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  1. Molecular signatures in breast cancer.

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    Lal, Samir; McCart Reed, Amy E; de Luca, Xavier M; Simpson, Peter T

    2017-12-01

    The use of molecular signatures to add value to standard clinical and pathological parameters has impacted clinical practice in many cancer types, but perhaps most notably in the breast cancer field. This is, in part, due to the considerable complexity of the disease at the clinical, morphological and molecular levels. The adoption of molecular profiling of DNA, RNA and protein continues to reveal important differences in the intrinsic biology between molecular subtypes and has begun to impact the way patients are managed. Several bioinformatic tools have been developed using DNA or RNA-based signatures to stratify the disease into biologically and/or clinically meaningful subgroups. Here, we review the approaches that have been used to develop gene expression signatures into currently available diagnostic assays (e.g., OncotypeDX® and Mammaprint®), plus we describe the latest work on genome sequencing, the methodologies used in the discovery process of mutational signatures, and the potential of these signatures to impact the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of breast cancer gene signatures based on graph centrality.

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    Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Gang; Li, Min; Pan, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Various gene-expression signatures for breast cancer are available for the prediction of clinical outcome. However due to small overlap between different signatures, it is challenging to integrate existing disjoint signatures to provide a unified insight on the association between gene expression and clinical outcome. In this paper, we propose a method to integrate different breast cancer gene signatures by using graph centrality in a context-constrained protein interaction network (PIN). The context-constrained PIN for breast cancer is built by integrating complete PIN and various gene signatures reported in literatures. Then, we use graph centralities to quantify the importance of genes to breast cancer. Finally, we get reliable gene signatures that are consisted by the genes with high graph centrality. The genes which are well-known breast cancer genes, such as TP53 and BRCA1, are ranked extremely high in our results. Compared with previous results by functional enrichment analysis, graph centralities, especially the eigenvector centrality and subgraph centrality, based gene signatures are more tightly related to breast cancer. We validate these signatures on genome-wide microarray dataset and found strong association between the expression of these signature genes and pathologic parameters. In summary, graph centralities provide a novel way to connect different cancer signatures and to understand the mechanism of relationship between gene expression and clinical outcome of breast cancer. Moreover, this method is not only can be used on breast cancer, but also can be used on other gene expression related diseases and drug studies.

  3. Integration of breast cancer gene signatures based on graph centrality

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    Wang Jianxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various gene-expression signatures for breast cancer are available for the prediction of clinical outcome. However due to small overlap between different signatures, it is challenging to integrate existing disjoint signatures to provide a unified insight on the association between gene expression and clinical outcome. Results In this paper, we propose a method to integrate different breast cancer gene signatures by using graph centrality in a context-constrained protein interaction network (PIN. The context-constrained PIN for breast cancer is built by integrating complete PIN and various gene signatures reported in literatures. Then, we use graph centralities to quantify the importance of genes to breast cancer. Finally, we get reliable gene signatures that are consisted by the genes with high graph centrality. The genes which are well-known breast cancer genes, such as TP53 and BRCA1, are ranked extremely high in our results. Compared with previous results by functional enrichment analysis, graph centralities, especially the eigenvector centrality and subgraph centrality, based gene signatures are more tightly related to breast cancer. We validate these signatures on genome-wide microarray dataset and found strong association between the expression of these signature genes and pathologic parameters. Conclusions In summary, graph centralities provide a novel way to connect different cancer signatures and to understand the mechanism of relationship between gene expression and clinical outcome of breast cancer. Moreover, this method is not only can be used on breast cancer, but also can be used on other gene expression related diseases and drug studies.

  4. A plasma metabolomic signature discloses human breast cancer.

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    Jové, Mariona; Collado, Ricardo; Quiles, José Luís; Ramírez-Tortosa, Mari-Carmen; Sol, Joaquim; Ruiz-Sanjuan, Maria; Fernandez, Mónica; de la Torre Cabrera, Capilla; Ramírez-Tortosa, Cesar; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-03-21

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive global study of metabolites in biological samples. In this retrospective pilot study we explored whether serum metabolomic profile can discriminate the presence of human breast cancer irrespective of the cancer subtype. Plasma samples were analyzed from healthy women (n = 20) and patients with breast cancer after diagnosis (n = 91) using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform. Multivariate statistics and a Random Forest (RF) classifier were used to create a metabolomics panel for the diagnosis of human breast cancer. Metabolomics correctly distinguished between breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. In the RF supervised class prediction analysis comparing breast cancer and healthy control groups, RF accurately classified 100% both samples of the breast cancer patients and healthy controls. So, the class error for both group in and the out-of-bag error were 0. We also found 1269 metabolites with different concentration in plasma from healthy controls and cancer patients; and basing on exact mass, retention time and isotopic distribution we identified 35 metabolites. These metabolites mostly support cell growth by providing energy and building stones for the synthesis of essential biomolecules, and function as signal transduction molecules. The collective results of RF, significance testing, and false discovery rate analysis identified several metabolites that were strongly associated with breast cancer. In breast cancer a metabolomics signature of cancer exists and can be detected in patient plasma irrespectively of the breast cancer type.

  5. Combining gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival.

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    Xi Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123 and test set (n = 81, respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014. Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001. The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. CONCLUSION: Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves

  6. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

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    María Losada-Echeberría

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation.

  7. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

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    Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation. PMID:29112149

  8. A signature inferred from Drosophila mitotic genes predicts survival of breast cancer patients.

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    Christian Damasco

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The classification of breast cancer patients into risk groups provides a powerful tool for the identification of patients who will benefit from aggressive systemic therapy. The analysis of microarray data has generated several gene expression signatures that improve diagnosis and allow risk assessment. There is also evidence that cell proliferation-related genes have a high predictive power within these signatures. METHODS: We thus constructed a gene expression signature (the DM signature using the human orthologues of 108 Drosophila melanogaster genes required for either the maintenance of chromosome integrity (36 genes or mitotic division (72 genes. RESULTS: The DM signature has minimal overlap with the extant signatures and is highly predictive of survival in 5 large breast cancer datasets. In addition, we show that the DM signature outperforms many widely used breast cancer signatures in predictive power, and performs comparably to other proliferation-based signatures. For most genes of the DM signature, an increased expression is negatively correlated with patient survival. The genes that provide the highest contribution to the predictive power of the DM signature are those involved in cytokinesis. CONCLUSION: This finding highlights cytokinesis as an important marker in breast cancer prognosis and as a possible target for antimitotic therapies.

  9. Leptin’s Pro-Angiogenic Signature in Breast Cancer

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    Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene, E-mail: rgonzalez@msm.edu; Lanier, Viola; Newman, Gale [Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Dr. SW., Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Obesity is linked to increased incidence of breast cancer. The precise causes and mechanisms of these morbid relationships are unknown. Contradictory data on leptin angiogenic actions have been published. However, accumulating evidence would suggest that leptin’s pro-angiogenic effects in cancer play an essential role in the disease. Leptin, the main adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, is also abnormally expressed together with its receptor (OB-R) by breast cancer cells. Leptin induces proliferation and angiogenic differentiation of endothelial cells upregulates VEGF/VEGFR2 and transactivates VEGFR2 independent of VEGF. Leptin induces two angiogenic factors: IL-1 and Notch that can increase VEGF expression. Additionally, leptin induces the secretion and synthesis of proteases and adhesion molecules needed for the development of angiogenesis. Leptin’s paracrine actions can further affect stromal cells and tumor associated macrophages, which express OB-R and secrete VEGF and IL-1, respectively. A complex crosstalk between leptin, Notch and IL-1 (NILCO) that induces VEGF/VEGFR2 is found in breast cancer. Leptin actions in tumor angiogenesis could amplify, be redundant and/or compensatory to VEGF signaling. Current failure of breast cancer anti-angiogenic therapies emphasizes the necessity of targeting the contribution of other pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. Leptin’s impact on tumor angiogenesis could be a novel target for breast cancer, especially in obese patients. However, more research is needed to establish the importance of leptin in tumor angiogenesis. This review is focused on updated information on how leptin could contribute to tumor angiogenesis.

  10. Identification of Gene-Expression Signatures and Protein Markers for Breast Cancer Grading and Staging.

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    Yao, Fang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Wei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The grade of a cancer is a measure of the cancer's malignancy level, and the stage of a cancer refers to the size and the extent that the cancer has spread. Here we present a computational method for prediction of gene signatures and blood/urine protein markers for breast cancer grades and stages based on RNA-seq data, which are retrieved from the TCGA breast cancer dataset and cover 111 pairs of disease and matching adjacent noncancerous tissues with pathologists-assigned stages and grades. By applying a differential expression and an SVM-based classification approach, we found that 324 and 227 genes in cancer have their expression levels consistently up-regulated vs. their matching controls in a grade- and stage-dependent manner, respectively. By using these genes, we predicted a 9-gene panel as a gene signature for distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well differentiated breast cancers, and a 19-gene panel as a gene signature for discriminating between the moderately and well differentiated breast cancers. Similarly, a 30-gene panel and a 21-gene panel are predicted as gene signatures for distinguishing advanced stage (stages III-IV) from early stage (stages I-II) cancer samples and for distinguishing stage II from stage I samples, respectively. We expect these gene panels can be used as gene-expression signatures for cancer grade and stage classification. In addition, of the 324 grade-dependent genes, 188 and 66 encode proteins that are predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively; and of the 227 stage-dependent genes, 123 and 51 encode proteins predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively. We anticipate that some combinations of these blood and urine proteins could serve as markers for monitoring breast cancer at specific grades and stages through blood and urine tests.

  11. Identification of a circulating microRNA signature to distinguish recurrence in breast cancer patients.

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    Huo, Dezheng; Clayton, Wendy M; Yoshimatsu, Toshio F; Chen, Jianjun; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2016-08-23

    There is an urgent need for novel noninvasive prognostic biomarkers for monitoring the recurrence of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to identify circulating microRNAs that can predict breast cancer recurrence. We conducted a microRNA profiling experiment in serum samples from 48 breast cancer patients using Exiqon miRCURY microRNA RT-PCR panels. Significantly differentiated miRNAs for recurrence in the discovery profiling were further validated in an independent set of sera from 20 patients with breast cancer recurrences and 22 patients without recurrences. We identified seven miRNAs that were differentially expressed between breast cancer patients with and without recurrences, including four miRNAs upregulated (miR-21-5p, miR-375, miR-205-5p, and miR-194-5p) and three miRNAs downregulated (miR-382-5p, miR-376c-3p, and miR-411-5p) for recurrent patients. Using penalized logistic regression, we built a 7-miRNA signature for breast cancer recurrence, which had an excellent discriminating capacity (concordance index=0.914). This signature was significantly associated with recurrence after adjusting for known prognostic factors, and it was applicable to both hormone-receptor positive (concordance index=0.890) and triple-negative breast cancers (concordance index=0.942). We also found the 7-miRNA signature were reliably measured across different runs of PCR experiments (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.780) and the signature was significantly higher in breast cancer patients with recurrence than healthy controls (p=1.1x10-5). In conclusion, circulating miRNAs are promising biomarkers and the signature may be developed into a minimally invasive multi-marker blood test for continuously monitoring the recurrence of breast cancer. It should be further validated for different subtypes of breast cancers in longitudinal studies.

  12. Tumor tissue protein signatures reflect histological grade of breast cancer.

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    Skoog, Petter; Ohlsson, Mattias; Fernö, Mårten; Rydén, Lisa; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Histological grade is one of the most commonly used prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with breast cancer. However, conventional grading has proven technically challenging, and up to 60% of the tumors are classified as histological grade 2, which represents a heterogeneous cohort less informative for clinical decision making. In an attempt to study and extend the molecular puzzle of histologically graded breast cancer, we have in this pilot project searched for additional protein biomarkers in a new space of the proteome. To this end, we have for the first time performed protein expression profiling of breast cancer tumor tissue, using recombinant antibody microarrays, targeting mainly immunoregulatory proteins. Thus, we have explored the immune system as a disease-specific sensor (clinical immunoproteomics). Uniquely, the results showed that several biologically relevant proteins reflecting histological grade could be delineated. In more detail, the tentative biomarker panels could be used to i) build a candidate model classifying grade 1 vs. grade 3 tumors, ii) demonstrate the molecular heterogeneity among grade 2 tumors, and iii) potentially re-classify several of the grade 2 tumors to more like grade 1 or grade 3 tumors. This could, in the long-term run, lead to improved prognosis, by which the patients could benefit from improved tailored care.

  13. Dormancy Signatures and Metastasis in Estrogen Receptor Positive and Negative Breast Cancer

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    Kim, Ryung S.; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Estrada, Yeriel; Bragado, Paloma; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers can recur after removal of the primary tumor and treatment to eliminate remaining tumor cells. Recurrence may occur after long periods of time during which there are no clinical symptoms. Tumor cell dormancy may explain these prolonged periods of asymptomatic residual disease and treatment resistance. We generated a dormancy gene signature from published experimental models and applied it to both breast cancer cell line expression data as well as four published clinical studies of primary breast cancers. We found that estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cell lines and primary tumors have significantly higher dormancy signature scores (P<0.0000001) than ER- cell lines and tumors. In addition, a stratified analysis combining all ER+ tumors in four studies indicated 2.1 times higher hazard of recurrence among patients whose tumors had low dormancy scores (LDS) compared to those whose tumors had high dormancy scores (HDS) (p<0.000005). The trend was shown in all four individual studies. Suppression of two dormancy genes, BHLHE41 and NR2F1, resulted in increased in vivo growth of ER positive MCF7 cells. The patient data analysis suggests that disseminated ER positive tumor cells carrying a dormancy signature are more likely to undergo prolonged dormancy before resuming metastatic growth. Furthermore, genes identified with this approach might provide insight into the mechanisms of dormancy onset and maintenance as well as dormancy models using human breast cancer cell lines. PMID:22530051

  14. Dormancy signatures and metastasis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer.

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    Ryung S Kim

    Full Text Available Breast cancers can recur after removal of the primary tumor and treatment to eliminate remaining tumor cells. Recurrence may occur after long periods of time during which there are no clinical symptoms. Tumor cell dormancy may explain these prolonged periods of asymptomatic residual disease and treatment resistance. We generated a dormancy gene signature from published experimental models and applied it to both breast cancer cell line expression data as well as four published clinical studies of primary breast cancers. We found that estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cell lines and primary tumors have significantly higher dormancy signature scores (P<0.0000001 than ER- cell lines and tumors. In addition, a stratified analysis combining all ER+ tumors in four studies indicated 2.1 times higher hazard of recurrence among patients whose tumors had low dormancy scores (LDS compared to those whose tumors had high dormancy scores (HDS (p<0.000005. The trend was shown in all four individual studies. Suppression of two dormancy genes, BHLHE41 and NR2F1, resulted in increased in vivo growth of ER positive MCF7 cells. The patient data analysis suggests that disseminated ER positive tumor cells carrying a dormancy signature are more likely to undergo prolonged dormancy before resuming metastatic growth. Furthermore, genes identified with this approach might provide insight into the mechanisms of dormancy onset and maintenance as well as dormancy models using human breast cancer cell lines.

  15. Elasticity, adhesion and tether extrusion on breast cancer cells provide a signature of their invasive potential.

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    Smolyakov, Georges; Thiebot, Bénédicte; Campillo, Clément C; Labdi, Sid; Séverac, Childérick; Pelta, Juan; Dague, Etienne

    2016-10-05

    We use single cell force spectroscopy to compare elasticity, adhesion and tether extrusion on four breast cancer cell lines with an increasing invasive potential. We perform cell attachment/detachment experiments either on fibronectin or on another cell using an Atomic Force Microscope. Our study on the membrane tether formation from cancer cells show that they are easier to extrude from aggressive invasive cells. Measured elastic modulus values confirm that more invasive cells are softer. Moreover, the adhesion force increases with the invasive potential. Our results provide a mechanical signature of breast cancer cells that correlates with their invasivity.

  16. Pooling breast cancer datasets has a synergetic effect on classification performance and improves signature stability

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    van de Vijver Marc J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Michiels et al. (Lancet 2005; 365: 488–92 employed a resampling strategy to show that the genes identified as predictors of prognosis from resamplings of a single gene expression dataset are highly variable. The genes most frequently identified in the separate resamplings were put forward as a 'gold standard'. On a higher level, breast cancer datasets collected by different institutions can be considered as resamplings from the underlying breast cancer population. The limited overlap between published prognostic signatures confirms the trend of signature instability identified by the resampling strategy. Six breast cancer datasets, totaling 947 samples, all measured on the Affymetrix platform, are currently available. This provides a unique opportunity to employ a substantial dataset to investigate the effects of pooling datasets on classifier accuracy, signature stability and enrichment of functional categories. Results We show that the resampling strategy produces a suboptimal ranking of genes, which can not be considered to be a 'gold standard'. When pooling breast cancer datasets, we observed a synergetic effect on the classification performance in 73% of the cases. We also observe a significant positive correlation between the number of datasets that is pooled, the validation performance, the number of genes selected, and the enrichment of specific functional categories. In addition, we have evaluated the support for five explanations that have been postulated for the limited overlap of signatures. Conclusion The limited overlap of current signature genes can be attributed to small sample size. Pooling datasets results in more accurate classification and a convergence of signature genes. We therefore advocate the analysis of new data within the context of a compendium, rather than analysis in isolation.

  17. The rapamycin-regulated gene expression signature determines prognosis for breast cancer

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    Tsavachidis Spiridon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways promoting tumor growth. mTOR is aberrantly activated in a significant portion of breast cancers and is a promising target for treatment. Rapamycin and its analogues are in clinical trials for breast cancer treatment. Patterns of gene expression (metagenes may also be used to simulate a biologic process or effects of a drug treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gene-expression signature regulated by rapamycin could predict disease outcome for patients with breast cancer. Results Colony formation and sulforhodamine B (IC50 in vitro and in vivo gene expression data identified a signature, termed rapamycin metagene index (RMI, of 31 genes upregulated by rapamycin treatment in vitro as well as in vivo (false discovery rate of 10%. In the Miller dataset, RMI did not correlate with tumor size or lymph node status. High (>75th percentile RMI was significantly associated with longer survival (P = 0.015. On multivariate analysis, RMI (P = 0.029, tumor size (P = 0.015 and lymph node status (P = 0.001 were prognostic. In van 't Veer study, RMI was not associated with the time to develop distant metastasis (P = 0.41. In the Wang dataset, RMI predicted time to disease relapse (P = 0.009. Conclusion Rapamycin-regulated gene expression signature predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer. This supports the central role of mTOR signaling in breast cancer biology and provides further impetus to pursue mTOR-targeted therapies for breast cancer treatment.

  18. Homogeneous datasets of triple negative breast cancers enable the identification of novel prognostic and predictive signatures.

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    Thomas Karn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current prognostic gene signatures for breast cancer mainly reflect proliferation status and have limited value in triple-negative (TNBC cancers. The identification of prognostic signatures from TNBC cohorts was limited in the past due to small sample sizes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assembled all currently publically available TNBC gene expression datasets generated on Affymetrix gene chips. Inter-laboratory variation was minimized by filtering methods for both samples and genes. Supervised analysis was performed to identify prognostic signatures from 394 cases which were subsequently tested on an independent validation cohort (n = 261 cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using two distinct false discovery rate thresholds, 25% and <3.5%, a larger (n = 264 probesets and a smaller (n = 26 probesets prognostic gene sets were identified and used as prognostic predictors. Most of these genes were positively associated with poor prognosis and correlated to metagenes for inflammation and angiogenesis. No correlation to other previously published prognostic signatures (recurrence score, genomic grade index, 70-gene signature, wound response signature, 7-gene immune response module, stroma derived prognostic predictor, and a medullary like signature was observed. In multivariate analyses in the validation cohort the two signatures showed hazard ratios of 4.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-9.48; P = 0.001 and 4.08 (95% CI 1.79-9.28; P = 0.001, respectively. The 10-year event-free survival was 70% for the good risk and 20% for the high risk group. The 26-gene signatures had modest predictive value (AUC = 0.588 to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, however, the combination of a B-cell metagene with the prognostic signatures increased its response predictive value. We identified a 264-gene prognostic signature for TNBC which is unrelated to previously known prognostic signatures.

  19. A tissue microRNA signature that predicts the prognosis of breast cancer in young women.

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    Ai Hironaka-Mitsuhashi

    Full Text Available Since breast cancers in young women are generally aggressive, young patients tend to be intensively treated with anti-cancer drugs. To optimize the strategy for treatment, particularly in young women, prognostic biomarkers are urgently required. The objective of this study was to identify a tissue microRNA (miRNA signature that predicts prognosis in young breast cancer patients. Total RNA from 45 breast cancer patients aged 0.7. Five of the miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, and the expression levels of three of those five (miR-183-5p, miR-194-5p, and miR-1285-5p, both alone and in combination, were associated with OS. In conclusion, we identified three candidate miRNAs that could be used separately or in combination as prognostic biomarkers in young breast cancer patients. This miRNA signature may enable selection of better treatment choices for young women with this disease.

  20. Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

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    2012-01-01

    Background Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. Methods The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. Conclusions The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis. PMID:22695536

  1. Embryonic mammary signature subsets are activated in Brca1-/- and basal-like breast cancers

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    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is often suggested to result from development gone awry. Links between normal embryonic development and cancer biology have been postulated, but no defined genetic basis has been established. We recently published the first transcriptomic analysis of embryonic mammary cell populations. Embryonic mammary epithelial cells are an immature progenitor cell population, lacking differentiation markers, which is reflected in their very distinct genetic profiles when compared with those of their postnatal descendents. Methods We defined an embryonic mammary epithelial signature that incorporates the most highly expressed genes from embryonic mammary epithelium when compared with the postnatal mammary epithelial cells. We looked for activation of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature in mouse mammary tumors that formed in mice in which Brca1 had been conditionally deleted from the mammary epithelium and in human breast cancers to determine whether any genetic links exist between embryonic mammary cells and breast cancers. Results Small subsets of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature were consistently activated in mouse Brca1-/- tumors and human basal-like breast cancers, which encoded predominantly transcriptional regulators, cell-cycle, and actin cytoskeleton components. Other embryonic gene subsets were found activated in non-basal-like tumor subtypes and repressed in basal-like tumors, including regulators of neuronal differentiation, transcription, and cell biosynthesis. Several embryonic genes showed significant upregulation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and/or grade 3 breast cancers. Among them, the transcription factor, SOX11, a progenitor cell and lineage regulator of nonmammary cell types, is found highly expressed in some Brca1-/- mammary tumors. By using RNA interference to silence SOX11 expression in breast cancer cells, we found evidence that SOX11 regulates breast cancer cell

  2. A 16 Yin Yang gene expression ratio signature for ER+/node- breast cancer.

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    Xu, Wayne; Jia, Gaofeng; Cai, Nianguang; Huang, Shujun; Davie, James R; Pitz, Marshall; Banerji, Shantanu; Murphy, Leigh

    2017-03-15

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease with different clinical outcomes. Stratifying patients into subgroups with different outcomes could help guide clinical decision making. In this study, we used two opposing groups of genes, Yin and Yang, to develop a prognostic expression ratio signature. Using the METABRIC cohort we identified a16-gene signature capable of stratifying breast cancer patients into four risk levels with intention that low-risk patients would not undergo adjuvant systemic therapy, intermediate-low-risk patients will be treated with hormonal therapy only, and intermediate-high- and high-risk groups will be treated by chemotherapy in addition to the hormonal therapy. The 16-gene signature for four risk level stratifications of breast cancer patients has been validated using 14 independent datasets. Notably, the low-risk group (n = 51) of 205 estrogen receptor-positive and node negative (ER+/node-) patients from three different datasets who had not had any systemic adjuvant therapy had 100% 15-year disease-specific survival rate. The Concordance Index of YMR for ER+/node negative patients is close to the commercially available signatures. However, YMR showed more significance (HR = 3.7, p = 8.7e-12) in stratifying ER+/node- subgroup than OncotypeDx (HR = 2.7, p = 1.3e-7), MammaPrint (HR = 2.5, p = 5.8e-7), rorS (HR = 2.4, p = 1.4e-6), and NPI (HR = 2.6, p = 1.2e-6). YMR signature may be developed as a clinical tool to select a subgroup of low-risk ER+/node- patients who do not require any adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT). © 2016 UICC.

  3. A prognostic gene signature for metastasis-free survival of triple negative breast cancer patients.

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    Unjin Lee

    Full Text Available Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS, based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP. We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.

  4. A gene expression signature that can predict the recurrence of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanrion, Maïa; Negre, Vincent; Fontaine, Hélène; Salvetat, Nicolas; Bibeau, Frédéric; Mac Grogan, Gaëtan; Mauriac, Louis; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Molina, Franck; Theillet, Charles; Darbon, Jean-Marie

    2008-03-15

    The identification of a molecular signature predicting the relapse of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancers should help the therapeutic management of estrogen receptor-positive cancers. A series of 132 primary tumors from patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen were analyzed for expression profiles at the whole-genome level by 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A supervised analysis was done to identify an expression signature. We defined a 36-gene signature that correctly classified 78% of patients with relapse and 80% of relapse-free patients (79% accuracy). Using 23 independent tumors, we confirmed the accuracy of the signature (78%) whose relevance was further shown by using published microarray data from 60 tamoxifen-treated patients (63% accuracy). Univariate analysis using the validation set of 83 tumors showed that the 36-gene classifier is more efficient in predicting disease-free survival than the traditional histopathologic prognostic factors and is as effective as the Nottingham Prognostic Index or the "Adjuvant!" software. Multivariate analysis showed that the molecular signature is the only independent prognostic factor. A comparison with several already published signatures demonstrated that the 36-gene signature is among the best to classify tumors from both training and validation sets. Kaplan-Meier analyses emphasized its prognostic power both on the whole cohort of patients and on a subgroup with an intermediate risk of recurrence as defined by the St. Gallen criteria. This study identifies a molecular signature specifying a subgroup of patients who do not gain benefits from tamoxifen treatment. These patients may therefore be eligible for alternative endocrine therapies and/or chemotherapy.

  5. Prediction of the prognosis of breast cancer in routine histologic specimens using a simplified, low-cost gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcell, S.A.; Balazs, A.; Emese, A.

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of the prognosis of breast cancer in routine histologic specimens using a simplified, low-cost gene expression signature Background: Grade 2 breast carcinomas do not form a uniform prognostic group. Aim: To extend the number of patients and the investigated genes of a previously...... identified prognostic signature described by the authors that reflect chromosomal instability in order to refine characterization of grade 2 breast cancers and identify driver genes. Methods: Using publicly available databases, the authors selected 9 target and 3 housekeeping genes that are capable to divide...

  6. Deep Sequencing Reveals a MicroRNA Expression Signature in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Yin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chuang, Eric Y

    2018-01-01

    Deep sequencing is an advanced technology in genomic biology to detect the precise order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA/RNA molecule. The analysis of deep sequencing data also requires sophisticated knowledge in both computational software and bioinformatics. In this chapter, the procedures of deep sequencing analysis of microRNA (miRNA) transcriptome in triple-negative breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue are described in detail. As miRNAs are critical regulators of gene expression and many of them were previously reported to be associated with the malignant progression of human cancer, the analytical method that accurately identifies deregulated miRNAs in a specific type of cancer is thus important for the understanding of its tumor behavior. We obtained raw sequence reads of miRNA expression from 24 triple-negative breast cancers and 14 adjacent normal tissues using deep sequencing technology in this work. Expression data of miRNA reads were normalized with the quantile-quantile scaling method and were analyzed statistically. A miRNA expression signature composed of 25 differentially expressed miRNAs showed to be an effective classifier between triple-negative breast cancers and adjacent normal tissues in a hierarchical clustering analysis.

  7. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  8. Uncovering the Hidden Molecular Signatures of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Naujokas! MA,!Chughtai!N,!Herschkowitz!JI,!Prat!A,! Mulligan !AM,!Muller!WJ,!Cardiff!RD,!Gregg! JP,!Andrulis!IL,!Hallett!MT,!Park!M.!Met!synergizes!with!p53...Herschkowitz!JI,!Prat!A,! Mulligan !AM,!Muller!WJ,!Cardiff!RD,!Gregg!JP,!Andrulis! IL,!Hallett!MT,!Park!M.!Met!synergizes!with!p53!loss!to!induce!mammary!tumors...Trp53- null tumors of spindloid pathology is striking and highlights an emerging concept in cancer whereby genes that function synergistically to enhance

  9. Optimized outcome prediction in breast cancer by combining the 70-gene signature with clinical risk prediction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drukker, C.A.; Nijenhuis, M.V.; Bueno de Mesquita, J.M.; Retel, V.P.; Retel, Valesca; van Harten, Willem H.; van Tinteren, H.; Wesseling, J.; Schmidt, M.K.; van 't Veer, L.J.; Sonke, G.S.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; van de Vijver, M.J.; Linn, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical guidelines for breast cancer treatment differ in their selection of patients at a high risk of recurrence who are eligible to receive adjuvant systemic treatment (AST). The 70-gene signature is a molecular tool to better guide AST decisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether

  10. The proteome signature of the inflammatory breast cancer plasma membrane identifies novel molecular markers of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R; Pérez-Laspiur, Juliana; Arju, Rezina; Giashuddin, Shah; Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Schneider, Robert J; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer with a 35% 5-year survival rate. The accurate and early diagnosis of IBC and the development of targeted therapy against this deadly disease remain a great medical challenge. Plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) such as E-cadherin and EGFR, play an important role in the progression of IBC. Because the critical role of PMPs in the oncogenic processes they are the perfect candidates as molecular markers and targets for cancer therapies. In the present study, Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) followed by mass spectrometry analysis was used to compare the relative expression levels of membrane proteins (MP) between non-cancerous mammary epithelial and IBC cells, MCF-10A and SUM-149, respectively. Six of the identified PMPs were validated by immunoblotting using the membrane fractions of non-IBC and IBC cell lines, compared with MCF-10A cells. Immunohistochemical analysis using IBC, invasive ductal carcinoma or normal mammary tissue samples was carried out to complete the validation method in nine of the PMPs. We identified and quantified 278 MPs, 76% of which classified as PMPs with 1.3-fold or higher change. We identified for the first time the overexpression of the novel plasminogen receptor, PLGRKT in IBC and of the carrier protein, SCAMP3. Furthermore, we describe the positive relationship between L1CAM expression and metastasis in IBC patients and the role of SCAMP3 as a tumor-related protein. Overall, the membrane proteomic signature of IBC reflects a global change in cellular organization and suggests additional strategies for cancer progression. Together, this study provides insight into the specialized IBC plasma membrane proteome with the potential to identify a number of novel therapeutic targets for IBC.

  11. Fuzzy logic selection as a new reliable tool to identify molecular grade signatures in breast cancer--the INNODIAG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempowsky-Hamon, Tatiana; Valle, Carine; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Hedjazi, Lyamine; Trouilh, Lidwine; Lamarre, Sophie; Labourdette, Delphine; Roger, Laurence; Mhamdi, Loubna; Dalenc, Florence; Filleron, Thomas; Favre, Gilles; François, Jean-Marie; Le Lann, Marie-Véronique; Anton-Leberre, Véronique

    2015-02-07

    Personalized medicine has become a priority in breast cancer patient management. In addition to the routinely used clinicopathological characteristics, clinicians will have to face an increasing amount of data derived from tumor molecular profiling. The aims of this study were to develop a new gene selection method based on a fuzzy logic selection and classification algorithm, and to validate the gene signatures obtained on breast cancer patient cohorts. We analyzed data from four published gene expression datasets for breast carcinomas. We identified the best discriminating genes by comparing molecular expression profiles between histologic grade 1 and 3 tumors for each of the training datasets. The most pertinent probes were selected and used to define fuzzy molecular grade 1-like (good prognosis) and fuzzy molecular grade 3-like (poor prognosis) profiles. To evaluate the prognostic performance of the fuzzy grade signatures in breast cancer tumors, a Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to compare the relapse-free survival deduced from histologic grade and fuzzy molecular grade classification. We applied the fuzzy logic selection on breast cancer databases and obtained four new gene signatures. Analysis in the training public sets showed good performance of these gene signatures for grade (sensitivity from 90% to 95%, specificity 67% to 93%). To validate these gene signatures, we designed probes on custom microarrays and tested them on 150 invasive breast carcinomas. Good performance was obtained with an error rate of less than 10%. For one gene signature, among 74 histologic grade 3 and 18 grade 1 tumors, 88 cases (96%) were correctly assigned. Interestingly histologic grade 2 tumors (n = 58) were split in these two molecular grade categories. We confirmed the use of fuzzy logic selection as a new tool to identify gene signatures with good reliability and increased classification power. This method based on artificial intelligence algorithms was successfully

  12. Functional oncogene signatures guide rationally designed combination therapies to synergistically induce breast cancer cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Stephen T.; Kratche, Zachary R.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Wilson, Robert C.; Haddad, Ramsi; Gray, Joe W.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Ethier, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    A critical first step in the personalized approach to cancer treatment is the identification of activated oncogenes that drive each tumor. The Identification of driver oncogenes on a patient-by-patient basis is complicated by the complexity of the cancer genome and the fact that a particular genetic alteration may serve as a driver event only in a subset of tumors that harbor it. In this study, we set out to identify the complete set of functional oncogenes in a small panel of breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines in this panel were chosen because they each contain a known receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) oncogene. To identify additional drivers, we integrated functional genetic screens with copy number and mutation analysis, and cancer genome knowledge databases. The resulting functional oncogene signatures were able to predict responsiveness of cell lines to targeted inhibitors. However, as single agents, these drugs had little effect on clonogenic potential. By contrast, treatment with drug combinations that targeted multiple oncogenes in the signatures, even at very low doses, resulted in the induction of apoptosis and striking synergistic effects on clonogenicity. In particular, targeting a driver oncogene that mediates AKT phosphorylation in combination with targeting the anti-apoptotic BCL2L1 protein had profound effects on cell viability. Importantly, because the synergistic induction of cell death was achieved using low levels of each individual drug, it suggests that a therapeutic strategy based on this approach could avoid the toxicities that have been associated with the combined use of multiple-targeted agents. PMID:27153554

  13. MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2/neu receptor status in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Aoife J; Miller, Nicola; Devaney, Amanda; McNeill, Roisin E; Davoren, Pamela A; Lemetre, Christophe; Benes, Vladimir; Schmidt, Sabine; Blake, Jonathon; Ball, Graham; Kerin, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease encompassing a number of phenotypically diverse tumours. Expression levels of the oestrogen, progesterone and HER2/neu receptors which characterize clinically distinct breast tumours have been shown to change during disease progression and in response to systemic therapies. Mi(cro)RNAs play critical roles in diverse biological processes and are aberrantly expressed in several human neoplasms including breast cancer, where they function as regulators of tumour behaviour and progression. The aims of this study were to identify miRNA signatures that accurately predict the oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu receptor status of breast cancer patients to provide insight into the regulation of breast cancer phenotypes and progression. Methods Expression profiling of 453 miRNAs was performed in 29 early-stage breast cancer specimens. miRNA signatures associated with ER, PR and HER2/neu status were generated using artificial neural networks (ANN), and expression of specific miRNAs was validated using RQ-PCR. Results Stepwise ANN analysis identified predictive miRNA signatures corresponding with oestrogen (miR-342, miR-299, miR-217, miR-190, miR-135b, miR-218), progesterone (miR-520g, miR-377, miR-527-518a, miR-520f-520c) and HER2/neu (miR-520d, miR-181c, miR-302c, miR-376b, miR-30e) receptor status. MiR-342 and miR-520g expression was further analysed in 95 breast tumours. MiR-342 expression was highest in ER and HER2/neu-positive luminal B tumours and lowest in triple-negative tumours. MiR-520g expression was elevated in ER and PR-negative tumours. Conclusions This study demonstrates that ANN analysis reliably identifies biologically relevant miRNAs associated with specific breast cancer phenotypes. The association of specific miRNAs with ER, PR and HER2/neu status indicates a role for these miRNAs in disease classification of breast cancer. Decreased expression of miR-342 in the

  14. Prognostic meta-signature of breast cancer developed by two-stage mixture modeling of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Debashis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of studies have profiled tumor specimens using distinct microarray platforms and analysis techniques. With the accumulating amount of microarray data, one of the most intriguing yet challenging tasks is to develop robust statistical models to integrate the findings. Results By applying a two-stage Bayesian mixture modeling strategy, we were able to assimilate and analyze four independent microarray studies to derive an inter-study validated "meta-signature" associated with breast cancer prognosis. Combining multiple studies (n = 305 samples on a common probability scale, we developed a 90-gene meta-signature, which strongly associated with survival in breast cancer patients. Given the set of independent studies using different microarray platforms which included spotted cDNAs, Affymetrix GeneChip, and inkjet oligonucleotides, the individually identified classifiers yielded gene sets predictive of survival in each study cohort. The study-specific gene signatures, however, had minimal overlap with each other, and performed poorly in pairwise cross-validation. The meta-signature, on the other hand, accommodated such heterogeneity and achieved comparable or better prognostic performance when compared with the individual signatures. Further by comparing to a global standardization method, the mixture model based data transformation demonstrated superior properties for data integration and provided solid basis for building classifiers at the second stage. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in cell cycle and signal transduction activities were over-represented in the meta-signature. Conclusion The mixture modeling approach unifies disparate gene expression data on a common probability scale allowing for robust, inter-study validated prognostic signatures to be obtained. With the emerging utility of microarrays for cancer prognosis, it will be important to establish paradigms to meta

  15. Immune signature of metastatic breast cancer: Identifying predictive markers of immunotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Eunjin; Park, Kyunghee; Park, Woong-Yang; Jung, Hae Hyun; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2017-07-18

    In breast cancer (BC), up to 10-20% patients were known to have clinical benefit with immune checkpoint inhibitors, and biomarkers are needed for optimal use of this multi-potential therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment to identify expression of genes associated with immune checkpoints that represent potential targets of cancer immunotherapy. We performed whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing using 37 refractory BC specimens. In the immune pathway gene set expression analysis, we found that HER2 expression and previous taxane treatment were positively correlated with high expression of immune gene set expression (p = 0.070 and 0.008, respectively). The nine genes associated with immune checkpoints - PDCD1(PD-1), CD274(PD-L1), CD276(B7-H3), CTLA-4, IDO1, LAG3, VTCN1, HAVCR2, and TNFRSF4(OX40) - interacted with each other. In addition, HER2 expression also affected the expression levels of these genes (p = 0.044). Lastly, expression of immune checkpoint genes and tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes were positively correlated in metastatic BCs (p immune checkpoint genes and immune pathway gene sets. Further study of the BC immune signature with large-scale, translational data sets is warranted.

  16. TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

  17. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed....... The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific...

  18. Identification of upstream transcription factors (TFs) for expression signature genes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hongyan; Li, Ning; Pan, Yuling; Hao, Jingguang

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women with a rising incidence. Our intention was to detect transcription factors (TFs) for deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer. Integrated analysis of gene expression datasets of breast cancer was performed. Then, functional annotation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted, including Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Furthermore, TFs were identified and a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Seven publically available GEO datasets were obtained, and a set of 1196 DEGs were identified (460 up-regulated and 736 down-regulated). Functional annotation results showed that cell cycle was the most significantly enriched pathway, which was consistent with the fact that cell cycle is closely related to various tumors. Fifty-three differentially expressed TFs were identified, and the regulatory networks consisted of 817 TF-target interactions between 46 TFs and 602 DEGs in the context of breast cancer. Top 10 TFs covering the most downstream DEGs were SOX10, NFATC2, ZNF354C, ARID3A, BRCA1, FOXO3, GATA3, ZEB1, HOXA5 and EGR1. The transcriptional regulatory networks could enable a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms of breast cancer pathology and provide an opportunity for the development of potential therapy.

  19. Gene expression signature in organized and growth arrested mammaryacini predicts good outcome in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Marcia V.; Martin, Katherine J.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Xhaja, Kris; Bosch, Irene; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-02-08

    To understand how non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) transit from a disorganized proliferating to an organized growth arrested state, and to relate this process to the changes that occur in breast cancer, we studied gene expression changes in non-malignant HMEC grown in three-dimensional cultures, and in a previously published panel of microarray data for 295 breast cancer samples. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth arrested mammary acini would share similarities with breast tumors with good prognoses. Using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays, we analyzed the expression of 22,283 gene transcripts in two HMEC cell lines, 184 (finite life span) and HMT3522 S1 (immortal non-malignant), on successive days post-seeding in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix assay. Both HMECs underwent growth arrest in G0/G1 and differentiated into polarized acini between days 5 and 7. We identified gene expression changes with the same temporal pattern in both lines. We show that genes that are significantly lower in the organized, growth arrested HMEC than in their proliferating counterparts can be used to classify breast cancer patients into poor and good prognosis groups with high accuracy. This study represents a novel unsupervised approach to identifying breast cancer markers that may be of use clinically.

  20. Gene expression signature of estrogen receptor α status in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baggerly Keith

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to modify their phenotypic properties. Identification of estrogen-regulated genes in human breast tumors is an essential step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in cancer. To this end we generated and compared the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE profiles of 26 human breast carcinomas based on their estrogen receptor α (ER status. Thus, producing a breast cancer SAGE database of almost 2.5 million tags, representing over 50,000 transcripts. Results We identified 520 transcripts differentially expressed between ERα-positive (+ and ERα-negative (- primary breast tumors (Fold change ≥ 2; p Estrogen Responsive Elements (EREs distributed on the promoter regions of 163 out of the 473 up-modulated genes in ERα (+ breast tumors. In brief, we observed predominantly up-regulation of cell growth related genes, DNA binding and transcription factor activity related genes based on Gene Ontology (GO biological functional annotation. GO terms over-representation analysis showed a statistically significant enrichment of various transcript families including: metal ion binding related transcripts (p = 0.011, calcium ion binding related transcripts (p = 0.033 and steroid hormone receptor activity related transcripts (p = 0.031. SAGE data associated with ERα status was compared with reported information from breast cancer DNA microarrays studies. A significant proportion of ERα associated gene expression changes was validated by this cross-platform comparison. However, our SAGE study also identified novel sets of genes as highly expressed in ERα (+ invasive breast tumors not previously reported. These observations were further validated in an independent set of human breast tumors by means of real time RT-PCR. Conclusion The integration of the breast cancer comparative transcriptome analysis based on ERα status coupled to

  1. Utilization of Genomic Signatures to Direct Use of Primary Chemotherapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    carcinoma was present in 49 samples, while one biopsy contained ductal carcinoma in situ only. One set of biopsies (patient B) contained lobular carcinoma ...the remaining cases were ductal-type carcinomas . Invasive tumor cellu- larity varied from 10% to 90%. RNA and microarray quality control metrics are...study was pathologic complete response in the breast, defined as resolution of all invasive cancer. Nodal status was not considered since

  2. Molecular signature of response and potential pathways related to resistance to the HSP90 inhibitor, 17AAG, in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Javier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HSP90 may be a favorable target for investigational therapy in breast cancer. In fact, the HSP90 inhibitor, 17AAG, currently has entered in phase II clinical trials as an anticancer agent in breast and other tumors. Since HSP90 inhibition leads to global depletion of oncogenic proteins involved in multiple pathways we applied global analysis using gene array technology to study new genes and pathways involved in the drug response in breast cancer. Methods Gene expression profiling using Whole Human Genome Agilent array technology was applied to a total of six sensitive and two resistant breast cancer cell lines pre-treatment and treated with the 17AAG for 24 and 48 hours. Results We have identified a common molecular signature of response to 17AAG composed of 35 genes which include novel pharmacodynamic markers of this drug. In addition, different patterns of HSP90 client transcriptional changes after 17AAG were identified associated to the sensitive cell lines, which could be useful to evaluate drug effectiveness. Finally, we have found differentially expressed pathways associated to resistance to 17AAG. We observed significant activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in resistant cells upon treatment, indicating that these pathways could be potentially targeted to overcome resistance. Conclusions Our study shows that global mRNA expression analysis is a useful strategy to examine molecular effects of drugs, which allowed us the discovery of new biomarkers of 17AAG activity and provided more insights into the complex mechanism of 17AAG resistance.

  3. Value of a gene signature assay in patients with early breast cancer and intermediate risk: a single institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneterre, Jacques; Prat, Aleix; Galván, Patricia; Morel, Pascale; Giard, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    Purpose In daily clinical practice, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is relatively easy to make in patients with early hormone-receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer with either very poor or very good clinicopathological prognostic variables. However, this decision is much more difficult in patients with intermediate clinicopathological prognostic variables. Here, we evaluate the value of a gene-expression profile identified by the Prosigna gene signature assay in guiding treatment decision-making in patients with these intermediate features. Methods A consecutive cohort of 577 HR + breast cancer patients surgically treated in a single institution between January 2012 and December 2012 was evaluated. From this population, pre- and post-menopausal patients with intermediate prognosis clinicopathological variables were identified and indication of adjuvant CT in these patients was recorded. The gene signature assay was performed retrospectively in this intermediate risk group. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results Among 96 intermediate-risk patients, 64 postmenopausal patients underwent gene signature testing. Subtype distribution was as follows: Luminal A (N = 33; 51.6%), Luminal B (N = 31; 48.4%). Risk of recurrence (ROR) distribution was as follows: ROR-low (n = 16; 25%); ROR-intermediate (N = 26; 40.6%); and ROR-high (N = 22; 34.4%). CT was subsequently administered in 18.7%, 53.8% and 59.0% of the ROR-low, ROR-intermediate and ROR-high groups, respectively. With the use of the gene signature assay, 59.4% of the intermediate cases were re-classified to either ROR-low or ROR-high risk categories. In the ROR-intermediate group, 11/26 patients (42.3%) had Luminal A and 15/26 (57.7%) had Luminal B. Due to follow-up time constraints, no patient outcome results were evaluated. Conclusion The gene signature assay provides clinically useful information and improved treatment decision-making in patients with intermediate risk based on

  4. An association study of established breast cancer reproductive and lifestyle risk factors with tumour subtype defined by the prognostic 70-gene expression signature (MammaPrint®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makama, M; Drukker, C A; Rutgers, E J Th; Slaets, L; Cardoso, F; Rookus, M A; Tryfonidis, K; Van't Veer, L J; Schmidt, M K

    2017-04-01

    Reproductive and lifestyle factors influence both breast cancer risk and prognosis; this might be through breast cancer subtype. Subtypes defined by immunohistochemical hormone receptor markers and gene expression signatures are used to predict prognosis of breast cancer patients based on their tumour biology. We investigated the association between established breast cancer risk factors and the 70-gene prognostication signature in breast cancer patients. Standardised questionnaires were used to obtain information on established risk factors of breast cancer from the Dutch patients of the MINDACT trial. Clinical-pathological and genomic information were obtained from the trial database. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between lifestyle risk factors and tumour prognostic subtypes, measured by the 70-gene MammaPrint® signature (i.e. low-risk or high-risk tumours). Of the 1555 breast cancer patients included, 910 had low-risk and 645 had high-risk tumours. Current body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, age at first birth, age at menopause, hormonal contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy use were not associated with MammaPrint®. In parous women, higher parity was associated with a lower risk (OR: 0.75, [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.59-0.95] P = 0.018) and longer breastfeeding duration with a higher risk (OR: 1.03, [95% CI: 1.01-1.05] P = 0.005) of developing high-risk tumours; risk estimates were similar within oestrogen receptor-positive disease. After stratifying by menopausal status, the associations remained present in post-menopausal women. Using prognostic gene expression profiles, we have indications that specific reproductive factors may be associated with prognostic tumour subtypes beyond hormone receptor status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  6. Converting a breast cancer microarray signature into a high-throughput diagnostic test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warmoes Marc O

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 70-gene tumor expression profile was established as a powerful predictor of disease outcome in young breast cancer patients. This profile, however, was generated on microarrays containing 25,000 60-mer oligonucleotides that are not designed for processing of many samples on a routine basis. Results To facilitate its use in a diagnostic setting, the 70-gene prognosis profile was translated into a customized microarray (MammaPrint containing a reduced set of 1,900 probes suitable for high throughput processing. RNA of 162 patient samples from two previous studies was subjected to hybridization to this custom array to validate the prognostic value. Classification results obtained from the original analysis were then compared to those generated using the algorithms based on the custom microarray and showed an extremely high correlation of prognosis prediction between the original data and those generated using the custom mini-array (p Conclusion In this report we demonstrate for the first time that microarray technology can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool. The data clearly demonstrate the reproducibility and robustness of the small custom-made microarray. The array is therefore an excellent tool to predict outcome of disease in breast cancer patients.

  7. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: Siamak.Haghdoost@su.se [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  8. A molecular 'signature' of primary breast cancer cultures; patterns resembling tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhenhang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the spectrum of malignant attributes maintained outside the host environment, we have compared global gene expression in primary breast tumors and matched short-term epithelial cultures. Results In contrast to immortal cell lines, a characteristic 'limited proliferation' phenotype was observed, which included over expressed genes associated with the TGFβ signal transduction pathway, such as SPARC, LOXL1, RUNX1, and DAPK1. Underlying this profile was the conspicuous absence of hTERT expression and telomerase activity, a significant increase in TβRII, its cognate ligand, and the CDK inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1. Concurrently, tumor tissue and primary cultures displayed low transcript levels of proliferation-related genes, such as, TOP2A, ANKT, RAD51, UBE2C, CENPA, RRM2, and PLK. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that commonly used immortal cell lines do not reflect some aspects of tumor biology as closely as primary tumor cell cultures. The gene expression profile of malignant tissue, which is uniquely retained by cells cultured on solid substrates, could facilitate the development and testing of novel molecular targets for breast cancer.

  9. Factor models for cancer signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel method for extracting cancer signatures by applying statistical risk models (http://ssrn.com/abstract=2732453) from quantitative finance to cancer genome data. Using 1389 whole genome sequenced samples from 14 cancers, we identify an ;overall; mode of somatic mutational noise. We give a prescription for factoring out this noise and source code for fixing the number of signatures. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to genome data aggregated by cancer subtype and filtered using our method. The resultant signatures have substantially lower variability than those from unfiltered data. Also, the computational cost of signature extraction is cut by about a factor of 10. We find 3 novel cancer signatures, including a liver cancer dominant signature (96% contribution) and a renal cell carcinoma signature (70% contribution). Our method accelerates finding new cancer signatures and improves their overall stability. Reciprocally, the methods for extracting cancer signatures could have interesting applications in quantitative finance.

  10. A gene expression signature from human breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence identifies MYC as a mediator of antiestrogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W.; Balko, Justin M.; Ghazoui, Zara; Dunbier, Anita; Anderson, Helen; Dowsett, Mitch; González-Angulo, Ana M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Miller, William R.; Wu, Huiyun; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although most patients with estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer initially respond to endocrine therapy, many ultimately develop resistance to antiestrogens. However, mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance and biomarkers predictive of such resistance are underdeveloped. Experimental Design We adapted four ER+ human breast cancer cell lines to grow in an estrogen-depleted medium. A gene signature of estrogen independence was developed by comparing expression profiles of long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) cells to their parental counterparts. We evaluated the ability of the LTED signature to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor, and disease outcome following adjuvant tamoxifen. We utilized Gene Set Analysis (GSA) of LTED cell gene expression profiles and a loss-of-function approach to identify pathways causally associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Results The LTED gene expression signature was predictive of high tumor cell proliferation following neoadjuvant therapy with anastrozole and letrozole, each in different patient cohorts. This signature was also predictive of poor recurrence-free survival in two studies of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Bioinformatic interrogation of expression profiles in LTED cells revealed a signature of MYC activation. The MYC activation signature and high MYC protein levels were both predictive of poor outcome following tamoxifen therapy. Finally, knockdown of MYC inhibited LTED cell growth. Conclusions A gene expression signature derived from ER+ breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence predicted tumor response to aromatase inhibitors and associated with clinical markers of resistance to tamoxifen. In some cases, activation of the MYC pathway was associated with this resistance. PMID:21346144

  11. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Joe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N- estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ patients with extensive follow-up times. Methods 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A "metastasis score" (MS representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS. Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. Results A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p Conclusion The 14-gene signature is significantly associated with risk of distant metastasis. The signature has a predominance of proliferation genes which have prognostic significance above that of Ki-67 LI and may aid in prioritizing future mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions.

  12. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  13. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  14. BRCA1-like signature in triple negative breast cancer : Molecular and clinical characterization reveals subgroups with therapeutic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severson, Tesa M; Peeters, Justine; Majewski, Ian; Michaut, Magali; Bosma, Astrid; Schouten, Philip C; Chin, Suet-Feung; Pereira, Bernard; Goldgraben, Mae A; Bismeijer, Tycho; Kluin, Roelof J C; Muris, Jettie J F; Jirström, Karin; Kerkhoven, Ron M; Wessels, Lodewyk; Caldas, Carlos; Bernards, René; Simon, Iris M; Linn, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative (TN) breast cancers make up some 15% of all breast cancers. Approximately 10-15% are mutant for the tumor suppressor, BRCA1. BRCA1 is required for homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair and deficiency results in genomic instability. BRCA1-mutated tumors have a specific pattern

  15. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  16. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  17. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  19. Reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling identifies a biomarker signature for risk classification of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sonntag

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust subclassification of luminal breast cancer, the most common molecular subtype of human breast cancer, is crucial for therapy decisions. While a part of patients is at higher risk of recurrence and requires chemo-endocrine treatment, the other part is at lower risk and also poorly responds to chemotherapeutic regimens. To approximate the risk of cancer recurrence, clinical guidelines recommend determining histologic grading and abundance of a cell proliferation marker in tumor specimens. However, this approach assigns an intermediate risk to a substantial number of patients and in addition suffers from a high interobserver variability. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify a quantitative protein biomarker signature to facilitate risk classification. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were used to obtain quantitative expression data for 128 breast cancer relevant proteins in a set of hormone receptor-positive tumors (n = 109. Proteomic data for the subset of histologic G1 (n = 14 and G3 (n = 22 samples were used for biomarker discovery serving as surrogates of low and high recurrence risk, respectively. A novel biomarker selection workflow based on combining three different classification methods identified caveolin-1, NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 as top candidates. NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 were expressed at elevated levels in high risk tumors whereas caveolin-1 was observed as downregulated. The identified biomarker signature was subsequently analyzed using an independent test set (AUC = 0.78. Further evaluation of the identified biomarker panel by Western blot and mRNA profiling confirmed the proteomic signature obtained by RPPA. In conclusion, the biomarker signature introduced supports RPPA as a tool for cancer biomarker discovery.

  20. A New Gene Expression Signature for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Frozen Fresh Tissue before Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santuario-Facio, Sandra K.; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Perez-Paramo, Yadira X; Trevino, Victor; Hernandez-Cabrera, Francisco; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Uscanga-Perales, Grecia; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jorge L; Martinez-Jacobo, Lizeth; Padilla-Rivas,Gerardo; Mu��oz-Maldonado, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan Francisco; Valero-Gomez, Javier; Vazquez-Guerrero, Ana L; Herminia G Martinez-Rodriguez

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer tumors. Comparisons between TNBC and non���triple-negative breast cancer (nTNBC) may help to differentiate key components involved in TNBC neoplasms. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression profile of TNBC versus nTNBC tumors in a homogeneous population from northeastern Mexico. A prospective study of 50 patients (25 TNBC and 25 nTNBC) was conducted. Clinic parameters were equally distributed for TNB...

  1. Gene Expression Signature TOPFOX Reflecting Chromosomal Instability Refines Prediction of Prognosis in Grade 2 Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szasz, A.; Li, Qiyuan; Sztupinszki, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the ability of genes selected from those reflecting chromosomal instability to identify good and poor prognostic subsets of Grade 2 breast carcinomas. Methods: We selected genes for splitting grade 2 tumours into low and high grade type groups by using public databases. Patient...

  2. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  4. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  5. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  6. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, Andrew; Wang, Alice; Rowland, Charles; Gillett, Cheryl; Lau, Kit; Chew, Karen; Dai, Hongyue; Kwok, Shirley; Ryder, Kenneth; Shu, Henry; Springall, Robert; Cane, Paul; McCallie, Blair; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Anderson, Steve; Buerger, Horst; Gray, Joe; Bennington, James; Esserman, Laura; Hastie, Trevor; Broder, Samuel; Sninsky, John; Brandt, Burkhard; Waldman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N-) estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients with extensive follow-up times. Methods 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A "metastasis score" (MS) representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. Results A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with distant metastasis in a training set and subsequently in an independent validation set. In the validation set, the hazard ratios (HR) of the high risk compared to low risk groups were 4.02 (95% CI 1.91–8.44) for the endpoint of DMFS and 1.97 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.04) for overall survival after adjustment for age, tumor size and grade. The low and high MS risk groups had 10-year estimates (95% CI) of 96% (90–99%) and 72% (64–78%) respectively, for DMFS and 91% (84–95%) and 68% (61–75%), respectively for overall survival. Performance characteristics of the signature in the two sets were similar. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was predictive for recurrent disease in the training set, but lost significance after adjustment for the expression signature. In a study of tamoxifen-treated patients, the HR for DMFS in high compared to low risk groups was 3.61 (95% CI 0.86–15.14). Conclusion The 14

  7. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  8. Validation of gene signatures that predict the response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a substudy of the EORTC 10994/BIG 00-01 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoi, Hervé; Potti, Anil; Delorenzi, Mauro; Mauriac, Louis; Campone, Mario; Tubiana-Hulin, Michèle; Petit, Thierry; Rouanet, Philippe; Jassem, Jacek; Blot, Emmanuel; Becette, Véronique; Farmer, Pierre; André, Sylvie; Acharya, Chaitanya R; Mukherjee, Sayan; Cameron, David; Bergh, Jonas; Nevins, Joseph R; Iggo, Richard D

    2007-12-01

    We have previously described gene-expression signatures that predict growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity of these gene-expression signatures in a large series of patients with oestrogen-receptor-negative breast tumours who were treated in a phase III neoadjuvant clinical trial. This trial compares a non-taxane regimen (fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide [FEC] for six cycles) with a taxane regimen (docetaxel for three cycles followed by epirubicin plus docetaxel [TET] for three cycles) in women with oestrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer. The primary endpoint of the study is the difference in progression-free survival based on TP53 status and will be reported later. Predicting response with gene signatures was a planned secondary endpoint of the trial and is reported here. Pathological complete response, defined as complete disappearance of the tumour with no more than a few scattered tumour cells detected by the pathologist in the resection specimen, was used to assess chemosensitivity. RNA was prepared from sections of frozen biopsies taken at diagnosis and hybridised to Affymetrix X3P microarrays. In-vitro single-agent drug sensitivity signatures were combined to obtain FEC and TET regimen-specific signatures. This study is registered on the clinical trials site of the US National Cancer Institute website http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00017095. Of 212 patients with oestrogen-receptor-negative tumours assessed, 87 patients were excluded. 125 oestrogen-receptor-negative tumours (55 that showed pathological complete responses) were tested: 66 in the FEC group (28 that showed pathological complete responses) and 59 in the TET group (27 that showed pathological complete responses). The regimen-specific signatures significantly predicted pathological complete response in patients treated with the appropriate regimen (p<0.0001). The FEC predictor

  9. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  10. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    implemented in Spike et al., and as implemented in Pfefferle et al. 2015; the analysis identified two important findings. First these two implementation of the...the analysis of 10 Kl4+K8+ cells that are currently be sequenced with funding from the JCVI and a Salk Cancer Center Starter award to yield a total of...Transcriptomic classification of genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer identifies human subtype counterparts. Genome Biol. 14(11):R125 epub

  11. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria B; Binder, Harald; Cold, Søren; Gravgaard, Karina; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-07-01

    There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Global miRNA analysis was performed on serum from 48 patients with ER-positive early-stage breast cancer obtained at diagnosis (24 lymph node-positive and 24 lymph node-negative) and 24 age-matched healthy controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO Database. A multivariable signature consisting of 9 miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-18a, miR-107, miR-133a, miR-139-5p, miR-143, miR-145, miR-365, miR-425) was identified that provided considerable discrimination between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Further, the ability of the 9 miRNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed. The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific algorithm based on the 9 miRNA signature, the risk for future individuals can be predicted. Since microRNAs are highly stable in blood components, this signature might be useful in the development of a blood

  12. Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Dilek; Nofal, Asmaa; Albakheet, Albandary; Nirmal, Maimoona; Jeprel, Hatim; Eldali, Abdelmoneim; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Tulbah, Asma; Ajarim, Dahish; Malik, Osama Al; Inan, Mehmet S; Kaya, Namik; Park, Ben H; Bin Amer, Suad M

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross

  13. Prognostic Discrimination Using a 70-Gene Signature among Patients with Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer and an Intermediate 21-Gene Recurrence Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gwe Ahn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oncotype DX® recurrence score (RS predictor has been clinically utilized to appropriately select adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with estrogen receptor (ER-positive early breast cancer. However, the selection of chemotherapy for patients with intermediate RSs remains controversial. We assessed the prognostic value of a 70-gene signature (70GS among patients with ER-positive breast cancer and intermediate RSs. In addition, we sought to identify genes associated with poor 70GS scores based on gene expression profiling (GEP. GEP was performed using gene expression data from 186 patients with ER-positive breast cancer. The RS and 70GS score were calculated on the basis of GEP. Among 186 patients, 82 ER-positive patients with intermediate RSs were identified. These patients were stratified by 70GS, overall survival (OS significantly differed according to 70GS (p = 0.013. In a supervised hierarchical analysis according to 70GS, the expression of several representative genes for cell proliferation was significantly higher in the poor 70GS cluster than in the good 70GS cluster. Furthermore, among these patients, FOXM1, AURKA, AURKB, and BIRC5 displayed prognostic significance for OS. In conclusion, 70GS can help to discriminate survival differences among ER-positive patients with intermediate RSs. FOXM1, AURKA, AURKB, and BIRC5, are associated with poor 70GS scores.

  14. FLT1 signaling in metastasis-associated macrophages activates an inflammatory signature that promotes breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Jiufeng; He, Tianfang; Yeo, Eun-Jin; Soong, Daniel Y.H.; Carragher, Neil O.; Munro, Alison; Chang, Alvin; Bresnick, Anne R.; Lang, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the link between inflammation and cancer initiation is well established, its role in metastatic diseases, the primary cause of cancer deaths, has been poorly explored. Our previous studies identified a population of metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) recruited to the lung that promote tumor cell seeding and growth. Here we show that FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1, also known as VEGFR1) labels a subset of macrophages in human breast cancers that are significantly enriched in metastatic sites. In mouse models of breast cancer pulmonary metastasis, MAMs uniquely express FLT1. Using several genetic models, we show that macrophage FLT1 signaling is critical for metastasis. FLT1 inhibition does not affect MAM recruitment to metastatic lesions but regulates a set of inflammatory response genes, including colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), a central regulator of macrophage biology. Using a gain-of-function approach, we show that CSF1-mediated autocrine signaling in MAMs is downstream of FLT1 and can restore the tumor-promoting activity of FLT1-inhibited MAMs. Thus, CSF1 is epistatic to FLT1, establishing a link between FLT1 and inflammatory responses within breast tumor metastases. Importantly, FLT1 inhibition reduces tumor metastatic efficiency even after initial seeding, suggesting that these pathways represent therapeutic targets in metastatic disease. PMID:26261265

  15. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  16. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  18. Breast Cancer Biomarkers Based on Nipple and Fine Needle Aspirates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russo, Irma H

    2005-01-01

    ... of the cytological normal breast epithelium of women at high risk for breast cancer. This signature will serve as an intermediate biomarker for evaluating the response of the breast to novel chemopreventive agents...

  19. Identification of cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways in a prognostic signature for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Liu

    Full Text Available Multi-gene prognostic signatures derived from primary tumor biopsies can guide clinicians in designing an appropriate course of treatment. Identifying genes and pathways most essential to a signature performance may facilitate clinical application, provide insights into cancer progression, and uncover potentially new therapeutic targets. We previously developed a 17-gene prognostic signature (HTICS for HER2+:ERα- breast cancer patients, using genes that are differentially expressed in tumor initiating cells (TICs versus non-TICs from MMTV-Her2/neu mammary tumors. Here we probed the pathways and genes that underlie the prognostic power of HTICS.We used Leave-One Out, Data Combination Test, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, Correlation and Substitution analyses together with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to identify critical biological pathways within HTICS. Publically available cohorts with gene expression and clinical outcome were used to assess prognosis. NanoString technology was used to detect gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues.We show that three major biological pathways: cell proliferation, immune response, and cell migration, drive the prognostic power of HTICS, which is further tuned by Homeostatic and Glycan metabolic signalling. A 6-gene minimal Core that retained a significant prognostic power, albeit less than HTICS, also comprised the proliferation/immune/migration pathways. Finally, we developed NanoString probes that could detect expression of HTICS genes and their substitutions in FFPE samples.Our results demonstrate that the prognostic power of a signature is driven by the biological processes it monitors, identify cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways for HER2+:ERα- cancer progression, and defines substitutes and Core genes that should facilitate clinical application of HTICS.

  20. Non-invasive, Contrast-enhanced Spectral Imaging of Breast Cancer Signatures in Preclinical Animal Models In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Ren, Songyang; Park, Sangyong; Farkas, Daniel L

    2010-10-02

    We report here a non-invasive multispectral imaging platform for monitoring spectral reflectance and fluorescence images from primary breast carcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes in preclinical rat model in vivo. The system is built around a monochromator light source and an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for spectral selection. Quantitative analysis of the measured reflectance profiles in the presence of a widely-used lymphazurin dye clearly demonstrates the capability of the proposed imaging platform to detect tumor-associated spectral signatures in the primary tumors as well as metastatic lymphatics. Tumor-associated changes in vascular oxygenation and interstitial fluid pressure are reasoned to be the physiological sources of the measured reflectance profiles. We also discuss the translational potential of our imaging platform in intra-operative clinical setting.

  1. Multi-platform whole-genome microarray analyses refine the epigenetic signature of breast cancer metastasis with gene expression and copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in a cell line model of breast cancer metastasis. These complex epigenetic changes that we observed, along with concurrent karyotype analyses, have led us to hypothesize that complex genomic alterations in cancer cells (deletions, translocations and ploidy are superimposed over promoter-specific methylation events that are responsible for gene-specific expression changes observed in breast cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook simultaneous high-resolution, whole-genome analyses of MDA-MB-468GFP and MDA-MB-468GFP-LN human breast cancer cell lines (an isogenic, paired lymphatic metastasis cell line model using Affymetrix gene expression (U133, promoter (1.0R, and SNP/CNV (SNP 6.0 microarray platforms to correlate data from gene expression, epigenetic (DNA methylation, and combination copy number variant/single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. Using Partek Software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we integrated datasets from these three platforms and detected multiple hypomethylation and hypermethylation events. Many of these epigenetic alterations correlated with gene expression changes. In addition, gene dosage events correlated with the karyotypic differences observed between the cell lines and were reflected in specific promoter methylation patterns. Gene subsets were identified that correlated hyper (and hypo methylation with the loss (or gain of gene expression and in parallel, with gene dosage losses and gains, respectively. Individual gene targets from these subsets were also validated for their methylation, expression and copy number status, and susceptible gene pathways were identified that may indicate how selective advantage drives the processes of tumourigenesis and metastasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach allows more precisely profiling of functionally relevant epigenetic signatures that are associated with cancer

  2. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  3. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  4. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  5. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  8. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  10. Pathway-focused proteomic signatures in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer with a basal-like phenotype: new insights into de novo resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castilló, Begoña; Pérez-Martínez, Maria Carmen; Cufí, Silvia; Del Barco, Sonia; Bernado, Luis; Brunet, Joan; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javíer A

    2010-09-01

    that activated IGF-1R mainly localized at focal adhesion-like structures in JIMT-1 cells. In vitro wound healing assays suggested that this functional reorganization of the JIMT-1 cytoskeletal reorganization may account for an exacerbated trastuzumab-refractory 'migratogenic' phenotype. Forthcoming studies should validate the notion that identification of basal-like immunophenotypes and/or basal-like molecular signatures within HER2+ breast carcinomas may provide rapid means to define subgroups of breast cancer patients likely to display resistance to trastuzumab ab initio.

  11. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  12. Biomarker signatures of mitochondrial NDUFS3 in invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhane, Sonal; Berel, Dror; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-09-09

    We present evidence for potential biomarker utility of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, (NDUFS3) in discriminating normal and highly invasive breast carcinoma specimens obtained from clinical patients. Besides being a robust indicator of breast cancer aggressiveness, NDUFS3 also shows clear signatures of a hypoxia/necrosis marker in invasive ductal carcinoma specimens. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between nuclear grade and NDUFS3 expression level in the tumor specimens analyzed. We support these findings with a plausible mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I assembly defects and/or redox buffering induced mitochondrial dysfunction during the process of cancer cell transformation. From a clinical standpoint, this novel observation adds value in augmenting the current receptor-based biomarkers for better accuracy in diagnosis and predicting survival rate in patients with breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining the genomic signature of the parous breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Suraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is accepted that a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer after menopause is reduced by early full term pregnancy and multiparity. This phenomenon is thought to be associated with the development and differentiation of the breast during pregnancy. Methods In order to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of pregnancy induced breast cancer protection, we profiled and compared the transcriptomes of normal breast tissue biopsies from 71 parous (P and 42 nulliparous (NP healthy postmenopausal women using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. To validate the results, we performed real time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We identified 305 differentially expressed probesets (208 distinct genes. Of these, 267 probesets were up- and 38 down-regulated in parous breast samples; bioinformatics analysis using gene ontology enrichment revealed that up-regulated genes in the parous breast represented biological processes involving differentiation and development, anchoring of epithelial cells to the basement membrane, hemidesmosome and cell-substrate junction assembly, mRNA and RNA metabolic processes and RNA splicing machinery. The down-regulated genes represented biological processes that comprised cell proliferation, regulation of IGF-like growth factor receptor signaling, somatic stem cell maintenance, muscle cell differentiation and apoptosis. Conclusions This study suggests that the differentiation of the breast imprints a genomic signature that is centered in the mRNA processing reactome. These findings indicate that pregnancy may induce a safeguard mechanism at post-transcriptional level that maintains the fidelity of the transcriptional process.

  14. Analytical validation of the PAM50-based Prosigna Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay and nCounter Analysis System using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torsten; Wallden, Brett; Schaper, Carl; Ferree, Sean; Liu, Shuzhen; Gao, Dongxia; Barry, Garrett; Dowidar, Naeem; Maysuria, Malini; Storhoff, James

    2014-03-13

    NanoString's Prosigna™ Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay is based on the PAM50 gene expression signature. The test outputs a risk of recurrence (ROR) score, risk category, and intrinsic subtype (Luminal A/B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like). The studies described here were designed to validate the analytical performance of the test on the nCounter Analysis System across multiple laboratories. Analytical precision was measured by testing five breast tumor RNA samples across 3 sites. Reproducibility was measured by testing replicate tissue sections from 43 FFPE breast tumor blocks across 3 sites following independent pathology review at each site. The RNA input range was validated by comparing assay results at the extremes of the specified range to the nominal RNA input level. Interference was evaluated by including non-tumor tissue into the test. The measured standard deviation (SD) was less than 1 ROR unit within the analytical precision study and the measured total SD was 2.9 ROR units within the reproducibility study. The ROR scores for RNA inputs at the extremes of the range were the same as those at the nominal input level. Assay results were stable in the presence of moderate amounts of surrounding non-tumor tissue (testing laboratories.

  15. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  16. Functional heterogeneity within the CD44 high human breast cancer stem cell-like compartment reveals a gene signature predictive of distant metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Terp, Mikkel Green; Christensen, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    of estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancers. These findings strongly favor functional heterogeneity in the breast cancer cell compartment and hold promise for further refinements of prognostic marker profiling. Our work confirms that, in addition to cancer stem cells with mesenchymal-like morphology......The CD44(hi) compartment in human breast cancer is enriched in tumor-initiating cells; however the functional heterogeneity within this subpopulation remains poorly defined. We used a triple-negative breast cancer cell line with a known bi-lineage phenotype to isolate and clone CD44(hi) single......-cells that exhibited mesenchymal/Basal B and luminal/Basal A features, respectively. Herein we demonstrate in this and other triple-negative breast cancer cell lines that rather than CD44(hi)/CD24(-) mesenchymal-like Basal B cells, the CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) epithelioid Basal A cells retained classical cancer stem cell...

  17. Identification of Specific miRNA Signature in Paired Sera and Tissue Samples of Indian Women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Seema; Grover, Rajesh K; Gupta, Sanjay; Yadav, Ajay K; Das, Bhudev C

    2016-01-01

    Of several subtypes of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor that lacks expression of hormone receptors for estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and shows a worst prognosis. The small noncoding RNAs (miRNAs) considered as master regulator of gene expression play a key role in cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance and have emerged as attractive molecular biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment targets in cancer. We have done expression profiling of selected miRNAs in paired serum and tissue samples of TNBC patients and corresponding cell lines and compared with that of other subtypes, in order to identify novel serum miRNA biomarkers for early detection and progression of TNBC. A total of 85 paired tumor tissues and sera with an equal number of adjacent normal tissue margins and normal sera from age matched healthy women including tissue and sera samples from 15 benign fibroadenomas were employed for the study. We report for the first time an extremely high prevalence (73.9%) of TNBC in premenopausal women below 35 years of age and a significant altered expression of a panel of three specific oncogenic miRNAs- miR-21, miR-221, miR-210, and three tumor suppressor miRNAs- miR-195, miR-145 and Let-7a in both tissues and corresponding sera of TNBC patients when compared with triple positive breast cancer (TPBC) patients. While miR-21, miR-221 and miR-210 showed significant over-expression, miR-195 and miR-145 were downregulated and well correlated with various clinicopathological and demographic risk factors, tumor grade, clinical stage and hormone receptor status. Interestingly, despite being a known tumor suppressor, Let-7a showed a significant overexpression in TNBCs. It is suggested that this panel of six miRNA signature may serve as a minimally invasive biomarker for an early detection of TNBC patients.

  18. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  19. The Kinetic Signature of Toxicity of Four Heavy Metals and Their Mixtures on MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken Tito Aighewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the kinetic signature of toxicity of four heavy metals known to cause severe health and environmental issues—cadmium (Cd, mercury (Hg lead (Pb arsenic (As—and the mixture of all four metals (Mix on MCF7 cancer cells, in the presence and absence of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH. The study was carried out using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES. RT-CES monitors in real time the electrical impedance changes at the electrode/culture medium interface due to the number of adhered cells, which is used as an index of cell viability. Cells were seeded for 24 h before exposure to the metals and their mixtures. The results showed that in the presence and absence of cellular glutathione, arsenic was the most cytotoxic of all five treatments, inducing cell death after 5 h of exposure. Lead was the least cytotoxic in both scenarios. In the presence of cellular GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Cd > MIX > Hg > Pb, while in the absence of GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Hg > MIX > Cd > Pb. The findings from this study indicate the significance of glutathione-mediated toxicity of the metals examined—particularly for mercury—and may be clinically relevant for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder where decreased glutathione-based detoxification capacity is associated with increased mercury intoxication.

  20. The kinetic signature of toxicity of four heavy metals and their mixtures on MCF7 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiebor, Egbe; Tulu, Adam; Abou-Zeid, Nadia; Aighewi, Isoken Tito; Ishaque, Ali

    2013-10-21

    This study evaluated the kinetic signature of toxicity of four heavy metals known to cause severe health and environmental issues--cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) lead (Pb) arsenic (As)--and the mixture of all four metals (Mix) on MCF7 cancer cells, in the presence and absence of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The study was carried out using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). RT-CES monitors in real time the electrical impedance changes at the electrode/culture medium interface due to the number of adhered cells, which is used as an index of cell viability. Cells were seeded for 24 h before exposure to the metals and their mixtures. The results showed that in the presence and absence of cellular glutathione, arsenic was the most cytotoxic of all five treatments, inducing cell death after 5 h of exposure. Lead was the least cytotoxic in both scenarios. In the presence of cellular GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Cd > MIX > Hg > Pb, while in the absence of GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Hg > MIX > Cd > Pb. The findings from this study indicate the significance of glutathione-mediated toxicity of the metals examined--particularly for mercury--and may be clinically relevant for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder where decreased glutathione-based detoxification capacity is associated with increased mercury intoxication.

  1. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. Biomarker signatures of mitochondrial NDUFS3 in invasive breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhane, Sonal [Metabolic Photonics Laboratory, Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Berel, Dror [Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu [Metabolic Photonics Laboratory, Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} We monitored mitochondrial NDUFS3 expression in clinical breast cancer specimens. {yields} NDUFS3 expression is significantly higher in highly invasive cancer specimens. {yields} Increased NDUFS3 expression correlates with tumor nuclear grade. {yields} NDUFS3 expression in invasive ductal carcinoma is a potential hypoxia marker. -- Abstract: We present evidence for potential biomarker utility of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, (NDUFS3) in discriminating normal and highly invasive breast carcinoma specimens obtained from clinical patients. Besides being a robust indicator of breast cancer aggressiveness, NDUFS3 also shows clear signatures of a hypoxia/necrosis marker in invasive ductal carcinoma specimens. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between nuclear grade and NDUFS3 expression level in the tumor specimens analyzed. We support these findings with a plausible mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I assembly defects and/or redox buffering induced mitochondrial dysfunction during the process of cancer cell transformation. From a clinical standpoint, this novel observation adds value in augmenting the current receptor-based biomarkers for better accuracy in diagnosis and predicting survival rate in patients with breast carcinoma.

  3. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  4. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  5. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  6. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  7. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  8. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  9. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  10. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  12. A mouse mammary gland involution mRNA signature identifies biological pathways potentially associated with breast cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Torsten; Salomonis, Nathan; Nuyten, Dimitry S. A.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Gusterson, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse mammary gland involution resembles a wound healing response with suppressed inflammation. Wound healing and inflammation are also associated with tumour development, and a 'wound-healing' gene expression signature can predict metastasis formation and survival. Recent studies have shown that an

  13. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  14. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  15. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  17. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  18. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  20. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  1. MR Imaging Radiomics Signatures for Predicting the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence as Given by Research Versions of MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, and PAM50 Gene Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Yitan; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Drukker, Karen; Hoadley, Katherine A; Fan, Cheng; Conzen, Suzanne D; Whitman, Gary J; Sutton, Elizabeth J; Net, Jose M; Ganott, Marie; Huang, Erich; Morris, Elizabeth A; Perou, Charles M; Ji, Yuan; Giger, Maryellen L

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To investigate relationships between computer-extracted breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging phenotypes with multigene assays of MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, and PAM50 to assess the role of radiomics in evaluating the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods Analysis was conducted on an institutional review board-approved retrospective data set of 84 deidentified, multi-institutional breast MR examinations from the National Cancer Institute Cancer Imaging Archive, along with clinical, histopathologic, and genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The data set of biopsy-proven invasive breast cancers included 74 (88%) ductal, eight (10%) lobular, and two (2%) mixed cancers. Of these, 73 (87%) were estrogen receptor positive, 67 (80%) were progesterone receptor positive, and 19 (23%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive. For each case, computerized radiomics of the MR images yielded computer-extracted tumor phenotypes of size, shape, margin morphology, enhancement texture, and kinetic assessment. Regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis were conducted to assess the predictive ability of the MR radiomics features relative to the multigene assay classifications. Results Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations (R2 = 0.25-0.32, r = 0.5-0.56, P enhancement texture, which indicated tumor heterogeneity. Use of radiomics in the task of distinguishing between good and poor prognosis yielded area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.88 (standard error, 0.05), 0.76 (standard error, 0.06), 0.68 (standard error, 0.08), and 0.55 (standard error, 0.09) for MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, PAM50 risk of relapse based on subtype, and PAM50 risk of relapse based on subtype and proliferation, respectively, with all but the latter showing statistical difference from chance. Conclusion Quantitative breast MR imaging radiomics shows promise for image-based phenotyping in assessing

  2. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  4. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...

  5. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  7. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  8. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  9. Metabolomic signature of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Caflisch, Laura; Lodi, Alessia; Brenner, Andrew J; Tiziani, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumors represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumors, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which charact erizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumor biology. Metabolites are highly informative as a direct signature of biochemical activity; therefore, metabolite profiling has become a promising approach for clinical diagnostics and prognostics. The metabolic alterations are well-recognized as one of the key hallmarks in monitoring disease progression, therapy, and revealing new molecular targets for effective therapeutic intervention. Taking advantage of the latest high-throughput analytical technologies, that is, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), metabolomics is now a promising field for precision medicine and drug discovery. In the present report, we review the application of metabolomics and in vivo metabolic profiling in the context of adult gliomas and paediatric brain tumors. Analytical platforms such as high-resolution (HR) NMR, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and high- and low-resolution MS are discussed. Moreover, the relevance of metabolic studies in the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of gliomas are reviewed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  11. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  12. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  13. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  15. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  16. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  17. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  18. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  19. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  20. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  1. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  2. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  5. Strategy to find molecular signatures in a small series of rare cancers: validation for radiation-induced breast and thyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolin, Nicolas; Ory, Catherine; Lefevre, Emilie; Benhabiles, Nora; Hofman, Paul; Schlumberger, Martin; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Methods of classification using transcriptome analysis for case-by-case tumor diagnosis could be limited by tumor heterogeneity and masked information in the gene expression profiles, especially as the number of tumors is small. We propose a new strategy, EMts_2PCA, based on: 1) The identification of a gene expression signature with a great potential for discriminating subgroups of tumors (EMts stage), which includes: a) a learning step, based on an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, to select sets of candidate genes whose expressions discriminate two subgroups, b) a training step to select from the sets of candidate genes those with the highest potential to classify training tumors, c) the compilation of genes selected during the training step, and standardization of their levels of expression to finalize the signature. 2) The predictive classification of independent prospective tumors, according to the two subgroups of interest, by the definition of a validation space based on a two-step principal component analysis (2PCA). The present method was evaluated by classifying three series of tumors and its robustness, in terms of tumor clustering and prediction, was further compared with that of three classification methods (Gene expression bar code, Top-scoring pair(s) and a PCA-based method). Results showed that EMts_2PCA was very efficient in tumor classification and prediction, with scores always better that those obtained by the most common methods of tumor clustering. Specifically, EMts_2PCA permitted identification of highly discriminating molecular signatures to differentiate post-Chernobyl thyroid or post-radiotherapy breast tumors from their sporadic counterparts that were previously unsuccessfully classified or classified with errors.

  6. Strategy to find molecular signatures in a small series of rare cancers: validation for radiation-induced breast and thyroid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ugolin

    Full Text Available Methods of classification using transcriptome analysis for case-by-case tumor diagnosis could be limited by tumor heterogeneity and masked information in the gene expression profiles, especially as the number of tumors is small. We propose a new strategy, EMts_2PCA, based on: 1 The identification of a gene expression signature with a great potential for discriminating subgroups of tumors (EMts stage, which includes: a a learning step, based on an expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, to select sets of candidate genes whose expressions discriminate two subgroups, b a training step to select from the sets of candidate genes those with the highest potential to classify training tumors, c the compilation of genes selected during the training step, and standardization of their levels of expression to finalize the signature. 2 The predictive classification of independent prospective tumors, according to the two subgroups of interest, by the definition of a validation space based on a two-step principal component analysis (2PCA. The present method was evaluated by classifying three series of tumors and its robustness, in terms of tumor clustering and prediction, was further compared with that of three classification methods (Gene expression bar code, Top-scoring pair(s and a PCA-based method. Results showed that EMts_2PCA was very efficient in tumor classification and prediction, with scores always better that those obtained by the most common methods of tumor clustering. Specifically, EMts_2PCA permitted identification of highly discriminating molecular signatures to differentiate post-Chernobyl thyroid or post-radiotherapy breast tumors from their sporadic counterparts that were previously unsuccessfully classified or classified with errors.

  7. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  8. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  9. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  10. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  11. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Breast Cancer: A Molecular and Redox Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Deepika; Foo, Chuan Han Jonathan; Clement, Marie-Veronique; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2016-08-20

    Breast cancer is a unique disease characterized by heterogeneous cell populations causing roadblocks in therapeutic medicine, owing to its complex etiology and primeval understanding of the biology behind its genesis, progression, and sustenance. Globocan statistics indicate over 1.7 million new breast cancer diagnoses in 2012, accounting for 25% of all cancer morbidities. Despite these dismal statistics, the introduction of molecular gene signature platforms, progressive therapeutic approaches in diagnosis, and management of breast cancer has led to more effective treatment strategies and control measures concurrent with an equally reassuring decline in the mortality rate. However, an enormous body of research in this area is requisite as high mortality associated with metastatic and/or drug refractory tumors continues to present a therapeutic challenge. Despite advances in systemic chemotherapy, the median survival of patients harboring metastatic breast cancers continues to be below 2 years. Hence, a massive effort to scrutinize and evaluate chemotherapeutics on the basis of the molecular classification of these cancers is undertaken with the objective to devise more attractive and feasible approaches to treat breast cancers and improve patients' quality of life. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the biology of breast cancer as well as challenges faced in combating breast cancer, with special emphasis on the current battery of treatment strategies. We will also try and gain perspective from recent encounters on novel findings responsible for the progression and metastatic transformation of breast cancer cells in an endeavor to develop more targeted treatment options. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 337-370.

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  14. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  15. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  16. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  17. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  18. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  19. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  20. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  1. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  2. Low Concordance between Gene Expression Signatures in ER Positive HER2 Negative Breast Carcinoma Could Impair Their Clinical Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enora Laas

    Full Text Available Numerous prognostic gene expression signatures have been recently described. Among the signatures there is variation in the constituent genes that are utilized. We aim to evaluate prognostic concordance among eight gene expression signatures, on a large dataset of ER positive HER2 negative breast cancers.We analysed the performance of eight gene expression signatures on six different datasets of ER+ HER2- breast cancers. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival function. We assessed discrimination and concordance between the 8 signatures on survival and recurrence rates The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI was used to to stratify the risk of recurrence/death.The discrimination ability of the whole signatures, showed fair discrimination performances, with AUC ranging from 0.64 (95%CI 0.55-0.73 for the 76-genes signatures, to 0.72 (95%CI 0.64-0.8 for the Molecular Prognosis Index T17. Low concordance was found in predicting events in the intermediate and high-risk group, as defined by the NPI. Low risk group was the only subgroup with a good signatures concordance.Genomic signatures may be a good option to predict prognosis as most of them perform well at the population level. They exhibit, however, a high degree of discordance in the intermediate and high-risk groups. The major benefit that we could expect from gene expression signatures is the standardization of proliferation assessment.

  3. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  4. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  6. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  7. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  10. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  11. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  12. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  13. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  14. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  15. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  16. Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumor Suppressor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W. Hwang-Verslues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of breast cancer stem cells are in their infancy and many fundamental questions have yet to be fully addressed. The molecular distinction between normal and cancerous breast stem cells is not clear. While there have been recent breakthroughs in mouse mammary stem cells and lineage determination in mammary glands, little has been determined in human cells. Microarray analyses have provided molecular categorization of breast cancer. However, the cellular origin of different types of breast cancer is largely unknown. In addition, the relationship between breast cancer stem cells and mammary progenitor cells has yet to be clarified. One of the key questions is how a normal mammary stem cell becomes a breast cancer stem cell. Importantly, the existence of different types of human breast cancers with distinct pathologic and molecular signatures suggests the possibility that different types of breast cancer stem cells may exist. Here, we aim to review the current evidence for the existence of different subtypes of breast cancer stem cells and provide further insight into how tumor suppressors might be involved in the initiation of breast cancer stem cells.

  17. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  18. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  20. Galectin-3 coats the membrane of breast cells and makes a signature of tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3, β-galactoside-binding lectin, coats the membrane of most cancer cells and is involved in metastasis and endothelium recognition as well as in evading immune surveillance through killing of activated T cells. To flag galectin as a biomarker of tumours and metastasis, it is pivotal to understand the role of this protein in different tumours and at different stages. Breast tumours have an anomalous behaviour of the galectin-3 compared to other tumour cells. Herein, FACS sorting and galactoside based assays were used to investigate the role of galectin-3 in metastasis and metastatisation of breast cancer cells. Breast galectin fingerprint at the FACS displayed a higher amount in healthy cells, compared to metastatic cells. The microfluidic assay was able to isolate tumour and metastatic cells more than healthy breast cells. Investigation was performed on samples from patients with breast tumours at stage I and stage III whilst MCF7 and EPH-4 cells were used to perform preliminary investigations. The readout of the conditioned medium (from culturing of stage I cells) fingerprint by FACS evidenced high expression of free galectin. Analysis of the results established that the galectin coating the membrane, by galactoside recognition of the breast cells, and engaged by the cells to form protein-carbohydrate complexes inside the microfluidic assay, resembled the tumour signature of tumours in breast cells whilst the galectin free is independent of those mechanisms. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  2. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  3. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  4. Epigenetics in breast cancer: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Nayak, Shweta; Jankowitz, Rachel; Davidson, Nancy E; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes are critical for development and progression of cancers, including breast cancer. Significant progress has been made in the basic understanding of how various epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNA expression, and higher order chromatin structure affect gene expression. The present review will focus on methylation and demethylation of histones. While the acetylation of histones has been at the forefront of well-characterized post-translational modifications of histones, including the development of inhibitors targeting de-acetylating enzymes, the past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in knowledge regarding the role of histone methylation/demethylation. This is an exciting and rapidly evolving area of research, with much promise for potential clinical intervention in several cancers including breast cancer. We also summarize efforts to identity DNA methylation signatures that could be prognostic and/or predictive markers in breast cancer, focusing on recent studies using genome-wide approaches. Finally, we briefly review the efforts made by both the National Institutes of Health Epigenome Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas, especially highlighting the study of breast cancer epigenetics, exciting technological advances, potential roadblocks, and future directions.

  5. Epigenetics in breast cancer: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes are critical for development and progression of cancers, including breast cancer. Significant progress has been made in the basic understanding of how various epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNA expression, and higher order chromatin structure affect gene expression. The present review will focus on methylation and demethylation of histones. While the acetylation of histones has been at the forefront of well-characterized post-translational modifications of histones, including the development of inhibitors targeting de-acetylating enzymes, the past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in knowledge regarding the role of histone methylation/demethylation. This is an exciting and rapidly evolving area of research, with much promise for potential clinical intervention in several cancers including breast cancer. We also summarize efforts to identity DNA methylation signatures that could be prognostic and/or predictive markers in breast cancer, focusing on recent studies using genome-wide approaches. Finally, we briefly review the efforts made by both the National Institutes of Health Epigenome Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas, especially highlighting the study of breast cancer epigenetics, exciting technological advances, potential roadblocks, and future directions. PMID:22078060

  6. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  7. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  8. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  9. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  10. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  11. DNA methylation-based immune response signature improves patient diagnosis in multiple cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Jana; Bizet, Martin; Desmedt, Christine; Calonne, Emilie; Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Garaud, Soizic; Koch, Alexander; Larsimont, Denis; Salgado, Roberto; Van den Eynden, Gert; Willard Gallo, Karen; Bontempi, Gianluca; Defrance, Matthieu; Sotiriou, Christos; Fuks, François

    2017-08-01

    The tumor immune response is increasingly associated with better clinical outcomes in breast and other cancers. However, the evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) relies on histopathological measurements with limited accuracy and reproducibility. Here, we profiled DNA methylation markers to identify a methylation of TIL (MeTIL) signature that recapitulates TIL evaluations and their prognostic value for long-term outcomes in breast cancer (BC). MeTIL signature scores were correlated with clinical endpoints reflecting overall or disease-free survival and a pathologic complete response to preoperative anthracycline therapy in 3 BC cohorts from the Jules Bordet Institute in Brussels and in other cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The MeTIL signature measured TIL distributions in a sensitive manner and predicted survival and response to chemotherapy in BC better than did histopathological assessment of TILs or gene expression-based immune markers, respectively. The MeTIL signature also improved the prediction of survival in other malignancies, including melanoma and lung cancer. Furthermore, the MeTIL signature predicted differences in survival for malignancies in which TILs were not known to have a prognostic value. Finally, we showed that MeTIL markers can be determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing of small amounts of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, supporting clinical applications for this methodology. This study highlights the power of DNA methylation to evaluate tumor immune responses and the potential of this approach to improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast and other cancers. This work was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) and Télévie, the INNOVIRIS Brussels Region BRUBREAST Project, the IUAP P7/03 program, the Belgian "Foundation against Cancer," the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), and the Fonds Gaston Ithier.

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  13. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  14. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  15. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  16. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  17. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  18. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  19. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  20. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  1. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  2. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  3. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  4. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  5. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. Transcriptomic immunologic signature associated with favorable clinical outcome in basal-like breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Martínez-Canales

    Full Text Available Most patients with early stage triple negative breast cancer (TNBC receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Activation of the immune system is associated with tumor response and may help identify TNBC with favorable outcome.Gene expression data were obtained from the GEO Dataset GDS2250/GSE3744. Affymetrix CEL files were downloaded and analyzed with Affymetrix Transcriptome Analysis Console 3.0. Functional genomics was implemented with David Bioinformatics Resources 6.8. Data contained at Oncomine were used to identify genes upregulated in basal-like cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Data contained at cBioportal were used to assess for molecular alterations. The KMPlotter online tool, METABRIC and GSE25066 datasets were used to associate gene signatures with clinical outcome.1564 upregulated genes were identified as differentially expressed between normal and basal-like tumors. Of these, 16 genes associated with immune function were linked with clinical outcome. HLA-C, HLA-F, HLA-G and TIGIT were associated with both improved relapse-free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS. The combination of HLA-F/TIGIT and HLA-C/HLA-F/TIGIT showed the most favorable outcome (HR for RFS 0.44, p<0.001; HR for OS 0.22, p<0.001; and HR for RFS 0.46, p<0.001; HR for OS 0.15, p<0.001; respectively. The association of HLA-C/HLA-F with outcome was confirmed using the METABRIC and GSE25066 datasets. No copy number alterations of these genes were identified.We describe a gene signature associated with immune function and favorable outcome in basal-like breast cancer. Incorporation of this signature in prospective studies may help to stratify risk of early stage TNBC.

  7. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  8. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  10. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  11. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  13. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  14. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  15. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  16. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  17. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  18. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  19. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  20. The oncogenic potential of human cytomegalovirus and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eHerbein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. Numerous articles indicate that breast tumors exhibit diverse phenotypes depending on their distinct physiopathological signatures, clinical courses and therapeutic possibilities. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a multifaceted highly host specific betaherpesvirus that is regarded as asymptomatic or mildly pathogenic virus in immunocompetent host. HCMV may cause serious in utero infections as well as acute and chronic complications in immunocompromised individual. The involvement of HCMV in late inflammatory complications underscores its possible role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. HCMV targets a variety of cell types in vivo, including macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, neuronal cells, smooth muscle cells, and hepatocytes. HCMV can be detected in the milk after delivery and thereby HCMV could spread to adjacent mammary epithelial cells. HCMV also infects macrophages and induces an atypical M1/M2 phenotype, close to the tumor associated macrophage phenotype, which is associated with the release of cytokines involved in cancer initiation or promotion and breast cancer of poor prognosis. HCMV antigens and DNA have been detected in tissue biopsies of breast cancers and elevation in serum HCMV IgG antibody levels has been reported to precede the development of breast cancer in some women. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of HCMV in the initiation and progression of breast cancer.

  1. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  2. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Pan-cancer analysis of genomic scar signatures associated with homologous recombination deficiency suggests novel indications for existing cancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, Andrea Marion; Eklund, Aron Charles; Joshi, Tejal

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian and triple-negative breast cancers with BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss are highly sensitive to treatment with PARP inhibitors and platinum-based cytotoxic agents and show an accumulation of genomic scars in the form of gross DNA copy number aberrations. Cancers without BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss...... but with accumulation of similar genomic scars also show increased sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Therefore, reliable biomarkers to identify DNA repair-deficient cancers prior to treatment may be useful for directing patients to platinum chemotherapy and possibly PARP inhibitors. Recently, three SNP array......-LOH), and it is suggested that these signatures may act as biomarkers for the state of DNA repair deficiency in a given cancer. We explored the pan-cancer distribution of scores of the three signatures utilizing a panel of 5371 tumors representing 15 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and found a good correlation...

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  6. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  9. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  10. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  11. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  12. Molecular pathways involved in pregnancy-induced prevention against breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBarton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy produces a protective effect against breast cancer in women who had their first full term pregnancy in their middle twenties. Postponement of the first delivery increases a woman’s breast cancer risk. Also, transiently, during the postpartum period, the risk of developing breast cancer increases. This transient increased risk is taken over by a long lasting protective period. The genomic profile of parous women has shown pregnancy induces a long lasting genomic signature that explains the preventive effect on breast cancer. This signature reveals that the differentiation process, conferred by earlier full term pregnancy, is centered in chromatin remodeling. The chromatin remodeling process may be the ultimate step mediating the protection of the breast against developing breast cancer in postmenopausal years.

  13. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  14. Deciphering Signatures of Mutational Processes Operative in Human Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The genome of a cancer cell carries somatic mutations that are the cumulative consequences of the DNA damage and repair processes operative during the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell. Remarkably, these mutational processes are poorly characterized. Global sequencing initiatives are yielding catalogs of somatic mutations from thousands of cancers, thus providing the unique opportunity to decipher the signatures of mutational processes operative in human cancer. However, until now there have been no theoretical models describing the signatures of mutational processes operative in cancer genomes and no systematic computational approaches are available to decipher these mutational signatures. Here, by modeling mutational processes as a blind source separation problem, we introduce a computational framework that effectively addresses these questions. Our approach provides a basis for characterizing mutational signatures from cancer-derived somatic mutational catalogs, paving the way to insights into the pathogenetic mechanism underlying all cancers. PMID:23318258

  15. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  17. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  18. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  19. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  1. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  2. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  3. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Breast Cancer by the Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 40,000 women will die from breast cancer this year. But thanks to steady progress in the war on cancer, millions of U.S. women with a history of the disease are alive today. Key statistics on survival rates, therapies in use, and treatment costs are provided.

  6. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  7. Competing risks in low-risk breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Goss, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a growing amount of data on prognostic features of breast cancer has allowed for identification of tumors with a very low risk of recurrence. Markers used to predict the risk of distant spread include classic clinicopathologic features as well as newer tumor gene signatures, which have been validated and are being used in cohorts of patients with breast cancer patients who have low-risk disease. However, the definition of "low-risk" breast cancer requires consideration of patient-related factors such as comorbidities and age in addition to tumor characteristics, as high competing risks for mortality might be more important than cancer recurrence from a patient's point of view. In addition, identification of low-risk breast cancer cohorts is only valuable if treatment decisions are based on this information. Therefore, the magnitude of any treatment benefit in low-risk disease needs to be quantified in a comprehensible way. However, treatment benefit in low-risk situations is hard to quantify, may vary over time, and needs to be compared to individual risks for side effects. Decision models considering tumor and patient characteristics as well as predictive markers for treatment efficacy and toxicity will be needed. Tools such as Adjuvant! Online ultimately need to include information from gene signatures in order to reliably recommend specific treatment options for patients with breast cancer patients who have low-risk disease.

  8. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  9. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  10. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA2, and others increase your risk. Gene mutations account for about 10% of all breast cancer cases. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  11. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  13. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  14. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  15. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  16. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  17. GOBO: gene expression-based outcome for breast cancer online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Ringnér

    Full Text Available Microarray-based gene expression analysis holds promise of improving prognostication and treatment decisions for breast cancer patients. However, the heterogeneity of breast cancer emphasizes the need for validation of prognostic gene signatures in larger sample sets stratified into relevant subgroups. Here, we describe a multifunctional user-friendly online tool, GOBO (http://co.bmc.lu.se/gobo, allowing a range of different analyses to be performed in an 1881-sample breast tumor data set, and a 51-sample breast cancer cell line set, both generated on Affymetrix U133A microarrays. GOBO supports a wide range of applications including: 1 rapid assessment of gene expression levels in subgroups of breast tumors and cell lines, 2 identification of co-expressed genes for creation of potential metagenes, 3 association with outcome for gene expression levels of single genes, sets of genes, or gene signatures in multiple subgroups of the 1881-sample breast cancer data set. The design and implementation of GOBO facilitate easy incorporation of additional query functions and applications, as well as additional data sets irrespective of tumor type and array platform.

  18. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  19. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  20. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  1. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  2. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  3. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M.

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care. PMID:26987530

  4. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  5. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  6. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis, ...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  7. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  8. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  9. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  10. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  11. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  12. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  13. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  14. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  15. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  16. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...... the robustness of the signature by transferring it to a real-time RT-PCR platform. Using this platform, the signature was validated on an independent test set consisting of 47 tumours (10 MSI, 37 MSS), of which 45 were correctly classified. In a second step, we constructed a signature capable of separating MMR...

  17. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  18. Avoiding risk information about breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Darya; Shepperd, James A

    2012-10-01

    Learning about personal risk can provide numerous benefits yet people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. Two studies examined the role of perceived control, coping resources, and anticipated regret in women's decision to avoid breast cancer risk information. Women completed a health inventory and then read a brochure about either controllable or uncontrollable predictors of breast cancer, or received no brochure. Participants then received an opportunity to learn their lifetime risk for breast cancer based on their inventory responses. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduced avoidance of risk information compared with reading about uncontrollable predictors or receiving no information. In addition, fewer coping resources, anticipated greater regret over seeking breast cancer risk information, and less regret over avoiding breast cancer risk information predicted information avoidance. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduces avoidance of breast cancer risk information.

  19. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  20. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  1. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. During the 5-year project period, 6 predoctoral and 2 postdoctoral trainees were appointed to the training program and received training in biopsychosocial breast cancer research...

  2. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  3. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  4. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  5. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2010-06-01

    Genetic and lifestyle/environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on rare high penetrance mutations, as well as moderate and low-penetrance genetic variants implicated in breast cancer aetiology. We summarize recent discoveries from large collaborative efforts to combine data from candidate gene studies, and to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS), primarily in breast cancers in the general population. These findings are compared with results from collaborative efforts aiming to identify genetic modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers display distinct pathological characteristics when compared with tumours unselected for family history. The relationship between genetic variants and pathological subtypes of breast cancer, and the implication of discoveries of novel genetic variants to risk prediction in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and in populations unselected for mutation carrier status, are discussed. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  10. Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaghan, D. J.; Brady, J. M.; Behrenbruch, C. P.; Highnam, R. P.; Maini, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of the mathematical models used in cancer modelling and then chooses a specific cancer, breast carcinoma, to illustrate how the modelling can be used in aiding detection. We then discuss mathematical models that underpin mammographic image analysis, which complements models of tumour growth and facilitates diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mammographic images are notoriously difficult to interpret, and we give an overview of the primary image enhancement technolog...

  11. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  12. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  13. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  14. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  15. Epigenetics of breast cancer: Modifying role of environmental and bioactive food compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F; Daniels, Kevin D; Grunwald, Jonathan T; Ramos, Stephan A; Propper, Catherine R; Selmin, Ornella I

    2016-06-01

    Reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) increases the susceptibility to breast cancer. However, only a small percentage of breast tumors is related to family history and mutational inactivation of TSG. Epigenetics refers to non-mutational events that alter gene expression. Endocrine disruptors found in foods and drinking water may disrupt epigenetically hormonal regulation and increase breast cancer risk. This review centers on the working hypothesis that agonists of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), bisphenol A (BPA), and arsenic compounds, induce in TSG epigenetic signatures that mirror those often seen in sporadic breast tumors. Conversely, it is hypothesized that bioactive food components that target epigenetic mechanisms protect against sporadic breast cancer induced by these disruptors. This review highlights (i) overlaps between epigenetic signatures placed in TSG by AHR-ligands, BPA, and arsenic with epigenetic alterations associated with sporadic breast tumorigenesis; and (ii) potential opportunities for the prevention of sporadic breast cancer with food components that target the epigenetic machinery. Characterizing the overlap between epigenetic signatures elicited in TSG by endocrine disruptors with those observed in sporadic breast tumors may afford new strategies for breast cancer prevention with specific bioactive food components or diet. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  17. Is there a general autoantibody signature for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Nicole; Keller, Andreas; Leidinger, Petra; Harz, Christian; Backes, Christina; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Meese, Eckart

    2012-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence for the diagnostic potential of single autoantibodies for cancer and other diseases and more recently for the potential of complex autoantibody signatures. Here we address the question whether cancer specific signatures exist. We analysed our autoantibody screening data both newly and previously generated using a single array platform with 1827 identified immunogenic clones. These clones were tested for their reactivity against a total of 428 human sera including 191 sera of patients with different cancer entities, 60 sera of healthy individuals and 177 sera of patients with non-cancer diseases by using bioinformatics approaches. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical clustering revealed significant differences between the three cohorts. Evaluating the autoantibody reactivities in the three groups using Support Vector Machines, we were able to separate cancer sera from normal sera with an accuracy of 94.08%. A pathway analysis that was based on antigens with an increased reactivity in patients' sera as compared to controls indicated glycolysis as central pathway. The separation between cancer and non-cancer disease sera was possible with an accuracy of only 69.58%, which is still significantly higher than by random classification. As for single autoantigens, we show that proteins that are frequently reactive with cancer sera are also frequently reactive with non-cancer sera. While these results underline the potential of autoantibody signatures for cancer diagnosis, they also caution to premature claim specificity of a signature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883

  20. Altered expression of insulin receptor isoforms in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Huang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF signaling through human insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A contributes to tumorigenesis and intrinsic resistance to anti-IGF1R therapy. In the present study, we (a developed quantitative TaqMan real time-PCR-based assays (qRT-PCR to measure human insulin receptor isoforms with high specificity, (b evaluated isoform expression levels in molecularly-defined breast cancer subtypes, and (c identified the IR-A:IR-B mRNA ratio as a potential biomarker guiding patient stratification for anti-IGF therapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: mRNA expression levels of IR-A and IR-B were measured in 42 primary breast cancers and 19 matched adjacent normal tissues with TaqMan qRT-PCR assays. The results were further confirmed in 165 breast cancers. The tumor samples were profiled using whole genome microarrays and subsequently subtyped using the PAM50 breast cancer gene signature. The relationship between the IR-A:IR-B ratio and cancer subtype, as well as markers of proliferation were characterized. RESULTS: The mRNA expression levels of IR-A in the breast tumors were similar to those observed in the adjacent normal tissues, while the mRNA levels of IR-B were significantly decreased in tumors. The IR-A:IR-B ratio was significantly higher in luminal B breast cancer than in luminal A. Strong concordance between the IR-A:IR-B ratio and the composite Oncotype DX proliferation score was observed for stratifying the latter two breast cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in IR-B expression is the key to the altered IR-A:IR-B ratio observed in breast cancer. The IR-A:IR-B ratio may have biomarker utility in guiding a patient stratification strategy for an anti-IGF therapeutic.

  1. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have confirmed a worldwide increasing trend of testicular cancer incidence, and a conspicuously high prevalence of this disease and other male reproductive disorders, including cryptorchidism and hypospadias, in Denmark. In contrast, Finland, a similarly industrialized Nordic country......, exhibits much lower incidences of these disorders. The reasons behind the observed trends are unexplained, but environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that affect foetal testis development are probably involved. Levels of persistent chemicals in breast milk can be considered a proxy...... to compare exposure of mothers to this environmental mixture of EDCs. Using sophisticated, bioinformatic tools in our analysis, we reveal, for the first time, distinct country-specific chemical signatures of EDCs with Danes having generally higher exposure than Finns to persistent bioaccumulative chemicals...

  2. [Breast cancer: new therapeutic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, M

    1998-12-12

    NEED FOR NEW CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS: Metastasic breast cancer is an excellent model for studying anticancer agents: chemotherapy or hormonotherapy or compounds modifying the organism's response. If no adjuvant treatment is given after locoregional treatment of breast cancer, metastasis will develop within 10 years in 30% of the patients free of initial nodal invasion and within 5 years in 50% of the patients with initial nodal invasion. ADJUVANT TREATMENTS: Hormonotherapy and chemotherapy reduce mortality due to breast cancer by 10%. New adjuvant agents have been recently introduced. Taxans (docetaxel, paclitaxel) are the most active molecules since antracyclines. New aromataase inhibitors include letrozole and anastrozole. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in phase II and phase III trials, allowing their experimentation as adjuvant treatments.

  3. Breast cancer: demands of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveys, B J; Klaich, K

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the qualitative experience of illness demands from the woman's own perspective by asking, "What is the impact of breast cancer on the daily lives of women of childbearing age?" Semistructured interviews with 79 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were transcribed and analyzed to discern illness demands. Content analysis yielded 14 domains of illness demands: treatment issues, change in life context or perspective, acceptance of the illness, social interaction or support, physical changes, reconstructing the self, uncertainty, loss, making comparisons, acquiring new knowledge, making choices, mortality issues, financial or occupational concerns, and making a contribution. Illness demands are experienced in every aspect of a woman's life, including her identity, daily routines, family and social experience, and her perception of the past, present, and future. This study details in the women's own language the considerable adjustments brought on by a diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  5. Risk-based Breast Cancer Screening: Implications of Breast Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Chen, Linda E; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    The approach to breast cancer screening has changed over time from a general approach to a more personalized, risk-based approach. Women with dense breasts, one of the most prevalent risk factors, are now being informed that they are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and should consider supplemental screening beyond mammography. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of breast density relative to other known risk factors, the evidence regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, supplemental screening options, and recommendations for physicians having shared decision-making discussions with women who have dense breasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  7. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  9. Pregnancy-induced changes in breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Irma H; Russo, Jose

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant disease most frequently diagnosed in women of all races and nationalities. Since the 1970s the worldwide incidence of this disease has increased 30-40% in postmenopausal women, in whom, paradoxically, the risk of developing breast cancer is significantly reduced by an early first full term pregnancy (FTP) as compared to nulliparous and late parous women. Although the cause of breast cancer is not known, the mechanisms mediating the protection conferred by an early FTP have been identified to reside in the breast itself, and to be modulated by endogenous and environmental exposures that might negatively affect this organ during specific windows in its development that extend from prenatal life until the first pregnancy. Soon after conception the embryo initiates the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the glycoprotein hormone that is diagnostic of pregnancy. HCG in conjunction with ovarian steroid hormones primes the hypothalamic neuroendocrine system for maintaining the pregnancy. Higher levels of hCG during the first trimester of pregnancy have been associated with a reduction in maternal breast cancer incidence after age 50. In preclinical studies it has been demonstrated that both FTP and hCG treatment of virgin rats prevent the development of chemically-induced mammary tumors, a phenomenon mediated by the differentiation of the mammary gland epithelial cells prior to carcinogen exposure. Complete differentiation proceeds through complex morphological, physiological and molecular changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, that ultimately result in increased DNA repair capabilities of the mammary epithelium, activation of genes controlling differentiation and programmed cell death and imprinting in the breast epithelium a specific and permanent genomic signature of pregnancy. This signature is indicative of a reduced breast cancer risk and serves as a molecular biomarker of differentiation for evaluating the

  10. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  11. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  12. Paclitaxel (Taxol) in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuck, S G; Dorr, A; Friedman, M A

    1994-02-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a diterpine plant compound that was isolated initially from the bark of the western yew tree, Taxus brevifolia, but can now be produced by semisynthesis from a renewable source. Paclitaxel is the first new agent in the past decade to have confirmed single agent activity in breast cancer in excess of 50%. A 28% response rate has been reported in doxorubicin-refractory patients. Ongoing studies include attempts to combine paclitaxel with other drugs used for breast cancer treatment and with radiation.

  13. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  14. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...... estimate of overdiagnosis. Screening affects cohorts of screened women. Danish registers allow very accurate mapping of the fate of every woman. We should be past the phase where studies of overdiagnosis are based on the fixed age groups from routine statistics....

  15. Association of Pancreatic Cancer Susceptibility Variants with Risk of Breast Cancer in Women of European and African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic cancer mutation signatures closely resemble breast cancer, suggesting that both cancers may have common predisposition mechanisms that may include commonly inherited SNPs. Methods: We examined 23 genetic variants known to be associated with pancreatic cancer as breast cancer risk factors in the Root genome-wide association study (GWAS; 1,657 cases and 2,029 controls of African diaspora) and GAME-ON/DRIVE GWAS (16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry). Results: None of the pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants were individually associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple testing (at α = 0.002) in the two populations. In Root GWAS, a change by one SD in the polygenic risk score (PRS) was not significantly associated with breast cancer. In addition, we did not observe a trend in the relationship between PRS percentiles and breast cancer risk. Conclusions: The association between reported pancreatic cancer genetic susceptibility variants and breast cancer development in women of African or European ancestry is likely weak, if it does exist. Impact: Known GWAS-derived susceptibility variants of pancreatic cancer do not explain its shared genetic etiology with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 116-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  18. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  19. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  20. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  2. The protective role of pregnancy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jose; Moral, Raquel; Balogh, Gabriela A; Mailo, Daniel; Russo, Irma H

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data indicate that the risk of developing breast cancer is strongly dependent on the ovary and on endocrine conditions modulated by ovarian function, such as early menarche, late menopause, and parity. Women who gave birth to a child when they were younger than 24 years of age exhibit a decrease in their lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and additional pregnancies increase the protection. The breast tissue of normally cycling women contains three identifiable types of lobules, the undifferentiated Lobules type 1 (Lob 1) and the more developed Lobules type 2 and Lobules type 3. The breast attains its maximum development during pregnancy and lactation (Lobules type 4). After menopause the breast regresses in both nulliparous and parous women containing only Lob 1. Despite the similarity in the lobular composition of the breast at menopause, the fact that nulliparous women are at higher risk of developing breast cancer than parous women indicates that Lob 1 in these two groups of women might be biologically different, or might exhibit different susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Based on these observations it was postulated that Lob 1 found in the breast of nulliparous women and of parous women with breast cancer never went through the process of differentiation, retaining a high concentration of epithelial cells that are targets for carcinogens and are therefore susceptible to undergo neoplastic transformation. These epithelial cells are called Stem cells 1, whereas Lob 1 structures found in the breast of early parous postmenopausal women free of mammary pathology, on the contrary, are composed of an epithelial cell population that is refractory to transformation, called Stem cells 2. It was further postulated that the degree of differentiation acquired through early pregnancy has changed the 'genomic signature' that differentiates Lob 1 of the early parous women from that of the nulliparous women by shifting the

  3. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  4. Molecular Pathways Involved in Pregnancy-Induced Prevention Against Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Russo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy produces a protective effect against breast cancer in women who had their first full term pregnancy (FTP) in their middle twenties. The later in life the first delivery occurs, the higher the risk of breast cancer development. Also, transiently during the postpartum period, the risk of developing breast cancer increases. This transient increased risk is taken over by a long-lasting protective period. The genomic profile of parous women has shown pregnancy induces a long-lasting “genomic signature” that explains the preventive effect on breast cancer. This signature reveals that chromatin remodeling is the driver of the differentiation process conferred by FTP. The chromatin remodeling process may be the ultimate step mediating the protection of the breast against developing breast cancer in post-menopausal years. PMID:25540638

  5. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broeks, A; Schmidt, M.K; Sherman, M.E; Couch, F.J; Hopper, J.L; Dite, G.S; Apicella, C; Smith, L.D; Hammet, F; Southey, M.C; Veer, L.J. van 't; Groot, R. de; Smit, V.T; Fasching, P.A; Beckmann, M.W; Jud, S; Ekici, A.B; Hartmann, A; Hein, A; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Burwinkel, B; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sinn, H.P; Sohn, C; Tchatchou, S; Bojesen, S.E; Nordestgaard, B.G; Flyger, H; Orsted, D.D; Kaur-Knudsen, D; Milne, R.L; Perez, J.I; Zamora, P; Roiguez, P.M; Benitez, J; Brauch, H; Justenhoven, C; Ko, Y.D; Hamann, U; Fischer, H.P; Bruning, T; Pesch, B; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Bremer, M; Karstens, J.H; Hillemanns, P; Dork, T; Nevanlinna, H.A; Heikkinen, T; Heikkila, P; Blomqvist, C; Aittomaki, K; Aaltonen, K; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kosma, V.M; Kauppinen, J.M; Kataja, V; Auvinen, P; Eskelinen, M; Soini, Y; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A.B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Holland, H; Lambrechts, D; Claes, B; Vandorpe, T; Neven, P; Wildiers, H; Flesch-Janys, D; Hein, R; Loning, T; Kosel, M; Fredericksen, Z.S; Wang, X; Giles, G.G; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; McLean, C; Haiman, C.A; Henderson, B.E; Marchand, L. le; Kolonel, L.N; Alnaes, G.G; Kristensen, V; Borresen-Dale, A.L; Hunter, D.J; Hankinson, S.E; Anulis, I.L; Mulligan, A.M; O'Malley, F.P; Devilee, P; Huijts, P.E; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M; Asperen, C.J. van

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes...

  6. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  7. Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Feng, Yili; Lin, Shuang; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Hui; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Heming; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-02-15

    Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an important feature of metastasis, the formation of liver metastases is not random. Indeed, breast cancer cell factors contribute to the liver microenvironment. Major breakthroughs have been achieved recently in understanding breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). The process of liver metastasis consists of multiple steps and involves various factors from breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment. A further understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment is crucial to guide future work in clinical treatments. In this review we discuss the contribution of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment to liver metastasis, with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy for patients with BCLM.

  8. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  9. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  10. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  11. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  12. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  13. Triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, Reinaldo D; Costanzo, María V

    2010-01-01

    Perou's molecular classification defines tumors that neither express hormone receptors nor overexpress HER2 as triple-negative (TN) tumors. These tumors account for approximately 15% of breast cancers. The so-called basaloid tumors are not always synonymous with TN tumors; they differ in the fact that they express different molecular markers, have a higher histologic grade, and have a worse prognosis. Clinically they occur in younger women as interval cancer, and the risk of recurrence is hig...

  14. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    or doxorubicin alone or in combination are shown. (C) Balb/c mice were challenged with 4T1.2 cells orthotopically in the mammary gland and received... mammary gland and received 6 oral daily doses of Ivermectin (5 mg/kg) alone or in combination with doxorubicin at 5 mg/kg. Comparisons between...Tumor stroma and regulation of cancer development. Annual review of pathology 1, 119 (2006). 11. M. M. Shao et al., A subset of breast cancer

  15. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  16. Prognostic immune-related gene models for breast cancer: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianli; Wang, Ying; Lao, Zengding; Liang, Siting; Hou, Jingyi; Yu, Yunfang; Yao, Herui; You, Na; Chen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women, is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. Numerous prognostic tools have been proposed, including gene signatures. Unlike proliferation-related prognostic gene signatures, many immune-related gene signatures have emerged as principal biology-driven predictors of breast cancer. Diverse statistical methods and data sets were used for building these immune-related prognostic models, making it difficult to compare or use them in clinically meaningful ways. This study evaluated successfully published immune-related prognostic gene signatures through systematic validations of publicly available data sets. Eight prognostic models that were built upon immune-related gene signatures were evaluated. The performances of these models were compared and ranked in ten publicly available data sets, comprising a total of 2,449 breast cancer cases. Predictive accuracies were measured as concordance indices (C-indices). All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Immune-related gene models performed better in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and lymph node-positive (LN+) breast cancer subtypes. The three top-ranked ER- breast cancer models achieved overall C-indices of 0.62-0.63. Two models predicted better than chance for ER+ breast cancer, with C-indices of 0.53 and 0.59, respectively. For LN+ breast cancer, four models showed predictive advantage, with C-indices between 0.56 and 0.61. Predicted prognostic values were positively correlated with ER status when evaluated using univariate analyses in most of the models under investigation. Multivariate analyses indicated that prognostic values of the three models were independent of known clinical prognostic factors. Collectively, these analyses provided a comprehensive evaluation of immune-related prognostic gene signatures. By synthesizing C-indices in multiple independent data sets, immune-related gene signatures were ranked for ER+, ER-, LN+, and LN- breast

  17. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  18. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  19. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  20. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), breast cancer is the 4th most common cause of death from all malignancies.[1] In SA, we notice a discrepancy in incidence rates between various ethnic/race groups. African women have rates similar to those in other developing countries. Caucasian women have rates that are comparable with ...

  1. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  2. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathway mediated by the generation and redox Cycling of reactive oxygen species through the metabolic effects of estrogen .... therapy. Several studies including the European. Organization for Research and Treatment of. Cancer ÇEORTC) trial,19 the ATAC (Arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination) adjuvant breast.

  3. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  4. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of invasive breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    graphic findings, and screening for breast cancer in younger women with familial breast cancer. Interpretation of MR images requires a meticulous imaging technique including the use of contrast enhancement and fat suppression MR sequences using a good breast coil. Introduction. The role of MR imaging in the diagno-.

  6. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  7. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  8. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease.......993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study......Background: More accurate diagnostic methods are pressingly needed to diagnose breast cancer, the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. Blood-based metabolomics is a promising diagnostic method for breast cancer. However, many metabolic biomarkers are difficult to replicate among studies...

  9. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  10. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  11. Brain metastasization of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio-Santos, Tânia; Videira, Mafalda; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain. The phenotypic change in malignant cells, and the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of brain metastases are also inspected. Finally, the importance of genetic and epigenetic changes, and the recently disclosed effects of microRNAs in brain metastasization of breast cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer ( 5 ). Some research has focused on parabens, which are preservatives used in some deodorants and ... body’s cells ( 6 ). It has been reported that parabens are found in breast tumors, but there is ...

  13. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  14. Novel Oncogene Induced Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Define Human Prostate Cancer Progression Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiaoming; Ertel, Adam; Casimiro, Mathew; Yu, Zuoren; Meng, Hui; McCue, Peter A.; Walters, Rhonda; Fortina, Paolo; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, murine prostate cancer cell lines, generated via selective transduction with a single oncogene (c-Myc, Ha-Ras, and v-Src), demonstrated oncogene-specific prostate cancer molecular signatures that were recapitulated in human prostate cancer, and developed lung metastasis in immune competent mice. Interrogation of two independent retrospective cohorts of patient samples using the oncogene signature demonstrated an ability to distinguish tumor from normal prostate with a predictive value for prostate cancer of 98 – 99%. In a blinded study, the signature algorithm demonstrated independent substratification of reduced recurrence free survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The generation of new oncogene-specific prostate cancer cell lines that recapitulate human prostate cancer gene expression, that metastasize in immune-competent mice, are a valuable new resource for testing targeted therapy while the molecular signatures identified herein provides further value over current gene signature markers of prediction and outcome. PMID:23204233

  15. Benign breast tissue composition in breast cancer patients: association with risk factors, clinical variables, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezheng; Sandhu, Rupninder; Figueroa, Jonine D; Gierach, Gretchen L; Sherman, Mark E; Troester, Melissa A

    2014-12-01

    Breast tissue composition (epithelium, non-fatty stroma, and adipose) changes qualitatively and quantitatively throughout the lifespan, and may mediate relationships between risk factors and breast cancer initiation. We sought to identify relationships between tissue composition, risk factors, tumor characteristics, and gene expression. Participants were 146 patients from the Polish Breast Cancer Study, with data on risk factor and clinicopathological characteristics. Benign breast tissue composition was evaluated using digital image analysis of histologic sections. Whole-genome microarrays were performed on the same tissue blocks. Mean epithelial, non-fatty stromal, and adipose proportions were 8.4% (SD = 4.9%), 27.7% (SD = 24.0%), and 64.0% (SD = 24.0%), respectively. Among women associated with obesity (7.6% in nonobese vs. 10.1% in obese; P = 0.02) and with poorly differentiated tumors (7.8% in well/moderate vs. 9.9% in poor; P = 0.05). Gene expression signatures associated with epithelial and stromal proportion were identified and validated. Stroma-associated genes were in metabolism and stem cell maintenance pathways, whereas epithelial genes were enriched for cytokine and immune response pathways. Breast tissue composition was associated with age, body mass index, and tumor grade, with consequences for breast gene expression. Breast tissue morphologic factors may influence breast cancer etiology. Composition and gene expression may act as biomarkers of breast cancer risk and progression. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  17. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  18. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  19. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  20. Improved breast cancer prognosis through the combination of clinical and genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Goodison, Steve; Li, Jian; Liu, Li; Farmerie, William

    2007-01-01

    Accurate prognosis of breast cancer can spare a significant number of breast cancer patients from receiving unnecessary adjuvant systemic treatment and its related expensive medical costs. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential value of gene expression signatures in assessing the risk of post-surgical disease recurrence. However, these studies all attempt to develop genetic marker-based prognostic systems to replace the existing clinical criteria, while ignoring the rich information contained in established clinical markers. Given the complexity of breast cancer prognosis, a more practical strategy would be to utilize both clinical and genetic marker information that may be complementary. A computational study is performed on publicly available microarray data, which has spawned a 70-gene prognostic signature. The recently proposed I-RELIEF algorithm is used to identify a hybrid signature through the combination of both genetic and clinical markers. A rigorous experimental protocol is used to estimate the prognostic performance of the hybrid signature and other prognostic approaches. Survival data analyses is performed to compare different prognostic approaches. The hybrid signature performs significantly better than other methods, including the 70-gene signature, clinical makers alone and the St. Gallen consensus criterion. At the 90% sensitivity level, the hybrid signature achieves 67% specificity, as compared to 47% for the 70-gene signature and 48% for the clinical makers. The odds ratio of the hybrid signature for developing distant metastases within five years between the patients with a good prognosis signature and the patients with a bad prognosis is 21.0 (95% CI:6.5-68.3), far higher than either genetic or clinical markers alone. The breast cancer dataset is available at www.nature.com and Matlab codes are available upon request.

  1. Perspectives of Breast Cancer Thermotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphandéry, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the use of different types of thermotherapies to treat breast cancer is reviewed. While hyperthermia is most commonly used as an adjuvant in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy or cryotherapy to enhance the therapeutic effect of these therapies, thermoablation is usually carried out alone to eradicate small breast tumors. A recently developed thermotherapy, called magnetic hyperthermia, which involves localized heating of nanoparticles under the application of an alternating magnetic field, is also presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these different thermotherapies are highlighted. PMID:24959300

  2. Integrins in breast cancer dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M; Muller, William J

    2008-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients, 20% to 45% develop malignant lesions following their initial treatment. This relapse may occur after an apparent remission period that can range from years to several decades. Clinical observations suggest that breast-derived malignant cells have the ability to survive subclinically for a very long period of time before eventually resuming proliferation and forming detectable lesions. While the precise molecular events that correspond to this dormant phenotype remain poorly understood, data published during the last 10 years have underlined an important role of integrin proteins in the regulation of this phenomenon.

  3. RELATIONSHIP OF MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND GENE EXPRESSION: ANALYSIS OF NORMAL BREAST TISSUE SURROUNDING BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Williams, Tyisha; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Boyd, Norman F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies of breast tissue gene expression have demonstrated that the extratumoral microenvironment has substantial variability across individuals, some of which can be attributed to epidemiologic factors. To evaluate how mammographic density (MD) and breast tissue composition relate to extratumoral microenvironment gene expression, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Design Breast cancer cases were classified based on a previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature with two subtypes: an Active subtype, which is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis and wound response, and an Inactive subtype, which has high expression of cellular adhesion genes. MD of the contralateral breast was assessed using pre-treatment mammograms and a quantitative, reliable computer-assisted thresholding method. Breast tissue composition was evaluated based on digital image analysis of tissue sections. Results The Inactive extratumoral subtype was associated with significantly higher percentage mammographic density (PD) and dense area (DA) in univariate analysis (PD: p=0.001; DA: p=0.049) and in multivariable analyses adjusted for age and body mass index (PD: p=0.004; DA: p=0.049). Inactive/higher MD tissue was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of stroma and a significantly lower percentage of adipose tissue, with no significant change in epithelial content. Analysis of published gene expression signatures suggested that Inactive/higher MD tissue expressed increased estrogen response and decreased TGF-β signaling. Conclusions By linking novel molecular phenotypes with MD, our results indicate that MD reflects broad transcriptional changes, including changes in both epithelia- and stroma-derived signaling. PMID:23918601

  4. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  5. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  6. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  7. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression, account for 12-24% of all breast cancers. TNBC is associated with early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes have been associated with up to 15% of TNBC, and TNBC accounts for 70% of breast tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and 16-23% of breast ...

  9. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ... or other cancers? Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Studies have shown that a woman’s risk ...

  10. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are diet quality scores after breast cancer diagnosis associated with improved breast cancer survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izano, Monika A; Fung, Teresa T; Chiuve, Stephanie S; Hu, Frank B; Holmes, Michelle D

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality. However, these eating patterns do not necessarily reflect overall diet quality. The association of breast cancer mortality with a priori defined dietary scores, which are based on recommended dietary guidelines and reflect diet quality, has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that diet quality indices based on recommended guidelines are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer and nonbreast cancer mortality in breast cancer survivors. We examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and the risk of breast cancer mortality and total mortality among women from the Nurses' Health Study diagnosed with breast cancer. Adherence to DASH-style and AHEI-2010 diets were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality (comparing the fifth quintile with the first quintile, relative risk (RR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.99, P trend = 0.03 for DASH, and RR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.77, P trend Diet scores were not significantly associated with breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that adherence to a higher quality diet after breast cancer diagnosis does not considerably change the risk of breast cancer death and recurrence. However, healthy dietary choices after breast cancer were associated with reduced risk of nonbreast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer.

  12. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via Hedgehog-mediated Sensitization of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    defective quiescence is a predisposing factor for breast cancer . Under normal conditions, nulliparous MMTV-myc have a very low incidence of... parity in this model. Such a finding would implicate control of quiescence in breast cancer initiation and would further suggest that mammary stem...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0430 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via

  14. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-10-20

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 breast cancer patients and 35 controls. The result was validated with 103 plasma samples and 183 serum samples of two groups of primary breast cancer patients. Such a lowered aspartate level is specific to breast cancer as it has shown 0% sensitivity in serum from gastric (n = 114) and colorectal (n = 101) cancer patients. There was a significantly higher level of aspartate in breast cancer tissues (n = 20) than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line than in MCF-10A cell lines, suggesting that the depleted level of aspartate in blood of breast cancer patients is due to increased tumor aspartate utilization. Together, these findings suggest that lowed circulating aspartate is a key metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

  15. Regulation of Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to begin to unravel the complex resistance seen with metastatic breast cancer , particularly the fear of recurrence 5-10 years after apparent cure...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0062 TITLE: Regulation of Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sarah Wheeler CONTRACTING...Metastatic Breast Cancer Dormancy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0062 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sarah Wheeler 5d

  16. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Anees B. Chagpar; Mario Coccia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW); Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by purchasing power parit...

  17. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  18. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Peter PA

    2003-01-01

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, p...

  19. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  20. [To be cured of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, Jean-Yves; Guiochet, Nicole; Saez, Simone

    2002-06-01

    Can we say the magic word "cured", "cancer free" for breast cancer patients or can we say only survivors? This litterature review was focused on what mean cured of breast cancer with the long term effects on quality of life of locoregional and systemic therapies and the role of breast reconstruction. Finally changes in the intimacy, sex and love live and psychosocial live were stressed.

  1. Health outcomes of women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Colzani, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    The overall survival of breast cancer patients has increased quite remarkably in the past decades in the developed countries due to substantial improvements in diagnosis and treatment. As a consequence, the proportion of women alive after a breast cancer diagnosis is currently increasing. It is therefore becoming of outmost importance to also focus on medium- and long-term health outcomes of women with breast cancer. Swedish population registers were used to study time-dependent surviva...

  2. A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savci-Heijink, C. Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known

  3. Active cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Although epidemiological evidence on the role of active cigarette smoking in breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, recent literature supports a modest association between smoking and breast cancer...

  4. A target based approach identifies genomic predictors of breast cancer patient response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Robin M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer patients is variable and unpredictable. Whether individual patients either achieve long-term remission or suffer recurrence after therapy may be dictated by intrinsic properties of their breast tumors including genetic lesions and consequent aberrant transcriptional programs. Global gene expression profiling provides a powerful tool to identify such tumor-intrinsic transcriptional programs, whose analyses provide insight into the underlying biology of individual patient tumors. For example, multi-gene expression signatures have been identified that can predict the likelihood of disease reccurrence, and thus guide patient prognosis. Whereas such prognostic signatures are being introduced in the clinical setting, similar signatures that predict sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy are not currently clinically available. Methods We used gene expression profiling to identify genes that were co-expressed with genes whose transcripts encode the protein targets of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Results Here, we present target based expression indices that predict breast tumor response to anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy. Indeed, these signatures were independently predictive of chemotherapy response after adjusting for standard clinic-pathological variables such as age, grade, and estrogen receptor status in a cohort of 488 breast cancer patients treated with adriamycin and taxotere/taxol. Conclusions Importantly, our findings suggest the practicality of developing target based indices that predict response to therapeutics, as well as highlight the possibility of using gene signatures to guide the use of chemotherapy during treatment of breast cancer patients.

  5. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2001-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metabolism, and a human feeding study in which 20 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  6. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2000-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metablism, and a human feeding study in which 18 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  7. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  8. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes activities and accomplishments during the third year of a four year training program in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. Three trainees (1 postdoctoral; 2 predoctoral...

  9. Causal attribution among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.

  10. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal....... DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained...

  11. Insulin and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Pisani P, Muti P, Crosignani P, Panico S, Pierotti M, Secreto G, Totis A, Fissi R, Mazzoleni Prospective study on hormones and diet in the etiology...4, 1988. 21) Berrino F, Muti P, Micheli A, Bolelli GF, Krogh V, Sciajno R, Pisani P, Panico S, Secreto G.Serum sex steroids levels after menopause... Panico S, Pierotti M, Secreto G, Totis A, Fissi R, Mazzoleni Prospective study on hormones and diet in the etiology of breast cancer In: Diet, hormones and

  12. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have led to key insights into the mechanisms behind the immune dysfunction that breast cancer causes . Comprehending how the...be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease

  13. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  14. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  15. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....... affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing...

  16. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  17. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  18. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  19. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  20. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instructor. Exercise. Gentle exercise may help boost your mood and make you feel better. Ask your doctor to recommend appropriate exercise. Creative activities. Certain activities, such as art, dance and music, may help you feel less distressed. Some cancer ...

  2. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  3. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.

  4. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  5. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  6. Prognostic and predictive value of NanoString-based immune-related gene signatures in a neoadjuvant setting of triple-negative breast cancer: relationship to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Song, In Hye; Park, In Ah; Kang, Jun; Yu, Jong Han; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Gong, Gyungyub

    2015-06-01

    The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immune signals has been described previously in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that immunologic parameters are relevant for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer as well as for outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy. However, immune signals are variable, and which signals are important is largely unknown. We, therefore, evaluated the expression of immune-related genes in TNBC treated with NAC. We retrospectively evaluated biopsy tissue from 55 patients with primary TNBC treated with NAC (anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel) against the NanoString nCounter GX Human Immunology Panel (579 immune-related genes). Higher expression of cytotoxic molecules, T cell receptor signaling pathway components, cytokines related to T helper cell type 1 (Th1), and B cell markers was associated with a pathologic complete response (pCR). Higher expression of NFKB1, MAPK1, TRAF1, CXCL13, GZMK, and IL7R was significantly associated with pCR, higher Miller-Payne grade, and lower residual cancer burden class. Expression of NFKB1, TRAF1, and CXCL13genes, in particular, was significantly correlated with a longer disease-free survival rate. Conversely, patients those who failed to achieve a pCR showed increased expression of genes related to neutrophils. Higher expression of cytotoxic molecules, T cell receptor signaling pathway components, Th1-related cytokines, and B cell markers is correlated with pCR and survival in TNBC patients treated with NAC. Our results suggest that the activation status of neutrophils may provide additional predictive information for TNBC patients treated with NAC.

  7. Over surgery in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Fiona; Karakatsanis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery. As tumour biology dictates cancer outcomes not surgery extent, surgery can safely be 'minimum required' rather than 'more is better' with the focus on removal of disease rather than healthy tissue. Surgeons can reduce the burden of surgery further but it is important that less surgery is not over-compensated by more radical or unnecessary systemic therapies and/or radiotherapy with their own toxicities and morbidity. We all need to be alert to the potential drivers of over treatment and over surgery such as failure to work within a multidisciplinary team, failure to design a multimodality treatment plan at diagnosis or overuse of novel assessment technologies of uncertain clinical utility. Pursuit of wide margins and the removal of the contra-lateral healthy breast for marginal risk-reduction gains are also to be discouraged as is routine local/regional surgery in stage 4 disease. The surgeon has a pivotal role in minimizing breast surgery to what is required to achieve the best oncological, functional and aesthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  9. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-08-29

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potential mechanism of this inhibition. In the murine model of breast cancer osseous metastasis, mice that received osthole developed significantly less bone metastases and displayed decreased tumor burden when compared with mice in the control group. Osthole inhibited breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Additionally, it also regulated OPG/RANKL signals in the interactions between bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and cancer cells. Besides, it also inhibited TGF-β/Smads signaling in breast cancer metastasis to bone in MDA-231BO cells. The results of this study suggest that osthole has real potential as a therapeutic candidate in the treatment of breast cancer patients with bone metastases.

  10. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  11. Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Ingrid; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-03-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer.

  12. Coming of age: breast cancer in seniors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muss, Hyman B

    2011-01-01

    In the U.S., cancer is a disease of aging. The average 65-year-old patient has an anticipated life expectancy of 20 years, and clinicians should take this into account when making breast cancer management decisions...

  13. Coming of age: breast cancer in seniors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muss, Hyman B

    2010-01-01

    In the U.S., cancer is a disease of aging. The average 65-year-old patient has an anticipated life expectancy of 20 years, and clinicians should take this into account when making breast cancer management decisions...

  14. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  15. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  16. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  17. Yin Yang gene expression ratio signature for lung cancer prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Xu

    Full Text Available Many studies have established gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. All of these signatures were built from training data sets by learning the correlation of gene expression with the patients' survival time. They require all new sample data to be normalized to the training data, ultimately resulting in common problems of low reproducibility and impracticality. To overcome these problems, we propose a new signature model which does not involve data training. We hypothesize that the imbalance of two opposing effects in lung cancer cells, represented by Yin and Yang genes, determines a patient's prognosis. We selected the Yin and Yang genes by comparing expression data from normal lung and lung cancer tissue samples using both unsupervised clustering and pathways analyses. We calculated the Yin and Yang gene expression mean ratio (YMR as patient risk scores. Thirty-one Yin and thirty-two Yang genes were identified and selected for the signature development. In normal lung tissues, the YMR is less than 1.0; in lung cancer cases, the YMR is greater than 1.0. The YMR was tested for lung cancer prognosis prediction in four independent data sets and it significantly stratified patients into high- and low-risk survival groups (p = 0.02, HR = 2.72; p = 0.01, HR = 2.70; p = 0.007, HR = 2.73; p = 0.005, HR = 2.63. It also showed prediction of the chemotherapy outcomes for stage II & III. In multivariate analysis, the YMR risk factor was more successful at predicting clinical outcomes than other commonly used clinical factors, with the exception of tumor stage. The YMR can be measured in an individual patient in the clinic independent of gene expression platform. This study provided a novel insight into the biology of lung cancer and shed light on the clinical applicability.

  18. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  19. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  20. *K-means and cluster models for cancer signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2802753 to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. *K-means’ computational cost is a fraction of NMF’s. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancers (liver cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma stand out and do not have cluster-like structures. Two clusters have especially high within-cluster correlations with 11 other cancers indicating common underlying structures. Our approach opens a novel avenue for studying such structures. *K-means is universal and can be applied in other fields. We discuss some potential applications in quantitative finance.

  1. *K-means and cluster models for cancer signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-09-01

    We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2802753 to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). *K-means' computational cost is a fraction of NMF's. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancers (liver cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) stand out and do not have cluster-like structures. Two clusters have especially high within-cluster correlations with 11 other cancers indicating common underlying structures. Our approach opens a novel avenue for studying such structures. *K-means is universal and can be applied in other fields. We discuss some potential applications in quantitative finance.

  2. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid function and survival following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, J; Borgquist, S; Almquist, M; Manjer, J

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid function has been associated with breast cancer risk, and breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. It is not clear whether thyroid function affects prognosis following breast cancer but, if so, this could have an important clinical impact. The present study analysed prospectively collected measurements of free tri-iodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in relation to breast cancer survival. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a prospective cohort study of 17 035 women in Sweden. Study enrolment was conducted between 1991 and 1996. Patients with incident breast cancer were identified through record linkage with cancer registries until 31 December 2006. Information on vital status was collected from the Swedish Cause of Death Registry, with the endpoint breast cancer mortality (31 December 2013). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 per cent confidence intervals (c.i.) were obtained by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Some 766 patients with incident breast cancer were identified, of whom 551 were eligible for analysis. Compared with patients in the first free T4 tertile, breast cancer mortality was lower among those in the second tertile (HR 0·49, 95 per cent c.i. 0·28 to 0·84). There was an indication, although non-significant, of lower breast cancer mortality among patients in the second TSH tertile (HR 0·63, 0·37 to 1·09) and in those with positive TPO-Ab status (HR 0·61, 0·30 to 1·23). Free T3 showed no clear association with mortality. In the present study, there was a positive association between free T4 levels and improved breast cancer survival. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Breast cancer screening effect across breast density strata: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D. van der; Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is known to reduce breast cancer mortality. A high breast density may affect this reduction. We assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women with dense and fatty breasts separately. Analyses were performed within the Nijmegen (Dutch) screening

  5. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  6. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  8. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting breast cancer or dying from breast cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many women out of a given number ...

  9. Methylation markers for early breast cancer detection : -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822280

    2010-01-01

    Women known with a familial predisposition or a personal history of breast cancer bear an up to 85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Despite regular screening, up to 50% of these women develop “interval malignancies” that are discovered in between screening visits. Therefore, novel ways of

  10. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  11. Management of pregnancy associated breast cancer | Ohanaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The peak age incidence for breast cancer in developing countries is 35-45 years, which is part of the reproductive years of our women. As women defer childbearing on account of education and careers, the incidence of pregnancy associated breast cancer is expected to increase. Aim: This study presents 4 ...

  12. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  13. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; van Sandick, J. W.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures)

  14. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  15. Conservative breast management of breast cancer in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Conservative breast management (CBM) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer especially in developed countries. However it's utilization in Nigeria, a developing country is greatly limited even in early cases despite international clinical trials confirming equivalent survivals for CBM and ...

  16. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination. (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  17. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  18. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  19. Metastasis of Colon Cancer to the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swei H. Tsung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms are extremely rare, and even more so is metastasis of colon cancer to the breast. Despite its rarity, metastatic disease to the breast is an important diagnostic issue because its treatment differs greatly from that of primary cancer. Proper diagnosis of this rare event requires an accurate clinical history, proper immunohistochemical workup, and a high level of suspicion.

  20. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast c...

  1. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Cite as: Cao Z-G, Qin X-B, Liu F-F, Zhou L-L. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer. Afri Health Sci. 2015;15(3):982-5. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Introduction. Breast cancer, developing from breast tissue, remains the top reason for death of women.

  2. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with body adiposity. • MRI breast density is negatively associated with age. • Breast cancer is positively associated with body adiposity. • Breast Cancer is not associated with MRI breast density.

  3. Early breast cancer in the older woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWalde, Ari; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging; there is a rise in both breast cancer incidence and mortality with increasing age. With the aging of the US population, the number of older adults diagnosed with breast cancer and the number of breast cancer survivors is on the rise. The majority of cases of breast cancer are diagnosed with early stage (non-metastatic) potentially curable disease. This article will review the treatment of early stage breast cancer in older adults including a focus on the risks and benefits of surgery, radiation therapy, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and trastuzumab. Although the majority of studies to date demonstrate that older adults experience similar benefits from most multimodality treatments for breast cancer as compared to younger adults, these studies have primarily been performed in healthy and fit older adults. There are limited data at the extremes of age or in those patients with significant comorbidity or functional decline. A primary question facing the doctor and patient is whether the breast cancer is likely to impact the patient’s life expectancy or quality of life. If so, then the risks and benefits of treatment must be considered with a final decision regarding therapy made in the context of the patient’s preferences. This article will review the toxicities (both short- and long-term) from common cancer therapies in early breast cancer. Finally, the decision as to type of secondary screening and prevention of future breast cancers must also be weighed against the life expectancy of the older adult. PMID:22326036

  4. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: High Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer Compared to Comparably Staged Non-Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Brown, Linda M.; Mai, Phuong L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), the most lethal form of breast cancer, has characteristics linked to higher risk of contralateral breast cancer. However, no large studies have examined risk of contralateral breast cancer following IBC. Methods We calculated absolute risk of invasive contralateral breast cancer among 5,631 IBC and 174,634 comparably staged non-IBC first breast cancer cases who survived at least 2 months following diagnosis and were reported to 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 2006. We considered that contralateral cancers occurring within 2–23 months of first cancer diagnosis may more likely be metastatic/recurrent disease and those occurring 2 or more years after diagnosis independent primaries. Results Absolute risk of contralateral breast cancer was generally greater following IBC than regional/distant non-IBC, regardless of age and hormone receptor status of first cancer diagnosis. Much of the increase in absolute risk following IBC occurred within 2–23 months of first cancer diagnosis, while the risk for non-IBC occurred more gradually over time since diagnosis. For instance, among women first diagnosed before age 50, absolute risks following IBC and non-IBC were 4.9% vs. 1.1% at 2 years, 6.0% vs. 2.2% at 5 years, and 7.7% vs. 6.1% at 20 years after diagnosis. However, patterns of higher risk following IBC than non-IBC were also evident for at least 10–15 years in the subcohort of women who survived at least 24 months without a contralateral cancer. Conclusion Our results suggest that IBC has higher risk of cancer in the contralateral breast than comparably staged non-IBC, possibly due to both metastasic/recurrent disease and independent primaries. PMID:21390499

  6. Cancer metabolism: the volatile signature of glycolysis-in vitro model in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Tali; Herbig, Jens; Kohl, Ingrid; Las, Guy; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2017-01-09

    Discovering the volatile signature of cancer cells is an emerging approach in cancer research, as it may contribute to a fast and simple diagnosis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. One of the main contributors to such a volatile signature is hyperglycolysis, which characterizes the cancerous cell. The metabolic perturbation in cancer cells is known as the Warburg effect; glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), even in the presence of oxygen. The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery. We aimed to profile the volatile signature of the glycolysis activity in lung cancer cells. For that an in vitro model, using lung cancer cell line cultures (A549, H2030, H358, H322), was developed. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry under normal conditions and glycolysis inhibition. Glycolysis inhibition and mitochondrial activity were also assessed by mitochondrial respiration capacity measurements. Cells were divided into two groups upon their glycolytic profile (PET positive and PET negative). Glycolysis blockade had a unique characteristic that was shared by all cells. Furthermore, each group had a characteristic volatile signature that enabled us to discriminate between those sub-groups of cells. In conclusion, lung cancer cells may have different subpopulations of cells upon low and high mitochondrial capacity. In both groups, glycolysis blockade induced a unique volatile signature.

  7. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast

  8. Hunting for the Signatures of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Elena Edi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This prompts the ambitious question: can we find common mutations across individuals with the same cancer? And how many of these mutational patterns that are common across individuals can we attribute to particular exposures or biological processes? Distinguished postdoctoral researcher Ludmil Alexandrov, from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, has been working on this problem since his he was a PhD student at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

  9. Signature Celebration of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Moayyedi, Paul

    2017-11-23

    Gastroenterology has published many seminal articles that have transformed our understanding of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as being influential in promoting colorectal cancer screening which has saved many people from developing the disease. CRC has a hereditary component most notably highlighted in Lynch syndrome. A key paper reported that the majority of mutations in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer harbored mutations in the MLH1 or MSH2 mismatch repair proteins. Continuing on the gene mutation theme, another paper. highlighted that serrated polyps accounted for approximately 9% of all colon polyps and the majority of these harbored BRAF mutations, a mutation rarely seen in the traditional adenoma to carcinoma sequence. The journal also published key work outlining the role of COX-2 in the development of CRC and this led to the concept that CRC may be prevented by COX-2 inhibition. Gastroenterology has published many influential guidelines to promote screening for colorectal cancer. Initially Gastroenterology guidelines emphasized the need for offering any screening modality either alone or in combination such as fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, CT colography or colonoscopy. These guidelines were very influential in persuading governments around the world of the importance of CRC and now many countries in the developed world offer national CRC screening programs. More recently guidelines have emphasized the need to offer screening programs that prevent CRC as well as early detection and colonoscopy would be the gold standard approach. Gastroenterology has also led the way in developing the concept of developing quality measures. The journal has published evidence as to which measures lead to improvement in adenoma detection and reduced interval CRC rates. These papers have been instrumental in current recommendations on quality colonoscopy practice. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakci, Hulya; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Yildirim, Nuriye; Ozturk, Ozlem; Topan, Aysel Kose; Tasdemir, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students' seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.

  11. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  12. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  13. Breast cancer literacy among higher secondary students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Dhakal, Sarmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Being the most common cancer among women worldwide, it is vital to be well-aware of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and curability. However, few studies have reported breast cancer literacy in students using a validated instrument. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... among students of grades 11 and 12 from eleven higher secondary schools, one selected randomly from each ilaka of Parbat district. Questionnaire with modified Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test was self-administered to 516 students. Knowledge score was categorized into two categories: 'good...... of the items on risk factors and curability. Physical exercise was identified as a protective factor of breast cancer by 62.4 % of the students. Presence of noncancerous breast lumps (56.6 %) and being overweight (36.4 %) were recognized as the risk factors. Knowledge of lumpectomy and radiation therapy...

  14. Genomic alterations in lobular neoplasia: a microarray comparative genomic hybridization signature for early neoplastic proliferationin the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Shadeo, Ashleen; Colby, Sarah M; Tuck, Alan B; O'Malley, Frances P; Bull, Shelley B; Lam, Wan L; Andrulis, Irene L

    2006-11-01

    The identification of genomic alterations occurring in neoplastic lesions provides insight into both lesion occurrence and disease progression. In this study, we used microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate genetic changes in atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), as the presence of these lobular neoplastic lesions is an indicator of risk in the development of invasive breast cancer. DNA was extracted from microdissected archival breast tissue containing ALH or LCIS, lacking adjacent invasive carcinoma, and subjected to whole-genome tiling path microarray-CGH using the submegabase resolution tiling set (SMRT)-array platform. Twelve ALH and 13 LCIS lesions were examined. Copy number alterations were identified using statistical criteria and validated with Real-Time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. From statistical analysis, a greater number of alterations were observed in ALH compared to LCIS. Alterations common to ALH include gain at 2p11.2 and loss at 7p11-p11.1 and 22q11.1. Alterations common to LCIS include gain at 20q13.13 and loss at 19q13.2-q13.31. In both ALH and LCIS, we observed loss of 16q21-q23.1, an altered region previously identified in lobular neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. The validation of select alterations reinforces the genomic signature. This study represents the first whole-genome investigation of lobular neoplastic breast lesions using clinical archival specimens. The identified genomic signature includes copy number alterations not previously identified for lobular neoplasia. This genomic signature, common to ALH and LCIS, suggests a role for the acquisition of novel genomic alterations in the aberrant cellular proliferation that defines lobular neoplasia. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Study of the association between blood types and breast cancer among Isfahanian women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Mirlohi Flavarjani; Behnood Hedayatpour; Nasrollah Bashardoost; Sayed Mohammad Nourian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest a possible association between ABO blood group and the risk of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of a possible association between breast cancer and blood groups ABO and Rh. Materials and Methods: 549 women including 173 cases and 376 controls were selected. The case group included patients with breast cancer and the cancer diagnosis was confirmed for all of them. The control group included women with no reports of bre...

  16. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  17. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  18. Epigenetic Aging Signatures Are Coherently Modified in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Aging is associated with highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes, which may contribute to higher prevalence of malignant diseases in the elderly. In this study, we analyzed epigenetic aging signatures in 5,621 DNAm profiles of 25 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Overall, age-associated DNAm patterns hardly reflect chronological age of cancer patients, but they are coherently modified in a non-stochastic manner, particularly at CpGs that become hypermethylated upon aging in non-malignant tissues. This coordinated regulation in epigenetic aging signatures can therefore be used for aberrant epigenetic age-predictions, which facilitate disease stratification. For example, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) higher epigenetic age-predictions are associated with increased incidence of mutations in RUNX1, WT1, and IDH2, whereas mutations in TET2, TP53, and PML-PARA translocation are more frequent in younger age-predictions. Furthermore, epigenetic aging signatures correlate with overall survival in several types of cancer (such as lower grade glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, esophageal carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine neoplasms). In conclusion, age-associated DNAm patterns in cancer are not related to chronological age of the patient, but they are coordinately regulated, particularly at CpGs that become hypermethylated in normal aging. Furthermore, the apparent epigenetic age-predictions correlate with clinical parameters and overall survival in several types of cancer, indicating that regulation of DNAm patterns in age-associated CpGs is relevant for cancer development.

  19. Epigenetic Aging Signatures Are Coherently Modified in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm changes, which may contribute to higher prevalence of malignant diseases in the elderly. In this study, we analyzed epigenetic aging signatures in 5,621 DNAm profiles of 25 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Overall, age-associated DNAm patterns hardly reflect chronological age of cancer patients, but they are coherently modified in a non-stochastic manner, particularly at CpGs that become hypermethylated upon aging in non-malignant tissues. This coordinated regulation in epigenetic aging signatures can therefore be used for aberrant epigenetic age-predictions, which facilitate disease stratification. For example, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML higher epigenetic age-predictions are associated with increased incidence of mutations in RUNX1, WT1, and IDH2, whereas mutations in TET2, TP53, and PML-PARA translocation are more frequent in younger age-predictions. Furthermore, epigenetic aging signatures correlate with overall survival in several types of cancer (such as lower grade glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, esophageal carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine neoplasms. In conclusion, age-associated DNAm patterns in cancer are not related to chronological age of the patient, but they are coordinately regulated, particularly at CpGs that become hypermethylated in normal aging. Furthermore, the apparent epigenetic age-predictions correlate with clinical parameters and overall survival in several types of cancer, indicating that regulation of DNAm patterns in age-associated CpGs is relevant for cancer development.

  20. The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D; Easton, D F

    1995-10-01

    A number of genes are known to be involved in inherited susceptibility to breast and/or ovarian cancer. In the context of high-risk families the most important genes are BRCA1 on chromosome 17q, which is associated with a high penetrance of both breast and ovarian cancer, and BRCA2 on chromosome 13q, which causes a high risk of breast cancer but a lower risk of ovarian cancer. Other high-risk cancer genes that confer increased risks of breast or ovarian cancer in addition to other cancers include the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer genes and the TP53 gene, which causes breast cancer as part of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The predisposing mutations in these genes are relatively rare in the population. More common genes which are associated with an increased, but lower, risk of breast cancer are the ataxiatelangiectasia gene and the HRAS1 gene. This paper reviews recent progress in mapping and cloning of these susceptibility genes, and provides estimates of the cancer risks associated with each gene and the frequency of predisposing mutations.

  1. Identification of frequent somatic mutations in inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Ying; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Woodward, Wendy; Alvarez, Ricardo H; Lucci, Anthony; Valero, Vicente; Reuben, James M; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-06-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer that shows distinct clinical features from non-inflammatory breast cancer. Genomic understanding of inflammatory breast cancer will shed light on biological targets for this disease. Our objective was to identify targeted hotspot mutations using multiplex genome sequencing in inflammatory breast cancer and compare the findings with those for patients with non-inflammatory breast cancer to further recognize novel targets. We studied 400 patients with metastatic breast cancer who had somatic hotspot mutation testing using a 46- or 50-gene multiplex platform from March 2012 to December 2014. Among this population, 24 patients had inflammatory breast cancer and 376 patients had non-inflammatory breast cancer. We tested a total of 26 samples from 24 patients with inflammatory breast cancer. The average number of mutations per patient was higher in inflammatory breast cancer than in non-inflammatory breast cancer (1.23 vs. 0.65, respectively). Identified somatic mutations in inflammatory breast cancer were TP53 (n = 18, 75%), PIK3CA (n = 10, 41.7%), and ERBB2 (n = 4, 16.7%). TP53 and ERBB2 mutations were significantly more prevalent in inflammatory breast cancer than in non-inflammatory breast cancer (P breast cancer patients. While the inflammatory breast cancer TP53 and PIK3CA mutations mirrored previously reported data for metastatic non-inflammatory breast cancer, this is the first report of higher frequency of ERBB2 mutation in inflammatory breast cancer, especially in the HR+ subtype. Once validated in a larger cohort of inflammatory breast cancer patients, this novel finding could lead to development of treatments for HR+ inflammatory breast cancer.

  2. Immediate breast reconstruction with expander in pregnant breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Martella, Stefano; Azim, Hatem A; Sarno, Maria Anna; Galimberti, Viviana; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Intra, Mattia; Sangalli, Claudia; Rotmensz, Nicole; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Renne, Giuseppe; Schorr, Mario Casales; Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Rietjens, Mario; Giroda, Massimo; Gentilini, Oreste

    2013-10-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is currently considered an essential component in managing breast cancer patients, particularly those diagnosed at a young age. However, no studies have been published on the feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction in patients diagnosed and operated during the course of gestation. We retrospectively identified all breast cancer patients who were subjected to mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction during pregnancy at the European Institute of Oncology between 2002 and 2012. Patient demographics, gestational age at surgery, tumor stage, adjuvant treatment, details of the surgical procedures, surgical outcomes and fetal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 78 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy were subjected to a surgical procedure during the course of gestation. Twenty-two patients had mastectomy; of whom 13 were subjected to immediate breast reconstruction. Twelve out of 13 patients had a two-stage procedure with tissue expander insertion. Median gestational age at surgery was 16 weeks. No major surgical complications were encountered. Only one patient elected to have an abortion, otherwise, no spontaneous abortions or pregnancy complications were reported. Median gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks (range: 32-40 weeks). No major congenital malformations were reported. At a median follow-up of 32 months, all patients are alive with no long-term surgical complications. This is the first study of immediate breast reconstruction in pregnant breast cancer patients. Tissue expander insertion appears to ensure a short operative time, and does not seem to be associated with considerable morbidity to the patient or the fetus. Hence, it could be considered in the multidisciplinary management of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  4. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer | Cao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The pathogenesis of breast cancer remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the pathogenesis of breast cancer through targeted metabolomics of amino acids components in serum of patients with breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancers were enrolled in our hospital between year January 1st, 2013 ...

  5. Young breast cancer patients in the developing world: incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the breast is the most common cause of cancer in women in Western society. Although breast cancer occurs predominantly in older premenopausal and postmenopausal women, it also occurs in young women. Literature defines breast cancer in a young woman (or early onset breast cancer) as occurring in a ...

  6. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  7. Luminal breast cancer metastasis is dependent on estrogen signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapathy, Vidya; Banach-Petrosky, Whitney; Xie, Wen; Kareddula, Aparna; Nienhuis, Hilde; Miles, Gregory; Reiss, Michael

    Luminal breast cancer is the most frequently encountered type of human breast cancer and accounts for half of all breast cancer deaths due to metastatic disease. We have developed new in vivo models of disseminated human luminal breast cancer that closely mimic the human disease. From initial

  8. Pushing estrogen receptor around in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Elgene; Tarulli, Gerard; Portman, Neil; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Palmieri, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    The estrogen receptor-α (herein called ER) is a nuclear sex steroid receptor (SSR) that is expressed in approximately 75% of breast cancers. Therapies that modulate ER action have substantially improved the survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer, but resistance to treatment still remains a major clinical problem. Treating resistant breast cancer requires co-targeting of ER and alternate signalling pathways that contribute to resistance to improve the efficacy and benefit of currently available treatments. Emerging data have shown that other SSRs may regulate the sites at which ER binds to DNA in ways that can powerfully suppress the oncogenic activity of ER in breast cancer. This includes the progesterone receptor (PR) that was recently shown to reprogram the ER DNA binding landscape towards genes associated with a favourable outcome. Another attractive candidate is the androgen receptor (AR), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and inhibits growth of the normal breast and ER-positive tumours when activated by ligand. These findings have led to the initiation of breast cancer clinical trials evaluating therapies that selectively harness the ability of SSRs to 'push' ER towards anti-tumorigenic activity. Our review will focus on the established and emerging clinical evidence for activating PR or AR in ER-positive breast cancer to inhibit the tumour growth-promoting functions of ER. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Recurrent read-through fusion transcripts in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Roberts, Brian S.; Davis, Nicholas S.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Kirby, Marie K.; Nesmith, Amy S.; Oliver, Patsy G.; Grizzle, William E.; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Myers, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Read-through fusion transcripts that result from the splicing of two adjacent genes in the same coding orientation are a recently discovered type of chimeric RNA. We sought to determine if read-through fusion transcripts exist in breast cancer. We performed paired-end RNA-seq of 168 breast samples, including 28 breast cancer cell lines, 42 triple negative breast cancer primary tumors, 42 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer primary tumors, and 56 non-malignant breast tissue samples....

  10. Ror2 Signaling and Its Relevance in Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Bayerlová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and has been classified into five molecular subtypes based on gene expression profiles. Signaling processes linked to different breast cancer molecular subtypes and different clinical outcomes are still poorly understood. Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in breast cancer progression. In particular Ror1/2 receptors and several other members of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway were associated with aggressive breast cancer behavior. However, Wnt signals are mediated via multiple complex pathways, and it is clinically important to determine which particular Wnt cascades, including their domains and targets, are deregulated in poor prognosis breast cancer. To investigate activation and outcome of the Ror2-dependent non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, we overexpressed the Ror2 receptor in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, stimulated the cells with its ligand Wnt5a, and we knocked-down Ror1 in MDA-MB231 cells. We measured the invasive capacity of perturbed cells to assess phenotypic changes, and mRNA was profiled to quantify gene expression changes. Differentially expressed genes were integrated into a literature-based non-canonical Wnt signaling network. The results were further used in the analysis of an independent dataset of breast cancer patients with metastasis-free survival annotation. Overexpression of the Ror2 receptor, stimulation with Wnt5a, as well as the combination of both perturbations enhanced invasiveness of MCF-7 cells. The expression–responsive targets of Ror2 overexpression in MCF-7 induced a Ror2/Wnt module of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway. These targets alter regulation of other pathways involved in cell remodeling processing and cell metabolism. Furthermore, the genes of the Ror2/Wnt module were assessed as a gene signature in patient gene expression data and showed an association with clinical outcome. In summary, results of this study

  11. Obesity, insulin resistance and breast cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity is associated with poor outcomes in early stage breast cancer. This paper addresses four current areas of focus: 1. Is obesity associated with poor outcomes in all biologic subtypes of breast cancer? 2. Does obesity effect AI efficacy or estrogen suppression in the adjuvant setting? 3. What are the potential biologic underpinnings of the obesity-breast cancer association? 4. Are intervention studies warranted? If so, which interventions in which populations? Research is needed to resolve these questions; intervention trials involving lifestyle interventions or targeting the biology postulated to link obesity and cancer are recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. HER2 breast cancer therapies: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Conleth G Murphy; Shanu Modi

    2009-01-01

    Conleth G Murphy, Shanu ModiBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Amplification of the HER2 gene and/or overexpression of its protein product have been found in up to 25% to 30% of human breast cancers and have been shown to be associated with poorer outcomes compared to ‘HER2 normal’ breast cancer. Research has focused on developing therapies directed to the HER2 receptor and its pathway....

  13. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Deepak; Dinesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic...

  14. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.

  15. Breast Cancer Research Training Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    results, but have been less extensive. Breast cancer, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women, has also been shown to be susceptible to...numbers were determined for each of the groups. Two experiments were performed using identical protocols except the dose of DMBA which was 25 mg/kg ( Expt #1...or 15 mg/kg ( Expt #2). Rats were given 1.25% or 2.5% tea extract. There was no statistically significant effect of black tea on mammary tumor

  16. Melatonin, an inhibitory agent in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooshinfar, Elaheh; Safaroghli-Azar, Ava; Bashash, Davood; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of breast cancer makes it one of the most challenging cancers to treat. Due to the stimulatory effect of estrogen in mammary cancer progression, anti-estrogenic agents like melatonin have found their way into breast cancer treatment. Further studies confirmed a reverse correlation between nocturnal melatonin levels and the development of mammary cancer. In this study we reviewed the molecular inhibitory effects of melatonin in breast cancer therapy. To open access the articles, Google scholar and science direct were used as a motor search. We used from valid external and internal databases. To reach the search formula, we determined mean key words like breast cancer, melatonin, cell proliferation and death. To retrieval the related articles, we continuously search the articles from 1984 to 2015. The relevance and the quality of the 480 articles were screened; at least we selected 80 eligible articles about melatonin molecular mechanism in breast cancer. The results showed that melatonin not only inhibits breast cancer cell growth, but also is capable of inhibiting angiogenesis, cancer cell invasion, and telomerase activity. Interestingly this hormone is able to induce apoptosis through the suppression or induction of a wide range of signaling pathways. Moreover, it seems that the concomitant administration of melatonin with other conventional chemotherapy agents had beneficial effects for patients with breast cancer, by alleviating unfavorable effects of those agents and enhancing their efficacy. The broad inhibitory effects of melatonin in breast cancer make it a promising agent and may add it to the list of potential drugs in treatment of this cancer.

  17. Breast-conservation treatment of breast cancer in elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Akihito; Inomata, Taisuke (Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-10-01

    In the recent 3 years, 8 elderly women with breast cancer of various stages were treated with breast-conservation treatment (BCT) combined with endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy mainly based on patients' obvious desire. Until now, one out of these 8 patients had died of heart failure with no evidence of breast cancer progression, and the other 7 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. As for side effects of the therapy, no severe sequelae have been experienced so far. Cosmetic results of the therapy were considerably sufficient. (author).

  18. [Breast-conserving therapy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcollet, Anne; Doridot, Virginie; Nos, Claude

    2004-04-30

    The combination of lumpectomy, axillary node treatment and radiotherapy of the breast is the base of breast-conserving therapy. This combination of surgery and radiotherapy is now accepted as a standard treatment option for unifocal, non inflammatory lesion less than 3 cm. The widespread use of mammography to detect infraclinic breast carcinoma leads to a significant increase in the proportion of breast conserving treatment. Neoadjuvant therapeutics (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy) can extend the standard indication to breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm. The standard definition is also modified by sentinel node biopsy, oncoplastic techniques and stereotactic surgery with satisfactory cosmetic results. The risk of local recurrence, particularly the margins, must be evaluated whatever the surgical treatment optimizing oncologic management.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  20. Genomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynce, Filipa; Graves, Kristi D.; Jandorf, Lina; Ricker, Charité; Castro, Eida; Moreno, Laura; Augusto, Bianca; Fejerman, Laura; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among Latinas in the United States and the leading cause of cancer-related death among this population. Latinas tend to be diagnosed at a later stage and have worse prognostic features than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Genetic and genomic factors may contribute to observed breast cancer health disparities in Latinas. Methods We provide a landscape of our current understanding and the existing gaps that need to be filled across the cancer prevention and control continuum. Results We summarize available data on mutations in high and moderate penetrance genes for inherited risk of breast cancer and the associated literature on disparities in awareness of and uptake of genetic counseling and testing in Latina populations. We also discuss common genetic polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in Latinas. In the treatment setting, we examine tumor genomics and pharmacogenomics in Latina patients with breast cancer. Conclusions As the US population continues to diversify, extending genetic and genomic research into this underserved and understudied population is critical. By understanding the risk of breast cancer among ethnically diverse populations, we will be better positioned to make treatment advancements for earlier stages of cancer, identify more effective and ideally less toxic treatment regimens, and increase rates of survival. PMID:27842325

  1. Annotating breast cancer microarray samples using ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert

    2008-11-06

    As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology(MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, anontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCMCO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations.

  2. Weight, physical activity and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Anne

    2018-02-26

    Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established. The effects of purposive dietary weight loss and increase in physical activity on survival or recurrence in breast cancer are not yet established, and randomised controlled trials are needed for definitive data. This paper presents the epidemiologic evidence on weight status, weight change, and physical activity and breast cancer survival; suggests potential mediating mechanisms; summarises evidence on weight loss interventions in breast cancer survivors; describes ongoing randomised clinical trials designed to test the effects of weight loss or physical activity on breast cancer survival; and provides information on available guidelines on weight and physical activity for cancer survivors.

  3. Flax and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Gillian; Fritz, Heidi; Balneaves, Lynda G; Verma, Shailendra; Skidmore, Becky; Fernandes, Rochelle; Kennedy, Deborah; Cooley, Kieran; Wong, Raimond; Sagar, Stephen; Fergusson, Dean; Seely, Dugald

    2014-05-01

    Flax is a food and dietary supplement commonly used for menopausal symptoms. Flax is known for its lignan, α-linolenic acid, and fiber content, components that may possess phytogestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and hormone modulating effects, respectively. We conducted a systematic review of flax for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women living with breast cancer and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to January 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to flax and breast cancer. Of 1892 records, we included a total of 10 studies: 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 1 biomarker study, and 5 observational studies. Nonsignificant (NS) decreases in hot flash symptomatology were seen with flax ingestion (7.5 g/d). Flax (25 g/d) increased tumor apoptotic index (Pflax or 50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglycoside daily. Observational data suggests associations between flax and decreased risk of primary breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.97), better mental health (AOR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.05-2.94), and lower mortality (multivariate hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.50-0.95) among breast cancer patients. Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. Methods: In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9% patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1% with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0% with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3% patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0% had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7% had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18% compared with unilateral (28% and metachronous primaries (90%. There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%, opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%, and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163. This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1% or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689. There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5

  5. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  6. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Bock (Geertruida); C.E. Jacobi (Catharina); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); E.M.M. Krol-Warmerdam (Elly); J. Blom (Jannet); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); C.J. Cornelisse (Cees); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); J.C. van Houwelingen

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates

  7. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  8. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in EMT and stem cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Bryan T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Ju-Seog; Fridlyand, Jane; Sahin, Aysegul; Agarwal, Roshan; Joy, Corwin; Liu, Wenbin; Stivers, David; Baggerly, Keith; Carey, Mark; Lluch, Ana; Monteagudo, Carlos; He, Xiaping; Weigman, Victor; Fan, Cheng; Palazzo, Juan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Nolden, Laura K.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-05-19

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a 'tumorigenic' signature defined using CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup -} breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

  9. Mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk driven by breast anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Oustimov, Andrew; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    Image-derived features of breast parenchymal texture patterns have emerged as promising risk factors for breast cancer, paving the way towards personalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation and screening. The main steps to extract texture features of the breast parenchyma are the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) where texture analysis is performed, the texture feature calculation and the texture feature summarization in case of multiple ROIs. In this study, we incorporate breast anatomy in these three key steps by (a) introducing breast anatomical sampling for the definition of ROIs, (b) texture feature calculation aligned with the structure of the breast and (c) weighted texture feature summarization considering the spatial position and the underlying tissue composition of each ROI. We systematically optimize this novel framework for parenchymal tissue characterization in a case-control study with digital mammograms from 424 women. We also compare the proposed approach with a conventional methodology, not considering breast anatomy, recently shown to enhance the case-control discriminatory capacity of parenchymal texture analysis. The case-control classification performance is assessed using elastic-net regression with 5-fold cross validation, where the evaluation measure is the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. Upon optimization, the proposed breast-anatomy-driven approach demonstrated a promising case-control classification performance (AUC=0.87). In the same dataset, the performance of conventional texture characterization was found to be significantly lower (AUC=0.80, DeLong's test p-valuebreast anatomy may further leverage the associations of parenchymal texture features with breast cancer, and may therefore be a valuable addition in pipelines aiming to elucidate quantitative mammographic phenotypes of breast cancer risk.

  10. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    ), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher......Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1...

  11. Features of triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Plasilova, Magdalena L.; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K.; Horowitz, Nina R; Chagpar, Anees B.; Donald R. Lannin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC w...

  12. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Dias; Kamilla Zomkowski; Fernanda Alessandra Silva Michel; Fabiana Flores Sperandio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occup...

  13. Novel Function of NIBP in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    histologically diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma , 21 (7.1%) have invasive lobular carcinoma and 11 (3.8%) suffered other types of breast cancer. The...understand the molecular mechanisms for NIBP/NFB signaling in cancer cells that play a pivotal role in promoting tumor development and invasion . The...tumor formation and metastatic invasion of breast cancer cells. We anticipate that overexpression of NIBP may promote the proliferation and survival

  14. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Petar Stefanovski; Snezhana Smichkoska; Marija Raleva; Beti Dejanova

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) ...

  15. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  16. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  17. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...... were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...

  18. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  19. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  20. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...