associations of exercise with MetS were not modified by baseline WC, BMI, comorbidity, baseline menopausal status, TNM stage, cancer treatment, or ER/PR status (P interactions >0.05). Regular and persistent exercise after cancer diagnosis, even at low-to-moderate intensity level, decrease the prevalence of MetS among long

  14. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D. P.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick; Cole, Trevor; McKeown, Carole; Taylor, Amy; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Izatt, Louise; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Chu, Carol; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Robinson, Anne; Gardiner, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Mitra, Anita; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Bérard, Léon; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, Françoise; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Payrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélèn; Rebischung, Christine; Cassini, Cécile; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Lynch, Henry T.; Hogervorst, Frans; Vernhoef, Senno; Pijpe, Anouk; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; Rookus, Matti; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Tollenaar, Rob; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet; van der Luijt, Rob; Aalfs, Cora; van Os, Theo; Gille, Hans; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; van Roozendaal, Kees; Blok, Marinus; Oosterwijk, Jan; van der Hout, Annemieke; Mourits, Marian; Vasen, Hans; Szabo, Csilla; Pohlreich, Petr; Kleibl, Zdenek; Machackova, Eva; Lukesova, Miroslava; de Leeneer, Kim; Poppe, Bruce; de Paepe, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs),

  15. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  16. Association study of prostate cancer susceptibility variants with risks of invasive ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Koessler, T.; Ahmed, S.

    2008-01-01

    test of association was a comparison of genotype frequencies between cases and controls, and a test for trend stratified by study where appropriate. Genotype-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. SNP rs2660753 (chromosome 3p12) showed evidence of association with ovarian......Several prostate cancer susceptibility loci have recently been identified by genome-wide association studies. These loci are candidates for susceptibility to other epithelial cancers. The aim of this study was to test these tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for association with invasive...... ovarian, colorectal, and breast cancer. Twelve prostate cancer-associated tag SNPs were genotyped in ovarian (2,087 cases/3,491 controls), colorectal (2,148 cases/2,265 controls) and breast (first set, 4,339 cases/4,552 controls; second set, 3,800 cases/3,995 controls) case-control studies. The primary...

  17. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  18. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  19. Stage at presentation of breast cancer in Luanda, Angola - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Freitas, Helga; Tavares, António; Pangui, Salvador; Castro, Clara; Lacerda, Gonçalo Forjaz; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-10-15

    It is expected that, by 2020, 15 million new cases of cancer will occur every year in the world, one million of them in Africa. Knowledge of cancer trends in African countries is far from adequate, and improvements in cancer prevention efforts are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to characterize breast cancer clinically and pathologically at presentation in Luanda, Angola; we additionally provide quality information that will be useful for breast cancer care planning in the country. Data on breast cancer cases were retrieved from the Angolan Institute of Cancer Control, from 2006 to 2014. For women diagnosed in 2009 (5-years of follow-up), demographic, clinical and pathological information, at presentation, was collected, namely age at diagnosis, parity, methods used for pathological diagnoses, tumor pathological characteristics, stage of disease and treatment. Descriptive statistics were performed. The median age of women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2009 was 47 years old (range 25-89). The most frequent clinical presentation was breast swelling with axillary lymph nodes metastasis (44.9 %), followed by a mass larger than 5 cm (14.2 %) and lump (12.9 %). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the main histologic type (81.8 %). Only 10.1 % of cancer cases had a well differentiated histological grade. Cancers were diagnosed mostly at advanced stages (66.7 % in stage III and 11.1 % in stage IV). In this study, breast cancer was diagnosed at a very advanced stage. Although it reports data from a single cancer center in Luanda, Angola it reinforces the need for early diagnosis and increasing awareness. According to the main challenges related to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment herein presented, we propose a realistic framework that would allow for the implementation of a breast cancer care program, built under a strong network based on cooperation, teaching, audit, good practices and the organization of health services. Angola needs urgently a program for

  20. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  1. Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: A pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missmer, S.A.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S.-S.; Adami, H.-O.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Fraserf, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Potter, J.D.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Toniolo, P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background. More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consumption and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors

  2. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S-S.; Adami, H-O.; Beeson, L.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The association between anthropometric indices and the risk of breast cancer was analyzed using pooled data from seven prospective cohort studies. Together, these cohorts comprise 337,819 women and 4,385 incident invasive breast cancer cases. In multivariate analyses controlling for reproductive,

  3. Unravelling site-specific breast cancer metastasis : A microRNA expression profiling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, Willemijne A M E; van Diest, Paul J.; Moelans, Cathy B.

    2017-01-01

    Distant metastasis is still the main cause of death from breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of many physiological and pathological processes, including metastasis. Molecular breast cancer subtypes are known to show a sitespecific pattern of metastases formation. In this study,

  4. How breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence : A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Jacobs, P.M.; Roukema, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence. Methods Three focus groups were held with breast cancer survivors. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques.

  5. “Voices of Fear and Safety” Women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: a qualitative study from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Hana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65 years with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast

  6. Dietary fat intake in relation to lethal breast cancer in two large prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Caroline E; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Cho, Eunyoung; Holmes, Michelle D; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2014-07-01

    Whether fat intake influences risk of developing more aggressive, lethal breast tumors is unknown. We evaluated intakes of total fat, specific types of fat, and cholesterol prior to diagnosis in relation to lethal breast cancer risk in 88,759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2010) and 93,912 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII; 1991-2010). Diet was assessed every 4 years using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Breast cancers were confirmed with pathology reports; deaths were confirmed by next of kin or the National Death Index. We defined lethal cases as women with invasive breast cancer who died of breast cancer. We pooled the cohorts and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 1,529 lethal breast cancer cases (1,279 in NHS and 250 in NHSII). Higher total fat intake was associated with a slightly lower lethal breast cancer risk (top vs. bottom quintile hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95 % CI 0.72, 1.01; p trend = 0.05). Specific types of fat were generally not associated with lethal breast cancer risk. For example, compared with those in the lowest quintile of saturated fat intake, those in the highest quintile had a HR of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.26; p trend = 0.96). Among women diagnosed with breast cancer, pre-diagnosis fat intake was not associated with survival. Higher pre-diagnosis fat intake was not associated with greater risk of lethal breast cancer in these large prospective cohort studies, consistent with the weight of the evidence against a causal role for fat intake and breast cancer incidence.

  7. Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  9. A Cohort Study of p53 Mutations and Protein Accumulation in Benign Breast Tissue and Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Kabat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and accumulation of its protein in breast tissue are thought to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated the association of p53 immunopositivity and/or p53 alterations in women with benign breast disease in relation to the subsequent risk of invasive breast cancer. We carried out a case-control study nested within a large cohort of women biopsied for benign breast disease in order to address this question. After exclusions, 491 breast cancer cases and 471 controls were available for analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Neither p53 immunopositivity nor genetic alterations in p53 (either missense mutations or polymorphisms was associated with altered risk of subsequent breast cancer. However, the combination of both p53 immunopositivity and any p53 nucleotide change was associated with an approximate 5-fold nonsignificant increase in risk (adjusted OR 4.79, 95% CI 0.28–82.31 but the confidence intervals were extremely wide. Our findings raise the possibility that the combination of p53 protein accumulation and the presence of genetic alterations may identify a group at increased risk of breast cancer.

  10. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  11. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  12. Low-dose aspirin use and survival in breast cancer patients: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Menamin, Úna C; Cardwell, Chris R; Hughes, Carmel M; Murray, Liam J

    2017-04-01

    Preclinical evidence from breast cancer cell lines and animal models suggest that aspirin could have anti-cancer properties. In a large breast cancer patient cohort, we investigated whether post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use was associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality. We identified 15,140 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients within the Scottish Cancer Registry. Linkages to the Scottish Prescribing Information System provided data on dispensed medications and breast cancer-specific deaths were identified from National Records of Scotland Death Records. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use. HRs were adjusted for a range of potential confounders including age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, cancer stage, grade, cancer treatments received, comorbidities, socioeconomic status and use of statins. Secondary analysis investigated the association between pre-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Post-diagnostic users of low-dose aspirin appeared to have increased breast cancer-specific mortality compared with non-users (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.26, 1.65) but this association was entirely attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75, 1.14). Findings were similar in analysis by increasing duration of use and in analysis of pre-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use. In this large nationwide study of breast cancer patients, we found little evidence of an association between post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use and cancer-specific mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Initiation The Breast Cancer Quality of Care (BQUAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Neugut, Alfred I.; Falci, Laura; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Buono, Donna; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Roh, Janise M.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lee, Marion; Tsai, Wei Yann; Shi, Zaixing; Lamerato, Lois; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Not all women initiate clinically indicated breast cancer adjuvant treatment. It is important for clinicians to identify women at risk for noninitiation. OBJECTIVE To determine whether complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is associated with decreased breast cancer chemotherapy initiation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this multisite prospective cohort study (the Breast Cancer Quality of Care [BQUAL] study) designed to examine predictors of breast cancer treatment initiation and adherence, 685 women younger than 70 years with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer were recruited from Columbia University Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, and Henry Ford Health System and enrolled between May 2006 and July 31, 2010. Overall, 306 patients (45%) were clinically indicated to receive chemotherapy per National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Participants were followed for up to 12 months. EXPOSURES Baseline interviews assessed current use of 5 CAM modalities (vitamins and/or minerals, herbs and/or botanicals, other natural products, mind-body self-practice, mind-body practitioner-based practice). CAM use definitions included any use, dietary supplement use, mind-body use, and a CAM index summing the 5 modalities. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Chemotherapy initiation was assessed via self-report up to 12 months after baseline. Multivariable logistic regression models examined a priori hypotheses testing whether CAM use was associated with chemotherapy initiation, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates, and delineating groups by age and chemotherapy indication. RESULTS A cohort of 685 women younger than 70 years (mean age, 59 years; median age, 59 years) with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer were recruited and followed for up to 12 months to examine predictors of breast cancer treatment initiation. Baseline CAM use was reported by 598 women (87%). Chemotherapy was initiated by 272 women (89%) for whom

  14. Estrogen-biosynthesis gene CYP17 and its interactions with reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle factors in breast cancer risk: results from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gammon, Marilie D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Britton, Julie A; Terry, Mary Beth; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Eng, Sybil M; Wang, Qiao; Gurvich, Irina; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-04-01

    The genes that are involved in estrogen biosynthesis, cellular binding and metabolism may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. We examined the effect of the CYP17 promoter T --> C polymorphism and its interactions with the reproductive history, exogenous hormone use and selected lifestyle risk factors on breast cancer risk among 1037 population-based incident cases and 1096 population-based controls in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Overall, there were no associations between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer risk. Among postmenopausal women, the joint exposure to higher body mass index (BMI) and the variant C allele was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.22]. The joint exposure to the variant C allele and long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (>51 months) was related to an increased risk of breast cancer (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99-2.31) especially estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.08-3.25). Among the control population, the CYP17 variant C allele was inversely associated with long-term use of postmenopausal HRT and a higher BMI in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the CYP17 variant C allele may increase breast cancer risk in conjunction with long-term HRT use and high BMI in postmenopausal women.

  15. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Wagner Brant; Brandão, Eduardo Carvalho; Soares, Aleida Nazareth; Lucena, Clécio Enio Murta de; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls) in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da...

  16. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  17. The study for breast lymphoscintigraphy of sentinal lymph node in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa Gon; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Myung Jun [College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    In the past, most patient of breast cancer suffered side effects due to the useless removement of Axillary Lymph Node, but there is no need to remove it because of the result in this study. The purpose of this study is to save surgery time and side effects after surgical operation for patients with breast cancer by making decisions of operation range for metastasis in first Stenosis Lymph Node using the {sup 99m}Tc-Tincolloid Scintigraphy and the Micro Probe for radioisotope. As a result of this study, 15 among 20 patients became objects of this study could reduced side effects for operation because there were no axillary lymph node operations. However there is no standard for method of this treatment. It should be standardize where inject point is, how much {sup 99m}Tc-Tincolloid should be injected (radioactivity value), and the need of massage and Lymph Scintigraphy. Nevertheless I think that this result of study is useful to reduce suffering and side effects from breast cancer and also we should try to do that continuously. The objects for this study were 20 patients diagnosed as breast cancer by Ultrasonography, Mammography and Biopsy. The average of patient age was 45.4 years and its range was between 31 and 71 years. In case of clinical period there were 9 patients of Period I and 11 patients of Period II. The equipment for this study were {sup 99m}Tc-Tincolliod describing the Stenosis Lymph Node as a tracer. Micro Probe: Neoprobe 2000 (the rest is Gamma Probe) tracing the location, and MS-II Gamma Camera: SIEMENS (the rest is MS-II Gamma Camera) describing the image. There were 3 methods for this study, after selecting one of those methods all 20 patients were performed Stenosis Lymph Node diagnosis and Gamma Probe in operation room. The result was that I imaged all the 20 patients, and seek the Stenosis Lymph Node by using Gamma Probe. Metastasis in Stenosis Lymph Node was 5 and Metastasis in Axillary Lymph Node was 3 between Metastasis in Stenosis Lymph

  18. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  19. Body conformation, diet, and risk of breast cancer in pet dogs: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, E G; Glickman, L T; Goldschmidt, M H; McKee, L J

    1991-04-01

    Canine and human breast cancer share several important clinical and histologic features. A case-control study of nutritional factors and canine breast cancer was conducted at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 1984-1987 by interviewing owners of 150 pet dogs diagnosed with breast cancer, owners of 147 cancer control dogs, and owners of 131 noncancer control dogs. The risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in dogs spayed at or before 2.5 years of age. Neither a high-fat diet nor obesity 1 year before diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer according to multiple logistic regression analysis. However, the risk of breast cancer among spayed dogs was significantly reduced in dogs that had been thin at 9-12 months of age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.4) and OR = 0.04 (95% CI 0.004-0.5) for cases vs. cancer controls and cases vs. noncancer controls, respectively, after adjustment for age at spay). Among intact dogs, the risk associated with being thin at 9-12 months of age was reduced, but not significantly so (OR = 0.60 (95% CI 0.2-1.9) and OR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) for the two comparisons, respectively). Results of this study suggest that nutritional factors operating early in life may be of etiologic importance in canine breast cancer.

  20. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  1. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  2. Risk of new primary nonbreast cancers after breast cancer treatment: a Dutch population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, M.; Visser, O.; Louwman, M.J.; Vries, EG de; Willemse, P.H.; Otter, R.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Coebergh, J.W.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the risk of secondary nonbreast cancers (SNBCs) in a recently treated population-based cohort of breast cancer patients focused on the association with treatment and prognostic implications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 58,068 Dutch patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer

  3. Risk of new primary nonbreast cancers after breast cancer treatment : A Dutch population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, Michael; Visser, Otto; Louwman, Marieke J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Otter, Renee; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of secondary nonbreast cancers (SNBCs) in a recently treated population-based cohort of breast cancer patients focused on the association with treatment and prognostic implications. Patients and Methods In 58,068 Dutch patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between

  4. Participation in questionnaire studies among couples affected by breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Helene; Rottmann, Nina; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2015-01-01

    couples dealing with breast cancer. Participating couples (N = 792) were compared with non-participating couples (N = 1462) with regard to socioeconomic and health-related characteristics obtained from nationwide clinical and administrative registers. RESULTS: Associations were seen between various...

  5. Breast cancer in young Asian women: study on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chek Siang; Su, David; Chong, Chee Keong; Chng, Hong Chee; Tay, Khoon Hean; Low, Sze Chuan; Tan, Su Ming

    2005-07-01

    Breast cancer in young patients is often associated with a poorer prognosis, but there has been a paucity of published data in an Asian population. One hundred and six patients (12.6%) under the age of 40 years with breast cancer (group V) were compared with 737 patients with breast cancer aged 40 years or more (group W). Demographics, presentations, pathological profiles, treatment and survival measures were analysed. Median tumour size was similar in both groups. Group V had more patients with grade 3 tumours and nodal involvement compared to group W (51.5% vs 38.1%, P = 0.012 and 52.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.045). The mean Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) score was significantly higher in group V compared to group W (4.75 vs 4.26, P < 0.001). The incidences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in group V were higher than group W (69.2% vs 35.2%, P < 0.001 and 41.1% vs 24.4%, P = 0.002). There were no differences in overall survival and disease-free survival (local recurrence). Patients below 40 years with breast cancer have tumours with a poorer prognostic profile. However, this did not translate into a poorer overall survival, and this might be attributable to more aggressive adjuvant treatment of younger patients.

  6. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  7. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  8. Preeclampsia and maternal risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meizhen; Fan, Yongling; Hou, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yanyan

    2017-07-17

    Pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, including preeclampsia (PE) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), may influence the maternal risk of breast cancer. However, results of the cohort studies were inconsistent. An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies was performed to evaluate the association between PE, PIH and maternal breast cancer incidence. Relevant studies were identified via searching of PubMed and Embase databases. A random effect model was applied to synthesize the results. Stratified analyses were performed to evaluate the potential influence of parity, gender of offspring, and study design on the association between PE and maternal breast cancer incidence. Ten cohort studies with 2,417,899 pregnant women were included. Maternal risk of breast cancer was not significantly affected by PE (risk ration [RR] = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-1.06, p = .27), or PIH (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12, p = .54). Interestingly, PE was associated with significantly lowered maternal incidence of breast cancer in women who give birth to male offspring (RR = 0.79, p cohort studies (RR = 0.87, p cohorts. Current evidence did not support a conclusive association between PE, PIH and the maternal risk of breast cancer. Gender of the offspring may influence the association between PE and maternal breast cancer incidence.

  9. Cost of breast cancer based on real-world data: a cancer registry study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Stefano; Russo, Antonio

    2017-01-26

    In European countries, it is difficult for local health organizations to determine the resources allocated to different hospitals for breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to examine the costs of breast cancer during the different phases of the diagnostictherapeutic sequence based on real world data. To identify breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2011, we used the cancer registry of the Agency for Health Protection of the Province of Milan (3.2 million inhabitants). A generalized linear model controlling for patient age, cancer stage and Charlson co-morbidity index was used to calculate the adjusted mean costs for each hospital and for each study phase. Regression analyses were based on dependent variables of individual costs (diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and total cost were logtransformed. The following independent variables were included as covariates: age at diagnosis, hospital volume, stage, job category, educational level, marital status, comorbidities, deprivation index. Total and mean costs were computed for several variables and for each phase. On average for each subject, the costs were collected over 2.5 years. A total of 12,580 breast cancer cases were studied. The mean cost of diagnosis was €414, the mean cost of treatment was €8,780, the mean overall cost of follow-up was approximately €2,351, and the mean total direct medical cost was €10,970. The age of the patients, stage of tumor and employment level of the patient were significantly correlated with the variability of the costs. The highest variability in costs was observed for the follow-up costs, in which 38% of hospitals fell outside the 95% confidence interval. In the overspending-hospitals, patients received an intensive follow-up regimen with scintigraphy and thoracic CAT (computerized axial tomography). In this study, which represents the first population-level study of its kind in Italy, we estimated all direct medical costs for the 6-month period before

  10. Night work and breast cancer in women: a Swedish cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Knutsson, Anders; Narusyte, Jurgita; Svedberg, Pia; Kecklund, Göran; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent research has suggested a moderate link between night work and breast cancer in women, mainly through case-control studies, but non-significant studies are also common and cohort studies are few...

  11. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  12. Alcohol intake between menarche and first pregnancy: a prospective study of breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Berkey, Catherine S; Collins, Laura C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Connolly, James L; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2013-10-16

    Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer. We used data from 91,005 parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II who had no cancer history, completed questions on early alcohol consumption in 1989, and were followed through June 30, 2009, to analyze breast cancer risk. A subset of 60,093 women who had no history of BBD or cancer in 1991 and were followed through June 30, 2001, were included in the analysis of proliferative BBD. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We identified 1609 breast cancer cases and 970 proliferative BBD cases confirmed by central histology review. Alcohol consumption between menarche and first pregnancy, adjusted for drinking after first pregnancy, was associated with risks of breast cancer (RR = 1.11 per 10 g/day intake; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.23) and proliferative BBD (RR = 1.16 per 10 g/day intake; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.32). Drinking after first pregnancy had a similar risk for breast cancer (RR = 1.09 per 10 g/day intake; 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.23) but not for BBD. The association between drinking before first pregnancy and breast neoplasia appeared to be stronger with longer menarche to first pregnancy intervals. Alcohol consumption before first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of proliferative BBD and breast cancer.

  13. Reoperations after primary breast conserving surgery in women with invasive breast cancer in Catalonia, Spain: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà, J M; Esteban, L; Gálvez, J; Pla, M J; Melià, A; Gil-Gil, M; Clèries, R; Pareja, L; Sanz, X; Bustins, M; Borrás, J M; Ribes, J

    2017-04-01

    Although complete tumor resection is accepted as the best means to reduce recurrence, reoperations after lumpectomy are a common problem in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the reoperation rates after primary breast conserving surgery in invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed in Catalonia, Spain, between 2005 and 2011 and to identify variations based on patient and tumour characteristics. Women with invasive incident breast cancer identified from the Patient's Hospital Discharge Database [174.0-174.9 codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) as the primary diagnosis] and receiving primary breast conserving surgery were included in the study and were followed up to 3 and 12 months by collecting information about repeat breast cancer surgery. Reoperation rates after primary breast conserving surgery decreased from 13.0 % in 2005 to 11.7 % in 2011 at 3 months and from 14.2 % in 2005 to 12.9 % in 2011 at 12 months' follow-up. While breast conservation reoperations saw a slight, non-significant increase in the same period (from 5.7 to 7.3 % at 3 months, and from 6.0 to 7.5 % at 12 months), there was a significant decrease in radical reoperation (from 7.3 to 4.4 % at 3 months and from 8.2 to 5.4 % at 12 months). Overall, additional breast surgeries decreased among younger women. Despite the rise of breast conserving surgery, reoperation rates following initial lumpectomy in Catalonia decreased by 10 % at 3 and 12 months' follow-up, remaining low and almost unchanged. Ultimately, there was also a significant decrease in mastectomies.

  14. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  15. Baseline mammographic breast density and the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women participating in the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Reena S.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Cauley, Jane A.; Cronin, Walter M.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Bandos, Hanna; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Wolmark, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is an established risk factor for breast cancer. However, results are inconclusive regarding its use in risk prediction models. The current study evaluated 13,409 postmenopausal participants in the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene. A measure of breast density as reported on the entry mammogram report was extracted and categorized according to The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classifications. An increased risk of invasive breast cancer was associated with higher mammographic breast density (Pbreast density and Gail score. Breast density was also significant when added to an abbreviated model tailored for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers (P=0.02). In this study, high BI-RADS breast density was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk when considered in conjunction with Gail score but provided only slight improvement to the Gail score for predicting the incidence of invasive breast cancer. The BI-RADS breast composition classification system is a quick and readily available method for assessing breast density for risk prediction evaluations; however, its addition to the Gail model does not appear to provide substantial predictability improvements in this population of postmenopausal healthy women at increased risk for breast cancer. PMID:23060039

  16. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  17. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  18. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  19. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  20. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  1. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RAD51 and breast cancer susceptibility: no evidence for rare variant association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Le Calvez-Kelm

    Full Text Available Although inherited breast cancer has been associated with germline mutations in genes that are functionally involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR pathway, including BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and PALB2, about 70% of breast cancer heritability remains unexplained. Because of their critical functions in maintaining genome integrity and already well-established associations with breast cancer susceptibility, it is likely that additional genes involved in the HRR pathway harbor sequence variants associated with increased risk of breast cancer. RAD51 plays a central biological function in DNA repair and despite the fact that rare, likely dysfunctional variants in three of its five paralogs, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2, have been associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, no population-based case-control mutation screening data are available for the RAD51 gene. We thus postulated that RAD51 could harbor rare germline mutations that confer increased risk of breast cancer.We screened the coding exons and proximal splice junction regions of the gene for germline sequence variation in 1,330 early-onset breast cancer cases and 1,123 controls from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, using the same population-based sampling and analytical strategy that we developed for assessment of rare sequence variants in ATM and CHEK2. In total, 12 distinct very rare or private variants were characterized in RAD51, with 10 cases (0.75% and 9 controls (0.80% carrying such a variant. Variants were either likely neutral missense substitutions (3, silent substitutions (4 or non-coding substitutions (5 that were predicted to have little effect on efficiency of the splicing machinery.Altogether, our data suggest that RAD51 tolerates so little dysfunctional sequence variation that rare variants in the gene contribute little, if anything, to breast cancer susceptibility.

  3. Night work and breast cancer estrogen receptor status--results from the German GENICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Harth, Volker; Pesch, Beate; Pallapies, Dirk; Lotz, Anne; Justenhoven, Christina; Baisch, Christian; Schiffermann, Markus; Haas, Susanne; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Heinze, Evelyn; Pierl, Christiane; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The potential mechanisms that link night-shift work with breast cancer have been extensively discussed. Exposure to light at night (LAN) depletes melatonin that has oncostatic and anti-estrogenic properties and may lead to a modified expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α. Here, we explored the association between shift work and breast cancer in subgroups of patients with ER-positive and -negative tumors. GENICA (Gene-ENvironment Interaction and breast CAncer) is a population-based case-control study on breast cancer with detailed information on shift work from 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. ER status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Associations between night-shift work and ER-positive and -negative breast cancer were analyzed with conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. ER status was assessed for 827 cases and was positive in 653 and negative in 174 breast tumors. Overall, 49 cases and 54 controls were "ever employed" in shift work including night shifts for ≥ 1 year. In total, "ever shift work" and "ever night work" were not associated with an elevated risk of ER-positive or -negative breast tumors. Night work for ≥ 20 years was associated with a significantly elevated risk of ER-negative breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 4.73, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-18.36]. Our case-control study suggests that long-term night-shift work is associated with an increased risk of ER-negative breast cancers. Further studies on histological subtypes and the analysis of other potentially relevant factors are crucial for discovering putative mechanisms.

  4. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  5. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  6. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2009-01-01

    cases and 6308 controls from eight independent studies. Only rs4954956 was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk both in the replication study and in combined analyses. This association was stronger for the serous histological subtype [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 1.07 95% CI 1...... ovarian cancer. Eleven SNPs were initially genotyped in 2927 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 4143 controls from six ovarian cancer case-control studies. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using a likelihood ratio test in a logistic regression model stratified by study. Initially......Because both ovarian and breast cancer are hormone-related and are known to have some predisposition genes in common, we evaluated 11 of the most significant hits (six with confirmed associations with breast cancer) from the breast cancer genome-wide association study for association with invasive...

  8. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Lando L J; Geuskens, Goedele A; Pronk, Anjoeka; Vermeulen, Roel C H; de Vroome, Ernest M M

    2014-08-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on specific populations, such as nurses. We used data on night work collected in the Dutch Labor Force Surveys of 1996 until 2009, and individually linked these with National registers on hospital admission. Among 285,723 women without breast cancer at baseline, 2,531 had a hospital admission for breast cancer during an average of 7 years of follow up in the registers. Occasional and regular night work were not associated with the risk of hospital admission for breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratios 1.04; 95 % confidence interval 0.85-1.27, and 0.87; 0.72-1.05, respectively). Working more hours per week, or more years in a job entailing night work did not show increased breast cancer risks. Hazard ratios neither differed between nurses and women with other occupations. Our results show no association of night work with incident breast cancer, and suggest that night work generally does not increase the risk of breast cancer among women in the Dutch working population.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Breast Cancer - Case Study of Southern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Basavegowda; Srinath, Kenkere Marulaiah; Rajendran, Vidyalakshmi; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Ashok, Nagaralu Channabasappa; Balasubramanian, Somanathan

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-ecological study of disease provides a framework to study the interaction of genetic, environmental, social, cultural and behavioural factors on people's health. The occurrence and interaction of these factors are different in different places, giving rise to distinct geographic or spatial variation. Diseases like breast cancer have variation both spatially and temporally. Public health practitioners can use Geographic Information System (GIS) as a visualization tool to effectively present geographic phenomenon and depict it in maps that might remain otherwise undiscovered in tabular form. To demonstrate how GIS can be used to understand and communicate breast cancer data through spatial visualization techniques. (i) To visualize the Spatial Distribution of Breast cancer incidences by a point map. (ii) To visualize the Temporal distribution of breast cancer incidences by thematic maps for the study period of 2007 -2011. Total 1090 breast cancer case records collected for the year 2007-2012 were segregated taluk wise for the 29 taluks and geocoded using the address of the patient, creating a point map. ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to prepare thematic map of breast cancer cases. The taluk wise aggregated breast cancer incidence from the year 2007 to 2011 was then attributed into polygon map representing taluks (Base Map). Natural break data classification technique was used to classify the breast cancer incidence data and breast cancer incidences were classified as low, moderate, high and very high. Spatial distribution of breast cancer incidences using thematic mapping methods high incidences were reported in MY_ T24 (Hunsur), MY_ T25 (KR Nagar), MY_27 (Nanjangud), CH_T1 (Chamrajnagar) and CH-T2 (Gundlupet). Temporal maps prepared for the study from 2007 to 2011 showed that Mysore Taluk had very high Incidence level and the same was observed throughout the study period. The taluks which have high and moderate intensities seem to be fluctuating. However, 25

  10. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  11. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Thoresen, Magne; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption during childhood and performed additional analyses corrected for measurement errors in the dietary data. In total, 218 premenopausal and 1,189 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Total dairy, adult, and childhood milk consumption was not associated with either pre- or postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Premenopausal women with the highest consumption of white cheese had half the risk of breast cancer compared to those with the lowest consumption (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.87). Total calcium intake tended to be inversely related to premenopausal (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.08) and postmenopausal breast cancer (hazard rate ratio in the 4th quartile vs. the 1st quartile 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.04). Correcting for measurement errors did not alter the results substantially, nor did exclusion of early cancer cases. Dairy consumption is not strongly related to breast cancer risk in this prospective study. A non-significant negative association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk was seen, particularly among premenopausal women.

  12. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  13. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  14. Breast cancer screening practices of African migrant women in Australia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun

    2017-04-17

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical

  15. Predicting survival of de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asian women: systematic review and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hui; Hartman, Mikael; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Lee, Soo-Chin; Taib, Nur Aishah; Tan, Ern-Yu; Chan, Patrick; Moons, Karel G M; Wong, Hoong-Seam; Goh, Jeremy; Rahim, Siti Mastura; Yip, Cheng-Har; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    In Asia, up to 25% of breast cancer patients present with distant metastases at diagnosis. Given the heterogeneous survival probabilities of de novo metastatic breast cancer, individual outcome prediction is challenging. The aim of the study is to identify existing prognostic models for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer and validate them in Asia. We performed a systematic review to identify prediction models for metastatic breast cancer. Models were validated in 642 women with de novo metastatic breast cancer registered between 2000 and 2010 in the Singapore Malaysia Hospital Based Breast Cancer Registry. Survival curves for low, intermediate and high-risk groups according to each prognostic score were compared by log-rank test and discrimination of the models was assessed by concordance statistic (C-statistic). We identified 16 prediction models, seven of which were for patients with brain metastases only. Performance status, estrogen receptor status, metastatic site(s) and disease-free interval were the most common predictors. We were able to validate nine prediction models. The capacity of the models to discriminate between poor and good survivors varied from poor to fair with C-statistics ranging from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.53) to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.66). The discriminatory performance of existing prediction models for de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asia is modest. Development of an Asian-specific prediction model is needed to improve prognostication and guide decision making.

  16. NEED FOR REHABILITATION AMONG THE PATIENTS OF BREAST CANCER AFTER MASTECTOMY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Breast Conservative Therapy is the standard treatment for early - stage breast cancer in the western world . On the other hand, in India BCT is not preferred by the surgeons and patients (11 - 23% vs. >60 - 70%. Patients suffer from cancer, its treatments and the side - effects of treatment. The majority of them encounter breast cancer multiplicity of physical and psychological difficultie s after finishing cancer treatment. Without rehabilitation these difficulties may lead to functional limitations, disabilities, and mental issues. The breast cancer survival rate has increased, due to improvements in early diagnostic procedures and more ag gressive therapies. Because of increased survival rate need of rehabilitation has been increased. The study was conducted with the aim of being able to determine the need of rehabilitation in patients of breast cancer after MRM in alleviating the disabilit y also, to assess post MRM complication and t o assess the psychological impairment and quality of life of breast cancer survivors.it was observed that out of 90/122 (73.77% individuals were scoring below 40 which was suggestive of poor quality of life als o, o ut of 122 patients 18 patients developed lymphedema. Amongst the 122 patients 54.97% wanted breast reconstruction & most of them belong to younger age group

  17. Height and Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence From Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J; Zeng, Chenjie; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Wen, Wanqing; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Dunning, Alison M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Floris, Giuseppe; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Rookus, Matti A; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L A M; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Brand, Judith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Surowy, Harald; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose I A; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M A; Collée, J Margriet; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Radice, Paolo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Schmutzler, Rita K; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela N; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I; Pierce, Brandon L; Kraft, Peter; Peters, Ulrike; Lindstrom, Sara; Seminara, Daniela; Burgess, Stephen; Ahsan, Habibul; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Gammon, Marilie D; Malone, Kathleen E; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Pharoah, Paul D P; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Height and Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence From Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zeng, Chenjie; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Wen, Wanqing; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Dunning, Alison M.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Floris, Giuseppe; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Brand, Judith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Surowy, Harald; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose I. A.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Radice, Paolo; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Kraft, Peter; Peters, Ulrike; Lindstrom, Sara; Seminara, Daniela; Burgess, Stephen; Ahsan, Habibul; Whittemore, Alice S.; John, Esther M.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control subjects, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control subjects. Results: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:26296642

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs contribute to cancer through their involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis. We evaluated genetic variation in MMP1 (9 SNPs, MMP2 (8 SNPs, MMP3 (4 SNPs, and MMP9 (3 SNPs and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2111 cases, 2597 controls and non-Hispanic white (NHW (1481 cases, 1586 controls women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Ancestral informative markers (n = 104 were assessed to determine Native American (NA ancestry. MMP1 [4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs] and MMP2 (2 SNPs were associated with breast cancer overall. MMP1 rs996999 had strongest associations among women with the most NA ancestry (OR 1.61,95% CI 1.09,2.40 as did MMP3 rs650108 (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05,1.75 and MMP9 rs3787268 (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09,2.13. The adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP showed a significant pathway p(artp  value of 0.04, with a stronger association among women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp = 0.02. Significant pathway genes using the ARTP were MMP1 for all women (p(artp = 0.02 and MMP9 for women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp = 0.024; MMP2 was borderline significant overall (p(artp =0.06 and MMP1 and MMP3 were borderline significant for women with the most NA ancestry (p(artp = 0.07 and 0.06 respectively. MMP1 and MMP2 were associated with ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR-tumors; MMP3 and MMP9 were associated with ER-/PR- tumors. The pathway was highly significant with survival (p(artp = 0.0041 with MMP2 having the strongest gene association (p(artp = 0.0007. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MMP genes influence breast cancer development and survival in this genetically admixed population.

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Thomassen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies investigating the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer have yielded conflicting results. We examined the association between use of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs and breast cancer risk among 28 695 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer...... and Health cohort. Information on NSAID and paracetamol use was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at baseline (1993-1997) and updated through 2003 using a nationwide prescription database. Detailed information on breast cancer incidence and tumour characteristics was obtained from...... nationwide health registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 847 breast cancer cases over an average follow-up period of 7.5 years. Any NSAID use at baseline was associated with an increased incidence...

  1. Risk of new primary nonbreast cancers after breast cancer treatment: A dutch population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schaapveld (Michael); O.J. Visser (Otto); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); E.G.E. de Vries (Elisabeth); P.H.B. Willemse (Pax); R. Otter (Renée); W.T.A. van der Graaf (Winette); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To assess the risk of secondary nonbreast cancers (SNBCs) in a recently treated population-based cohort of breast cancer patients focused on the association with treatment and prognostic implications. Patients and Methods: In 58,068 Dutch patients diagnosed with invasive breast

  2. Body mass index and serum proteomic profile in breast cancer and healthy women: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Michele Garrisi

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest a possible association between BMI, diagnosis and clinical-pathological breast cancer characteristics but biological bases for this relationship still remain to be ascertained. Several biological mechanisms play a role in the genesis and progression of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate relationships between BMI and breast cancer diagnosis/progression in a Southern Italian population and to try to interpret results according to the serum proteomic profile of healthy and breast cancer patients. BMI, presence or absence of breast cancer and its clinical-pathological characteristics were analyzed in a series of 300 breast cancer women and compared with those of 300 healthy women prospectively. To investigate whether obesity is associated with alterations in serum protein profile, SELDI-ToF approach was applied.Alcohol consumption (22.7% vs 11.3%; p = 30 respect to normal weight: OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.25-4.99, p = 0.0098 and a higher probability of having positive axillary lymph node (OR = 3.67, CI 95% 2.16-6.23, p<0.0001. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of breast cancer diagnosis with alcohol consumption (OR = 2.28;CI 1.36-3.83; p<0.0018. Serum protein profile revealed the presence of significant (p-value <0,01 differentially expressed peaks m/z 6934, m/z 5066 in high BMI breast cancer patients vs healthy subjects and m/z 6934, m/z 3346 in high vs low BMI breast cancer patients.The analysis of pathological features of cancer indicates that normal weight women have a significantly higher probability of having a smaller breast cancer at time of diagnosis and negative axillary lymph nodes while increased BMI is associated with an altered protein profile in breast cancer patients. Further studies to identify specific proteins found in the serum and their role in breast cancerogenesis and progression are in progress.

  3. Worry Is Good for Breast Cancer Screening: A Study of Female Relatives from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Rita Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few prospective studies have examined associations between breast cancer worry and screening behaviours in women with elevated breast cancer risks based on family history. Methods. This study included 901 high familial risk women, aged 23–71 years, from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported breast screening behaviours at year-one followup were compared between women at low (N=305, medium (N=433, and high (N=163 levels of baseline breast cancer worry using logistic regression. Nonlinear relationships were assessed using likelihood ratio tests. Results. A significant non-linear inverted “U” relationship was observed between breast cancer worry and mammography screening (P=0.034 for all women, where women at either low or high worry levels were less likely than those at medium to have a screening mammogram. A similar significant non-linear inverted “U” relationship was also found among all women and women at low familial risk for worry and screening clinical breast examinations (CBEs. Conclusions. Medium levels of cancer worries predicted higher rates of screening mammography and CBE among high-risk women.

  4. Breast cancer risk by extent and type of atypical hyperplasia: An update from the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura C; Aroner, Sarah A; Connolly, James L; Colditz, Graham A; Schnitt, Stuart J; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-02-15

    Women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) on a benign breast biopsy specimen are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. However, the relation between the type and extent of AH (atypical ductal hyperplasia [ADH] vs atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) and the magnitude of the breast cancer risk is not well defined. A nested case-control study of benign breast disease and breast cancer risk was conducted. Women with breast cancer and prior benign breast biopsy findings (488 cases) were matched to women with prior benign breast biopsy findings who were free from breast cancer (1907 controls). Benign breast biopsy slides were reviewed and categorized as nonproliferative, proliferative without atypia, or AH (ADH or ALH). The number of foci of AH was also recorded. Among women with ADH, the interrelation between the extent of atypia and breast cancer risk was not significant (odds ratio [OR] for 1 or 2 foci, 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-5.6; OR for ≥3 foci, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.1; P = .41). Similarly, although the risk with ALH was higher for those with ≥3 foci than for those with breast cancer risk. The lack of a significant dose-response relation between the extent and type of atypia and breast cancer risk suggests that it would be premature to use the extent of atypia to influence management decisions for women with ADH or ALH. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Breast cancer risk factors and age at diagnosis: An Icelandic cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tryggvadóttir, Laufey; Tulinius, Hrafn; Eyfjord, Jórunn E; Sigurvinsson, Trausti

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicates that the strength and even direction of association between breast cancer and established risk factors differ according to the woman's age when she develops the disease...

  6. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  7. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  8. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  9. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  10. Induced abortion and breast cancer among parous women: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Attermann, Jørn

    2013-06-01

    We investigated whether induced abortion is associated with breast cancer when lifestyle confounders, including smoking and alcohol consumption, are adjusted for. Design. Prospective cohort study. Danish women from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 25,576 women. We obtained exposure data from baseline questionnaires filled in by the women between 1993 and 1997. Information on breast cancer and emigration was retrieved from Danish national registries. The study power was approximately 85% when applying a minimum detection hazard ratio of 1.2. Long-term effects of induced abortion on the risk of breast cancer among women above 50 years of age. During a follow up of approximately 12 years, 1215 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When comparing parous women who had an abortion with parous women who never had an abortion, there was no association between breast cancer risk and induced abortion (ever vs. never), with a hazard ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.09), regardless of whether the abortion occurred before the first birth (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.14), or after the first birth (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.13). Our study did not show evidence of an association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; et, al.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although childbearing is known to protect against breast cancer, whether or not breastfeeding contributes to this protective effect is unclear. METHODS: Individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries that included information on breastfeeding patterns and other aspects

  12. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  13. Diet and oxidative stress in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, E; Bartsch, H; Béréziat, J C; Camus, A M; McClinton, S; Eremin, O; Davidson, L; Boyle, P

    1994-08-01

    To study the changes in pro-oxidant-antioxidant status in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients as compared to respective controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. The pro-oxidant status was measured by analysing alkanes (ethane and pentane) in exhaled air and lipid peroxidation (as malonaldehyde) in blood samples. The antioxidant capacity was measured by studying blood glutathione concentration, vitamin concentrations and serum antioxidant capacity in liposomes in vitro. Aberdeen hospitals. Breast, prostate and colon cancer cases, and age- and sex-matched control patients (hospitalized for a benign disease). Breast cancer patients were females, prostate cancer patients were males and colon cancer patients were both males and females. Controls were age-matched to within 5 years, sex-matched and matched for smoking habits. The dietary study suggested a higher monoene and polyene fat intake in prostate cancer than in controls while in other cancer patients no significant differences were found. Breast and colon cancer patients tended to have lower vitamin intakes than controls. Pentane concentration in exhaled air increased in breast cancer patients as compared to respective controls. In serum total antioxidant capacity no significant differences were found. Both breast and colon cancer patients showed decreased C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells while C22:6 concentration was elevated in breast cancer patients. Oxidative stress may be associated with malignant diseases, suggesting the importance of simultaneous analysis of pro- and antioxidation in the search of mechanistic parameters leading to the tumour formation.

  14. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonofua Friday E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines

  16. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Mette; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Ehrenstein, Vera; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-04-01

    The association between thyroid disease and breast cancer risk remains unclear. We, therefore examined the association between hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk. This was a population-based cohort study. Using nationwide registries, we identified all women in Denmark with a first-time hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, 1978-2013. We estimated the excess risk of breast cancer among patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism compared with the expected risk in the general population, using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of risk ratio. Breast cancer diagnoses in the first 12 months following diagnosis of thyroid disease were excluded from the calculations to avoid diagnostic work-up bias. We included 61, 873 women diagnosed with hypothyroidism and 80, 343 women diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Median follow-up time was 4.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.8-9.5 years) for hypothyroidism and 7.4 years (IQR: 3.1-13.5 years) for hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was associated with a slightly increased breast cancer risk compared with the general population (SIR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16), which persisted beyond 5 years of follow-up (SIR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.19). In comparison, hypothyroidism was associated with a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (SIR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-1.00). Stratification by cancer stage at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, age, comorbidity, history of alcohol-related disease and clinical diagnoses of obesity produced little change in cancer risk. We found an increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism and a slightly decreased risk in women with hypothyroidism indicating an association between thyroid function level and breast cancer risk. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Breast Cancer Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors Without a History of Chest Radiotherapy: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tara O; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Bradbury, Angela R; Neglia, Joseph Phillip; Dang, Chau T; Onel, Kenan; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; Bhatia, Smita; Strong, Louise C; Stovall, Marilyn; Kenney, Lisa B; Barnea, Dana; Lorenzi, Elena; Hammond, Sue; Leisenring, Wendy M; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Diller, Lisa R; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2016-03-20

    Little is known about the breast cancer risk among childhood cancer survivors who did not receive chest radiotherapy. We sought to determine the magnitude of risk and associated risk factors for breast cancer among these women. We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 3,768 female childhood cancer survivors without a history of chest radiotherapy who were participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. With median follow up of 25.5 years (range, 8 to 39 years), 47 women developed breast cancer at a median age of 38.0 years (range, 22 to 47 years) and median of 24.0 years (range, 10 to 34 years) from primary cancer to breast cancer. A four-fold increased breast cancer risk (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 4.0; 95% CI, 3.0 to 5.3) was observed when compared with the general population. Risk was highest among sarcoma and leukemia survivors (SIR = 5.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 7.8 and SIR = 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4 to 6.9, respectively). By the age of 45 years, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in sarcoma and leukemia survivors was 5.8% (95% CI, 3.7 to 8.4) and 6.3% (95% CI, 3.0 to 11.3), respectively. No other primary cancer diagnosis was associated with an elevated risk. Alkylators and anthracyclines were associated with an increased breast cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner (P values from test for trend were both radiotherapy who survive childhood sarcoma or leukemia have an increased risk of breast cancer at a young age. The data suggest high-dose alkylator and anthracycline chemotherapy increase the risk of breast cancer. This may suggest a possible underlying gene-environment interaction that warrants further study. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Influence of socioeconomic factors on survival after breast cancer-A nationwide cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 1983-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone; During, M.

    2007-01-01

    The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25......,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models...... to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0...

  19. The long-term financial consequences of breast cancer: a Danish registry-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Laura Schärfe; Overgaard, Charlotte; Bøggild, Henrik; Garne, Jens Peter; Lund, Thomas; Overvad, Kim; Fonager, Kirsten

    2017-10-30

    A breast cancer diagnosis affects an individual's affiliation to labour market, but the long-term consequences of breast cancer on income in a Danish setting have not been examined. The present study investigated whether breast cancer affected future income among Danish women that participated in the work force. We also examined the roles of sociodemographic factors and prior psychiatric medical treatment. This registry-based cohort study was based on information retrieved from linked Danish nationwide registries. We compared the incomes of 13,101 women (aged 30-59 years) diagnosed with breast cancer (exposed) to those of 60,819 women without breast cancer (unexposed). Changes in income were examined during a 10-year follow-up; for each follow-up year, we calculated the mean annual income and the relative change compared to the income earned one year prior to diagnosis. Expected changes in Danish female income, according to calendar year and age, were estimated based on information from Statistics Denmark. For exposed and unexposed groups, the observed income changes were dichotomized to those above and those below the expected change in income in the Danish female population. We examined the impact of breast cancer on income each year of follow-up with logistic regression models. Analyses were stratified according to educational level, marital status, and prior psychiatric medical treatment. Breast cancer had a temporary negative effect on income. The effect was largest during the first three years after diagnosis; thereafter, the gap narrowed between exposed and unexposed cohorts. The odds ratio for an increase in income in the cancer cohort compared to the cancer-free cohort was 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.84) after three years. After seven years, no significant difference was observed between cohorts. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the negative effect of breast cancer on income lasted longest among women with high educational levels. Being single or having

  20. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  1. Association between chronological change of reproductive factors and breast cancer risk defined by hormone receptor status: results from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seokang; Park, Sue K; Sung, Hyuna; Song, Nan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Yoo, Keun-Young; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee

    2013-08-01

    Lifestyle factors have been chronologically changed into western style ones, which could result in the rapid increase of breast cancer incidence in Korea. It is plausible that reproductive factors through hormonal mechanisms are differentially related to the risk of breast cancer subtypes. We investigated the association of reproductive risk factors on breast cancer by birth year groups and also evaluated the differential associations on the hormone receptor-defined subtypes. Using the data from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SeBCS), a multicenter case-control study, 3,332 breast cancer patients and 3,620 control subjects were analyzed. The distribution of subtypes among cases was as follows: 61.0 % estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 51.9 % progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, and 43.4 % both ER/PR-positive status, respectively. Polytomous logistic regression and Wald tests for heterogeneity have been used across the subtypes. The frequencies of reproductive-related risk factors including early age at menarche, nulligravid, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), duration of estrogen exposure before FFTP (EEBF), less number of children, never breastfeeding, and short duration of breastfeeding has increased as women were born later in both cases and controls, respectively (p trend breast cancer patients, either ER- or PR-positive subtypes were increased in women born in 1960s compared to women born in 1940s. Early age at menarche increased the risk of breast cancer regardless of the subtypes while nulligravid, late age at FFTP, and longer duration of EEBP were associated with hormone receptor-positive cancer risk only (p heterogeneity age at menarche, parity, age at FFTP, and duration of EEBF with breast cancer risk were different based on the hormone receptor status and birth year groups in Korea.

  2. Hospital recorded morbidity and breast cancer incidence: a nationwide population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gulbech Ording

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic diseases and their complications may increase breast cancer risk through known or still unknown mechanisms, or by shared causes. The association between morbidities and breast cancer risk has not been studied in depth. METHODS: Data on all Danish women aged 45 to 85 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 and data on preceding morbidities were retrieved from nationwide medical registries. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using conditional logistic regression associating the Charlson comorbidity score (measured using both the original and an updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI with incident breast cancer. Furthermore, we estimated associations between 202 morbidity categories and incident breast cancer, adjusting for multiple comparisons using empirical Bayes (EB methods. RESULTS: The study included 46,324 cases and 463,240 population controls. Increasing CCI score, up to a score of six, was associated with slightly increased breast cancer risk. Among the Charlson diseases, preceding moderate to severe renal disease (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48, any tumor (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.25, moderate to severe liver disease (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.62, and metastatic solid tumors (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.89, were most strongly associated with subsequent breast cancer. Preceding myocardial infarction (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99, connective tissue disease (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94, and ulcer disease (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99 were most strongly inversely associated with subsequent breast cancer. A history of breast disorders was associated with breast cancer after EB adjustment. Anemias were inversely associated with breast cancer, but the association was near null after EB adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: There was no substantial association between morbidity measured with the CCI and breast cancer risk.

  3. Adipose Tissue Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Content and Breast Cancer in the EURAMIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Neal; Pieter van 't Veer; Strain, John J.; Martin-Moreno, José M.; Huttunen, Jussi K; Navajas, Joaquin Femández-Crehuet; Martin, Blaise C.; Thamm, Michael; Kardinaal, Alwine F. M.; Kok, Frans J; Kohlmeier, Lenore

    2017-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991 -1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that fatty acids of the omega-3 family inhibit breast cancer and that the degree of inhibition depends on background levels of omega-6 polyunsaturates. Considered in isolation, the level of omega-3 or om...

  4. Performance care practices in complementary and alternative medicine by Thai breast cancer survivors: an ethnonursing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchai, Ausanee; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Thai breast cancer survivors perform care practices in complementary and alternative medicine to promote their health and well-being. Research was conducted using an ethnonursing method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 Thai breast cancer survivors in Thailand. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using the ethnonursing analysis method. The findings showed Thai breast cancer survivors started their care practices in complementary and alternative medicine immediately following a diagnosis of breast cancer. They sought out and gathered alternative medicine information from several sources, such as the people around them, media resources, books, magazines, or newspapers. After gathering information, Thai breast cancer survivors would try out various types of complementary medicines rather than use only one type because of information from other people and their own evaluation. The findings of this study indicate the need for a conversation about complementary medicine use between healthcare providers and Thai breast cancer survivors as an on-going process throughout the cancer trajectory to ensure that safe and holistic care is provided. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Polymorphisms in circadian genes, night work and breast cancer: results from the GENICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Harth, Volker; Justenhoven, Christina; Pesch, Beate; Plöttner, Sabine; Heinze, Evelyn; Lotz, Anne; Baisch, Christian; Schiffermann, Markus; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The role of genetic variants and environmental factors in breast cancer etiology has been intensively studied in the last decades. Gene-environment interactions are now increasingly being investigated to gain more insights into the development of breast cancer, specific subtypes, and therapeutics. Recently, night shift work that involves circadian disruption has gained rising interest as a potential non-genetic breast cancer risk factor. Here, we analyzed genetic polymorphisms in genes of cellular clocks, melatonin biosynthesis and signaling and their association with breast cancer as well as gene-gene and gene-night work interactions in a German case-control study on breast cancer. GENICA is a population-based case-control study on breast cancer conducted in the Greater Region of Bonn. Associations between seven polymorphisms in circadian genes (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARTNL, PER2 and CRY2), genes of melatonin biosynthesis and signaling (AANAT and MTNR1B) and breast cancer were analyzed with conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders for 1022 cases and 1014 controls. Detailed shift-work information was documented for 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. Gene-gene and gene-shiftwork interactions were analyzed using model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction (mbMDR). For combined heterozygotes and rare homozygotes a slightly elevated breast cancer risk was found for rs8150 in gene AANAT (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01-1.36), and a reduced risk for rs3816358 in gene ARNTL (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.69-0.97) in the complete study population. In the subgroup of shift workers, rare homozygotes for rs10462028 in the CLOCK gene had an elevated risk of breast cancer (OR for AA vs. GG: 3.53; 95% CI 1.09-11.42). Shift work and CLOCK gene interactions were observed in the two-way interaction analysis. In addition, gene-shiftwork interactions were detected for MTNR1B with NPAS2 and ARNTL. In conclusion, the results of our population-based case-control study

  6. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected...... women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche...... and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. Findings Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic values of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in breast cancer: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao YX; Liu S.; Hu YB; Ge YY; Lv DM

    2017-01-01

    Yi-Xuan Zhao, Shuang Liu, Yan-Bing Hu, Yan-Yan Ge, Dong-Mei Lv Department of Ultrasound, Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study aimed to explore the diagnostic and prognostic values of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in breast cancer. Between September 2009 and October 2011, a total of 143 breast cancer patients and 161 healthy people were selected as case group and control group, respectively. After the identific...

  8. Residential exposure to estrogen disrupting hazardous air pollutants and breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Nelson, David O; Hurley, Susan; Hertz, Andrew; Reynolds, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    Some studies show increased breast cancer risk from exposure to xenoestrogens, but few have explored exposures via ambient air, which could impact large populations. This study explored the association between breast cancer risk and residential exposures to ambient estrogen disruptors among participants in a large cohort study, the California Teachers Study. Participants consisted of 112,379 women free of breast cancer and living at a California address in 1995/1996. Eleven hazardous air pollutants from the US Environmental Protection Agency 2002 list were identified as estrogen disruptors based on published endocrine disrupting chemical lists and literature review. Census-tract estrogen disruptor air concentrations modeled by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2002 were assigned to participants' baseline addresses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios associated with exposure to each estrogen disruptor and a summary measure of nine estrogenic hazardous air pollutants among all participants and selected subgroups, adjusting for age, race/birthplace, socioeconomic status, and known breast cancer risk factors. Five thousand three hundred sixty-one invasive breast cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2010. No associations were found between residential exposure to ambient estrogen disruptors and overall breast cancer risk or hormone receptor-positive breast cancer risk, nor among targeted subgroups of participants (pre-/peri-menopausal women, post-menopausal women, never-smokers, non-movers, and never-smoking non-movers). However, elevated risks for hormone receptor-negative tumors were observed for higher exposure to cadmium compounds and possibly inorganic arsenic among never-smoking non-movers. Long-term, low-dose exposure to ambient cadmium compounds or possibly inorganic arsenic may be a risk factor for breast cancer.

  9. The role of diet in the development of breast cancer: a case-control study of patients with breast cancer, benign epithelial hyperplasia and fibrocystic disease of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. M.; Nottage, E.; Roberts, T.

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to investigate the role of diet in women with breast cancer, and in two groups of women with benign breast disease: epithelial hyperplasia, and fibrocystic disease without hyperplasia. The study provides data which suggest that the consumption of red meat, savoury meals (pizza, pies, stew, etc.) and of starches is disadvantageous, while the consumption of chicken and fish, and of fruit, appears to be beneficial. These patterns were present for both the breast cancer patients and the patients with benign epithelial hyperplasia. One-third of breast cancer patients had changed their diet after their diagnosis, compared to only around 12% in controls and patients with benign breast disease. Overall, the women studied had changed their diet to reduce their intake of sugars, dairy products and meat, and increased their intake of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables over the past decade; but the breast cancer group was less likely to have made this change. PMID:1854621

  10. The influence of genetic ancestry and ethnicity on breast cancer survival associated with genetic variation in the TGF-β-signaling pathway: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Stern, Marianna C; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K; Giuliano, Anna R; Baumgartner, Kathy B; John, Esther M

    2014-03-01

    The TGF-β signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated genetic variation in this pathway, its association with breast cancer survival, and survival differences by genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity. The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study includes participants from the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study (n = 1,391 cases) and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study (n = 946 cases) who have been followed for survival. We evaluated 28 genes in the TGF-β signaling pathway using a tagSNP approach. Adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) was used to test the gene and pathway significance by Native American (NA) ancestry and by self-reported ethnicity (non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic/NA). Genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway was associated with overall breast cancer survival (P ARTP = 0.05), especially for women with low NA ancestry (P ARTP = 0.007) and NHW women (P ARTP = 0.006). BMP2, BMP4, RUNX1, and TGFBR3 were significantly associated with breast cancer survival overall (P ARTP = 0.04, 0.02, 0.002, and 0.04, respectively). Among women with low NA, ancestry associations were as follows: BMP4 (P ARTP = 0.007), BMP6 (P ARTP = 0.001), GDF10 (P ARTP = 0.05), RUNX1 (P ARTP = 0.002), SMAD1 (P ARTP = 0.05), and TGFBR2 (P ARTP = 0.02). A polygenic risk model showed that women with low NA ancestry and high numbers of at-risk alleles had twice the risk of dying from breast cancer as did women with high NA ancestry. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway influences breast cancer survival. Associations were similar when the analyses were stratified by genetic ancestry or by self-reported ethnicity.

  11. Periodontal Disease and Breast Cancer: Prospective Cohort Study of Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenheim, Jo L; Genco, Robert J; LaMonte, Michael J; Millen, Amy E; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; Nwizu, Ngozi; Andrews, Christopher A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been consistently associated with chronic disease; there are no large studies of breast cancer, although oral-associated microbes are present in breast tumors. In the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, 73,737 women without previous breast cancer were followed. Incident, primary, invasive breast tumors were verified by physician adjudication. Periodontal disease was by self-report. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards, adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Because the oral microbiome of those with periodontal disease differs with smoking status, we examined associations stratified by smoking. 2,124 incident, invasive breast cancer cases were identified after mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Periodontal disease, reported by 26.1% of women, was associated with increased breast cancer risk (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26), particularly among former smokers who quit within 20 years (HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.77). Among current smokers, the trend was similar (HR 1.32; 95% CI, 0.83-2.11); there were few cases (n = 74) and the CI included the null. The population attributable fraction was 12.06% (95% CI, 1.12-21.79) and 10.90% (95% CI, 10.31-28.94) for periodontal disease among former smokers quitting within 20 years and current smokers, respectively. Periodontal disease, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, was associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly among former smokers who quit in the past 20 years. Understanding a possible role of the oral microbiome in breast carcinogenesis could impact prevention. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p risk factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who

  13. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  14. Fatalism or destiny? A qualitative study and interpretative framework on Dominican women's breast cancer beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Viladrich, Anahí; Céspedes, Amarilis; De La Cruz, Ana Alicia; Abraído-Lanza, Ana F

    2009-08-01

    A growing literature on Latino's beliefs about cancer focuses on the concept of fatalismo (fatalism), despite numerous conceptual ambiguities concerning its meaning, definition, and measurement. This study explored Latina women's views on breast cancer and screening within a cultural framework of destino ("destiny"), or the notion that both personal agency and external forces can influence health and life events. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Latinas from the Dominican Republic aged 40 or over. Respondents reported complex notions of health locus of control that encompassed both internal (e.g., individual action) and external (e.g., the will of God) forces shaping breast cancer prevention efforts. Furthermore, women actively participated in screening because they believed that cancer could become a death sentence if diagnosed late or left untreated. In contrast to simplistic notions of "fatalism", our analysis suggests complex strategies and beliefs regarding breast cancer and cancer screening that speak of resiliency rather than hopelessness.

  15. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  16. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  17. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  18. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  19. Mammography screening and breast cancer mortality in Australia: an aggregate cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard; Roder, David; Dobson, Annette

    2012-03-01

    Evidence that mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality derives from trials, with observational studies broadly supporting trial findings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the national mammographic screening programme, BreastScreen Australia, using aggregate screening and breast cancer mortality data. Breast cancer mortality from 1990 to 2004 in the whole Australian population was assessed in relation to screening exposure in the target of women aged 50-69 years. Population cohorts were defined by year of screening (and diagnosis), five-year age group at screening (and diagnosis), and local area of residence at screening (and diagnosis). Biennial screening data for BreastScreen Australia were related to cumulated mortality from breast cancer in an event analysis using Poisson regression, and in a time-to-event analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results were adjusted for repeated measures and the potential effects of mammography outside BreastScreen Australia, regionality, and area socio-economic status. From the adjusted Poisson regression model, a 22% (95% CI:12-31%) reduction in six-year cumulated mortality from breast cancer was predicted for screening participation of approximately 60%, compared with no screening; 21% (95% CI:11-30%) for the most recently reported screening participation of 56%; and 25% (95% CI:15-35%) for the programme target of 70% biennial screening participation. Corresponding estimates from the Cox proportional hazard regression model were 30% (95% CI:17-41%), 28% (95% CI:16-38%) and 34% (95% CI:20-46%). Despite data limitations, the results of this nationwide study are consistent with the trial evidence, and with results of other service studies of mammography screening. With sufficient participation, mammography screening substantially reduces mortality from breast cancer.

  20. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  1. A prospective study of dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen formed during cooking of many common foods. Epidemiological studies of acrylamide and breast cancer risk have been null; however, positive associations with ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported. We studied acrylamide intake and risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers in a prospective cohort study. Methods We assessed acrylamide intake among 88,672 women in the Nurses’ Health Study using food frequency questionnaires administered every four years. Between 1980 and 2006 we identified 6301 cases of invasive breast cancer, 484 cases of invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma, and 416 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between acrylamide and cancer risk. Results We found no association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer overall or according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status. We found an increased risk of endometrial cancer among high acrylamide consumers (adjusted relative risk [RR] for highest versus lowest quintile=1.41, 95% CI: 1.01–1.97, p-value for trend=0.03). We observed a non-significant suggestion of increased risk for ovarian cancer overall (RR 1.25, CI: 0.88–1.77, p-trend=0.12), with a significantly increased risk for serous tumors (RR 1.58, CI: 0.99–2.52, p-trend=0.04). Associations did not differ by smoking status. Conclusions We observed no association between acrylamide and breast cancer. Risk of endometrial cancer and possibly ovarian cancer was greater among high acrylamide consumers. Impact This is the second prospective study to report positive associations with endometrial and ovarian cancers. These associations should be further evaluated to inform public health policy. PMID:20693310

  2. Women’s Views on Handling and Managing Their Breast Cancer in Pakistan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najma Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine and analyze the experiences of women and their perceptions on handling and managing their breast cancer. Seven women from Peshawar, Pakistan who had breast cancer and have been cured, were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis of their life stories was performed using a computerized software Atlas.ti. In the coding process, 128 codes were initially developed. These codes were then grouped into 12 categories, which were then further refined into 8 theoretically grounded categories: awareness and education about breast cancer, cultural barriers, early detection, quality of care and treatment, support, side effects, courage and learned to face challenges. The early views of participant’s feelings about breast cancer are mostly similar to the general population in Pakistan. Before starting treatment, all participant were unaware of the treatment process and had fear in their mind. They were hesitant in starting their treatment and were worried. However, when they were cured, their attitudes toward breast cancer and even to their whole lives were changed. Comprehensive awareness programs in a culturally acceptable language and facilities for routine breast examinations should be easily accessible to all women in Pakistan in order to promote early detection. In order to eradicate cultural barriers, female staff who are trained to perform routine breast examinations, should be available in all facilities and treatment centers.

  3. Prospective study of breast cancer in relation to coffee, tea and caffeine in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Sandin, Sven; Ström, Peter; Löf, Marie; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-10-15

    Studies of coffee and tea consumption and caffeine intake as risk factors for breast cancer are inconclusive. We assessed coffee and tea consumption, caffeine intake, and possible confounding factors among 42,099 women from the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health study, the participants of which were aged 30-49 years at enrollment in 1991-1992. Complete follow-up for breast cancer incidence was performed through 2012 via linkage to national registries. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer. During follow-up 1,395 breast cancers were diagnosed. The RR was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99) for a 1-unit increase in cups of coffee/day, 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.24) for a 1-unit increase in cups of tea/day, and 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-1.00) for a 100 mg/day increase in caffeine intake. Although the RR for no consumption (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.69-1.08), a group with a relatively small number of women, was not statistically significant, women with higher consumption had a decreased breast cancer risk (3-4 cups/day: RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1.00; ≥5 cups/day: RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) compared to women consuming 1-2 cups of coffee/day. Compared to no consumption, women consuming >1 cups tea/day showed an increased breast cancer risk (RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.42). Similar patterns of estimates were observed for breast cancer risk overall, during pre- and postmenopausal years, and for ER+ or PR+ breast cancer, but not for ER- and PR- breast cancer. Our findings suggest that coffee consumption and caffeine intake is negatively associated with the risk of overall and ER+/PR- breast cancer, and tea consumption is positively associated with the risk of overall and ER+/PR+ breast cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  6. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  7. Attending the breast screening programme after breast cancer treatment: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, L.; Kwast, A.; Reiding, D.; de Bock, G.H.; Otter, R.; Willemse, P.H.B.; Siesling, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, breast cancer patients are treated and followed at least 5 years after diagnosis. Furthermore, all women aged 50-74 are invited biennially for mammography by the nationwide screening programme. The relation between the outpatient follow-up (follow-up visits in the

  8. Attending the breast screening programme after breast cancer treatment : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, Linda; Kwast, Annemiek; Reiding, Dick; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Otter, Renee; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Siesling, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, breast cancer patients are treated and followed at least 5 years after diagnosis. Furthermore, all women aged 50-74 are invited biennially for mammography by the nationwide screening programme. The relation between the outpatient follow-up (follow-up visits in the

  9. Pregnancy after breast cancer: Are young patients willing to participate in clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Olivia; Ruggeri, Monica; Manunta, Silvia; Saunders, Christobel; Peccatori, Fedro; Cardoso, Fatima; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Gewefel, Hanan; Gallerani, Elisa; Abulkhair, O Malkahi; Pistilli, Barbara; Warner, Ellen; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Perey, Lucien; Zaman, Khalil; Rabaglio, Manuela; Gelber, Shari; Gelber, Richard D; Goldhirsch, Aron; Korde, Larissa; Azim, Hatem A; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-06-01

    Young patients with breast cancer (BC) are often concerned about treatment-induced infertility and express maternity desire. Conception after BC does not seem to affect outcome, but information in estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) disease is not definitive. From September 2012-March 2013, 212 evaluable patients with ER+ early BC, pregnancy. Overall, 37% of respondents were interested in the study; younger patients (≤30 years) reported higher interest (57%). Motivation in younger patients treated >30 months was higher (83%) than in older women (14%), interest was independent of age in patients treated for ≤30 months. A prospective study in this patient population seems relevant and feasible. The International-Breast-Cancer-Study-Group (IBCSG), within the Breast-International-Group (BIG) - North-American-Breast-Cancer-Groups (NABCG) collaboration, is launching a study (POSITIVE) addressing ET interruption to allow pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of men who commit to romantic relationships with younger breast cancer survivors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidus, Rachel A

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of men who committed to romantic relationships with women under 50, post-breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Twelve men from throughout the United States, who were dating their partner for at least 6 months, participated in semistructured interviews. Findings focused on initial disclosure timing, previous experience/knowledge about the cancer, reacting with acceptance despite concerns, focusing on love/connection, respecting and admiring the survivor, and the ongoing impact of cancer on the relationship. Clinical implications are discussed, highlighting the systemic effect that breast cancer may have on a couple even after treatment is completed.

  11. South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes Study: Methods and Baseline Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Cubasch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In low- and middle-income, HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity and mortality from the common epithelial cancers of the developed world are rising. Even among HIV-infected individuals, access to antiretroviral therapy has enhanced life expectancy, shifting the distribution of cancer diagnoses toward non–AIDS-defining malignancies, including breast cancer. Building on our prior research, we recently initiated the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study. Methods: We will recruit a cohort of 3,000 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer at hospitals in high (average, 20% HIV prevalence areas, in Johannesburg, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Empangeni. At baseline, we will collect information on demographic, behavioral, clinical, and other factors related to access to health care. Every 3 months in year 1 and every 6 months thereafter, we will collect interview and chart data on treatment, symptoms, cancer progression, comorbidities, and other factors. We will compare survival rates of HIV-infected and uninfected women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and their likelihood of receiving suboptimal anticancer therapy. We will identify determinants of suboptimal therapy and context-specific modifiable factors that future interventions can target to improve outcomes. We will explore molecular mechanisms underlying potentially aggressive breast cancer in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients, as well as the roles of pathogens, states of immune activation, and inflammation in disease progression. Conclusion: Our goals are to contribute to development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of breast cancer in HIV-positive women and to improve outcomes for all patients with breast cancer in resource-constrained settings.

  12. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Diet patterns and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Sweeney, Carol; Giuliano, Anna R; Herrick, Jennifer S; Hines, Lisa; Byers, Tim; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-04-01

    There is a lower incidence of breast cancer among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white women. Little is known about the role of diet in this difference. We examined the associations of dietary patterns (Western, Prudent, Native Mexican, Mediterranean, and Dieter) with risk for breast cancer in Hispanic women (757 cases, 867 controls) and non-Hispanic white women (1524 cases, 1598 controls) from the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study. Dietary intake, physical activity, and other exposures were assessed by using interviews. Dietary patterns were defined via factor analysis. Risk was assessed by using logistic regression with adjustment for age, center, education, smoking, total activity, calories, dietary fiber, dietary calcium, height, parity, recent hormone exposure, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and body mass index x recent hormone exposure. The Western (odds ratio for highest versus lowest quartile: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 168; P for trend diet and breast cancer among postmenopausal women and those of the Native Mexican diet among premenopausal women. Associations of dietary patterns with breast cancer risk varied by menopausal and body mass index status, but there was little difference in associations between non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women.

  15. Risk of regional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients: a Dutch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, L.M. van; Smit, L.H.; Duijsens, G.H.; Vries, B. de; Siesling, S.; Lobbes, M.B.; Boer, M. de; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Smidt, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast

  16. Statin Use and Breast Cancer Survival: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Visvanathan, Kala; Artama, Miia; Vainio, Harri; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that statins, an established drug group in the prevention of cardiovascular mortality, could delay or prevent breast cancer recurrence but the effect on disease-specific mortality remains unclear. We evaluated risk of breast cancer death among statin users in a population-based cohort of breast cancer patients. The study cohort included all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Finland during 1995–2003 (31,236 cases), identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on statin use before and after the diagnosis was obtained from a national prescription database. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression method to estimate mortality among statin users with statin use as time-dependent variable. A total of 4,151 participants had used statins. During the median follow-up of 3.25 years after the diagnosis (range 0.08–9.0 years) 6,011 participants died, of which 3,619 (60.2%) was due to breast cancer. After adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and treatment selection, both post-diagnostic and pre-diagnostic statin use were associated with lowered risk of breast cancer death (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38–0.55 and HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44–0.67, respectively). The risk decrease by post-diagnostic statin use was likely affected by healthy adherer bias; that is, the greater likelihood of dying cancer patients to discontinue statin use as the association was not clearly dose-dependent and observed already at low-dose/short-term use. The dose- and time-dependence of the survival benefit among pre-diagnostic statin users suggests a possible causal effect that should be evaluated further in a clinical trial testing statins’ effect on survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:25329299

  17. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that

  18. A study on risk factors of breast cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital, in Udupi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. An increasing trend in incidence is reported from various registries of national cancer registry project and now India is a country with largest estimated number of breast cancer deaths worldwide. Aim: To study the factors associated with breast cancer. Objectives: To study the association between breast cancer and selected exposure variables and to identify risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A hospital based Case control study was conducted at Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Manipal, Udupi District. Results: Total 188 participants were included in the study, 94 cases and 94 controls. All the study participants were between 25 to 69 years of age group. The cases and controls were matched by ± 2 years age range. Non vegetarian diet was one of the important risk factors (OR 2.80, CI 1.15-6.81. More than 7 to 12 years of education (OR 4.84 CI 1.51-15.46 had 4.84 times risk of breast cancer as compared with illiterate women. Conclusion: The study suggests that non vegetarian diet is the important risk factor for Breast Cancer and the risk of Breast Cancer is more in educated women as compared with the illiterate women. Limitation: This is a Hospital based study so generalisability of the findings could be limited.

  19. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  20. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  1. Avoiding risk information about breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Darya; Shepperd, James A

    2012-10-01

    Learning about personal risk can provide numerous benefits yet people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. Two studies examined the role of perceived control, coping resources, and anticipated regret in women's decision to avoid breast cancer risk information. Women completed a health inventory and then read a brochure about either controllable or uncontrollable predictors of breast cancer, or received no brochure. Participants then received an opportunity to learn their lifetime risk for breast cancer based on their inventory responses. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduced avoidance of risk information compared with reading about uncontrollable predictors or receiving no information. In addition, fewer coping resources, anticipated greater regret over seeking breast cancer risk information, and less regret over avoiding breast cancer risk information predicted information avoidance. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduces avoidance of breast cancer risk information.

  2. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  3. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  4. Bias in Observational Studies of the Association between Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Henrik Zahl

    Full Text Available During the period 1985-2000 the breast cancer incidence rates increased 50% in the age group invited to mammography screening in Norway and Sweden. Simultaneously, use of hormone replacement treatment therapy (HT increased 5 times. Several influential observational studies showed that HT was associated with 50% to 100% increased risk of breast cancer and most for those using combined (estrogen plus progestin hormone replacement therapy (CHT. In contrast, the randomized WHI trial reported that CHT increased the risk by 10% for those not having previously used hormones and 24% when including previous users in the analyses. In another randomized trial, estrogen use only was not associated with any increased risk at all. After the WHI trial was published in 2003, use of HT dropped 70% within 5 years in Norway and Sweden while breast cancer rates were essentially unchanged. After 2008, HT use has dropped further and breast cancer incidence rates have started increasing again. The study objective is to calculate and to explain potential bias in the observational study design.Here we use data from the randomized WHI trial and analyze these data as done in the observational studies to calculate the magnitude of the potential biases in the observational study design. Time varying effect of hormones and categorization of the follow-up time may increase the hazard ratio for long-term users from 1.10 to 1.48. Selective retrospective reporting of hormone use may further increase the hazard ratio to 1.68.We suggest that the mechanism causing higher hazard ratio of breast cancer (compared to the observational studies is the time-varying effect of CHT on the breast cancer risk and selective retrospective reporting of hormone use. Other risk factors for the increase in breast cancer risk in the age group 50-69 years should be considered, for example, overdiagnosis.

  5. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  6. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  7. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  8. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  9. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  10. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  11. Evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavila, J; Seguí, M Á; Calvo, L; López, T; Alonso, J J; Farto, M; Sánchez-de la Rosa, R

    2017-01-01

    While much progress has been made in the treatment of breast cancer, cardiac complications resulting from therapy remain a significant concern. Both anthracyclines and novel targeted agents can inflict cardiac damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the difference between what it is currently done and what standards of care should be used to minimizing and managing cardiac toxicity in breast cancer survivors. A two-round multicenter Delphi study was carried out. The panel consisted of 100 oncologists who were asked to define the elected therapies for breast cancer patients, the clinical definition and patterns of cancer drug-derived cardiac toxicity, and those protocols focused on early detection and monitoring of cardiovascular outcomes. Experts agreed a more recent definition of cardiotoxicity. Around 38 % of patients with early-stage disease, and 51.3 % cases with advanced metastatic breast cancer had preexisting risk factors for cardiotoxicity. Among risk factors, cumulative dose of anthracycline ≥450 mg/m2 and its combination with other anticancer drugs, and a preexisting cardiovascular disease were considered the best predictors of cardiotoxicity. Echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography have been the proposed methods for monitoring changes in cardiac structure and function. Breast cancer is generally treated with anthracyclines (80 %), so that the panel strongly stated about the need to plan a strategy to managing cardiotoxicity. A decline of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >10 %, to an LVEF value chemotherapy plus trastuzumab until the normalization of the left ventricular function. The use of liposomal anthracyclines was strongly suggested as a treatment option for breast cancer patients. The present report is the first to produce a set of statements on the prevention, evaluation and monitoring of chemotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity in breast cancer patients.

  12. A Pilot Study of Expressive Writing Intervention among Chinese Speaking Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zheng, Dianhan; Young, Lucy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Loh, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little attention has been focused on Asian American breast cancer survivor's psychological needs. No outcome based psychosocial interventions have been reported to target at this population. Expressive writing interventions have been previously shown to improve health outcomes among non-Hispanic white breast cancer populations. This pilot study aimed to test the cultural sensitivity, feasibility, and potential health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants (N=19) were asked to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings, their coping efforts, and positive thoughts and feelings regarding their experience with breast cancer each week for three weeks. Health outcomes were assessed at baseline, three, and six months after the intervention. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach (CBPR) is used. Results Expressive writing was associated with medium and large effect sizes (ηp2= 0.066~0.208) in improving multiple health outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, posttraumatic stress, intrusive thoughts, and positive affect) at follow-ups. Participants perceived the study to be valuable. The study yielded high compliance and completion rates. Conclusion Expressive writing is associated with long-term improvement of health outcomes among Chinese breast cancer survivors and has the potential to be utilized as a support strategy for minority cancer survivors. In addition, CBPR is valuable in improving feasibility and cultural sensitivity of the intervention in understudied populations. Future studies employing randomized controlled trial designs are warranted. PMID:22229930

  13. A pilot study of expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zheng, Dianhan; Young, Lucy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Loh, Alice

    2012-09-01

    Little attention has been focused on Asian American breast cancer survivor's psychological needs. No outcome-based psychosocial interventions have been reported to target at this population. Expressive writing interventions have been previously shown to improve health outcomes among non-Hispanic White breast cancer populations. This pilot study aimed to test the cultural sensitivity, feasibility, and potential health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors. Participants (N = 19) were asked to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings, their coping efforts, and positive thoughts and feelings regarding their experience with breast cancer each week for 3 weeks. Health outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach (CBPR) is used. Expressive writing was associated with medium and large effect sizes (η(p)² = 0.066∼0.208) in improving multiple health outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, posttraumatic stress, intrusive thoughts, and positive affect) at follow-ups. Participants perceived the study to be valuable. The study yielded high compliance and completion rates. Expressive writing is associated with long-term improvement of health outcomes among Chinese breast cancer survivors and has the potential to be utilized as a support strategy for minority cancer survivors. In addition, CBPR is valuable in improving feasibility and cultural sensitivity of the intervention in understudied populations. Future studies employing randomized, controlled trial designs are warranted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courneya Kerry S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery, 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1 the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival, treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy, quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness, (2 the determinants of physical activity and

  15. Height, weight weight change, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, P. A.; Dirx, M. J.; Ronckers, C. M.; van den Hoogen, P.; Goldbohm, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The association between several anthropometric indices and breast cancer risk was evaluated within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which began in 1986 and is conducted among 62,573 women aged 55 to 69 years at baseline. After 4.3 years of follow-up, data on 626 women with incident

  16. Prognosis of women with primary breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy: Results from an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amant (Frédéric); G. von Minckwitz (G.); S.N. Han (Sileny); M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A. Ring (Alistair); J. Giermek (Jerzy); H. Wildiers (Hans); T. Fehm (Tanja); S.C. Linn (Sabine); B. Schlehe (Bettina); P. Neven (Patrick); P. Westenend (Pieter); V. Müller (Volkmar); K. van Calsteren (Kristel); B. Rack (Brigitte); V. Nekljudova (Valentina); N. Harbeck (Nadia); M. Untch (Michael); P.O. Witteveen (Petronella); K. Schwedler (Kathrin); C. Thomssen (Christoph); B. Van Calster (Ben); S. Loibl (Sibylle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We aimed to determine the prognosis of patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy (BCP). Patients and Methods: In this cohort study, a multicentric registry of patients with BCP (from Cancer in Pregnancy, Leuven, Belgium, and GBG 29/BIG 02-03) compiled pro- and

  17. Acupuncture in the postoperative setting for breast cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Molly J; Croghan, Katrina A; Sandhu, Nicole P; Lemaine, Valerie; Degnim, Amy C; Bauer, Brent A; Cha, Stephen S; Croghan, Ivana T

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is used to treat a variety of symptoms and conditions associated with cancer and cancer treatments. The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of providing acupuncture in the hospital setting for breast cancer patients and to evaluate the short-term effect of acupuncture on stress, anxiety, and pain. This was an open label study conducted at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Methodist and Saint Marys Campus, Rochester, Minnesota. A total of 20 adult breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction were recruited and offered daily acupuncture intervention beginning postoperative day 1 and continuing for the duration of the hospital stay. Outcome measures included the Symptom Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Satisfaction Question and Was-it-Worth-it (WIWI) Questionnaire. It was found that acupuncture is a feasible option for postoperative breast cancer patients. In addition, it can significantly decrease the levels of anxiety (p = 0.0065), tension/muscular discomfort (p acupuncture and relaxation was found to be statistically borderline (p = 0.053). This feasibility study showed that acupuncture can be integrated into a busy postsurgical clinical practice. These results also suggest that acupuncture may be an important intervention in the postoperative setting for breast cancer patients.

  18. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth P Pathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro.MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA.Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  19. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O’Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Dörk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Pérez, Jose Ignacio; Rodríguez, Primitiva Menéndez; Zamora, Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collée, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Dynnes Ørsted, David; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P.E.A.; Tollenaar, RAEM.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Logistic regression models were used in case–case analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and tumor subtypes, and case–control analyses to estimate associations between epidemiological risk factors and the risk of developing specific tumor subtypes in 12 population-based studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In case–case analyses, of the epidemiological risk factors examined, early age at menarche (≤12 years) was less frequent in case patients with PR− than PR+ tumors (P = .001). Nulliparity (P = 3 × 10−6) and increasing age at first birth (P = 2 × 10−9) were less frequent in ER− than in ER+ tumors. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in younger women (≤50 years) was more frequent in ER−/PR− than in ER+/PR+ tumors (P = 1 × 10−7), whereas obesity in older women (>50 years) was less frequent in PR− than in PR+ tumors (P = 6 × 10−4). The triple-negative (ER−/PR−/HER2−) or core basal phenotype (CBP; triple-negative and cytokeratins [CK]5/6+ and/or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]+) accounted for much of the heterogeneity in parity-related variables and BMI in younger women. Case–control analyses showed that nulliparity, increasing age at first birth, and obesity in younger women showed the expected associations with the risk of ER+ or PR+ tumors but not triple-negative (nulliparity vs parity, odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.19, P = .61; 5-year increase in age at first full-term birth, OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.05, P = .34; obesity in younger women, OR = 1.36, 95

  20. Effect of multiplicity, laterality, and age at onset of breast cancer on familial risk of breast cancer: a nationwide prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Elham; Chen, Tianhui; Narod, Steven; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this nationwide prospective cohort study is to find out the risk of breast cancer (BC) in relatives of patients with multiple BCs by laterality and age at diagnosis of first BC. Having family history of single (HR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.8-1.9) or multiple (HR 2.7; 95 % CI 2.6-2.9) BC was associated with higher risk of BC. Those with an FDR with contralateral BC at any age had the highest risk of familial cancer except at age risk (HR 9.7; 95 % CI 6.0-15.6). The familial risk of BC in these families decreased as the subject's and FDRs' age at diagnosis of first BC increased. The HR was still significantly increased (2.2) for old individuals (>60) having a FDR with contralateral BC at an advanced age (≥80). Despite the common belief that later onset breast cancer is more associated with sporadic breast cancer, our data suggest that breast cancer at any age in the family is associated with some increase in the familial risk, though that risk decreases as the age of onset increases. Contralateral and multiple ipsilateral breast cancers might be associated with distinct shared familial risk factors. Our results have implication for genetic counseling and urge gene identification studies.

  1. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  2. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  3. Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    incidence rate ratio (95% CI) of 2.7 (1.1-6.6) per 10-fold increase in acrylamide-hemoglobin level. A weak association between glycidamide hemoglobin levels and incidence of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer was also found, this association, however, entirely disappeared when acrylamide......Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed in several foods during high-temperature processing. So far, epidemiological studies have not shown any association between human cancer risk and dietary exposure to acrylamide. The purpose of this study was to conduct a nested case control study...... within a prospective cohort study on the association between breast cancer and exposure to acrylamide using biomarkers. N-terminal hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide in red blood cells were analyzed (by LC/MS/MS) as biomarkers of exposure on 374 breast cancer...

  4. Risk factors associated with mortality from breast cancer in Waikato, New Zealand: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S A; Campbell, I D; Scott, N; Lawrenson, R A; Shirley, R; Elwood, J M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify key characteristics associated with mortality from breast cancer among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer in New Zealand (NZ). Case-control study. All primary breast cancers diagnosed between 01/01/2002 and 31/12/2010 in Waikato, NZ, were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. A total of 258 breast cancer deaths were identified from 1767 invasive cancers diagnosed over this period. Breast cancer deaths (n = 246) were compared with an age and year of diagnosis matched control group (n = 652) who were alive at the time of the death of the corresponding case and subsequently did not die from breast cancer. Diagnosis through symptomatic presentation, advanced stage, higher grade, absent hormone receptors (i.e. oestrogen and progesterone) and HER-2 amplification were associated with significantly higher risks of breast cancer mortality in bivariate analysis. Tumour stage, grade and hormone receptor status remained significant in the multivariable model, while mode of detection and HER-2 status were non-significant. In the bivariate analysis, Māori women had a higher risk of breast cancer mortality compared to NZ European women (OR 1.34) which was statistically non-significant. However in the adjusted model, risk of mortality was lower for Māori compared to NZ European women, although this was not significant statistically (OR 0.85). Mortality pattern from breast cancer in this study were associated with established risk factors. Ethnic inequity in breast cancer mortality in NZ appears to be largely attributable to delay in diagnosis and tumour related factors. Further research in a larger cohort is needed to identify the full impact of these factors on ethnic inequity in breast cancer mortality. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen's Profile for Breast Cancer in Western Algeria: 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahari, Zenib; Medjdoub, Asmahane; Sahraoui, Tewfik; Belhabri, Leila; El Kebir, Fatima Zohra

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Biology contributes to the early diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer with several categories of markers such as prognostic markers (ER, PR, HER2), proliferative markers (Ki67), and tumor markers such as CEA and CA 15-3. CEA can be detected at a high concentration in serum of patients with malignant tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the concentrations of CEA in serum of women with breast cancer and to verify the existence of a possible link between the average rates of CEA and SBR grade. Serum samples from 100 patients with breast cancer and 100 controls was recovered and examined with an AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories, USA) to measure CEA using Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) technology. In our clinical study, the mean age of patients and controls were 52.7 and 50.3 years respectively. The results revealed an elevation in the CEA levels from patients with an average value of 16.61 ± 0.2 ng/ml. Positive correlation was found between CEA concentrations and SBR grade, it has found with 45,7 ± 1 ng/ml in grade III. CEA represents an excellent marker for breast cancer development. Changes in its concentration reflect the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of treatment.

  6. Influence of socioeconomic factors on survival after breast cancer--a nationwide cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 1983-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone; Düring, Maria; Carlsen, Kathrine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Lynch, John; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-12-01

    The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.98), with higher income (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) and with larger dwellings (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96 for women living in houses larger than 150 m(2)). Presence of comorbid disorders increased the HR. An interaction between income and comorbid disorders resulting in a 15% lower survival 10 year after primary surgery in poor women with low-risk breast cancer having comorbid conditions ( approximately 65%) compared to rich women with similar breast cancer prognosis and comorbid conditions ( approximately 80%) suggests that part of the explanation for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Sleep duration and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingyi; Zhou, Yuhao; Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Xin; He, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Studies on the association of short or long sleep duration with breast cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We quantitatively assessed this association by conducting a meta-analysis based on the evidence from observational studies. In April 2013, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, EmBase and the Cochrane Library to identify studies examining the effect of sleep duration on breast cancer incidence. The odds ratio (OR) was used to measure any such association in a random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by confounding factors that could bias the results. A total of six studies (two case-control and four cohort studies) involving 159,837 individuals were included in our meta-analysis. Our study did not show an association between either short or long sleep duration and breast cancer risk (short sleep duration data: pooled OR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-1.14, p = 0.853; long sleep duration data: pooled OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04, p = 0.251). Moreover, we did not identify any statistically significant association between sleep duration and breast cancer risk in all the subgroup analyses. In conclusion, our findings indicate that sleep duration has no effect on breast cancer risk. © 2013 UICC.

  8. Lifelong vegetarianism and breast cancer risk: a large multicentre case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Toral; Barnes, Isobel; Ali, Raghib; Arumugham, Rajkumar; Chacko, Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Jivarajani, Parimal; Kannan, Ravi; Loknatha, Dasappa; Malhotra, Hemant; Mathew, Beela S

    2017-01-18

    The lower incidence of breast cancer in Asian populations where the intake of animal products is lower than that of Western populations has led some to suggest that a vegetarian diet might reduce breast cancer risk. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted a multicentre hospital based case-control study in eight cancer centres in India. Eligible cases were women aged 30-70 years, with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (ICD10 C50). Controls were frequency matched to the cases by age and region of residence and chosen from the accompanying attendants of the patients with cancer or those patients in the general hospital without cancer. Information about dietary, lifestyle, reproductive and socio-demographic factors were collected using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifelong vegetarianism, adjusting for known risk factors for the disease. The study included 2101 cases and 2255 controls. The mean age at recruitment was similar in cases (49.7 years (SE 9.7)) and controls (49.8 years (SE 9.1)). About a quarter of the population were lifelong vegetarians and the rates varied significantly by region. On multivariate analysis, with adjustment for known risk factors for the disease, the risk of breast cancer was not decreased in lifelong vegetarians (OR 1.09 (95% CI 0.93-1.29)). Lifelong exposure to a vegetarian diet appears to have little, if any effect on the risk of breast cancer.

  9. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  10. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  11. Association of thyroid, breast and renal cell cancer: a population-based study of the prevalence of second malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fossen, Victoria L; Wilhelm, Scott M; Eaton, Jennifer L; McHenry, Christopher R

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data has shown that the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in patients with a preexisting malignancy and that the incidence of other malignancies is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of a second malignancy in patients treated for thyroid, breast or renal cell cancer and determine what associations, if any, exist between these cancers. This study utilized the novel data system, Explorys, as its population base. Patient cohorts were constructed using ICD-9 codes, and prevalence rates were obtained for each cancer. Rates of second malignancy were obtained and compared to the baseline prevalence for a particular malignancy. Female thyroid cancer patients had a 0.67- and twofold increase in prevalence of a subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Female breast and renal cell cancer patients had a twofold and 1.5-fold increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer, respectively. Male patients with thyroid cancer had a 29- and 4.5-fold increase in prevalence of subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Male patients with breast and renal cell cancer had an increased prevalence of subsequent thyroid cancer, 19- and threefold, respectively. Our study demonstrated a bidirectional association between thyroid, breast and renal cancer in both male and female patients. This may have important implications for patient follow-up and screening after treatment of a primary cancer.

  12. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mennie, JC; Mohanna, PN; O'Donoghue, JM; Rainsbury, R; Cromwell, DA

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2...

  13. The premenopausal breast cancer collaboration : A pooling project of studies participating in the national cancer institute cohort consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Wright, Lauren B.; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N.; Mcclain, Kathleen M.; Jones, Michael E; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Blot, William J.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Butler, Lesley M; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Doody, Michele M.; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A. Heather; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kitahara, Cari M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C.; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R.; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among

  14. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  15. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case-control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast cancer risk. Dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. The adjusted logistic regression estimated an increased risk for a "Fatty Diet", characterized by a higher consumption of milk, vegetable oils and fats, butter, lard and red meat (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87; P = 0.01), and for a "Fruity Diet", characterized by a higher consumption of fish, mango, papaya, avocado and watery fruits (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.14-2.28; P = 0.01). Both diets showed an inverse association with the ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S ratio). A diet characterized by a low P/S ratio seems to be more important for the development of breast cancer than total fat intake.

  16. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  17. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  18. The process of accepting breast cancer among Chinese women: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qin; Liu, Jun-E; Li, Zhi; Su, Ya-Li

    2017-06-01

    To describe the process by which Chinese women accept living with breast cancer. Individual interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese women who completed breast cancer treatment. Data were collected from September 2014 to January 2015 at a large tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. In this grounded theory study, data were analyzed using constant comparative and coding analysis methods. In order to explain the process of accepting having breast cancer among women in China through the grounded theory study, a model that includes 5 axial categories was developed. Cognitive reconstruction emerged as the core category. The extent to which the women with breast cancer accepted having the disease was found to increase with the treatment stage and as their treatment stage progressed with time. The accepting process included five stages: non-acceptance, passive acceptance, willingness to accept, behavioral acceptance, and transcendence of acceptance. Our study using grounded theory study develops a model describing the process by which women accept having breast cancer. The model provides some intervention opportunities at every point of the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  20. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  1. Predicting survival of de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asian women: systematic review and validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Asia, up to 25% of breast cancer patients present with distant metastases at diagnosis. Given the heterogeneous survival probabilities of de novo metastatic breast cancer, individual outcome prediction is challenging. The aim of the study is to identify existing prognostic models for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer and validate them in Asia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify prediction models for metastatic breast cancer. Models were validated in 642 women with de novo metastatic breast cancer registered between 2000 and 2010 in the Singapore Malaysia Hospital Based Breast Cancer Registry. Survival curves for low, intermediate and high-risk groups according to each prognostic score were compared by log-rank test and discrimination of the models was assessed by concordance statistic (C-statistic. RESULTS: We identified 16 prediction models, seven of which were for patients with brain metastases only. Performance status, estrogen receptor status, metastatic site(s and disease-free interval were the most common predictors. We were able to validate nine prediction models. The capacity of the models to discriminate between poor and good survivors varied from poor to fair with C-statistics ranging from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.53 to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.66. CONCLUSION: The discriminatory performance of existing prediction models for de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asia is modest. Development of an Asian-specific prediction model is needed to improve prognostication and guide decision making.

  2. A prospective study of the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Ying Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional prospective study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological factors and breast cancer incidence. Methods: The subjects who scheduled to receive mammography screening were recruited from a medical center′s outpatient department in Taiwan. Psychological factors used for measurement were stress, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 1160 questionnaires were completed, which underwent statistical analysis using independent t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation, and multiple logistic regression. There were statistically significant differences in the average scores of the two groups with and without breast cancer for psychological factors of anxiety (t = −2.071; P = 0.039, depression (t = −3.035; P = 0.002, and stress (t = −4.087; P < 0.001. The crude odds ratio of the two groups showed that subjects with borderline anxiety were 2.576 times ( P = 0.001 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no anxiety. Subjects with depression were 4.078 times (P = 0.03 more likely to have breast cancer as compared to subjects with no depression. Every point added to the average total stress score increased the additional risk of breast cancer by 1.124 times (P < 0.001. Conclusions: After making adjustments on educational factors, the results conclude that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can be considered predictors of breast cancer risk. To prevent and control breast cancer in women, the findings suggest that nurses should consider adding emphasis on psychological factors in women′s health education.

  3. Study of anti-cancer effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, K.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of the variations in the spectroscopic patterns of the key bio molecules using Native fluorescence spectroscopy, without exogenous labels, has emerged as a new trend in the characterization of the Physiological State and the Discrimination of Pathological from normal conditions of cells and tissues as the relative concentration of these bio-molecules serve as markers in evaluating the presence of cancer in the body. The aim of this unique study is to use these features of Optical spectroscopy in monitoring the behavior of cells to treatment and thus to evaluate the response to Chemotherapeutic agents and Radiation in Breast Cancer Patients. The results of the study conducted using NFS of Human blood plasma of biopsy proved Breast Cancer patients undergoing treatment are promising, enhancing the scope of Native fluorescence Spectroscopy emerging as a promising technology in the evaluation of Therapeutic Response in Breast Cancer Patients.

  4. Risk of second non-breast cancer among patients treated with and without postoperative radiotherapy for primary breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies including 522,739 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantzau, Trine; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -irradiated patients had no increased risk of second lung or esophagus cancer, neither overall nor over time. For non-irradiated patients' risk of second thyroid cancer (SIR 1.21) and sarcomas (SIR 1.42) were increased overall, but with no remaining risk ⩾10 after breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy for breast......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiotherapy plays an essential role in early breast cancer treatment, but is also associated with an increased risk of second malignancies decades after the exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched the data-bases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase......, and Cinahl, for cohort studies estimating the risk of second non-breast cancer after primary breast cancer. Every included study was to report the standardized incidence ratio [SIR] of second cancers, comparing the risk among either irradiated or unirradiated female breast cancer patients to the risk...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  6. The science, studies and sociology of the abortion breast cancer link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This article explains the breast physiology and epidemiologic criteria supporting the abortion breast cancer link and the sociologic factors that cause this risk to remain largely unknown to both medical professionals and the public. Abortion increases breast cancer risk through multiple mechanisms. Pregnancy exposes women to high levels of estrogen acting as a mitogen and genotoxin, and induced abortion then leaves their breasts with more places for cancers to start. They have a higher risk of subsequent premature deliveries that further increase their risks of breast cancer. Rampant breast cancer seen in ever younger women will not allow this issue to be suppressed.

  7. Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Adekunle, O O

    1999-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, more rapidly in societies that hitherto enjoyed a low incidence of the disease, such as most African countries. Most of the epidemiological data on breast cancer from Africa have been retrospective studies with propensity for bias. This was a case-controlled study of 250 consecutive patients with breast cancer diagnosed between April 1992 and December 1995. An age- and sex-matched control group of patients with non-oncological and non-endocrine diseases was compared. The peak age incidence of breast cancer in the sample studied was 43 years. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and weight of the patients compared with the controls. Patients also tended to be older at first pregnancy and at first lactation, and had a higher mean number of pregnancies. The patients also tended to be of an early birth order, to have lactated less often, to have used contraceptives and to have abused alcohol compared with the controls. The incidence of breast cancer in this environment is increasing. This is partly a result of the changing demographic profile, acquisition of 'western' lifestyle, and the changing socioeconomic profile of the country.

  8. Breast cancer and menopause: partners' perceptions and personal experiences--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the partners' perceptions, understanding, and personal experiences of early menopause and menopausal therapy in women with breast cancer. A questionnaire study was completed by 50 partners of women with diagnoses of breast cancer, recruited via outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics and χ tests were applied. Most (68%) of the partners perceived hot flushes as the meaning of menopause. Most (60%) partners perceived that loss of sexuality was the key problem/fears about being menopausal. Partners perceived that exercise (72%) and reducing stress (64%) were most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. Most partners reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of hormone therapy (50%), bioidentical hormones (90%), and herbal therapies (84%). The general practitioner was considered the best source of information on menopause (68%). Partners expected menopause to affect a women's everyday life and relationships with family and partner and, particularly, to cause intermittent stress on the relationship (66%) and to decrease libido or sexual interest (64%). Forty-four percent of partners reported that there was some difficulty in communication/discussion about menopause with family and partners. This pilot study highlights (1) the lack of understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies that partners of women with breast cancer have, (2) the personal experience of having a female partner with breast cancer, and (3) the partners' attitudes and responses toward menopause in women with breast cancer.

  9. Impairment of the executive function in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy treatment: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Lin, H; Yan, Y; Xu, X; Wang, L; Zhang, J; Yu, Y

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemotherapy-induced alterations in the functional framework of the brain, and probe the relationship between these changes and executive function impairments in breast cancer patients. Thirty-three breast cancer patients (BC) after receiving chemotherapy and 31 matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. All participants received resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) and neuropsychological background tests. The lower functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was found in the left postcentral gyrus, left precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. A significant negative correlation was found between the response time on the Trail Making Tests and the functional connectivity strength between the PCC and right middle frontal and right cingulate gyri in breast cancer patients. In addition, the strength of the functional connectivity between the PCC and right middle frontal gyrus had a negative correlation with the response times on the Stroop Interference Test in breast cancer patients. This study demonstrated that BC patients after receiving chemotherapy have abnormal functional connectivity. These findings suggest that functional connectivity changes might play an important role in chemotherapy-induced executive function impairments in breast cancer patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Well-done meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposures in relation to breast cancer risk: the Nashville Breast Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Deming, Sandra L.; Fair, Alecia M.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Wujcik, Debra M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kelley, Mark; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We evaluated this association in a population-based case-control study of incident breast cancer conducted in Nashville, United States, including 2,386 breast cancer cases and 1,703 healthy women controls. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain information related to meat intake including amount, cooking methods, and doneness levels, as well as other known or hypothesized risk factors for breast cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat was associated with a significantly elevated risk of breast cancer (P-trend meat (P-trend meat and breast cancer risk were slightly stronger for postmenopausal women than for premenopausal women. Meat-derived mutagens such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women only (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The results from this study provide strong support for the hypotheses that high red meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure may be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. PMID:21537933

  11. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Lian; Lu, Min-Shan; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Lin, Fang-Yu; Ho, Suzanne C; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.35 (1.11-1.65). Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.30 (1.05-1.61). Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively). An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (PtrendPassive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  12. Dietary Factors and Female Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females and has become a major global health priority. This prospective cohort study investigated the association of dietary factors, including food items and dietary habits, with the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. Study participants were women aged 30 years or older, recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea between August 2002 and May 2007. They were followed until December 2014 using the Korea Central Cancer Registry to identify breast cancer cases. Among 5046 non-pre-diagnosed cancer participants, 72 breast cancer cases were prospectively identified. Participants with breast cancer had a significantly higher educational level (college or higher: 58.3% vs. 39.5%, p = 0.01, were more likely to have ever smoked (22.2% vs. 7.8%, p < 0.001, and were more likely to have a history of benign breast tumors (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.02 than non-cases. Consumption of grilled meat conferred a significantly higher risk of breast cancer in all women (hazard ratio (HR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.09–2.85 and in postmenopausal women (HR 3.06, 95% CI 1.31–7.15. High-cholesterol food intake was associated with a higher risk in all women (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.01–2.82. Irregular meal intake was associated with an elevated risk in all women (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.20–3.98, p for trend = 0.01 and in premenopausal women (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.13–4.91, p for trend = 0.03. Our findings suggest that grilled meat and high-cholesterol food intake and irregular eating habits may be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. Further studies with longer follow-up periods that include information on portion size, hormone receptor status, carcinogen levels in grilled meat, and a classification of foods by source are required.

  13. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.; Strickler, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone

  14. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies. In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants. The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8). The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.

  15. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Among Chinese Women: A 10-Year Nationwide Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Hui; He, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Pang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer. Methods Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999–2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the χ2 test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies. Results As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women. Conclusions Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women. PMID:24270059

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  18. Antihypertensive drug use and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haibo; Rui, Qin; Zhu, Xiaojue; Yu, Zhenquan; Gao, Rong; Liu, Huixiang

    2017-09-22

    We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the hypothesized association between breast cancer and antihypertensive drug (AHT) use. Fixed- or random- effect models were used to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all AHTs and individual classes (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, [ACEi]; angiotensin-receptor blockers, [ARBs]; calcium channel blockers, [CCBs]; beta-blockers, [BBs], and diuretics). Twenty-one studies with 3,116,266 participants were included. Overall, AHT use was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.98-1.06), and no consistent association was found for specific AHT classes with pooled RRs of 1.02 (95% CI: 0.96-1.09) for BBs, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99-1.16) for CCBs, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93-1.05) for ACEi/ARBs, and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99-1.12) for diuretics. When stratified by duration of use, there was a significantly reduced breast cancer risk for ACEi/ARB use ≥10 years (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.95). Although there was no significant association between AHT use and breast cancer risk, there was a possible beneficial effect was found for long-term ACEi/ARB. Large, randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed to further test the effect of these medications on breast cancer risk.

  19. The Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort (MyBCC): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tania; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Nahar, Azmi Mohd; Ng, Chong Guan; Dahlui, Maznah; Hussain, Samsinah; Cantwell, Marie; Murray, Liam; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2015-10-26

    Over recent decades, the burden of breast cancer has been increasing at an alarming rate in Asia. Prognostic research findings from Western countries may not readily be adapted to Asia, as the outcome of breast cancer depends on a multitude of factors ranging from genetic, clinical and histological predictors, to lifestyle and social predictors. The primary aim of this study is to determine the impact of lifestyle (eg, nutrition, physical activity), mental and sociocultural condition, on the overall survival and quality of life (QoL) among multiethnic Malaysian women following diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aims to advance the evidence on prognostic factors of breast cancer within the Asian setting. The findings may guide management of patients with breast cancer not only during active treatment but also during the survivorship period. This hospital-based prospective cohort study will comprise patients with breast cancer (18 years and above), managed in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We aim to recruit 1000 cancer survivors over a 6-year period. Data collection will occur at baseline (within 3 months of diagnosis), 6 months, and 1, 3 and 5 years following diagnosis. The primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival, and secondary outcome is QoL. Factors measured are demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors (eg, dietary intake, physical activity), anthropometry measurements (eg, height, weight, waist, hip circumference, body fat analysis), psychosocial aspects, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage. This protocol was approved by the UMMC Ethical Committee in January 2012. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from our cohort study will be disseminated via scientific publication as well as presentation to stakeholders including the patients, clinicians, the public and policymakers, via appropriate avenues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  20. A multi-gene panel study in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock-Rada, A M; Ossa, C A; Garcia, H I; Gomez, L R

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 50% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Three founder mutations in BRCA1/2 have been reported in Colombia, but the pattern of mutations in other cancer susceptibility genes is unknown. This study describes the frequency and type of germline mutations in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer genes in a referral cancer center in Colombia. Eighty-five women referred to the oncogenetics unit of the Instituto de Cancerologia Las Americas in Medellin (Colombia), meeting testing criteria for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (NCCN 2015), who had germline testing with a commercial 25-gene hereditary cancer panel, were included in the analysis. Nineteen patients (22.4%) carried a deleterious germline mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene: BRCA1 (7), BRCA2 (8), PALB2 (1), ATM (1), MSH2 (1) and PMS2 (1). The frequency of mutations in BRCA1/2 was 17.6%. One BRCA2 mutation (c.9246dupG) was recurrent in five non-related individuals and is not previously reported in the country. Seventeen mutation-carriers had a diagnosis of breast cancer (median age of diagnosis of 36 years) and two of ovarian cancer. All BRCA1 mutation-carriers with breast cancer had triple negative tumors (median age of diagnosis of 31 years). Variants of unknown significance were reported in 35% of test results. This is the first report of a multi-gene study for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in a Latin American country. We found a high frequency and a wide spectrum of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes in Colombian patients, some of which were not previously reported in the country. We observed a very low frequency of known Colombian founder BRCA1/2 mutations (1.2%) and we found mutations in other genes such as PALB2, ATM, MSH2 and PMS2. Our results highlight the importance of performing multi-gene panel testing, including comprehensive BRCA1/2 analysis (full gene sequencing and large rearrangement

  1. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  2. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  3. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  4. Comorbid diseases interact with breast cancer to affect mortality in the first year after diagnosis--a Danish nationwide matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gulbech Ording

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival of breast cancer patients with comorbidity, compared to those without comorbidity, has been well characterized. The interaction between comorbid diseases and breast cancer, however, has not been well-studied. METHODS: From Danish nationwide medical registries, we identified all breast cancer patients between 45 and 85 years of age diagnosed from 1994 to 2008. Women without breast cancer were matched to the breast cancer patients on specific comorbid diseases included in the Charlson comorbidity Index (CCI. Interaction contrasts were calculated as a measure of synergistic effect on mortality between comorbidity and breast cancer. RESULTS: The study included 47,904 breast cancer patients and 237,938 matched comparison women. In the first year, the strongest interaction between comorbidity and breast cancer was observed in breast cancer patients with a CCI score of ≥4, which accounted for 29 deaths per 1000 person-years. Among individual comorbidities, dementia interacted strongly with breast cancer and accounted for 148 deaths per 1000 person-years within one year of follow-up. There was little interaction between comorbidity and breast cancer during one to five years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial interaction between comorbid diseases and breast cancer, affecting mortality. Successful treatment of the comorbid diseases or the breast cancer can delay mortality caused by this interaction in breast cancer patients.

  5. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  6. Flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk: a case--control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Lagiou, A; Katsouyanni, K; La Vecchia, C; Dwyer, J; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-10-06

    Flavonoids have been investigated for possible inverse associations with various chronic degenerative diseases, but there are no epidemiologic data concerning a possible association between several of the main flavonoid categories and breast cancer risk. We have applied recently published data on the flavonoid content of several foods and beverages on dietary information collected in the context of a large case-control study of 820 women with breast cancer and 1548 control women, conducted in Greece. We found a strong, statistically significant inverse association of flavone intake with breast cancer. The odds ratio for an increment equal to one standard deviation of daily flavone intake (i.e. 0.5 mg day(-1)) was 0.87, with 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.97. The association persisted after controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption, or for other flavonoid intake. This inverse association is compatible with and may explain the reported inverse association of breast cancer with consumption of vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables. After controlling for dietary confounding, there was no association of breast cancer risk with flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanidins or isoflavones.

  7. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  8. Initial study on in vivo conductivity mapping of breast cancer using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Joonsung; Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Min-Oh; Choi, Narae; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    To develop and apply a method to measure in vivo electrical conductivity values using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with breast cancer. A recently developed technique named MREPT (MR electrical properties tomography) together with a novel coil combination process was used to quantify the conductivity values. The overall technique was validated using a phantom study. In addition, 90 subjects were imaged (50 subjects with previously biopsy-confirmed breast tumor and 40 normal subjects), which was approved by our institutional review board (IRB). A routine clinical protocol, specifically a T2 -weighted FSE (fast spin echo) imaging data, was used for reconstruction of conductivity. By employing the coil combination, the relative error in the conductivity map was reduced from ~70% to 10%. The average conductivity values in breast cancers regions (0.89 ± 0.33S/m) was higher compared to parenchymal tissue (0.43 S/m, P conductivity compared to benign cases (0.56 S/m, n = 5) (P conductivity compared to in situ cancers (0.57 S/m) (P conductivity mapping of breast cancers is feasible using a noninvasive in vivo MREPT technique combined with a coil combination process. The method may provide a tool in the MR diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Common dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer: analysis from the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Janet E; Taylor, E Faye; Burley, Victoria J; Greenwood, Darren C

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between diet and breast cancer is uncertain. We assessed the relationship of 4 common dietary patterns to the risk of breast cancer using the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). A total of 35,372 women aged between 35 to 69 yr were recruited from 1995 to 1998. The UKWCS was selected to have a wide range of dietary intakes; 28% were self-reported vegetarian. Diet was assessed at baseline by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were defined based on a hierarchy of consumption of fish and meat to reflect commonly consumed dietary patterns. Hazards ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 9 yr, and 330 premenopausal and 453 postmenopausal women developed invasive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, there was a strong inverse association between the fish eating dietary pattern 0.60 (95% CI = 0.38-0.96) but not for a vegetarian pattern 0.85 (95% CI = 0.58-1.25) compared to red meat eaters. There were no statistically significant associations with dietary pattern and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A fish eating dietary pattern that excludes meat from the diet may confer some benefit with regard to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  10. A social media approach to inform youth about breast cancer and smoking: an exploratory descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Struik, Laura L; Bissell, Laura J L; Graham, Raquel; Stevens, Jodie; Richardson, Chris G

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco exposure during periods of breast development has been shown to increase risk of premenopausal breast cancer. An urgent need exists, therefore, to raise awareness among adolescent girls about this new evidence, and for adolescent girls and boys who smoke to understand how their smoking puts their female peers at risk for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop two youth-informed, gender specific YouTube-style videos designed to raise awareness among adolescent girls and boys about tobacco exposure as a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer and to assess youths' responses to the videos and their potential for inclusion on social media platforms. Both videos consisted of a combination of moving text, novel images, animations, and youth-friendly music. A brief questionnaire was used to gather feedback on two videos using a convenience sample of 135 youth in British Columbia, Canada. The overall positive responses by girls and boys to their respective videos and their reported interest in sharing these videos via social networking suggests that this approach holds potential for other types of health promotion messaging targeting youth. The videos offer a promising messaging strategy for raising awareness about tobacco exposure as a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Tailored, gender-specific messages for use on social media hold the potential for cost-effective, health promotion and cancer prevention initiatives targeting youth.

  11. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  12. Breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatef, Msolly; Olfa, Gharbi; Imed, Harrabi; Kacem, Mahmoudi; Imen, Chabchoub; Rim, Chafai; Mohamed, Bibi; Slim, Ben Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    In this report, we examined the relationship between mother's breastfeeding history and her risk of breast cancer, in a case-control study in Tunisia between 2006 and 2009. About 400 breast cancer cases and 400 controls were included. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized structured questionnaire to obtain information on breastfeeding and other risk factors. Mean duration of breastfeeding per child was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer for women who breastfed for > 24 months per child. The OR was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.28-0.76) when compared those who breastfed for or = 109 months (OR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.84). Stratification by menopausal status showed a reduced risk of breast cancer associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding for both pre- and postmenopausal women. The risk reduction was more consistent for lifetime duration of breastfeeding, the test for trend being significant for both pre- (p = 0.03) and postmenopausal (p = 0.01) women. These results support an inverse association between breastfeeding and breast cancer risk.

  13. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-03-09

    A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. The ABLATIVE study is a prospective, single arm, multicenter study evaluating preoperative, single dose, ablative radiation treatment in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients with core biopsy proven non-lobular invasive breast cancer, (estrogen receptor positive, Her2 negative, maximum tumor size 3.0 cm on diagnostic MRI) and a negative sentinel node biopsy are eligible. Radiotherapy (RT) planning will be performed using a contrast enhanced (CE) planning CT-scan, co-registered with a CE-MRI, both in supine RT position. A total of twenty-five consecutive patients will be treated with a single ablative RT dose of 20 Gy to the tumor and 15 Gy to the tumorbed. Follow-up MRIs are scheduled within 1 week, 2, 4 and 6 months after single-dose RT. Breast-conserving surgery is scheduled at six months following RT. Primary study endpoint is pathological complete response. Secondary study endpoints are the radiological response and toxicity. Furthermore, patients will fill out questionnaires on quality of life and functional status. Cosmetic outcome will be evaluated by the treating radiation oncologist, patient and 'Breast Cancer Conservation Treatment cosmetic results' software. Recurrence and survival rates will be assessed. The patients will be followed up to 10 years after diagnosis. If patients give additional informed consent, a biopsy and a part of the irradiated specimen will be stored at the local Biobank and used for future research on radiotherapy response associated genotyping. The ABLATIVE study evaluates

  14. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  15. Return to work of breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J. L.; Broekhuizen, M. L. A.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast cancer management has improved dramatically in the past three decades and as a result, a population of working age women is breast cancer survivor. Interventions for breast cancer survivors have shown improvements in quality of life and in physical and psychological

  16. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer in Southeast Asia : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S A M; Ho, P J; Rijnberg, N; Lee, Soo-Chin; Lim, S H; Yap, Y S; Grobbee, D E; Hartman, M; Verkooijen, H M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and survival is high in Southeast Asia. As such, many women diagnosed with breast cancer are at risk of dying of other causes. Given the increased risk of cardiotoxicity induced by breast cancer treatments, it is important to identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular

  17. Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening for breast cancer studied in birth cohorts in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.; Fracheboud, J.; Koning, H.J. de; Ravesteyn, N.T. van; Broeders, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A drawback of early detection of breast cancer through mammographic screening is the diagnosis of breast cancers that would never have become clinically detected. This phenomenon, called overdiagnosis, is ideally quantified from the breast cancer incidence of screened and unscreened cohorts of women

  18. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    lesion in sagittal view. Mean sag - ittal-view lesion size was 29 mm 18 (standard deviation). BREAST IMAGING: MR Characteristics of Pure Ductal...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0329 TITLE: Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast ...CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

  19. Night work and breast cancer in women: A Swedish cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Äkerstedt, T.; Knutsson, A.; Narusyte, J.; Svedberg, P.; Kecklund, L.G.; Alexanderson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent research has suggested a moderate link between night work and breast cancer in women, mainly through case–control studies, but non-significant studies are also common and cohort studies are few. The purpose of the present study was to provide new information from cohort data

  20. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  1. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-07-01

    The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817231.

  2. Long-term quality of life after breast cancer: a French registry-based controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Delphine; Mercier, Mariette; Abeilard, Edwige; Puyraveau, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Dalstein, Véronique; Pozet, Astrid; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Henry-Amar, Michel; Velten, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Population-based studies on quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer survivors are quite recent and insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of time since diagnosis. We compared long-term QOL of population-based breast cancer survivors 5, 10, and 15 years after diagnosis with that of healthy controls. Breast cancer survivors were randomly selected from three population-based cancer registries (Bas-Rhin, Calvados and Doubs, France) along with healthy controls, stratified for age and place of residence, randomly selected from electoral rolls. Participants completed five self-administered questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and a life conditions questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to compare QOL scores of breast cancer survivors by period (5, 10, or 15 years) of diagnosis with those of controls, adjusted for sociodemographic data and comorbidities. Six hundred and fifty-two cases and 1,188 controls participated in the study. For many QOL scales, scores were significantly different between cancer survivors and controls. A clinically significant difference was evidenced for the fatigue scales, the SF36 physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional scales, with more favorable results for controls. Differences decreased with time and 15-year cancer survivors were generally not different from controls. Scores were particularly influenced by age and mean household income. More efforts should be made, specifically during the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, to help women with breast cancer to overcome their impairment in QOL.

  3. Experiences of Syrian women with breast cancer regarding chemotherapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamli, Frial; Anoosheh, Monireh; Mohammadi, Essa

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Syrian women with breast cancer regarding their chemotherapy. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used for the data collection and analysis of the perspectives of women with breast cancer in Syria. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 17 women who underwent chemotherapy after mastectomy in a chemotherapy center in Latakia between June and October 2010. Four main themes emerged from the study: psychological discomfort (negative emotion, body image, and depressive symtoms), physical problems (acute consequences of chemotherapy and general aspects of chemotherapy), social dysfunction (social isolation and lack of marriage opportunites), and failure in the family role (mother role and sexual relationship). Understanding the experiences of women with breast cancer regarding chemotherapy enables nurses to devise appropriate strategies to provide better support and care to patients in order to improve their quality of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  5. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chang; Qi, Xie; Qianyong, Zhang; Xiaoli, Peng; Jundong, Zhu; Mantian, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc.) and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones) and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st), 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91) compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02), flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03), anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08) or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12) intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. The present study suggests the intake of flavonols and flavones, but not other flavonoid subclasses or total

  6. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  7. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  8. Genetic association of deleted in colorectal carcinoma variants with breast cancer risk: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghan; Wang, Xijing; Fu, Sidney W; Wang, Meng; Kang, Huafeng; Guan, Haitao; Zhang, Shuqun; Ma, Xiaobin; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Kang; Feng, Yanjing; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-05-31

    Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), a netrin-1 dependence receptor, is correlated with cell progression, migration, and adhesion. Evidence indicated that DCC was frequently down-regulated in many cancers. However, the association of DCC with breast cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the impact of three DCC gene variants (rs2229080, rs7504990, and rs4078288) on breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. This study included 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. The three gene variants were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to evaluate the associations. We found that individuals with the rs2229080 C/G, C/C, and C/G-CC genotypes had a higher breast cancer risk, and the minor allele C was associated with increased breast cancer risk in an allele model. We observed a significantly decreased breast cancer risk with the rs7504990 C/T, T/T, and C/T-T/T genotypes, and the minor allele T was protective against breast cancer in an allele model. In addition, rs2229080 was associated with the axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis status. An age-stratified analysis revealed an association between rs2229080 and reduced breast cancer risk among older patients (≥ 49 years). Furthermore, the haplotype analysis showed that the Crs2229080Crs7504990Ars4078288 haplotype was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk. However, the results indicated a lack of association between rs4078288 and breast cancer risk. These findings affirmed that rs2229080 and rs7504990 polymorphisms in DCC might be related with breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women.

  9. Organizational Change: A Case Study in Implementing a Breast Cancer Screening Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    ANO SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : A CASE STUDY IN IMPLEMENTING A BREAST CANCER SCREENING CLINIC 4. AUTHOR(S) i MAJ PATRICIA A...4psrANcsrBbed by ANS. SWOIl. UM-E S 6.~~ AUHO1S ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE : A CASE STUDY IN IMPLEMENTING A BREAST CANCER SCREENING CLINIC A Graduate Management...Major Patricia A. Hayes, AN May 1993 Running head : ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 94-13 74BIH|iU •9 4 ,5 0 2 00 6 I] ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A special thanks to COL

  10. A Novel Cellular Model to Study Angiotensin II AT2 Receptor Function in Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira; Marina Morel; Rosana I Reis; Françoise Cormier; Véronique Baud; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Clara Nahmias

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the AT1 receptor as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer, while the role of the AT2 subtype in this disease has remained largely neglected. The present study describes the generation and characterization of a new cellular model of human invasive breast cancer cells (D3H2LN-AT2) stably expressing high levels of Flag-tagged human AT2 receptor (Flag-hAT2). These cells exhibit high-affinity binding sites for AngII, and total binding can be displaced by t...

  11. Reducing time-to-treatment in underserved Latinas with breast cancer: the Six Cities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Penedo, Frank; Talavera, Gregory; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernández, María; Holden, Alan; Munoz, Edgar; San Miguel, Sandra; Gallion, Kipling

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of clinical and patient-level challenges following a breast cancer diagnosis can be a significant source of health care disparities. Failure to address specific cultural features that create or exacerbate barriers can lead to less-than optimal navigation results, specifically in Hispanic/Latino women. To address these disparities, the study leaders in San Antonio, Texas, and 5 other regional partners of the federally-funded Redes En Acción: The National Latino Cancer Research Network developed a culturally-tailored patient navigation intervention model for Latinas with breast cancer. Compared with control patients, a higher percentage of navigated subjects initiated treatment within 30 days (69.0% versus 46.3%, P = .029) and 60 days (97.6% versus 73.1%, P = .001) following their cancer diagnosis. Time from cancer diagnosis to first treatment was lower in the navigated group (mean, 22.22 days; median, 23.00 days) than controls (mean, 48.30 days; median, 33.00 days). These results were independent of cancer stage at diagnosis and numerous characteristics of cancer clinics and individual participants. Successful application of patient navigation increased the percentage of Latinas initiating breast cancer treatment within 30 and 60 days of diagnosis. This was achieved through navigator provision of services such as accompaniment to appointments, transportation arrangements, patient telephone support, patient-family telephone support, Spanish-English language translation, and assistance with insurance paperwork. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  12. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  13. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  14. Breast Cancer Association with Cytomegalo Virus-A Tertiary Center Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Anilkumar; Chisthi, Meer M

    2017-12-18

    Cytomegalo virus is a ubiquitous virus often associated with congenital infections. Some studied have claimed an association between infection with this virus and development of breast cancer. The aim of this prospective research was to study the difference in Cytomegalo virus sero-positivity among patients with breast cancer and benign breast diseases, and thereby to prove any association. This was a hospital based Case-Control study conducted at the General Surgery wards of our hospital, a tertiary level public sector health care institution. This study was done on 130 patients with breast swellings who underwent surgical excision of their lumps over a 1-year period. Patients with histologically proven malignancies were selected as cases while proven benign cases were deemed to be the controls. IgG and IgM antibodies to Cytomegalo virus were checked in the patients from both groups. All of the studied patients turned out to be positive for Immunoglobulin G against Cytomegalo virus while all the patients were found to be negative for Immunoglobulin M. There was no difference in the antibody titers among the benign and malignant cases in the study. Logistic regression calculation was also carried out including the study parameters and other known risk factors. We conclude that there is no association between Cytomegalo virus sero-positivity and breast cancer. Another conclusion is that the studied adult population has been exposed to Cytomegalo virus in some point of their lives. Further studies of a larger magnitude are essential to confirm our results.

  15. A comparative study of four serological tumor markers for the detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Shawn R; Beason, Kevin L; Bryant, Sabrina; Johnson, James T; Jackson, Margaret; Wilson, Cynthia; Holifield, Kay; Vincent, Charlton; Hall, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer in the world. Circulating tumor antigens are often used as a minimally invasive tool for noting breast cancer progression. The objective of this study was to compare four tumor antigens (CA 15-3, CA 27.29, alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) for their diagnostic efficacy in breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that CA 15-3 would proved to be superior to CA 27.29, CEA, and AFP in assay performance. Tumor marker assays were performed according to the manufacturers' directions. Assays used in this study were CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 (Fujirebio Diagnostics/Centocor Inc.), AFP (Abbott Inc.), and CEA (Hybritech Inc.). A total of 554 patient samples were obtained from an area hospital, plus 200 healthy adult samples which were used for the determination of normal reference intervals. The patients included patients with no disease (184), with non-malignant disease (11), with breast cancer (87), and with other types of cancer (272). Diagnostic percent sensitivities for each marker were: CA 15-3 (63%), CA 27.29 (39%), CEA (22%), and AFP (22%). Diagnostic specificities for each marker were comparable, ranging from 80-88%. Analytical parameters were evaluated for the assays and compared favorably. We concluded that CA 15-3 was the best tumor antigen for use as a diagnostic aid and monitoring agent.

  16. [A study on scheduling periodic examinations for the early detection of breast cancer in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Hwa; Kang, Dae Ryong; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Jinheum; Lee, Soon Young; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Nam, Chung Mo

    2006-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to propose a screening schedule for the early detection of breast cancer among Korean women, as based on the statistical model, and to compare the efficacy of the proposed screening schedule with the current recommendations. The development of the screening schedule for breast cancer closely followed the work of Lee and Zelen (1998). We calculated the age-specific breast cancer incidence rate from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (2003), and then we estimated the scheduling of periodic examinations for the early detection of breast cancer, using mammography, and based on the threshold method. The efficacy of the derived screening schedule was evaluated by the schedule sensitivity. For estimating the screening schedule threshold method, we set the threshold value as the probability of being in the preclinical stage at age 35, the sensitivity of mammography as 0.9 and the mean sojourn time in the preclinical stage as 4 years. This method generated 14 examinations within the age interval [40, 69] of 40.0, 41.3, 42.7, 44.1, 45.4, 46.7, 48.0, 49.3, 51.0, 53.2, 55.3, 57.1, 59.0 and 63.6 years, and the schedule sensitivity was 75.4%. The proposed screening schedule detected 85.2% (74.5/87.4) of the cases that could have been detected by annual screening, but it required only about 48.7% (14.0/30.0) of the total number of examinations. We also examined the threshold screening schedules for a range of sensitivities of mammography and the mean sojourn time in the preclinical stage. The proposed screening schedule for breast cancer with using the threshold method will be helpful to provide guidelines for a public health program for choosing an effective screening schedule for breast cancer among Korean women.

  17. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy. We compared cumulative breast cancer incidence in age-matched cohorts of women living in seven Swedish counties before and after the initiation of public mammography screening between 1986 and 1990. Women aged 40-49 years were invited to screening every year and women aged 50-74 years were invited every 2 years. A screened group including all women aged 40-69 years (n=328,927) was followed-up for 6 years after the first invitation to the programme. A control group including all women in the same age range (n=317,404) was also followed-up for 6 years--4 years without screening and 2 years when they entered the screening programme. Screening attendance was much the same in both groups (close to 80%). Counts of incident invasive breast cancers were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry (in-situ cancers were excluded). Before the age-matched controls were invited to be screened at the end of their follow-up period, the 4-year cumulative incidence of invasive breast cancer was significantly higher in the screened group (982 per 100,000) than it was in the control group (658 per 100,000) (relative risk [RR] 1·49, 95% CI 1·41-1·58). Even after prevalence screening in the control group, the screened group had higher 6-year cumulative incidence of invasive breast cancer (1443 per 100,000 vs 1269 per 100,000; RR 1·14, 1·10-1·18). Because the cumulative incidence among controls did not reach that of the screened group, we believe that many

  18. Role of Nuclear Morphometry in Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Cytomorphological Grading of Breast Cancer: A Study of 64 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method of diagnosis of breast mass. Cytoprognostic grading in breast cancers is important to identify high-grade tumors. Computer-assisted image morphometric analysis has been developed to quantitate as well as standardize various grading systems. To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological aspirates of breast cancer and evaluate its correlation with cytomorphological grading with derivation of suitable cutoff values between various grades. Descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study. This study included 64 breast cancer cases (29 of grade 1, 22 of grade 2, and 13 of grade 3). Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou stained FNAC slides by NIS -Elements Advanced Research software (Ver 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Nuclear size parameters showed an increase in values with increasing cytological grades of carcinoma. Nuclear shape parameters were not found to be significantly different between the three grades. Among nuclear texture parameters, sum intensity, and sum brightness were found to be different between the three grades. Nuclear morphometry can be applied to augment the cytology grading of breast cancer and thus help in classifying patients into low and high-risk groups.

  19. Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan, R; Cromwell, D A; Trivella, M; Lawrence, G; Kearins, O; Pereira, J; Sheppard, C; Caddy, C M; van der Meulen, J H P

    2012-07-12

    To examine whether rate of reoperation after breast conserving surgery is associated with patients' characteristics and investigate whether reoperation rates vary among English NHS trusts. Cohort study using patient level data from hospital episode statistics. English NHS trusts. Adult women who had breast conserving surgery between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2008. Reoperation rates after primary breast conserving surgery within 3 months, adjusted using logistic regression for tumour type, age, comorbidity, and socioeconomic deprivation. Tumours were grouped by whether a carcinoma in situ component was coded at the time of the primary breast conserving surgery. 55,297 women had primary breast conserving surgery in 156 NHS trusts during the three year period. 11,032 (20.0%, 95% confidence interval 19.6% to 20.3%) women had at least one reoperation. 10,212 (18.5%, 18.2% to 18.8%) had one reoperation only; of these, 5943 (10.7%, 10.5% to 11.0%) had another breast conserving procedure and 4269 (7.7%, 7.5% to 7.9%) had a mastectomy. Of the 45,793 women with isolated invasive disease, 8229 (18.0%) had at least one reoperation. In comparison, 2803 (29.5%) of the 9504 women with carcinoma in situ had at least one reoperation (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 2.0). Substantial differences were found in the adjusted reoperation rates among the NHS trusts (10th and 90th centiles 12.2% and 30.2%). One in five women who had breast conserving surgery in England had a reoperation. Reoperation was nearly twice as likely when the tumour had a carcinoma in situ component coded. Women should be informed of this reoperation risk when deciding on the type of surgical treatment of their breast cancer.

  20. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  1. Collagen content as a risk factor in breast cancer? A pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective pilot clinical study on time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was exploited to assess collagen as a breast-cancer risk factor on a total of 109 subjects (53 healthy and 56 with malignant lesions). An increased cancer occurrence is observed on the 15% subset of patients with higher age-matched collagen content. Further, a similar clustering based on the percentage breast density leads to a different set of patients, possibly indicating collagen as a new independent breast cancer risk factor. If confirmed statistically and on larger numbers, these results could have huge impact on personalized diagnostics, health care systems, as well as on basic research.

  2. Alcohol drinking, consumption patterns and breast cancer among Danish nurses: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S; Johansen, Ditte; Thygesen, Lau C

    2007-01-01

    alcohol consumers, weekly alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 2% for each additional drink consumed. Weekend consumption increased the risk with 4% for each additional drink consumed friday through sunday. Binge drinking of 4-5 drinks the latest weekday increased risk with 55......%, compared with consumption of one drink. A possible threshold in risk estimates was found for consumption above 27 drinks per week. CONCLUSIONS: For alcohol consumption above the intake most frequently reported, the risk of breast cancer is increased. The risk is minor for moderate levels but increases......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of alcohol intake and drinking pattern on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 17 647 nurses were followed from 1993 until the end of 2001. At baseline participants completed a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other lifestyle...

  3. Night work and breast cancer - results from the German GENICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Harth, Volker; Rabstein, Sylvia; Baisch, Christian; Schiffermann, Markus; Pallapies, Dirk; Bonberg, Nadine; Heinze, Evelyn; Spickenheuer, Anne; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Some epidemiological and animal data indicate that night work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We have investigated the risk in a German population-based case-control study known as GENICA (gene environment interaction and breast cancer). The GENICA study involved interviews to assess shift work information in 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. We estimated risks of employment status and night shift characteristics using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Resampling and bootstrapping were applied to adjust the risk estimates for a potential selection bias. Among 1749 women, 56 cases and 57 controls worked in night shifts for > or =1 year, usually in the healthcare sector (63.0% of controls). Female night workers were more frequently nulliparous and low-educated than day workers (28.6% versus 17.8% and 12.3% versus 9.2%, respectively). Fewer women in night work had ever used post-menopausal hormone therapy (35.7% versus 51.9%). An elevated breast cancer risk was not associated with having ever done shift or night work when compared to women employed in day work only [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.67-1.38 and OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.55-1.49, respectively). Women who reported >807 night shifts, the third quartile of the distribution among controls, experienced a breast cancer risk of 1.73 (95% CI 0.71-4.22). Night work for > or =20 years was associated with an OR of 2.48 (95% CI 0.62-9.99) based on 12 cases and 5 controls. Long-term night work was associated with a modestly, but not significantly, increased breast cancer risk, while having ever done night work was not. The precision of the results was limited by a low prevalence of night work in this study population.

  4. Reclaiming life on one's own terms: a grounded theory study of the process of breast cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Deborah Witt; Rosedale, Mary; Haber, Judith

    2012-05-01

    To develop a substantive theory of the process of breast cancer survivorship. Grounded theory. A LISTSERV announcement posted on the SHARE Web site and purposeful recruitment of women known to be diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. 15 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Constant comparative analysis. Breast cancer survivorship. The core variable identified was Reclaiming Life on One's Own Terms. The perceptions and experiences of the participants revealed overall that the diagnosis of breast cancer was a turning point in life and the stimulus for change. That was followed by the recognition of breast cancer as now being a part of life, leading to the necessity of learning to live with breast cancer, and finally, creating a new life after breast cancer. Participants revealed that breast cancer survivorship is a process marked and shaped by time, the perception of support, and coming to terms with the trauma of a cancer diagnosis and the aftermath of treatment. The process of survivorship continues by assuming an active role in self-healing, gaining a new perspective and reconciling paradoxes, creating a new mindset and moving to a new normal, developing a new way of being in the world on one's own terms, and experiencing growth through adversity beyond survivorship. The process of survivorship for women with breast cancer is an evolutionary journey with short- and long-term challenges. This study shows the development of an empirically testable theory of survivorship that describes and predicts women's experiences following breast cancer treatment from the initial phase of recovery and beyond. The theory also informs interventions that not only reduce negative outcomes, but promote ongoing healing, adjustment, and resilience over time.

  5. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  6. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL PROLIFERATIVE CHANGES IN ADJACENT AREAS OF BREAST CANCER

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    Rema Nair Sarkar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer remains a global health problem with an increasing incidence. Proliferative breast diseases are recognised as one of the risk factors in the development of carcinoma. This study was undertaken to know the frequency of proliferative lesions and other lesions in association with breast carcinomas in mastectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 cases of excised carcinoma breast sent to the Department of Pathology for a three-year period at tertiary care centre was thoroughly examined and changes adjacent to the tumour was recorded and tissue was subjected for histopathological examination and results tabulated. RESULTS Infiltrating duct cell carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS type was present in 89% of cases. Among the associated lesions, nonproliferative lesions constituted 16%, proliferative breast disease without atypia 29%, proliferative breast disease with atypia 10% and others 45%. Fibrocystic disease constituted 14% of cases, epithelial hyperplasia 15%, sclerosing adenosis 12% and atypical ductal hyperplasia in 10% of cases. Other types of associated lesions were duct carcinoma in situ in 4 cases. CONCLUSION Proliferative lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast were seen in 39% of cases. Fibrocystic disease, epithelial hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis and atypical ductal hyperplasia being the commonest lesions adjacent to carcinoma breast in the present study.

  7. Educational differences in responses to breast cancer symptoms: A qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Black, Georgia; Vedsted, Peter; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Whitaker, Katriina L

    2017-02-01

    Advanced stage at diagnosis for breast cancer is associated with lower socio-economic status (SES). We explored what factors in the patient interval (time from noticing a bodily change to first consultation with a health care professional) may contribute to this inequality. Qualitative comparative study. Semi-structured interviews with a sample of women (≥47 years) from higher (n = 15) and lower (n = 15) educational backgrounds, who had experienced at least one potential breast cancer symptom. Half the participants (n = 15) had sought medical help, half had not (n = 15). Without making breast cancer explicit, we elicited women's sense-making around their symptoms and help-seeking decisions. Containment of symptoms and confidence in acting upon symptoms emerged as two broad themes that differentiated lower and higher educational groups. Women from lower educational backgrounds tended to attribute their breast symptoms to trivial factors and were reticent in using the word 'cancer'. Despite 'knowing' that symptoms could be related to cancer, women with lower education invoked lack of medical knowledge - 'I am not a doctor' - to express uncertainty about interpreting symptoms and accessing help. Women with higher education were confident about interpreting symptoms, seeking information online, and seeking medical help. Our findings suggest that knowledge of breast cancer alone may not explain socio-economic differences in how women respond to breast cancer symptoms as women with lower education had 'reasons' not to react. Research is needed on how to overcome a wider spectrum of psycho-social factors to reduce future inequality. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Seven of ten breast cancers in the UK are diagnosed after people contact their doctor with symptoms. Women from lower socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced disease. There is little evidence related to potential drivers of this SES

  8. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  9. Night work and breast cancer in women: a Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Knutsson, Anders; Narusyte, Jurgita; Svedberg, Pia; Kecklund, Göran; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2015-04-15

    Recent research has suggested a moderate link between night work and breast cancer in women, mainly through case-control studies, but non-significant studies are also common and cohort studies are few. The purpose of the present study was to provide new information from cohort data through investigating the association between the number of years with night work and breast cancer among women. Cohort study of individuals exposed to night shift work in relation to incidence of breast cancer in women. Individuals in the Swedish Twin registry, with follow-up in the Swedish Cancer Registry. 13,656 women from the Swedish Twin Registry, with 3404 exposed to night work. Breast cancer from the Swedish Cancer Registry (463 cases) during a follow-up time of 12 years. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with control for a large number of confounders showed that the HR was HR=1.68 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.88) for the group with >20 years of night work. When the follow-up time was limited to ages below 60 years, those exposed >20 years showed a HR=1.77 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.04). Shorter exposure to night work showed no significant effects. The present results, together with previous work, suggest that night work is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women, but only after relatively long-term exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2017-06-15

    Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Kumosani, Taha A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking. Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer risk in Saudi Arabian women. Design: A case-control study was conducted among 120 breast cancer cases and 120 controls. The study population was drawn from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from June to August 2009. Participants completed questionnaires on diet and medical history, and serum samples were collected from all women to measure circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. Results: The participants had a mean age of 47.8 y and a mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) of 30.0. Breast cancer cases had significantly lower (mean ± SD) serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (9.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL) than did controls (15.4 ± 12.3 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In comparison with those in the highest category of vitamin D status for this population (≥20 ng/mL), the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for invasive breast cancer were 6.1 (2.4, 15.1) for women with a serum 25(OH)D concentration women with a serum concentration of ≥10 to Saudi Arabian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817231. PMID:23697705

  12. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  13. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  14. Dogma and inquisition in medicine. Breast cancer as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S

    1993-04-01

    This case study demonstrates the similarity between the development of dogma and the persecution of deviants during the Spanish Inquisition and that in medicine using breast cancer as an example. Regarding breast cancer, the dogma of therapy became separate from the underlying hypothesis and, like the religious dogma enforced by the Inquisition, it required inflexible adherence. Apostates were publicly chastened. This serves to inhibit debate and the exploration of alternative hypotheses, both of which are essential for the advancement of scientific knowledge. Adherance to dogma is antithetical to the conditional and approximate nature of truth in science.

  15. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Daniel O; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R; Hu, Jennifer J; Rebbeck, Tim R; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Demichele, Angela; Chanock, Stephen J; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Li, Guoliang; Long, Jirong; Huo, Dezheng; Zheng, Yonglan; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Simon, Michael S; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Ambs, Stefan; Hutter, Carolyn M; Young, Alicia; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Rhie, Suhn K; Wan, Peggy; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Van Den Berg, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of >1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.

  16. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer.......Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...

  17. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...... with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer....

  18. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. CLINICAL BREAST CANCER SCREENING- A CAMP-BASED STUDY AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Karunakaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of breast cancer is of extreme significance in improving the survival rates and quality of life. Unfortunately, studies have revealed that a major proportion of women from low-income countries are still not breast aware. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, Clinical Breast Examination (CBE was done. In addition, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self-Examination (BSE. A cross-sectional study with quantitative method of data collection was conducted in a village in North Kerala. The study population was all women aged 20 years and above and who resided in the village for 6 months and more and they were motivated to attend the camps by community health workers from the same village. RESULTS Out of the 319 women who attended the CBE camps, 301 (94% had heard of breast cancer and 113 (36% had heard of it from community workers during their survey. Around 63% of the women knew at least one symptom of breast cancer while 73% did not know any risk factor. Only 234 (73% had heard of BSE. Only 137 (43% knew the right technique of BSE. Out of the 184 women who did BSE, 124 (67.4% did it to examine breasts regularly, 5 (2.7% did it because they had a family history of breast cancer, 52 (28.3% following classes by community workers, 2 (1.1% because their friends had breast cancer and 1 (0.5% following a resected lump. Out of the 135 women who did not practice BSE, 36 (26.7% did not know the method, 85 (63% did not think it was important, 10 (7.4% had no symptoms and 4 (2.9% were scared of finding a lump. The women with either breast or axillary lumps (3.4% were referred for mammography. CONCLUSION Utilisation of the services of primary healthcare facilities for opportunistic screening and health awareness classes by trained nonmedical community personnel should become main activities in our future policies. They should be trained for providing BSE training to women at their doorstep. This simple approach

  20. Quality of life following total mastectomy with and without reconstruction versus breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer: A case-controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Benjamin H L; Watson, David I; Xu, Chris; Fosh, Beverley; Canepa, Maximiliano; Dean, Nicola R

    2016-09-01

    Patient-reported outcomes and quality of life following mastectomy are not well understood. This study evaluates the quality of life following surgery for breast cancer and compares outcomes following breast-conserving surgery versus total mastectomy with or without reconstruction. A case-controlled cross-sectional study was conducted using the validated BREAST-Q™ questionnaire and a study-specific questionnaire to determine patient's views about surgical outcomes. Questionnaires were completed by patients following breast-conserving surgery and total mastectomy with or without reconstruction and by controls without breast cancer. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare mean BREAST-Q™ scores between groups and post hoc analysis using Tukey's and Kruskal-Wallis tests. BREAST-Q™ questionnaires were completed by 400 women (123 controls, 97 breast conservations, 93 mastectomies without reconstruction, 87 mastectomies with reconstruction). Women who had undergone mastectomy and reconstruction had higher scores in satisfaction with breast and sexual well-being domains compared with women who had breast-conserving surgery, and women who had total mastectomy without reconstruction had the lowest scores in these two domains. There was no difference in psychosocial well-being between the groups. Women who had undergone breast-conserving surgery scored the lowest in the physical well-being chest domain and the majority reported breast asymmetry. Our study suggests that women who undergo total mastectomy and breast reconstruction for cancer achieve a quality-of-life outcome that is at least as good as that following breast-conserving surgery. Furthermore, breast conservation has been found to be associated with lower physical well-being (i.e., more pain and discomfort) in the chest area and poorer sexual well-being outcomes. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with body adiposity. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with age. • Breast cancer is positively associated with body adiposity. • Breast Cancer is not associated with MRI breast density.

  2. Hypertension and breast cancer risk in a 19-year foIlow-up study (the DOM cohort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, PHM; van Noord, PAH; Hoes, AW; Fracheboud, J; Gimbrere, CHF; Grobbee, DE

    Background To investigate whether hypertension and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs are associated with breast cancer risk. Methods This was a prospective study of 11 011 women living in Utrecht, the Netherlands, aged 50-65 years at enrolment in a breast cancer screening project (DOM cohort).

  3. Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dahir, DNP, IF

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers‐Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15.

  4. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. Methods This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50–69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central...

  5. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: collaborative reanalysis of seven prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of circulating concentrations of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens with breast cancer and related risk factors in premenopausal women are not well understood. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were contributed by 7 prospective studies. Analyses were restricted to women who were premenopausal and under age 50 at blood collection, and to breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 50. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in up to 767 cases and 1699 controls matched for age, date of blood collection, and day of cycle, with stratification by study and further adjustment for cycle phase. The associations of hormones with risk factors for breast cancer in control women were examined by comparing geometric mean hormone concentrations in categories of these risk factors, adjusted for study, age, phase of menstrual cycle and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were two-sided. Findings ORs for breast cancer associated with a doubling in hormone concentration were 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.35) for oestradiol, 1.17 (1.03–1.33) for calculated free oestradiol, 1.27 (1.05–1.54) for oestrone, 1.30 (1.10–1.55) for androstenedione, 1.17 (1.04–1.32) for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 1.18 (1.03–1.35) for testosterone and 1.08 (0.97–1.21) for calculated free testosterone. Breast cancer risk was not associated with luteal phase progesterone (for a doubling in concentration OR=1.00 (0.92–1.09)), and adjustment for other factors had little effect on any of these ORs. The cross-sectional analyses in control women showed several associations of sex hormones with breast cancer risk factors. Interpretation Circulating oestrogens and androgens are positively associated with the risk for breast cancer in premenopausal women. PMID:23890780

  6. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantavos, A.; Ruiter, R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Keyser, de C.E.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Franco, O.H.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake

  7. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Lando L J; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Pronk, Anjoeka; Vermeulen, Roel C H; De Vroome, Ernest M M

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on

  8. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Geuskens, G.A.; Pronk, A.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on

  9. Striking life events associated with primary breast cancer susceptibility in women: a meta-analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Changjun; Zhong, Ying; Huang, Xin; Peng, Li; Shan, Guangliang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The association between striking life events, an important stress and acute anxiety disorder, and the occurrence of primary breast cancer is unclear. The current meta-analysis was designed to assess the relationship between striking life events and primary breast cancer incidence in women. Methods Systematic computerized searching of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, and BMJ databases with the combinations of controlled descriptors from Mesh, including breast cancer, breast tumor, ca...

  10. Additive interactions between susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies and breast cancer risk factors in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit D; Lindström, Sara; Hüsing, Anika; Barrdahl, Myrto; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Gaudet, Mia M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Baglietto, Laura; Berg, Christine D; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Diver, W Ryan; Dossus, Laure; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Henderson, Brian E; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Isaacs, Claudine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Krogh, Vittorio; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, I-Min; Lund, Eiliv; McCarty, Catherine A; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick; Severi, Gianluca; Stram, Daniel O; Sund, Malin; Thun, Michael J; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Willett, Walter C; Zhang, Shumin; Ziegler, Regina G; Kraft, Peter

    2014-11-15

    Additive interactions can have public health and etiological implications but are infrequently reported. We assessed departures from additivity on the absolute risk scale between 9 established breast cancer risk factors and 23 susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association studies among 10,146 non-Hispanic white breast cancer cases and 12,760 controls within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We estimated the relative excess risk due to interaction and its 95% confidence interval for each pairwise combination of SNPs and nongenetic risk factors using age- and cohort-adjusted logistic regression models. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified a statistically significant relative excess risk due to interaction (uncorrected P = 4.51 × 10(-5)) between a SNP in the DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2 gene (RAD51L1; rs10483813) and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). We also compared additive and multiplicative polygenic risk prediction models using per-allele odds ratio estimates from previous studies for breast-cancer susceptibility SNPs and observed that the multiplicative model had a substantially better goodness of fit than the additive model. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pregnancy-Associated Risk Factors of Postpartum Breast Cancer in Korea: A Nationwide Health Insurance Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kim, Log Young; Park, Geun U; Oh, Min-Jeong; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Cho, Geum Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with postpartum breast cancer have been reported to have a poor prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the pregnancy-related risk factors of postpartum breast cancer in Korea. We collected patient data from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) for the 2009-2013 period. We evaluated the pregnancy-related risk factors for postpartum breast cancer in two population groups. For Group 1 (women who had given birth during the 2010-2012 period), data on those who were diagnosed with breast cancer from childbirth to 1-year postpartum were extracted. For Group 2, we extracted the data of women who gave birth in 2010 and traced them until December 31, 2013. In Group 1, 1,384,551 deliveries and 317 postpartum breast cancer patients were recorded in Korea between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Women aged ≥35 years (Odds Ratio [OR], 2.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.567-2.560) and those who gave birth via cesarean delivery (OR, 1.237; 95% CI, 0.986-1.553) were considered to be at a higher risk for breast cancer. Lower risk was noted in primiparous women (OR, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.585-0.928). In Group 2, the data of 457,924 women who gave birth in 2010 were traced until December 31, 2013. Among them, 655 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and age ≥35 years and cesarean delivery were associated with an higher risk of breast cancer, whereas primiparous status was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, older age (≥35 years) and cesarean delivery are significant risk factors for postpartum breast cancer, and primiparous women have a lower risk of developing postpartum breast cancer.

  12. Pregnancy-Associated Risk Factors of Postpartum Breast Cancer in Korea: A Nationwide Health Insurance Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Kang

    Full Text Available Patients with postpartum breast cancer have been reported to have a poor prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the pregnancy-related risk factors of postpartum breast cancer in Korea. We collected patient data from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA for the 2009-2013 period. We evaluated the pregnancy-related risk factors for postpartum breast cancer in two population groups. For Group 1 (women who had given birth during the 2010-2012 period, data on those who were diagnosed with breast cancer from childbirth to 1-year postpartum were extracted. For Group 2, we extracted the data of women who gave birth in 2010 and traced them until December 31, 2013. In Group 1, 1,384,551 deliveries and 317 postpartum breast cancer patients were recorded in Korea between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Women aged ≥35 years (Odds Ratio [OR], 2.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.567-2.560 and those who gave birth via cesarean delivery (OR, 1.237; 95% CI, 0.986-1.553 were considered to be at a higher risk for breast cancer. Lower risk was noted in primiparous women (OR, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.585-0.928. In Group 2, the data of 457,924 women who gave birth in 2010 were traced until December 31, 2013. Among them, 655 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and age ≥35 years and cesarean delivery were associated with an higher risk of breast cancer, whereas primiparous status was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, older age (≥35 years and cesarean delivery are significant risk factors for postpartum breast cancer, and primiparous women have a lower risk of developing postpartum breast cancer.

  13. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  14. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  15. Experiences of breast cancer survivors participating in a tailored exercise intervention -a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Minna-Liisa; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Blomqvist, Carl; Nikander, Riku; Gustavsson-Lilius, Mila; Saarto, Tiina

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how tailored exercise is experienced by cancer survivors. Twenty-five breast cancer survivors who were recently treated with systemic adjuvant treatments attended tailored exercise classes as a part of a randomized controlled exercise intervention study (Breast Cancer and Exercise, BREX). Focus group discussions with a median of four (range 3-6) participants in each group were conducted to capture their individual experiences of their course of illness, taking part in the exercise trial, the personal meaning of tailored exercise classes and the group. Attending the intervention in which the focus of attention was on physical rehabilitation was highly valued, since the participants experienced both improved physical fitness and improved coping. Due to altered physical appearance and poor physical fitness, the participants felt that tailored exercise for patients with breast cancer reduced their barrier to start exercising. Peer support from the group was valued, especially that of sharing experiences, receiving psychological support and gaining a sense of normality. A sense of mastery over their disease through participating in the intervention, i.e. better psychological functioning and improved mood, was a consequence of better physical fitness and of meeting other breast cancer survivors. Also participating in the study per se increases a sense of comfort and security with extra medical examinations and follow-up. Participating in the tailored exercise group for breast cancer survivors helped patients gain a sense of mastery, restoring their self-esteem and constructing a meaning for their cancer experience and its impact on their lives.

  16. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, W.A.; Iestra, J.I.; Schuit, A.J.; May, A.M.; Takken, T.; Veldhuis, W.B.; van der Palen, J.; Wittink, H.; Peeters, P.H.; Monnikhof, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body

  17. Alcohol consumption and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis: The health and functioning in women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Natasha; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Satariano, William A; Demb, Joshua; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2016-07-28

    To determine the association of prediagnostic alcohol consumption with long-term mortality from breast cancer and other causes in a cohort of women with breast cancer. We studied a Michigan-based cohort of 939 women aged 40-84 years, who provided complete information about the type, amount and intensity of prediagnostic alcohol consumption. Associations of alcohol consumption, based on weekly volume of alcohol consumption during the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis, with mortality were evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, smoking, comorbidity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. Differences among covariates were assessed with Pearson χ2 , Student t -tests and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 724 deaths occurred overall, with 303 from breast cancer. Fifty-five percent of the women were categorized as drinkers with volume of alcohol consumption ranging from 0.75 to 36.00 drinks/week. In multivariable models, a decreased risk of other-cause mortality was associated with low alcohol drinking (0.75-3.75 drinks/week; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.47-0.78), moderate volume alcohol drinking (4.00-9.75 drinks/week; HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.85) and low frequency (0.75-3.75 drinks/week) beer and wine intake (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96 and HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52-0.88 respectively). Although the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was not statistically significantly associated with moderate (4.00-9.75 drinks/week) and high volume (10.00-36.00 drinks/week) alcohol drinking in the overall cohort (HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 95% 0.97-2.12 and HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.87-2.70 respectively), there was a positive association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer-specific mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.57; Pinteraction = 0.04). In this prospective cohort study, regular consumption of 0.75-36.00 alcoholic drinks

  18. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  19. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  20. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  1. Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in the Fez region, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Khalis

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the Moroccan context, the role of well-known reproductive factors in breast cancer remains poorly documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between menstrual and reproductive factors and breast cancer risk in Moroccan women in the Fez region.A case-control study was conducted at the Hassan II University Hospital of Fez between January 2014 and April 2015. A total of 237 cases of breast cancer and 237 age-matched controls were included. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, menstrual and reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and lifestyle factors was obtained through a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer by menstrual and reproductive factors adjusted for potential confounders.Early menarche (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.08-2.38 and nulliparity (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.98-7.30 were significantly related to an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas an early age at first full-term pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.25-0.65.The results of this study confirm the role of established reproductive factors for breast cancer in Moroccan women. It identified some susceptible groups at high risk of breast cancer. Preventive interventions and screening should focus on these groups as a priority. These results should be confirmed in a larger, multicenter study.

  2. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  3. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  4. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2001-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metabolism, and a human feeding study in which 20 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  5. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2000-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metablism, and a human feeding study in which 18 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  6. Comorbidities and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei R. Fu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many breast cancer survivors have coexistent chronic diseases or comorbidities at the time of their cancer diagnosis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of comorbidities on breast cancer survivors’ quality of life. A prospective design was used to recruit 140 women before cancer surgery, 134 women completed the study. Comorbidities were assessed using self-report and verified by medical record review and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI before and 12-month after cancer surgery. Quality of life was evaluated using Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 v2. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests, Fisher’s exact test, and correlations were performed for data analysis. A total of 28 comorbidities were identified. Among the 134 patients, 73.8% had at least one of the comorbidities, 54.7% had 2–4, and only 7.4% had 5–8. Comorbidities did not change at 12 months after surgery. Numbers of comorbidities by patients’ self-report and weighted categorization of comorbidities by CCI had a similar negative correlation with overall quality of life scores as well as domains of general health, physical functioning, bodily pain, and vitality. Comorbidities, specifically hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes, were associated with poorer quality of life in multiple domains among breast cancer survivors. Future research should consider the combined influence of comorbidity and cancer on patients’ quality of life.

  7. Comorbidities and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Ryan, Caitlin E.; Weaver, Kristen R.; Qiu, Jeanna M.; Kleinman, Robin; Scagliola, Joan; Palamar, Joseph J.; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer survivors have coexistent chronic diseases or comorbidities at the time of their cancer diagnosis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of comorbidities on breast cancer survivors’ quality of life. A prospective design was used to recruit 140 women before cancer surgery, 134 women completed the study. Comorbidities were assessed using self-report and verified by medical record review and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) before and 12-month after cancer surgery. Quality of life was evaluated using Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 v2). Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests, Fisher’s exact test, and correlations were performed for data analysis. A total of 28 comorbidities were identified. Among the 134 patients, 73.8% had at least one of the comorbidities, 54.7% had 2–4, and only 7.4% had 5–8. Comorbidities did not change at 12 months after surgery. Numbers of comorbidities by patients’ self-report and weighted categorization of comorbidities by CCI had a similar negative correlation with overall quality of life scores as well as domains of general health, physical functioning, bodily pain, and vitality. Comorbidities, specifically hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes, were associated with poorer quality of life in multiple domains among breast cancer survivors. Future research should consider the combined influence of comorbidity and cancer on patients’ quality of life. PMID:26132751

  8. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  9. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-05-20

    To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts' reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts' arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts' overall views on breast cancer screening. Experts' positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and provide a mechanism for responding to these differences. Published by

  10. [Efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer - an observational study by the Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Nishimura, Reiki; Tanigawa, Tomio; Kawano, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kyoji; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, is known to be effective for the treatment of various carcinomas including advanced/metastatic breast cancer.The Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)conducted an observational study, wherein, the efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy was analyzed in 35 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.The median time to cancer progression was 3.7 months, overall response rate was 12%, and clinical benefit rate was 32%. Adverse events were observed in 27 patients(77%), and adverse events of Grade >3 were observed in 7 patients(20%). The rate of treatment-related Grade 3 and 4 adverse events increased, and was associated with poor levels of creatinine clearance(Ccr)ie TS-1 monotherapy can potentially be used as a salvage treatment for advanced/metastatic breast cancer owing to its safety and efficacy.Measuring the level of Ccr before TS-1 therapy should be considered to avoid severe adverse events.

  11. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  12. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  13. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 108/158 Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a case control study in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Ghabreau, Lina; Mohamed, Ali; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Alachkar, Amal

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catechol estrogens by methylation and thus may play a protective role against mutations induced by estrogen metabolites. In this study we investigated the relationship between the Vall58Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Syria. We examined 135 breast cancer patients and 107 healthy controls in North Syria to determine the association between the functional genetic Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and female breast cancer risk. There was no significant overall association between the COMT genotype and individual susceptibility to breast cancer. Our data suggest that there may be no overall association between the COMT genotype and breast cancer.

  14. Tissue antioxidants and postmenopausal breast cancer : the European Community Multicentre Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction and Cancer of the Breast (EURAMIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Fernandez-Crehuet, J.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kohlmeier, L.; Huttunen, J.K.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidants may protect against free radical mediated carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies have not confirmed this hypothesis for breast cancer, possibly because of methodological limitations. Time-integrated exposure of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue, and selenium in toenails was

  15. Body size across the life course and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in Black women, the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, 1993–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Tse, Chiu Kit; Olshan, Andrew F.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI).

  16. Racial discrimination and breast cancer incidence in US Black women: the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Williams, Carla D; Makambi, Kepher H; Mouton, Charles; Harrell, Jules P; Cozier, Yvette; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2007-07-01

    Perceived discrimination may contribute to somatic disease. The association between perceived discrimination and breast cancer incidence was assessed in the Black Women's Health Study. In 1997, participants completed questions on perceived discrimination in two domains: "everyday" discrimination (e.g., being treated as dishonest) and major experiences of unfair treatment due to race (job, housing, and police). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios, controlling for breast cancer risk factors. From 1997 to 2003, 593 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. In the total sample, there were weak positive associations between cancer incidence and everyday and major discrimination. These associations were stronger among the younger women. Among women aged less than 50 years, those who reported frequent everyday discrimination were at higher risk than were women who reported infrequent experiences. In addition, the incidence rate ratio was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.70) for those who reported discrimination on the job and 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.16) for those who reported discrimination in all three situations - housing, job, and police - relative to those who reported none. These findings suggest that perceived experiences of racism are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer among US Black women, particularly younger women.

  17. A prospective study of educational background and breast cancer among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sakauchi, Fumio; Suzuki, Sadao; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2008-11-01

    This prospective cohort study examined the association between educational level and breast cancer incidence in Japan. A baseline survey was conducted between 1988 and 1990 among 110,792 residents of 45 areas, aged 40-79 years. Data were restricted to 24 areas where incidence registry data were available, and to subjects which provided information on educational level (32,646). The subjects were assigned to three groups according to their level of education (Women with a high level of education had an increased risk of breast cancer (HR = 1.93, 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI): 1.18, 3.16, in women with the highest educational level) compared with women with the lowest educational level. Adjustment for lifestyle and reproductive factors did not substantially change the results. In addition, when analyses were stratified by age subgroups, the educational difference in breast cancer incidence was more evident among the younger than the elder subgroup. The present results suggested that cancer prevention strategies should recognize women with a higher educational level as a high risk group for breast cancer.

  18. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izano, Monika A; Fung, Teresa T; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B; Holmes, Michelle D

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and nonbreast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses' Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile, relative risk (RR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.99, P trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.77, P trend Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer.

  19. Mammographic breast density refines Tyrer-Cuzick estimates of breast cancer risk in high-risk women: findings from the placebo arm of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jane; Birke, Hanna; Stone, Jennifer; Warren, Ruth M L; Pinney, Elizabeth; Brentnall, Adam R; Duffy, Stephen W; Howell, Anthony; Cuzick, Jack

    2014-10-08

    Mammographic density is well-established as a risk factor for breast cancer, however, adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) is vital to its clinical interpretation when assessing individual risk. In this paper we develop a model to adjust mammographic density for age and BMI and show how this adjusted mammographic density measure might be used with existing risk prediction models to identify high-risk women more precisely. We explored the association between age, BMI, visually assessed percent dense area and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of women from the placebo arm of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (72 cases, 486 controls). Linear regression was used to adjust mammographic density for age and BMI. This adjusted measure was evaluated in a multivariable logistic regression model that included the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) risk score, which is based on classical breast cancer risk factors. Percent dense area adjusted for age and BMI (the density residual) was a stronger measure of breast cancer risk than unadjusted percent dense area (odds ratio per standard deviation 1.55 versus 1.38; area under the curve (AUC) 0.62 versus 0.59). Furthermore, in this population at increased risk of breast cancer, the density residual added information beyond that obtained from the TC model alone, with the AUC for the model containing both TC risk and density residual being 0.62 compared to 0.51 for the model containing TC risk alone (P =0.002). In women at high risk of breast cancer, adjusting percent mammographic density for age and BMI provides additional predictive information to the TC risk score, which already incorporates BMI, age, family history and other classic breast cancer risk factors. Furthermore, simple selection criteria can be developed using mammographic density, age and BMI to identify women at increased risk in a clinical setting. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91879928 (Registered: 1 June 2006).

  20. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  1. Slow accrual of elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Dutch multicentre OMEGA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, M. E.; Seynaeve, C.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Wymenga, M.; Maartense, E.; Boven, E.; van Leeuwen-Stok, A. E.; de Rooij, S. E.; van Munster, B. C.; Smorenburg, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a Dutch multicentre study, elderly (65 + year) metastatic breast cancer patients, eligible for first-line chemotherapy, were randomised between two types of single-agent chemotherapy. As accrual was slow, with 78 randomised patients between April 2007 and September 2011, we explored potential

  2. Factors influencing time between surgery and radiotherapy : A population based study of breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katik, S.; Gort, M.; Jobsen, J. J.; Maduro, J. H.; Struikmans, H.; Siesling, S.

    This study describes variation in the time interval between surgery and radiotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients and assesses factors at patient, hospital and radiotherapy centre (RTC) level influencing this variation. To do so, the factors were investigated in BC patients using multilevel

  3. Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Vieira, A R; Rosenblatt, D A Navarro; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Norat, T

    2012-07-01

    Evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. To clarify the association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from prospective studies. We searched PubMed for prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk until April 30, 2011. We included fifteen prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.99, I (2) = 0 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.98, I (2) = 9 %) for fruits, and 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.92-1.06, I (2) = 20 %) for vegetables. In dose-response analyses, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00, I (2) = 2 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.00, I (2) = 39 %) for fruits, and 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.95-1.06, I (2) = 17 %) for vegetables. In this meta-analysis of prospective studies, high intake of fruits, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not vegetables, is associated with a weak reduction in risk of breast cancer.

  4. Case-Control Study Of Risk Factors For Breast Cancer In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for breast cancer among women in Midwestern and Southeastern Nigeria. Design: A case control study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Subjects: Fifty one women with diagnosis of ...

  5. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: A pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S.-S.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Folsom, A.R.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Holmberg, L.; Howe, G.R.; Marshall, J.R.; Miller, A.B.; Potter, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. - To assess the risk of invasive breast cancer associated with total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption and to evaluate whether dietary and nondietary factors modify the association. Data Sources. - We included in these analyses 6 prospective studies that had at least 200 incident

  6. Types of dietary fat and breast cancer : a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Toniolo, P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zelenuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in whether intakes of specific types of fat are associated with breast cancer risk independently of other types of fat, but results have been inconsistent. We identified 8 prospective studies that met predefined criteria and analyzed their primary data using a

  7. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  8. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  9. Selenium and breast cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study on serum selenium levels, smoking habits and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsveden, Malte; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has not been conclusive regarding the association between selenium (Se) and breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify if there is an association between prediagnostic serum Se levels and breast cancer risk. A population based cohort, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, was used and linked with the Swedish cancer registry up to 31 December 2013. Our study included 1,186 women with breast cancer and an equal number of controls. Selenium levels were analysed from stored serum samples. The included individuals were divided into quartiles based on Se value and we compared breast cancer cases with controls using logistic regression yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Serum Se was also analysed as a continuous variable regarding breast cancer risk. The analyses were adjusted for established risk factors and stratified on smoking status and body mass index (BMI). When comparing the highest Se quartile with the lowest, the adjusted OR for breast cancer was 0.98 (0.75-1.26). With selenium as a continuous variable the adjusted OR was 1.00 (1.00-1.01) per 10 ng/ml. When comparing the highest with the lowest Se quartile in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) the adjusted OR was 0.77 (0.53-1.14). We conclude that it is unlikely that prediagnostic serum selenium is overall associated with breast cancer risk and no modifying effect from BMI or smoking was seen. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  11. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Robinson, David; Sainsbury, Richard; Møller, Henrik

    2007-05-01

    Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%), and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  12. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainsbury Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. Results The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%, and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. Conclusion This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  13. The Importance of Family History in Breast Cancer Patients in Primary Care Setting: a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Mehtap; Ozcakar, Nilgun; Hatipoglu, Sehnaz; Tan, Makbule Neslisah; Guldal, Azize Dilek

    2017-06-01

    Screening recommendations of physicians are important for women to raise awareness about their risk factors and to promote appropriate screening behaviors. However, it seems challenging for primary care physicians (PCPs) to balance disease prevention and diagnosis, treatment. The objective of this study was to describe physicians' breast cancer consultancy practice including family history, cancer prevention issues for the women they care. This cross-sectional study included 577 women aged above 45 years, free of breast cancer, during their visits to their PCPs. Nearly half of the women reported their visit to PCPs for an annual examination during the year. Among them, 36.1% had first-degree relatives with cancer and 7.3% with breast cancer. But they reported to be asked about family history of cancer and informed about cancer prevention issues 35.1 and 26.4%, respectively. Cancer still seems to be a hard issue to be discussed, even with women visiting PCPs for annual examination. Asking first-degree relative with breast cancer can give PCPs the chance of determining women with increased risk and support women's appropriate understanding of their own risk in relation to their family history. This routine can make shared-decision making for developing person-centered approach for breast cancer screening possible. Further studies are needed for better understanding of loss of consultancy leadership of physicians for breast cancer.

  14. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Bock (Geertruida); C.E. Jacobi (Catharina); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); E.M.M. Krol-Warmerdam (Elly); J. Blom (Jannet); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); C.J. Cornelisse (Cees); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); J.C. van Houwelingen

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates

  15. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  16. Risk factors for breast cancer in a black population--the Barbados National Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hambleton, Ian R; Leske, M Cristina; Hennis, Anselm J

    2009-01-01

    The Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) is a nationwide case-control study investigating environmental and genetic factors for breast cancer (BC) in a predominantly African-origin population with similar ancestry as African-Americans. This report evaluates associations of incident BC in the BNCS to various factors, including demographic, anthropometric, reproductive and family history variables, not investigated previously in this population. The BNCS included 241 incident BC cases and 481 age-matched female controls, with mean ages of 57 and 56 years, respectively. In addition to a reported family history of BC in a close relative [odds ratios (OR) = 3.74, 95% CI (1.41, 9.90) in a parent; OR = 3.26 (1.47, 7.21) in a sibling], other factors associated with BC were older age at first full-term pregnancy [OR = 1.04 (1.00, 1.07)] and having a history of benign breast disease [OR = 1.88 (1.19, 2.99)]. Increased parity reduced the risk of BC [OR = 0.34 (0.15, 0.77) among those with >or=3 children]. The reproductive patterns of African-Barbadian (AB) women tended to differ from those of African-American (AA) women (later age of menarche, earlier age at first pregnancy, higher frequency of lactation and infrequent use of exogenous hormones) and could help to explain their considerably lower postmenopausal incidence of BC. The relationship between reported family history and BC, combined with the associations noted for several reproductive and other variables, supports the genetic and environmental contributions to BC, which may vary in populations across the African diaspora. Further investigations of other populations may clarify these issues.

  17. Brain Metastases in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison M; Cagney, Daniel N; Catalano, Paul J; Warren, Laura E; Bellon, Jennifer R; Punglia, Rinaa S; Claus, Elizabeth B; Lee, Eudocia Q; Wen, Patrick Y; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Alexander, Brian M; Lin, Nancy U; Aizer, Ayal A

    2017-08-01

    -positive HER2-positive subtype displayed the longest median survival (21.0 months); patients with triple-negative subtype had the shortest median survival (6.0 months). The findings of this study provides population-based estimates of the incidence and prognosis for patients with brain metastases at time of diagnosis of breast cancer. The findings lend support to consideration of screening imaging of the brain for patients with HER2-positive or triple-negative subtypes and extracranial metastases.

  18. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  19. Impact of major life events on breast-cancer-specific mortality: A case fatality study on 8000 breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Miettinen, Joonas; Pukkala, Eero; Koskenvuo, Markku; Malila, Nea; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2017-06-01

    It has been suggested that long-term activation of the body's stress-response system and subsequent overexposure to stress hormones may be associated with increased morbidity. However, evidence on the impact of major life events on mortality from breast cancer (BC) remains inconclusive. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether major negatively or positively experienced life events before or after diagnosis have an effect on BC-specific mortality in women who have survived with BC for at least 2 years. We conducted a case fatality study with data on life events from a self-administered survey and data on BC from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Cox models were fitted to estimate BC mortality hazard ratios (MRs) between those who have undergone major life events and those who haven't. None of the pre-diagnostic negative life events had any effect on BC-specific mortality. Regarding post-diagnostic events, the effect was greatest in women with moderate scores of events. As for event-specific scores, increased BC mortality was observed with spouse unemployment, relationship problems, and death of a close friend. By contrast, falling in love and positive developments in hobbies were shown to be associated with lower BC mortality (MRs 0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.92 and 0.74, 95%CI: 0.57-0.96, respectively). In an analysis restricted to recently diagnosed cases (2007), also death of a child and of a mother was associated with increased BC mortality. Some major life events regarding close personal relationships may play a role in BC-specific mortality, with certain negative life events increasing BC mortality and positive events decreasing it. The observed favorable associations between positive developments in romantic relationships and hobbies and BC mortality are likely to reflect the importance of social interaction and support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma 25(OH)vitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC): A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, T.; Kaaks, R.; Becker, S.; Eomois, P.P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kvaskoff, M.; Dossus, L.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Although the results of case–control studies indicate that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, the results of prospective studies are

  1. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition : A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Becker, Susen; Eomois, Piia-Piret; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kvaskoff, Marina; Dossus, Laure; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Buijsse, Brian; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Menendez, Virginia; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Bakker, Marije; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Brustad, Magritt; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Schmidt, Julie A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Linseisen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Although the results of case-control studies indicate that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, the results of prospective studies are

  2. Bovine leukemia virus linked to breast cancer but not coinfection with human papillomavirus: Case-control study of women in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzell, Kimberly A; Shen, Hua Min; Krishnamurty, Savitri; Sison, Jennette D; Nuovo, Gerard J; Buehring, Gertrude C

    2017-12-20

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were previously identified in human breast tissue and have been associated with breast cancer in independent studies. The objective of the current study was to test for the presence of BLV and HPV in the same breast tissue specimens to determine whether the viruses were associated with breast cancer either singly or together. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections from 216 women were received from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center along with patient diagnosis. In situ polymerase chain reaction and/or DNA hybridization methods were used to detect targeted DNA segments of BLV and HPV. Standard statistical methods were used to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios, attributable risk, and P values for the trend related to the association between presence of a virus and a diagnosis of breast disease. Women diagnosed with breast cancer were significantly more likely to have BLV DNA in their breast tissue compared with women with benign diagnoses and no history of breast cancer. Women with breast pathology classified as premalignant and no history of breast cancer also were found to have an elevated risk of harboring BLV DNA in their breast tissue. HPV status was not associated with malignancy, premalignant breast disease, or the presence of BLV in the breast tissues. The data from the current study supported previous findings of a significant association between BLV DNA in breast tissue and a diagnosis of breast cancer, but did not demonstrate oncogenic strains of HPV associated with breast cancer or the presence of BLV DNA in breast tissue. The authors believe the findings of the current study contribute to overall knowledge regarding a possible causal role for viruses in human breast cancer. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10−12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10−8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10−8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  4. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumor