WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer prevention

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  3. Breast Cancer: A preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to high cancer incidence, as one of the major mortality causes worldwide, following human societies industrialization in recent years breast cancer, dealt with in the present article, has got a particular impact on women who possess a pivotal role in family and society. Thus, adoption of effective diagnostic procedures in the early stages of the disease is very important, which must be considered as a substantial component of the strategies aimed at women’s health promotion and decreasing of breast cancer mortality rate. Meanwhile, women’s education and their awareness promotion and advising them to carry out different methods of breast cancer screening in the early stages of the symptoms, as preventive measures, play important roles. The present review article attempts to study prevalence and epidemiology of breast cancer, its risk factors and its different stages of prevention.

  4. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    abrogated by small interfering RNA to PTEN, indicating PTEN-dependence. Using FACS analysis , we showed that GEN induced cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase...isolated from WT (PND 100) and Tg (PND75) mice. The percentage of mammary SCs was quantified by Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of...fruits and vegetables in breast cancer prevention due to their phytochemical components, yet mechanisms underlying their presumed anti-tumor activities

  7. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2001-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metabolism, and a human feeding study in which 20 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  8. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy

    2000-01-01

    .... The methods include in vitro studies to determine the intestinal microflora responsible for phytoestrogen metablism, and a human feeding study in which 18 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...

  9. [Breast feeding: an effective method to prevent breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, Maria J; González Jiménez, E; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C A; Mur Villar, N; García López, P A; Valenza Peña, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological tumor in young women in Western countries. Its profound implications for health and an increasingly early age of diagnosis have been carefully analyzed its causes and possible preventive measures, making their study in a primary goal of epidemiological research. We reviewed medical records pertaining to 504 female patients aged 19 to 91 years. All of them were diagnosed and treated for breast cancer between 2003-2008 at the Hospital Universitario "San Cecilio" of Granada (Spain). We found a significant correlation (p = 0.001) between the age of cancer diagnosis, length of breastfeeding, and the existence of personal and family history for cancer. By contrast, there were no statistically significant differences test (t-test) between the average age of diagnosis of cancer and having had offspring or not (t = 0.559, p = 0.576). Breastfeeding for periods of longer than six months, not only provides children with many health benefits, but may also protect the mother from serious diseases, such as breast cancer.

  10. Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, A; Astley, S; Warwick, J; Stavrinos, P; Sahin, S; Ingham, S; McBurney, H; Eckersley, B; Harvie, M; Wilson, M; Beetles, U; Warren, R; Hufton, A; Sergeant, J; Newman, W; Buchan, I; Cuzick, J; Evans, D. G

    2012-01-01

    ...; and Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge; UK). Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme (Review). J Intern Med 2012; 271 : 321–330...

  11. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-06-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. In this perspective, we consider modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in women in relation to the development of smartphone apps to promote healthy behaviors associated with breast cancer-risk reduction. First, we provide a summary of breast cancer risk factors that are modifiable through behavioral change including their corresponding relative risk. Second, we discuss scientific issues related to the development of smartphone apps for the primary prevention of breast cancer and offer suggestions for further research. Smartphone apps for preventing breast cancer should be tailored for women at different life stages (e.g., young women, women who are post-menopausal, and older women). Topics such as breastfeeding and oral contraceptives are appropriate for younger women. Weight management, physical activity, avoiding cigarette smoking, and dispelling breast cancer myths are appropriate for women of all ages. As women age, topics such as hormone replacement therapy or comorbid health conditions become more important to address. Apps for breast cancer prevention should be grounded in a behavioral theory or framework and should be suitable for people with varying levels of health literacy. Future developments in smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention should include apps that are tailored for specific cultural, racial, and ethnic groups.

  12. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  13. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action. PMID:28698459

  14. Predicting, preventing and managing persistent pain after breast cancer surgery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Kristin L; Kehlet, Henrik; Belfer, Inna

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) is increasingly recognized as a potential problem facing a sizeable subset of the millions of women who undergo surgery as part of their treatment of breast cancer. Importantly, an increasing number of studies suggest that individual variation......, psychophysical and demographic factors, which may also influence PPBCS risk, as well as discusses potential perioperative therapies to prevent PPBCS....

  15. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  16. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  17. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  19. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  20. Acupuncture Reduces Breast Cancer Joint Pain | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest, most rigorous study of its kind, acupuncture was found to significantly reduce the debilitating joint pain experienced by tens of thousands of women each year while being treated for early stage breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). |

  1. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M.

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care. PMID:26987530

  2. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a dietary prevention of hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A

    2005-03-01

    Inheritance of a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 confers a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Variation in penetrance between individuals suggests that factors other than the gene mutation itself may influence the risk of cancer in susceptible women. Several risk factors have been identified which implicate estrogen-induced growth stimulation as a probable contributor to breast cancer pre-disposition. The protein products of both of these genes appear to help preserve genomic integrity via their participation in the DNA damage response and repair pathways. To date, the evidence for a cancer-protective role of dietary nutrients, for the most part those with antioxidant properties, has been based on women without any known genetic pre-disposition and it is important to identify and evaluate dietary factors which may modify the risk of cancer in BRCA carriers. Here we propose that diet modification may modulate the risk of hereditary breast cancer by decreasing DNA damage (possibly linked to estrogen exposure) or by enhancing DNA repair. The prevention of hereditary breast cancer through diet is an attractive complement to current management strategies and deserves exploration.

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Energy restriction (ER) to control weight is a potential strategy for breast cancer prevention. The protective effects of habitual continuous energy restriction (CER) and weight loss on breast tumour formation have been conclusively demonstrated in animal studies over the past 100 years, and more recently in women using data from observational studies and bariatric surgery. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) and intermittent fasting (IF) are possible alternative preventative approaches which may be easier for individuals to undertake and possibly more effective than standard CER. Here, we summarise the available data on CER, IER and IF with special emphasis on their potential for breast cancer prevention. In animals, IER is superior or equivalent to CER with the exception of carcinogen-induced tumour models when initiated soon after carcinogen exposure. There are no human data on IER and breast cancer risk, but three studies demonstrated IER and CER to be equivalent for weight loss. IF regimens also reduce mammary tumour formation in animal models and also led to weight loss in human subjects, but have not been directly compared with CER. Animal and some human data suggest that both IER and IF may differ mechanistically compared with CER and may bring about greater reduction in hepatic and visceral fat stores, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and cell proliferation, and increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels. Although IER and IF were first studied 65 years ago, we conclude that further studies are required to assess their values compared with CER.

  6. [An analysis of breast cancer prevention in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Juliana Dantas; Cruz, Mércia Santos; Paixão, Adriano Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    This research sets out to study the interrelationship between breast cancer prevention and the socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, regional and health factors in determining the temporal frequency of tests for prevention by performing mammograms and breast exams in Brazil. Based on the information of the health supplement of the National Sampling Survey of Domiciles of 2008, a sample that includes only women over age 40 was created. To achieve the desired goal, the estimate of the ordered logit model is used to establish partial proportional odds, which revealed the main results as follows. Women with a good socioeconomic status, living in the more developed regions of the country, family structure including children, making a good self-assessment of health and having been diagnosed with some type of cancer in the past. This is the profile of women who are best at preventing breast cancer, both in relation to the demand for mammograms and to a greater demand for breast exam performed by a doctor or a nurse. The results also point to the fact that the majority of those interviewed had either had the tests in question within the previous year, or had never been exposed to such procedures.

  7. Active Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Victor G; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Cronin, Walter M; Cecchini, Reena S; Atkins, James N; Bevers, Therese B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Pajon, Eduardo R; Wade, 3rd, James L; Robidoux, André; Margolese, Richard G; James, Joan; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Ganz, Patricia A; Reis, Steven E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G; Jordan, V Craig; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    .... The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR...

  11. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevent...

  12. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    days when inoculated into newborn rats. Their interpretation was that AFP present only in newborn animals was responsible for the inhibition of...RD, Shull JD. Estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in the Copenhagen rat: disparate susceptibilities to development of prolactin-producing pituitary...mammary cancer segregates as an incompletely dominant phenotype in reciprocal crosses between the ACI and Copenhagen rat strains. Endocrinology 2001 Dec

  15. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Prevention of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients. Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Beuzeboc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four breast cancer patients is at risk of developing bone metastases in her life time. The early prevention of bone metastases is a crucial challenge. It has been suggested that the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL in the adjuvant setting may reduce the persistence of disseminated tumor cells and thereby might improve outcome, specifically in a population of patients with a low estrogen microenvironment. More recently, the results of a large meta-analysis from 41 randomized trials comparing a bisphosphonate (BP to placebo or to an open control have been presented at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Meeting. Data on 17,016 patients confirm that adjuvant BPs, irrespective of the type of treatment or the treatment schedule and formulation (oral or intra-venously (IV, significantly reduced bone recurrences and improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal women. No advantage was seen in premenopausal women. BPs are soon likely to become integrated into standard practice. Published data on the mechanisms involved in tumor cell seeding from the primary site, in homing to bone tissues and in the reactivation of dormant tumor cells will be reviewed; these might offer new ideas for innovative combination strategies.

  17. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter’s application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Results There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Conclusions Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used

  18. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Rollins, Stephen; Draper, Catherine R

    2013-10-29

    One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter's application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used mostly as a one-way communication tool. To

  19. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using mouse genetics, we showed that RANKL and its receptor RANK are critical regulators of sex hormone and BRCA1 mutation-driven breast cancer...into breast cancer patients and controls due to self reporting and histological examination. We have tested differences in RANKL, OPG and RANKL/OPG...organisms and repairable mutagenesis with in vivo mouse genetics and human cohort studies to functionally characterize candidate breast cancer genes

  20. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    immune system to maintain epithelial integrity . In this study our goal was to study the immune subsets associated with breast mucosa and develop the...gene primers were used to check the DNA samples from tails of the mice individually. The positive bands indicate Neu-T transgenic mice. B...Chromosome 3 (IL-2 precursor) primers were used as control to check the DNA samples from the tails of the mice individually. Progress report

  1. cGMP signaling as a target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Perrin F; Tinsley, Heather N

    2015-04-01

    One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. Advances in therapeutic strategies, diagnosis, and improved awareness have resulted in a significant reduction in breast cancer related mortality. However, there is a continued need for more effective and less toxic drugs for both the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer in order to see a continued decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Recent studies suggest that the cGMP signaling pathway may be aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. As such, this pathway may serve as a source of novel targets for future breast cancer drug discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of cGMP signaling in normal physiology and in breast cancer as well as current strategies being investigated for targeting this pathway in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month

    OpenAIRE

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Rollins, Stephen; Draper, Catherine R

    2013-01-01

    Background One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to underst...

  3. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Training Grant in Epidemiology and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    especially in light of other evidence that prolactin secretion can Pathol 2001;54:956-60. be influenced by physical or psychological stress after diagnosis...prolactin receptors and steroid receptors in women patiettts wvitht breast cancer: CiCRI experiettce. Estr J Surg Otteol 2000;26:540-7. with breast catncer

  5. Preventing Fatigue in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marrow, Gary

    2001-01-01

    ... or alleviate the development of treatment-induced fatigue. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 124 breast cancer patients who were studied for up to four successive chemotherapy treatments...

  6. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  7. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  8. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  9. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  10. Evaluating the knowledge of breast cancer screening and prevention among Arab-American women in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Samia; Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S

    2011-03-01

    Arab-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced staged breast cancer. We analyzed data from 100 women utilizing a breast cancer literacy assessment tool aimed at understanding functional literacy levels about breast-self exams (BSE), clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. The educational program improved women's knowledge of BSE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.50) and CBE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54), more for women with higher education. Consideration of women's educational status is an important factor in planning educational programs to improve knowledge on breast cancer screening and prevention in this minority population.

  11. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the ethnic population15. Tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers are in general triple negative “basal” phenotype and thus have a bad prognosis and...biomarker for ER+ breast cancer and TSPAN6high expression defines a subpopulation of ER+ breast cancer patients with very good clinical prognosis. Thus...2009. 25. Reddy, B.V., and Irvine, K.D. (2008). The Fat and Warts signaling pathways: new insights into their regulation, mechanism and

  12. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  13. Molecular Pathways Involved in Pregnancy-Induced Prevention Against Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Russo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy produces a protective effect against breast cancer in women who had their first full term pregnancy (FTP) in their middle twenties. The later in life the first delivery occurs, the higher the risk of breast cancer development. Also, transiently during the postpartum period, the risk of developing breast cancer increases. This transient increased risk is taken over by a long-lasting protective period. The genomic profile of parous women has shown pregnancy induces a long-lasting “genomic signature” that explains the preventive effect on breast cancer. This signature reveals that chromatin remodeling is the driver of the differentiation process conferred by FTP. The chromatin remodeling process may be the ultimate step mediating the protection of the breast against developing breast cancer in post-menopausal years. PMID:25540638

  14. Molecular pathways involved in pregnancy-induced prevention against breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBarton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy produces a protective effect against breast cancer in women who had their first full term pregnancy in their middle twenties. Postponement of the first delivery increases a woman’s breast cancer risk. Also, transiently, during the postpartum period, the risk of developing breast cancer increases. This transient increased risk is taken over by a long lasting protective period. The genomic profile of parous women has shown pregnancy induces a long lasting genomic signature that explains the preventive effect on breast cancer. This signature reveals that the differentiation process, conferred by earlier full term pregnancy, is centered in chromatin remodeling. The chromatin remodeling process may be the ultimate step mediating the protection of the breast against developing breast cancer in postmenopausal years.

  15. Blocking the adhesion cascade at the premetastatic niche for prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-06-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)(-)/CD44(+) hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER(+)/CD44(-/low) hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44(+) breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER(-) breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44(+) cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer.

  16. Breast cancer and flavonoids - a role in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hitomi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are implicated in the development of breast cancer. The putative mechanisms by which estrogens exert the carcinogenic effects have been recognized to involve the redox cycling of estrogen metabolites and subsequent estrogen-DNA adduct formation as well as the estrogen receptor-dependent pathway of estrogen-induced cell growth. The former pathway is regulated by phase I enzymes, mainly cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1. Among them, CYP1B1 predominantly catalyzes the C4-position of E2 and forms carcinogenic 4-hydroxy-E2 (4-OHE2), whereas CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 convert E2 to noncarcinogenic 2-hydroxy-E2. Formed 4-OHE2 is further oxidized to semiquinones and quinones, which form DNA adducts, leading to mutagenic lesions. Consequently, CYP1B1 is highly expressed, and 4-OHE2 is predominantly detected in estrogen target neoplastic tissues. Moreover, invasion and metastasis are also involved in the development of breast cancer. Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between a higher intake of flavonoids and breast cancer risk. Flavonoids, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have been recently reported as candidate compounds that can exert chemopreventive effects in estrogen-dependent or independent breast cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of breast cancer and chemoprevention by flavonoids, mainly focusing on ER-mediated hormonal regulation, redox cycling of estrogen metabolites, and selective inhibition of CYP1B1.

  17. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  18. New Educational Model to Promote Breast Cancer-Preventive Behaviors (ASSISTS): Development and First Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Pashaei, Tahereh; Alizadeh, Rashin; Ponnet, Koen

    2018-01-12

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Iran has increased. An effective approach to decrease the burden of breast cancer is prevention. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an educational model, called the ASSISTS, for promoting breast cancer-preventive behaviors in women. A multiphase method was used to develop the model designed to promote breast cancer prevention behaviors. A conceptual model was generated based on a secondary analysis of qualitative data. Then, a structural equation model technique was used to test the relationships among the model constructs. The analysis revealed that 7 constructs could be extracted, namely, perceived social support, attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, and self-care. Based on these constructs, a conceptual model was built and tested using structural equation modeling. The model fit was good, and the model confirmed significant relationships among the 7 constructs of breast cancer prevention. Findings revealed that self-care behavior and stress management are influenced directly by attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, and social support. In addition, women seek more information when they are motivated, have more self-efficacy, have a more positive attitude toward breast cancer prevention, and experience more social support. Cancer nurses can be at the forefront of breast cancer prevention. Because they can play a pivotal role in providing information, they can reduce women's stress and increase their self-care behavior. In addition, their social support can positively influence Iranian women's attitude, motivation, and self-care behavior. Furthermore, implementing educational programs based on this model might encourage women to practice preventive behaviors.

  19. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    synthetic progesterones (progestins) used in HRT and contraceptives increase the risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Based on the clinical...old female mice were s.c. implanted with MPA pellets and treated orally with DMBA as indicated for 8 week. Data are shown as percentage of tumor...America) subcutaneously on the right flank. 200l DMBA (5mg/ml diluted in cottonseed oil) was administered by oral gavage 6 times throughout the

  20. Risk of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: Is preventive mastectomy warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jacob; Giannakeas, Vasily; Karlan, Beth; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Rosen, Barry; McLaughlin, John; Risch, Harvey; Sun, Ping; Foulkes, William D; Neuhausen, Susan L; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A

    2017-05-01

    Preventive breast surgery and MRI screening are offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. The clinical benefit of these two modalities has not been evaluated among mutation carriers with a history of ovarian cancer. Thus, we sought to determine whether or not BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer would benefit from preventive mastectomy or from MRI screening. First, the annual mortality rate for ovarian cancer patients was estimated for a cohort of 178 BRCA mutation carriers from Ontario, Canada. Next, the actuarial risk of developing breast cancer was estimated using an international registry of 509 BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer. A series of simulations was conducted to evaluate the reduction in the probability of death (from all causes) associated with mastectomy and with MRI-based breast surveillance. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the impacts of mastectomy and MRI screening on breast cancer incidence as well as on all-cause mortality. Twenty (3.9%) of the 509 patients developed breast cancer within ten years following ovarian cancer diagnosis. The actuarial risk of developing breast cancer at ten years post-diagnosis, conditional on survival from ovarian cancer and other causes of mortality was 7.8%. Based on our simulation results, among all BRCA mutation-carrying patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer at age 50, the chance of dying before age 80 was reduced by less than 1% with MRI and by less than 2% with mastectomy. Greater improvements in survival with MRI or mastectomy were observed for women who had already survived 10years after ovarian cancer, and for women with stage I or II ovarian cancer. Among BRCA mutation-carrying ovarian cancer patients without a personal history of breast cancer, neither preventive mastectomy nor MRI screening is warranted, except for those who have survived ovarian cancer without recurrence for ten years and for those with early stage ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017

  1. The science behind vitamins and natural compounds for breast cancer prevention. Getting the most prevention out of it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Gandini, Sara; Puntoni, Matteo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Gennari, Alessandra; DeCensi, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    This review highlights the role of vitamins and natural compounds in breast cancer prevention, with a particular focus on Vitamin D. In the last decades, both encouraging and discouraging results about the association between antioxidant supplementation and cancer have been reported to public and scientific community. Their safe and favorable toxicity profile makes them suitable to be investigated in a preventive setting. However, a recent large meta-analysis showed that treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality, whereas the potential roles of vitamin C and selenium on mortality need further study. Likewise, folate levels were not associated with reduced breast cancer risk in a recent meta-analysis. Several studies have shown that a high proportion of women at-risk for breast cancer or affected by the disease have deficient vitamin D levels, i.e., 250 H-D Vitamin D levels and breast cancer risk/prognosis is still controversial, the U-shaped relationship between 250 H-D levels observed in different studies suggests the need to avoid both deficient and too high levels. Further trials using an optimal dose range are needed to assess the preventive and therapeutic effect of vitamin D. Finally, Fenretinide, a pro-apoptotic and pro-oxidant vitamin A derivative, has shown promise in several trials and its preventive potential is being assessed in young women at very high risk for breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  3. Readability of patient information regarding breast cancer prevention from the Web site of the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Ian C

    2010-12-01

    The increasing use of the Internet for gathering information regarding preventative health measures creates a unique dilemma. Access to the Internet is almost universal in the USA. Web sites presenting health information regarding breast cancer must create information that is understandable to the general public, meaning a reading level of around seventh grade. Text was obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Web site, and an examination of the text's grade level was performed. The text was written at between a 10th and 12th grade level. This indicates that information regarding breast cancer prevention obtained from the National Cancer Institute's web site is written at far too high of a level.

  4. Breastfeeding and the prevention of breast cancer: a retrospective review of clinical histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; García, Pedro A; Aguilar, María José; Padilla, Carlos A; Álvarez, Judit

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate at what age parous and nonparous women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Factors taken into account for parous women were whether they had breastfed their children, and if so, the length of the lactation period. Other factors considered for both groups were obesity, family histories of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in younger women in Western countries. Its growing incidence as well as the increasingly early age of diagnosis led us to carefully analyse its possible causes and the preventive measures to be taken. This is a particularly important goal in epidemiological research. A retrospective study of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). In this study, we analysed 504 medical records of female patients, 19-91 years of age, who had been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer from 2004-2009 at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). Relevant data (age of diagnosis, period of lactation, family history of cancer, obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) were collected from the clinical histories of each patient and analysed. A conditional inference tree was used to relate the age of diagnosis to smoking habits and the length of the lactation period. The conditional inference tree identified significant differences between the age of the patients at breast cancer diagnosis, smoking habits (p breastfeeding for over six months not only provides children with numerous health benefits, but also protects mothers from breast cancer when the mothers are nonsmokers. Nurses play a crucial role in encouraging new mothers to breastfeed their children, and this helps to prevent breast cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of dietary factors in prevention and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder; Whyand, Tara; Caplin, Martyn Evan

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading global cause of cancer-related death in women. There is growing evidence for a role for dietary factors in BC pathophysiology. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the impact of dietary factors in BC risk. Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following terms: "nutrition and breast cancer", "nutrition and breast carcinoma", "dietary factors and breast cancer", "risk factors and breast cancer", "diet and breast cancer, "breast cancer epidemiology", "breast cancer and prevention". Consumption of well-done red meat appears to be associated with increased risk of BC, whereas fish may be protective. Total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and glycaemic load should be monitored and controlled in at risk populations because they may be associated with increased risk of BC, although the exact mechanisms involved are not clear. Alcohol intake should be minimized since it is a risk factor for BC. High intake of polyphenol/phyto-oestrogen -rich food (i.e. flavonoids, soya products), as well as fibres, fruits and vegetables, may have potential protective effects against BC occurrence but the results might vary according to hormonal status. Vitamin D supplements appear protective against BC development and similarly other vitamins and oligo-elements might decrease BC risk, although further large prospective studies are required. There exist increasing evidence that dietary factors can play an important role in both the development and prevention of BC. Large randomized clinical and epidemiological studies are required but are difficult to design due to the number of variable factors. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  7. Global nutrition research: nutrition and breast cancer prevention as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, Sophie A; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-11-01

    The gene-environment interaction is paramount in light of the worldwide rise in incidence of chronic diseases, with cancers in the pole position. Diet is an environmental factor with potential to influence cancer onset by shaping the epigenome (i.e., the genome organization that controls the differential expression of genes). Yet, there is no consensus regarding how diet might help prevent breast cancer, the second most frequent malignancy globally. The complexity of breast cancers requires working on a global and multidisciplinary scale to further understand the relationship between breast cancer type, diet, and the epigenome. This article describes the International Breast Cancer & Nutrition collaboration as one such approach. A global endeavor brings the diversity necessary to pinpoint important diet-gene relationships. Being developed are models, detection and assessment tools, and funding and public policy frameworks necessary to advance primary prevention research for the benefit of all populations affected by breast cancer. This paradigm can be adapted to understanding diet-gene relationships for other chronic diseases. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Nutrigenomics: implications for breast and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riscuta, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Ramona G

    2012-01-01

    Nutrigenomics refers to the interaction between one's diet and his/her genes. These interactions can markedly influence digestion, absorption, and the elimination of bioactive food components, as well as influence their site of actions/molecular targets. Nutrigenomics comprises nutrigenetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics, coupled with other "omic," such as proteomics and metabolomics, that apparently account for the wide variability in cancer risk among individuals with similar dietary habits. Multiple food components including essential nutrients, phytochemical, zoochemicals, fungochemical, and bacterochemicals have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor behavior, admittedly with mixed results. Such findings suggest that not all individuals respond identically to a diet. This chapter highlights the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphism, copy number, epigenetic events, and transcriptomic homeostasis as factors influencing the response to food components and ultimately health, including cancer risk. Both breast and colorectal cancers are reviewed as examples about how nutrigenomics may influence the response to dietary intakes. As the concept that "one size fits all" comes to an end and personalized approaches surface, additional research data will be required to identify those who will benefit most from dietary change and any who might be placed at risk because of an adjustment.

  9. Two good choices to prevent breast cancer: great taste, less filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Brown, Powel H

    2010-06-01

    An important report in this issue of the journal by Vogel et al. (beginning on p. 696) discloses long-term follow-up data of the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showing persisting strong effects of both drugs in preventing invasive and noninvasive breast cancer after drugs were stopped in 2006. In addition, safety improved with longer follow-up (median of 81 months versus 47 months for the initial report). For 12 years, the public has avoided Food and Drug Administration-approved tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction; it is time to reemphasize the great preventive benefit of these agents to the public. 2010 AACR.

  10. The Athena Breast Health Network: developing a rapid learning system in breast cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Sarah L; Hiatt, Robert A; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Howell, Lydia P; Naeim, Arash; Parker, Barbara A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogarth, Michael; Pierce, John P; Duwors, Robert J; Hajopoulos, Kathy; Esserman, Laura J

    2013-07-01

    The term breast cancer covers many different conditions, whose clinical course ranges from indolent to aggressive. However, current practice in breast cancer prevention and care, and in breast cancer epidemiology, does not take into account the heterogeneity of the disease. A comprehensive understanding of the etiology and progression of different breast cancer subtypes would enable a more patient-centered approach to breast health care: assessing an individual's risk of getting specific subtypes of the disease, providing risk-based screening and prevention recommendations, and, for those diagnosed with the disease, tailored treatment options based on risk and timing of progression and mortality. The Athena Breast Health Network is an initiative of the five University of California medical and cancer centers to prototype this approach and to enable the development of a rapid learning system-connecting risk and outcome information from a heterogeneous patient population in real time and using new knowledge from research to continuously improve the quality of care. The Network is based on integrating clinical and research processes to create a comprehensive approach to accelerating patient-centered breast health care. Since its inception in 2009, the Network has developed a multi-site, transdisciplinary collaboration that enables the learning system. The five-campus collaboration has implemented a shared informatics platform, standardized electronic patient intake questionnaires, and common biospecimen protocols, as well as new clinical programs and multi-center research projects. The Athena Breast Health Network can serve as a model of a rapid learning system that integrates epidemiologic, behavioral, and clinical research with clinical care improvements.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  12. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  13. Diet modulation is an effective complementary agent in preventing and treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate (ST) and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary ST with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets [corn oil (CO) control diet, low fat (LF) or ST] the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50 % compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings.

  14. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets (corn oil control diet/CO, low fat /LF or stearate/ST) the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50% compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings. PMID:24832758

  15. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  16. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  17. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal......, opiate-sparing, evidence-based regimen for prevention of PONV and pain....

  18. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you not feel alone. Outlook (Prognosis) New, improved treatments are helping people with breast cancer live ... carcinoma in situ Patient Instructions Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor Lymphedema - self-care ...

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention And Detection | Ihezue | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breasts are phylogentically considered as modifications of sweat glands. They are present in all mammals and particularly become prominent in females as the hallmark of pubertal development. Like all bilateral structures, slight inequality in the size of the breast is normal. The male breast is small, though it is subject to ...

  20. Field cancerization in mammary carcinogenesis - Implications for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of breast cancer unfolds with the development of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in normal breast tissue, and evolution of this pre-invasive neoplasm into invasive cancer. The mechanisms that drive these processes are poorly understood, but evidence from the literature suggests that mammary carcinogenesis may occur through the process of field cancerization. Clinical observations are consistent with the idea that (i) DCIS may arise in a field of altered breast epithelium, (ii) narrow surgical margins do not remove the entire altered field (contributing to recurrence and/or disease progression), and (iii) whole-breast radiation therapy is effective in elimination of the residual field of altered cells adjacent to the resected DCIS. Molecular studies suggest that the field of altered breast epithelial cells may carry cancer-promoting genetic mutations (or other molecular alterations) or cancer promoting epimutations (oncogenic alterations in the epigenome). In fact, most breast cancers develop through a succession of molecular events involving both genetic mutations and epimutations. Hence, in hereditary forms of breast cancer, the altered field reflects the entire breast tissue which is composed of cells with a predisposing molecular lesion (such as a BRCA1 mutation). In the example of a BRCA1-mutant patient, it is evident that local resection of a DCIS lesion or localized but invasive cancer will not result in elimination of the altered field. In sporadic breast cancer patients, the mechanistic basis for the altered field may not be so easily recognized. Nonetheless, identification of the nature of field cancerization in a given patient may guide clinical intervention. Thus, patients with DCIS that develops in response to an epigenetic lesion (such as a hypermethylation defect affecting the expression of tumor suppressor genes) might be treated with epigenetic therapy to normalize the altered field and reduce the risk of secondary occurrence of

  1. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . This review is a systematic analysis on methodology and evidence in research into persistent pain after breast cancer treatment during the period 1995 to 2010, in order to clarify the significance and relative role of potential risk factors. Literature was identified by a search in PubMed and OVID, as well...... for prevention and treatment. However, nerve damage and radiotherapy appear to be significant risk factors for chronic pain. A proposal for the design of future prospective studies is presented. PERSPECTIVE: A comprehensive and systematic approach to research in chronic pain after breast cancer treatment...

  2. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having a weakened immune system . Being exposed to arsenic . Risk factors for melanoma skin cancer: Having a ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  4. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast—it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray—these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001 PMID:24381245

  5. Pedigree and BRCA gene analysis in breast cancer patients to identify hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality of disease in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooei, Mina; Poornima, Subhadra; Salma, Bibi Umae; Iyer, Gayatri R; Pujar, Akhilesh N; Annapurna, Srirambhatla; Shah, Ashwin; Maddali, Srinivas; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2017-02-01

    Global burden of breast cancer is expected to increase to >2 million new cases every year by 2030 and 10% of these are likely to have hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Identifying these individuals by pedigree and BRCA1/2 mutation analyses will enable us to offer targeted mutation testing and appropriate counseling. This study from a tertiary care hospital showed that of the 127 breast cancer patients on treatment during 2014-2015, 24 of them fulfilled the criteria of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome after detailed verbal autopsy and pedigree analysis, and BRCA1 and 2 next-generation sequencing done after pre-test counseling revealed mutations in 13 cases (54%), these included 9 BRCA1 mutations (69%) and 4 BRCA2 mutation (31%). Subsequent post-test counseling recommended targeted mutation analysis for 64 high-risk members in these 13 families with pathogenic mutations, which will help in surveillance for early detection, appropriate management, and prevention of the disease by decreasing the burden to both family and nation. Results from this preliminary study highlight the importance of genetic counseling, pedigree analysis, and genetic testing. It can be recommended that all oncology units should have a genetic counseling service for providing appropriate support to oncologists, patients, and families to prevent unnecessary testing; however, breast cancer screening program is incomplete without evaluating for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome.

  6. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  7. Targeting Breast Stem Cells with the Cancer Preventive Compounds Curcumin and Piperine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Brenner, Dean E.; Khorkaya, Hasan; Cheng, Connie; Tazi, Karim; Ginestier, Christophe; Liu, Suling; Dontu, Gabriela; Wicha, Max S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell hypothesis asserts that malignancies arise in tissue stem and/or progenitor cells through the dysregulation or acquisition of self-renewal. In order to determine whether the dietary polyphenols, curcumin and piperine, are able to modulate the self-renewal of normal and malignant breast stem cells, we examined the effects of these compounds on mammosphere formation, on expression of the breast stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and on Wnt signaling. Design Mammosphere formation assays were performed after curcumin, piperine and control treatment in unsorted normal breast epithelial cells and normal stem and early progenitor cells, selected by ALDH positivity. Wnt signaling was examined using a Topflash assay. Results Both curcumin and piperine inhibited mammosphere formation, serial passaging and percent of ALDH+ cells, by 50% at 5 μM and completely at 10 μM concentration in normal and malignant breast cells. There was no effect on cellular differentiation. Wnt signaling was inhibited by both curcumin and piperine by 50% at 5 μM and completely at 10μM. Conclusion Curcumin and piperine separately, and in combination, inhibit breast stem cell self renewal but do not cause toxicity to differentiated cells. These compounds could be potential cancer preventive agents. Mammosphere formation assays may be a quantifiable biomarker to assess cancer preventive agent efficacy and Wnt signaling assessment a mechanistic biomarker for use in human clinical trials. PMID:19898931

  8. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  9. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  10. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  11. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  12. Galician consensus on management of cardiotoxicity in breast cancer: risk factors, prevention, and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, J F; Antolín, S; Calvo, L; Fernández, I; Ramos, M; de Paz, L; Mata, J G; López, R; Constenla, M; Pérez, E; González, A; Pellón, M L; Varela, S; López, T

    2017-09-01

    This Galician consensus statement is a joint oncologists/cardiologists initiative indented to establish basic recommendations on how to prevent and to manage the cardiotoxicity in breast cancer with the aim of ensuring an optimal cardiovascular care of these patients. A clinical screening of the patients before treatment is recommended to stratify them into a determined risk group based on their intrinsic cardiovascular risk factors and those extrinsic arose from breast cancer therapy, thereby providing individualized preventive and monitoring measures. Suitable initial and ongoing assessments for patients with low and moderate/high risk and planned treatment with anthracyclines and trastuzumab are given; also, measures aimed at preventing and correcting any modifiable risk factor are pointed out .

  13. Biomarker and Phenotypic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Lymphedema | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lymphedema (LE) following treatment for breast cancer is the most common form of secondary LE in the industrialized world. It occurs in 20% to 87% of patients following treatment for breast cancer and results in significant disability. At the present time, the definitive phenotypic, genotypic and epigenotypic predictors that place patients at highest risk for the development of LE are not known. |

  14. Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive...... by suppression of melatonin secretion. Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted...

  15. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  16. Identification of accrual barriers onto breast cancer prevention clinical trials: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Robert H; Kennedy, Michael H; Kulesher, Robert R; Lemon, Stephenie C; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Altieri, Dario C

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing a woman's decision to participate in a breast cancer prevention clinical trial. Nine healthcare organizations in Massachusetts cooperated in the present project. The authors performed a case-control study to compare responses between the study group (Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene [STAR] trial eligible, but not enrolled) and the control group (STAR trial participants) on 12 factors previously identified as barriers to accrual for clinical trials. Eight hypotheses were tested using multiple logistic regression to estimate the strength of the association for each factor on the dependent variable (study participation). The study samples were similar to the general population of eligible breast cancer prevention clinical trial subjects in the counties where the participating organizations were located, the state of Massachusetts, and nationally published STAR trial data. Results of a mailed questionnaire showed that when adjusting for subject demographics, and in the presence of other questions, 4 factors significantly influenced a woman's decision to enroll onto a breast cancer prevention clinical trial more than other eligible subjects: 1) clinician expertise and qualifications (P=.012; odds ratio [OR], 4.903; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-17.04); 2) personal desire to participate (P=.033; OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.10-9.06); 3) perceived value of the trial (P=.020; OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.18-7.21); and 4) level of trial inconvenience (P=.002; OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.44). Addressing these issues in the relationship between patients and clinicians should improve accrual to breast cancer prevention clinical trials. Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  17. RANK ligand as a potential target for breast cancer prevention in BRCA1-mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emma; Vaillant, François; Branstetter, Daniel; Pal, Bhupinder; Giner, Göknur; Whitehead, Lachlan; Lok, Sheau W; Mann, Gregory B; Rohrbach, Kathy; Huang, Li-Ya; Soriano, Rosalia; Smyth, Gordon K; Dougall, William C; Visvader, Jane E; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Individuals who have mutations in the breast-cancer-susceptibility gene BRCA1 (hereafter referred to as BRCA1-mutation carriers) frequently undergo prophylactic mastectomy to minimize their risk of breast cancer. The identification of an effective prevention therapy therefore remains a 'holy grail' for the field. Precancerous BRCA1(mut/+) tissue harbors an aberrant population of luminal progenitor cells, and deregulated progesterone signaling has been implicated in BRCA1-associated oncogenesis. Coupled with the findings that tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11; also known as RANKL) is a key paracrine effector of progesterone signaling and that RANKL and its receptor TNFRSF11A (also known as RANK) contribute to mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated a role for this pathway in the pre-neoplastic phase of BRCA1-mutation carriers. We identified two subsets of luminal progenitors (RANK(+) and RANK(-)) in histologically normal tissue of BRCA1-mutation carriers and showed that RANK(+) cells are highly proliferative, have grossly aberrant DNA repair and bear a molecular signature similar to that of basal-like breast cancer. These data suggest that RANK(+) and not RANK(-) progenitors are a key target population in these women. Inhibition of RANKL signaling by treatment with denosumab in three-dimensional breast organoids derived from pre-neoplastic BRCA1(mut/+) tissue attenuated progesterone-induced proliferation. Notably, proliferation was markedly reduced in breast biopsies from BRCA1-mutation carriers who were treated with denosumab. Furthermore, inhibition of RANKL in a Brca1-deficient mouse model substantially curtailed mammary tumorigenesis. Taken together, these findings identify a targetable pathway in a putative cell-of-origin population in BRCA1-mutation carriers and implicate RANKL blockade as a promising strategy in the prevention of breast cancer.

  18. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perception of breast cancer prevention campaigns among women in Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN Madalina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Once health marketing appeared, the concern for its development and for health, generally speaking, has increased, especially as regards the prevention of certain diseases. Health marketing refers to marketing strategies and campaigns aimed not only at healthy individuals, but also at the sick ones. Given that it is easier to prevent a disease and that access to information nowadays is handy, the present paper aimed at analysing opinions and attitudes of women in Brasov regarding prevention campaigns for breast cancer. Based on the information from the quantitative research, conclusions have been drawn concerning the level of knowledge of women in Brasov.

  20. Methods of generating state revenue for breast cancer prevention and early detection: an analysis of pink dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Chalifour, Stephanie; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-01-01

    We assessed income tax check-offs, specialty license plates, and lottery tickets as ways states raise funds for the early detection and prevention of breast cancer. We conducted an inventory of state legislation allowing these revenue-generating methods, and collected and compared information on each initiative. We conducted logistic regression analyses to compare these methods with state breast cancer mortality rates. Eighteen states had programs for contributions through an income tax check-off. Revenue for tax check-offs and plates is influenced by state population. The median annual revenue for the income tax check-off was $115,000. Twenty-six states had breast cancer license plates generating more than $4.1 million in revenue. The extra cost of the plates ranged from $20 to 75 (mean = $37). Only Illinois offered a state breast cancer lottery ticket, which raised $4 million from 2005 to 2009. States with medium or high breast cancer mortality rates were 2.5 times more likely to offer breast cancer specialty license plates than states with low breast cancer mortality rates; however, we found no statistically significant difference in breast cancer mortality tertiles by income tax check-off. Revenue-generating breast cancer initiatives can be successful strategies for states to raise funds for breast cancer prevention and early detection programs. Although these initiatives can generate revenue, amounts are variable due to population differences, the number of other plates/check-offs/lotteries offered, and the choice to decrease donations during difficult economic times. State breast cancer mortality rates may influence the availability of these initiatives.

  1. Rural women’s knowledge of prevention and care related to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    N.H. Mugivhi; J.E. Maree,; S.C.D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    According to the experience of the researcher, an oncology nurse, women living in the rural areas of Thulamela municipality in the Limpopo Province, have many different perceptions of breast cancer. Perceptions are based on previous disease experiences. As with previous illnesses, changes in the breast caused by breast cancer are self-managed and treated. When these women seek medical advice for breast cancer related problems, they already have advanced cancer. The purpose of the study was to...

  2. Social disparities in breast and cervical cancer preventive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Elena; Esteva, Magdalena; Pujol, Angels; Thomas, Vicenç; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen

    2007-08-01

    Knowledge of factors related to the use of preventive practices is essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of women who periodically use cervical smear and mammography. This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2001 Balearic Health Survey, using a stratified sample of non-institutionalized population resident in the Balearic Islands. The study included 560 women, aged 20 years or over. The variables studied were age, marital status, social class, education, place of residence and birth, self-perceived health status, satisfaction with health services, job status and type of medical coverage. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression models. Thirty-five per cent had regular mammography (72% between 50 and 64 years) and 54% had cervical smears. The probability of having undergone mammography is higher in women between the ages of 50 and 64 years [odds ratio (OR)=11.74; interval confidence (IC): 5.89-23.39] and in those with additional medical coverage (OR=1.97; IC: 1.19-3.27) and much lower in single women (OR=0.22; IC: 0.10-0.49). The probability of having undergone a Pap test increases according to educational level (OR=2.25; IC: 0.98-5.18 for women in the higher level) and social class (OR=1.98; IC: 0.91-4.28 for social class I) and decreases in women older than 65 years (OR=0.15; IC: 0.07-0.35) and in single women (OR=0.29; IC: 0.16-0.50). Age and marital status are factors related to both practices. Socio-economic status remains associated with cervical smear use, while having an additional medical coverage increases the probability of regular mammography.

  3. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedenson Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this "BRCA pathway" due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Methods Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Results Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. Conclusion An important function of the BRCA pathway is to

  4. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  5. Breast cancer metastasis: issues for the personalization of its prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S

    2013-10-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient's primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Jelena; Milica Kostić-Stanković; Krstić, Goran; Stojanović, Ljupce

    2016-06-01

    Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October- December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. There is a difference among respondents' awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%), the majority of them had never performed mammography or ultrasonography (67%). The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71%) and mass media--television on the first place (74%), then specialized magazines about health (48%), radio (48%), web sites about health (42%), and daily newspapers (34%). The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about cancer prevention, while the self-initiative was

  7. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  8. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  10. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over ...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. It’s estimated that about 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary (run in the family). In many of these cases, you inherited a gene from your parents that has mutated (changed from ...

  13. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    and neck cancer, CNS tumours ( child ) • Phase II: Solid tumours, NSCLC, glioblastoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, neurofibromatosis, ovarian, CLL...Clinical Diagnostics, 100 Indigo Creek Drive, Rochester, NY 14626, Running Foot: PF-4 as a marker for early tumor detection

  14. Breast Cancer Prevention And Detection | Ihezue | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, it accounts for 8.4% of female cancers but less than 1% of all cancers in the male, and 0.1% of male death. The incidence is rising. In the USA, about 175,000 new cases are diagnosed in the females, and about 46,000 die of it annually. In Britain, the corresponding numbers are 25,000 and 16,000. Japan has the ...

  15. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and metastasis of neoplastic lesions. Am J Pathol. 2014 Jan;184(1):28-41. 55. Andreu Z, Yanez-Mo M. Tetraspanins in extracellular vesicle formation...Baniyash M, Sade-Feldman M, Kanterman J. Chronic inflammation and cancer: suppressing the suppressors. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014 Jan;63(1):11...351-60. 45. Bunt SK, Sinha P, Clements VK, Leips J, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. Inflammation induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells that facilitate tumor

  16. Las mujeres saludables: reaching Latinas for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda

    2006-02-01

    Community health advisors have effectively promoted breast and cervical cancer prevention and screening among low-income Latina women. Specific elements of such programs, such as enhanced social support, may explain successes. Promotion of colorectal cancer screening has been less studied. Promotoras de Salud (i.e., Latina health advisors) implemented a 12-week program among women recruited from community-based organizations. The program educated 366 Latinas in breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening and emphasized social support among class members. Pre- and post-intervention assessments demonstrated significant increases for fruit and vegetable consumption (3.05 to 3.60 servings/day), and physical activity (65.15 to 122.40 minutes/week). Of women previously non-compliant, 39 percent, 31 percent and 4 percent received Pap tests, mammography, and fecal occult blood test (FOBT), respectively. A culturally aligned education program using community health advisors and emphasizing social support among participants may improve prevention and selected screening behaviors, but more intensive interventions may be required for colorectal cancer screening compliance.

  17. Preventing Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Just the Next Step in the Evolution of Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Wong, Jasmine M; Esserman, Laura J

    2015-06-01

    The problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment has been highlighted in breast cancer and many other cancer types, most notably prostate cancer. Addressing this problem presents an opportunity to continue the evolution of breast cancer care. Advances in technology, such as molecular subtyping, have increased the understanding of breast cancer biology and the range of associated behavior, and have provided tools that allow greater personalization of treatment. This article identifies 3 areas of breast cancer care where opportunity currently exists to refine management strategies and help decrease overtreatment and overdiagnosis: the use of adjuvant-external beam radiation in invasive breast cancer, the application of aggressive treatment for all ductal carcinoma in situ, and the authors' approach to breast cancer screening. Personalizing treatment based on patient and tumor characteristics holds promise for minimizing harms and maximizing benefits. This approach will allow continual improvement and ultimately result in providing the right treatment for each patient. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  18. Silencing of atp6v1c1 prevents breast cancer growth and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengmei; Zhu, Guochun; McConnell, Matthew; Deng, Lianfu; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Mengrui; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jinshen; Qi, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Atp6v1c1, a regulator of the assembly of the V0 and V1 domains of the V-ATPase complex, is up-regulated in metastatic oral tumors. Despite these studies, the function of Atp6v1c1 in tumor growth and metastasis is still unknown. Atp6v1c1's expression in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma indicates that Atp6v1c1 has an important function in cancer growth and metastasis. We hypothesized that elevated expression of Atp6v1c1 is essential to cancer growth and metastasis and that Atp6v1c1 promotes cancer growth and metastasis through activation of V-ATPase activity. To test this hypothesis, a Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown approach was used to study the function of Atp6v1c1 in mouse 4T1 mammary tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. Our data revealed that silencing of Atp6v1c1 in 4T1 cancer cells inhibited lysosomal acidification and severely impaired 4T1 cell growth, migration, and invasion through Matrigel in vitro. We also show that Atp6v1c1 knockdown with Lenti-c1s3, a lentivirus targeting Atp6v1c1 for shRNA mediated knockdown, can significantly inhibit 4T1 xenograft tumor growth, metastasis, and osteolytic lesions in vivo. Our study demonstrates that Atp6v1c1 may promote breast cancer growth and bone metastasis through regulation of lysosomal V-ATPase activity, indicating that Atp6v1c1 may be a viable target for breast cancer therapy and silencing of Atp6v1c1 may be an innovative therapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  19. Parity and breastfeeding are preventive measures against breast cancer in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Atieh; Razzaghi, Zahra; Homaee, Fatemeh; Khayamzadeh, Maryam; Movahedi, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women and the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in Iran. Among predicting factors and preventive measures for BC, the parity and breastfeeding (BF) are controversial issues. We therefore conducted this case-control study to find out the relation of parity and BF to incidence and risk of BC. A structured questionnaire that covered demographic criteria and BC risk factors was completed for case (376 cases) and control (425 subjects) groups, both matched in terms of demographic variants, reproductive issues, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as measures of association from the logistic models. All p values reported are two-sided. Parity significantly reduces the risk of BC (p parity and 24 months BF and mean duration of 18-24 months per child (p = 0.037, OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.98). On the basis of breast anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy, and parity and breastfeeding, full-term pregnancies and parities with efficient BF significantly reduced the risk of breast cancer compared with nonpregnant and nulliparous women or those who never breastfed. The number of children should ideally be limited to 1-3, and the cumulative duration of BF not less than 25-36 months. We would recommend 1-3 pregnancies and a BF duration not less than 18 months, with best results being achieved with 24 months per child.

  20. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Postpartum Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Hodgkin’s lymphoma (4,100), cervical (12,000), and myeloid leukemia (10,500). An identifiable risk for breast cancer in younger women is a recent...Young Women’s Breast Cancer, Exosomes, postpartum breast cancer, immune suppression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...and alteration of tumor morphology and apoptosis rates in 3D culture models. Months 6-18 Year 2 RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENT: We are now finishing the

  1. Epigenetic Programming of Breast Cancer and Nutrition Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:14138–43. [29...W, Yang CS. Tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits DNA methyltransferase and reactivates methylation-silenced genes in cancer cell...receptor pathway gene expression in the developing mouse mammary gland. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998;152: 200–10. [37] Vorderstrasse BA, Fenton SE

  2. Molecular Mechanism by Which Retinoids Prevent Breast Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    204078_at synaptonemal complex protein SC65 -2.9 203881_s_at dystrophin ( muscular dystrophy , Duchenne and Becker types) -2.88 209717_at ecotropic viral...for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection...and therapeutic role in cervical cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2005 Sep;6(9):712-20. Review . 4. De Luca LM, Darwiche N, Celli G, Kosa K, Jones C, Ross S

  3. Action Tendency Emotions Evoked by Memorable Breast Cancer Messages and Their Association With Prevention and Detection Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandi W.; Hamel, Lauren M; Kotowski, Michael R.; Nazione, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn; Atkin, Charles K.; Stohl, Cynthia; Skubisz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Memorable messages about breast cancer sent by different sources, such as friends and family members, were analyzed for the action tendency emotions that they evoked. Negative emotions of fear, sadness, and anger, and positive emotions of hope and relief were analyzed for their associations with prevention and detection breast cancer behaviors. Messages that evoked fear were significantly more likely to be associated with detection behaviors, whereas messages that evoked relief were significa...

  4. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Suzanne A; Aboagye, Eric O; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Bryant, Helen E; Bundred, Nigel J; Burchell, Joy M; Campbell, Anna M; Carroll, Jason S; Clarke, Robert B; Coles, Charlotte E; Cook, Gary J R; Cox, Angela; Curtin, Nicola J; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Duffy, Stephen W; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Dylan R; Edwards, Joanne; Evans, D; Fenlon, Deborah F; Flanagan, James M; Foster, Claire; Gallagher, William M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gee, Julia M W; Gescher, Andy J; Goh, Vicky; Groves, Ashley M; Harvey, Amanda J; Harvie, Michelle; Hennessy, Bryan T; Hiscox, Stephen; Holen, Ingunn; Howell, Sacha J; Howell, Anthony; Hubbard, Gill; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Hunter, Myra S; Jasani, Bharat; Jones, Louise J; Key, Timothy J; Kirwan, Cliona C; Kong, Anthony; Kunkler, Ian H; Langdon, Simon P; Leach, Martin O; Mann, David J; Marshall, John F; Martin, Lesley; Martin, Stewart G; Macdougall, Jennifer E; Miles, David W; Miller, William R; Morris, Joanna R; Moss, Sue M; Mullan, Paul; Natrajan, Rachel; O'Connor, James P B; O'Connor, Rosemary; Palmieri, Carlo; Pharoah, Paul D P; Rakha, Emad A; Reed, Elizabeth; Robinson, Simon P; Sahai, Erik; Saxton, John M; Schmid, Peter; Smalley, Matthew J; Speirs, Valerie; Stein, Robert; Stingl, John; Streuli, Charles H; Tutt, Andrew N J; Velikova, Galina; Walker, Rosemary A; Watson, Christine J; Williams, Kaye J; Young, Leonie S; Thompson, Alastair M

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer 'stem' cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease; (9) developing interventions and

  5. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  7. Preventive care receipt and office visit use among breast and colorectal cancer survivors relative to age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Salloum, Ramzi G; Fishman, Paul A; Ritzwoller, Debra Pearson; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen C; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    We compare breast and colorectal cancer survivors' annual receipt of preventive care and office visits to that of age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls. Automated data, including tumor registries, were used to identify insured individuals aged 50+ at the time of breast or colorectal cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2008 as well as cancer-free controls receiving care from four integrated delivery systems. Those with metastatic or un-staged disease, or a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. Annual visits to primary care, oncology, and surgery as well as receipt of mammography, colorectal cancer, Papanicolaou, bone densitometry, and cholesterol screening were observed for 5 years. We used generalized estimating equations that accounted for repeated observations over time per person to test annual service use differences by cancer survivor/cancer-free control status and whether survivor/cancer-free status associations were moderated by patient age breast and 1530 colorectal cancer survivors were identified, representing 12,923 and 5103 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast and colorectal cancer survivors were equally or more likely to use all types of office visits and to receive cancer screenings and bone densitometry testing. Both breast and colorectal cancer survivors were less likely than cancer-free controls to receive cholesterol testing, regardless of age, year of diagnosis, or use of primary care. Programs targeting cancer survivors may benefit from addressing a broad range of primary preventive care needs, including recommended cardiovascular disease screening.

  8. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism: implications for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-15

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with "stemness," more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This "two-compartment" metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert "low-risk" breast cancer patients to "high-risk" status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results also show that

  9. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    南, 優子; ミナミ, ユウコ; MINAMI, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    During recent decades, breast cancer incidence has been increasing in Japan. Epidemiological studies have clarified the trend in breast cancer incidence and identified risk factors for breast cancer. Established risk factors for breast cancer include early age at menarche, late age at first birth, low parity, postmenopausal obesity, family history of breast cancer, and history of benign breast disease. Breast-feeding and physical activity may also be associated with breast cancer risk. Detail...

  10. Cancer prevention-the feasibility and acceptability of promoting breast cancer risk reduction in the screening setting through a lifestyle magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Maureen; Anderson, Annie S

    2018-01-30

    Cancer prevention and early detection strategies are fundamental to reducing breast cancer burden. Offering prevention guidance on modifiable risk factors within early detection settings is rare. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a magazine focused on lifestyle and cancer prevention for use in breast screening clinics. A lifestyle magazine was developed and distributed within two breast screening settings in the West of Scotland over a 2-month period. Women were either offered the magazine on arrival or in a self-service format. Uptake was recorded by NHS staff. Women's views were sought via an evaluation questionnaire. Staff were interviewed on their experiences of intervention delivery. Uptake was greatest when offered to attendees (95% vs. 20% self-service). The evaluation questionnaire response rate was 17.3%. Almost 60% of respondents reported an increased knowledge about breast cancer and lifestyle and felt motivated to find out more about cancer prevention and 40% expressed intentions to make lifestyle changes. Over 90% of respondents thought lifestyle factors were important in breast cancer prevention. Staff feedback was positive, indicating no detrimental effects on workloads. In conclusion, a cancer prevention lifestyle magazine can be successfully delivered in the breast screening setting and deserves further exploration for roll out. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Abbreviated Breast MRI and Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography in Screening Women With Dense Breasts | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital tomosynthesis mammography work in detecting cancer in women with dense breasts. Abbreviated breast MRI is a low cost procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer and used to create detailed pictures of the breast in less than 10 minutes. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue. |

  12. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Postpartum Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Clinical breast cancer 2003, 4:280-285 16. Whiteman MK, Hillis SD, Curtis KM, McDonald JA, Wingo PA, Marchbanks PA: Reproductive history and mortality...Control 2007, 18:613-620 42. Holmes MD, Chen WY, Li L, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Hankinson SE: Aspirin intake and survival after breast cancer, J Clin

  13. Recent Advances in the Use of Metformin: Can Treating Diabetes Prevent Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial epidemiological evidence pointing to an increased incidence of breast cancer and morbidity in obese, prediabetic, and diabetic patients. In vitro studies strongly support metformin, a diabetic medication, in breast cancer therapy. Although metformin has been heralded as an exciting new breast cancer treatment, the principal consideration is whether metformin can be used as a generic treatment for all breast cancer types. Importantly, will metformin be useful as an inexpensive therapy for patients with comorbidity of diabetes and breast cancer? In general, meta-analyses of clinical trial data from retrospective studies in which metformin treatment has been used for patients with diabetes and breast cancer have a positive trend; nevertheless, the supporting clinical data outcomes remain inconclusive. The heterogeneity of breast cancer, confounded by comorbidity of disease in the elderly population, makes it difficult to determine the actual benefits of metformin therapy. Despite the questionable evidence available from observational clinical studies and meta-analyses, randomized phases I–III clinical trials are ongoing to test the efficacy of metformin for breast cancer. This special issue review will focus on recent research, highlighting in vitro research and retrospective observational clinical studies and current clinical trials on metformin action in breast cancer. PMID:25866793

  14. Recent Advances in the Use of Metformin: Can Treating Diabetes Prevent Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hatoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial epidemiological evidence pointing to an increased incidence of breast cancer and morbidity in obese, prediabetic, and diabetic patients. In vitro studies strongly support metformin, a diabetic medication, in breast cancer therapy. Although metformin has been heralded as an exciting new breast cancer treatment, the principal consideration is whether metformin can be used as a generic treatment for all breast cancer types. Importantly, will metformin be useful as an inexpensive therapy for patients with comorbidity of diabetes and breast cancer? In general, meta-analyses of clinical trial data from retrospective studies in which metformin treatment has been used for patients with diabetes and breast cancer have a positive trend; nevertheless, the supporting clinical data outcomes remain inconclusive. The heterogeneity of breast cancer, confounded by comorbidity of disease in the elderly population, makes it difficult to determine the actual benefits of metformin therapy. Despite the questionable evidence available from observational clinical studies and meta-analyses, randomized phases I–III clinical trials are ongoing to test the efficacy of metformin for breast cancer. This special issue review will focus on recent research, highlighting in vitro research and retrospective observational clinical studies and current clinical trials on metformin action in breast cancer.

  15. NecroX-5 prevents breast cancer metastasis by AKT inhibition via reducing intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Jung, Hana; Kim, Ki Hyang; Kang, Mi Seon; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Yu, Byeng Chul; Park, Sungjae; Seo, Su-Kil; Choi, Il Whan; Kim, Soon Ha; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin; Park, Sae Gwang

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of breast cancer research is to prevent the molecular events that lead to tumour metastasis. It is well-established that both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cell migration and metastasis. Accordingly, this study examined the molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastatic effects of NecroX-5, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger. NecroX-5 inhibited lung cancer metastasis by ameliorating migration in a mouse model. In human cancer cells, the inhibition of migration by NecroX-5 is cell type-dependent. We observed that the effect of NecroX-5 correlated with a reduction in mitochondrial ROS, but mitochondrial ROS reduction by MitoQ did not inhibit cell migration. NecroX-5 decreased intracellular calcium concentration by blocking Ca2+ influx, which mediated the inhibition of cell migration, AKT downregulation and the reduction of mitochondrial ROS levels. However, the reduction of mitochondrial ROS was not associated with supressed migration and AKT downregulation. Our study demonstrates the potential of NecroX-5 as an inhibitor of breast cancer metastasis.

  16. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. Methods. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October-December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. Results. There is a difference among respondents’ awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%, the majority of them had never per-formed mammography or ultrasonography (67%. The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71% and mass media - television on the first place (74%, then specialized magazines about health (48%, radio (48%, web sites about health (42%, and daily newspapers (34%. The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about

  17. Randomized trial of antimicrobial-coated sutures to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nia; Sweetland, Helen; Goyal, Sumit; Ivins, Nicola; Leaper, David J

    2011-12-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is the fourth commonest healthcare-associated infection and complicates at least 5% of open operations. In a randomized clinical trial, antimicrobial-coated sutures were compared with their conventional counterparts, polyglactin and poliglecaprone, for skin closure after breast cancer surgery to assess their role in reducing the rate of SSI. Between November 2008 and February 2011, 150 female patients presenting with breast cancer to a single center were randomized to skin closure with antimicrobial-coated or plain sutures. Postoperatively, SSI was defined using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions and scored using the ASEPSIS or Southampton systems by trained, blinded observers with close post-discharge surveillance and patient diaries. Surgeons and patients were blinded to the type of suture used. Using CDC criteria, the overall rate of SSI was 18.9% at six weeks. Six patients (4.7%) needed intervention or readmission for SSI. Skin closure with antimicrobial sutures showed a non-statistically significant reduction in the SSI rate, to 15.2%, compared with conventional sutures (22.9%). A uniform tendency for fewer SSIs in the antimicrobial-coated suture group was found using ASEPSIS and Southampton scores, but again, the difference was not statistically significant. The previously reported high rate of SSI related to breast surgery was confirmed. Using statistical modeling and earlier reports, the study was powered to show a difference using ASEPSIS scores, but the modification used in this trial failed to find a difference. Finding a statistically significant difference would have needed two to three times the number of patients recruited. Further evaluation of antimicrobial-coated sutures is merited, particularly if used as part of a care bundle to reduce SSI after breast cancer surgery.

  18. The expected benefit of preventive mastectomy on breast cancer incidence and mortality in BRCA mutation carriers, by age at mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakeas, Vasily; Narod, Steven A

    2017-09-15

    Preventive breast surgery is offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers to prevent breast cancer incidence and mortality. The clinical benefit of preventive mastectomy can be measured in several ways, including extension of life expectancy (mean years of life gained) and by estimating the probability of surviving until age 80. We sought to estimate the expected benefit of a preventive mastectomy at various ages, using these indices of mortality, by simulating hypothetical cohorts of women. The age-specific annual risks of developing breast cancer were used to estimate the actuarial risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The probability of developing breast cancer before age 80 was then modified to include competing causes of death, including from ovarian cancer. The mortality rate from breast cancer after a diagnosis of breast cancer was set at 2% annually for the first 10 years and then 1% annually for years ten to twenty. The incidence rate and mortality rate from ovarian cancer were based on published literature. We assumed that preventive mastectomy was associated with complete protection against subsequent breast cancer. A series of simulations was conducted to evaluate the reduction in the probability of death (from all causes) until age 80, according to the age at mastectomy. The actuarial risk of developing breast cancer until age 80 was estimated to be 70.8%. The actual risk (incorporating competing risks) was 64.0%. The probability of being alive at age 80 by having a mastectomy at age 25 increased by 8.7% (from 42.7 to 51.3%). The estimated benefit declined with age at mastectomy; for surgery done at age 50 the improvement in survival to age 80 was much more modest (2.8% at age 80, from 42.7 to 45.5%). Among BRCA mutation carriers, the mortality benefit of preventive mastectomy at age 25 is substantial, but the expected benefit declines rapidly with increasing age at surgery.

  19. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, such as olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat. Breast cancer risk reduction for women with a high risk If your doctor has assessed your family history and determined that you have other factors, such ...

  1. Histamine prevents radiation-induced mesenchymal changes in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Tamara E; Mohamad, Nora A; Táquez Delgado, Mónica A; Vedoya, Guadalupe M; Crescenti, Ernesto J; Bergoc, Rosa M; Martín, Gabriela A; Cricco, Graciela P

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a prime option for treatment of solid tumors including breast cancer though side effects are usually present. Experimental evidence shows an increase in invasiveness of several neoplastic cell types through conventional tumor irradiation. The induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is proposed as an underlying cause of metastasis triggered by gamma irradiation. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of histamine on the ionizing radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition events in breast cancer cells with different invasive phenotype. We also evaluated the potential involvement of Src phosphorylation in the migratory capability of irradiated cells upon histamine treatment. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cells were exposed to a single dose of 2Gy of gamma radiation and five days after irradiation mesenchymal-like phenotypic changes were observed by optical microscope. The expression and subcellular localization of E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and Slug were determined by immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence. There was a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin after irradiation. E-cadherin and β-catenin were mainly localized in cytoplasm. Slug positive nuclei, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and cell migration and invasion were significantly increased. In addition, a significant enhancement in Src phosphorylation/activation could be determined by immunoblot in irradiated cells. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells also received 1 or 20μM histamine during 24h previous to be irradiated. Notably, pre-treatment of breast cancer cells with 20μM histamine prevented the mesenchymal changes induced by ionizing radiation and also reduced the migratory behavior of irradiated cells decreasing phospho-Src levels. Collectively, our results suggest that histamine may block events related to epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated mammary cancer

  2. MPGD for breast cancer prevention: a high resolution and low dose radiation medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, R. M.; Cerquera, E. A.; Mañana, G.

    2012-07-01

    Early detection of small calcifications in mammograms is considered the best preventive tool of breast cancer. However, existing digital mammography with relatively low radiation skin exposure has limited accessibility and insufficient spatial resolution for small calcification detection. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) and associated technologies, increasingly provide new information useful to generate images of microscopic structures and make more accessible cutting edge technology for medical imaging and many other applications. In this work we foresee and develop an application for the new information provided by a MPGD camera in the form of highly controlled images with high dynamical resolution. We present a new Super Detail Image (S-DI) that efficiently profits of this new information provided by the MPGD camera to obtain very high spatial resolution images. Therefore, the method presented in this work shows that the MPGD camera with SD-I, can produce mammograms with the necessary spatial resolution to detect microcalcifications. It would substantially increase efficiency and accessibility of screening mammography to highly improve breast cancer prevention.

  3. Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

  4. Dietary targeting of tumor suppressors and oncogenes for breast cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer is a complex disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic changes in molecules that are critical for growth control, DNA repair, apoptosis, and differentiation. The incidence of breast cancer varies worldwide, implicating diet and lifestyle disparities among the general population a...

  5. Diagnostic Methods, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Management of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Past, Present, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Hoda E; Asdourian, Maria S; Swaroop, Meyha N; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Skolny, Melissa N; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a chronic, adverse, and much feared complication of breast cancer treatment, which affects approximately 20% of patients following breast cancer treatment. BCRL has a tremendous impact on breast cancer survivors, including physical impairments and significant psychological consequences. The intent of this review is to discuss recent studies and analyses regarding the risk factors, diagnosis, prevention through early screening and intervention, and management of BCRL. Highly-evidenced risk factors for BCRL include axillary lymph node dissection, lack of reconstruction, radiation to the lymph nodes, high BMI at diagnosis, weight fluctuations during and after treatment, subclinical edema within and beyond 3 months after surgery, and cellulitis in the at-risk arm. Avoidance of potential risk factors can serve as a method of prevention. Through establishing a screening program by which breast cancer patients are measured pre-operatively and at follow-ups, are objectively assessed through a weight-adjusted analysis, and are clinically assessed for signs and symptoms, BCRL can be tracked accurately and treated effectively. Management of BCRL is done by a trained professional, with research mounting towards the use of compression bandaging as a first line intervention against BCRL. Finally, exercise is safe for breast cancer patients with and without BCRL and does not incite or exacerbate symptoms of BCRL. Recent research has shed light on BCRL risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and management. We hope that education on these aspects of BCRL will promote an informed, consistent approach and encourage additional research in this field to improve patient outcomes and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

  6. Socioeconomic influences on Vietnamese-Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer prevention practices: a social determinant's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKellin, William; Hislop, Gregory; Long, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer and cervical cancer are major contributors to morbidity and mortality for the Vietnamese Canadian women. Vietnamese women face multiple barriers to obtaining effective preventive care and treatment for these diseases. This paper reports the influence of socioeconomic factors on Vietnamese Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer screening behaviors. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers. The study revealed that low socioeconomic status is a major barrier to women's participation in breast and cervical cancer screening, despite the fact that health care in Canada is funded publicly by the Medicare system. The Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers in the present study identified a number of major dimensions through which socioeconomic issues were associated with Vietnamese Canadian women's access to and use of health care for the prevention of breast and cervical cancer, including (a) financial concerns; (b) language, occupational opportunities, and downward mobility; (c) economics and women's households; and (d) low socioeconomic status and screening behaviors. Implications are discussed for increasing Vietnamese Canadian women's utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening services.

  7. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  8. Breast Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Funding: Increasing Awareness and Support Among Young Women with Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State ...

  9. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  10. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Melatonin in the Prevention of Breast Cancer in Patients With Cystic Breast Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... The primary objectives of this study are to establish a clinical BCF sample bank among patients with gross cystic breast disease in order to study the relationship between this disease, melatonin...

  12. [Cervical and breast cancer prevention among underprivileged women in France: an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Marielle; Antonielli, Alilla Brossard; Laurence, Sophie; Rochefort, Jeanine; Giboin, Catherine; Corty, Jean François

    2014-01-01

    If cervical cancer and breast cancer screening are frequent practices in general population, studies indicate that these practices are less common among underprivileged women. Doctors of the World conducted a study to measure cancer prevention and screening among women attending medical consultation in their health care centers (Caso) in France. The survey was conducted in 5 Caso. A questionnaire was proposed to all women (aged 14 years and older) attending medical consultation. 203 women participated in the survey. Only 33.1% of women aged 25-65 declared that they have ever realized a cervical smear in their lives. More than a third of the concerned women did not know cervical smear and 72% of the women under 35 years old do not know the HPV vaccine. 70.8% of women aged 50-74 said they had never realized a mammogram. The survey highlights less use of cancer screening among underprivileged women compared to the general population, underlines the need for appropriate actions for these populations and the need to facilitate health coverage access for women facing multiple vulnerability factors.

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  17. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer - the LYCA feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  18. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  19. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  20. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  1. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  2. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer correctly. Their recommendations are summarized below. Minimum criteria for a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer ... Initial biopsy samples from the affected breast show invasive carcinoma. Further examination of tissue from the affected ...

  3. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  5. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  6. Development of Intraductal Technique for Breast Cancer Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment (97 Breast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    noted below. (3) Stimulation of nipple duct fluid with oxytocin , a material used in stimulating breast feeding. One of the investigators tried a nasal ...DAMD17-96-C-6117 1/31/97 Phase IA: Anatomy of nipple duct orifices Part one. Anatomy of nipple duct orifices in lactating women data analysis of nipple... lactating women Data analysis of nipple data (completed year 1) note the original work was done under DOD Grant DAMD1 7-94-J-4281 and the analysis

  7. Recommendations for a lifestyle which could prevent breast cancer and its relapse: physical activity and dietetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magné, Nicolas; Melis, Adrien; Chargari, Cyrus; Castadot, Pierre; Guichard, Jean-Baptiste; Barani, Didier; Nourissat, Alice; Largillier, Rémy; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Chauvin, Franck; Merrouche, Yacine

    2011-12-01

    External factors such as eating habits and physical activity have an important impact on breast cancer risk. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between breast cancer and lifestyle. It aims to produce recommendations regarding physical activity and dietary intake for clinical practice. Although strong clinical evidence of the impact of lifestyle modifications is still lacking, practising healthy eating should be encouraged for the prevention of cancer, its occurrence or relapse. Physical activity is recommended to avoid excessive weight gain. For example, the beneficial effects on the risk of breast cancer could be achieved by walking half an hour per day. Three to five hours per week of moderate physical exercise therefore should be recommended for optimising the reduction of the risk of cancer. For most women, moderate to intense activity, such as heavy housework, brisk walking, or dancing, could provide an effective level of activity to keep reduce the risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Forbes, John F

    2014-01-01

    were masked to treatment allocation; only the trial statistician was unmasked. The primary endpoint was histologically confirmed breast cancer (invasive cancers or non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ). Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN31488319. FINDINGS...

  9. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Biblioteca Mandotti, Guastalla, Italy, September 12, 2005. 26. Cavalieri, E. L’origine commune du cancer et d’antres maladies. Rotary Club Lyon...67 SPECIFIC AIM 5 – INGLE A. Introduction Globally, breast cancer remains a major problem for many women and is a concern for virtually all

  10. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    significantly increased compared with positive controls at different time points. Histological examination showed that the malignancy of lesions in TNJ groups did not show a significant change when compared with that in positive and placebo groups.Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study which indicates that TNJ possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rates.Key words: Morinda citrifolia, Tahitian noni® juice, breast cancer, cancer prevention

  11. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-25

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  13. Folate and other one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; McCullough, Marjorie L; Sun, Juzhong; Gapstur, Susan M

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association of folate intake with breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, and few have investigated how related nutrients modify this association. We investigated the association of dietary (food folate plus folic acid from fortification) and total folate (food folate, folic acid from fortification, and folic acid from supplements), vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, methionine, and alcohol intakes with postmenopausal breast cancer among women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. The modification of the folate associations by the other nutrients was also investigated. This prospective cohort study included 70,656 postmenopausal women for whom dietary information was collected in 1992. Of these, 3898 developed breast cancer between enrollment in 1992 and June 2005. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard rate ratios and 95% CIs. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of dietary folate intake was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (rate ratio: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.24). However, the test for trend was not significant (P for trend = 0.15). No association was found for total folate, vitamin B-6, or vitamin B-12, but methionine was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.04). The association of dietary folate with breast cancer was not modified by other nutrients or alcohol. This study suggests that dietary folate intake may be positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer. However, no dose-response relation was observed. The extent to which increased supplement use and folate fortification contributes to breast cancer risk warrants further research.

  14. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  15. Cancer statistics: Breast cancer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; DeSantis, Carol E; Lin, Chun Chieh; Kramer, Joan L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Kohler, Betsy; Brawley, Otis W; Gansler, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 60,290 new cases of breast carcinoma in situ are expected to be diagnosed in 2015, and approximately 1 in 33 women is likely to receive an in situ breast cancer diagnosis in her lifetime. Although in situ breast cancers are relatively common, their clinical significance and optimal treatment are topics of uncertainty and concern for both patients and clinicians. In this article, the American Cancer Society provides information about occurrence and treatment patterns for the 2 major subtypes of in situ breast cancer in the United States-ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ-using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the 13 oldest Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. The authors also present an overview of in situ breast cancer detection, treatment, risk factors, and prevention and discuss research needs and initiatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER− breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. PMID:24482576

  17. Risk assessment, disease prevention and personalised treatments in breast cancer: is clinically qualified integrative approach in the horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Costigliola, Vincenzo; Trog, Daniela; Braun, Michael; Debald, Manuel; Kuhn, Walther; Schild, Hans H

    2013-02-19

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease. A spectrum of internal and external factors contributes to the disease promotion such as a genetic predisposition, chronic inflammatory processes, exposure to toxic compounds, abundant stress factors, a shift-worker job, etc. The cumulative effects lead to high incidence of breast cancer in populations worldwide. Breast cancer in the USA is currently registered with the highest incidence rates amongst all cancer related patient cohorts. Currently applied diagnostic approaches are frequently unable to recognise early stages in tumour development that impairs individual outcomes. Early diagnosis has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial for significantly enhanced therapy efficacy and possibly full recovery. Actual paper shows that the elaboration of an integrative diagnostic approach combining several levels of examinations creates a robust platform for the reliable risk assessment, targeted preventive measures and more effective treatments tailored to the person in the overall task of breast cancer management. The levels of examinations are proposed, and innovative technological approaches are described in the paper. The absolute necessity to create individual patient profiles and extended medical records is justified for the utilising by routine medical services. Expert recommendations are provided to promote further developments in the field.

  18. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J.; Bronskill, Michael; Yaffe, Martin J.; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associated with variations in breast density, and the biological plausibility of the associations with risk of breast cancer. We also discuss the potential for improved risk prediction that might be achieved by using alternative breast imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound. After adjustment for other risk factors, breast density is consistently associated with breast cancer risk, more strongly than most other risk factors for this disease, and extensive breast density may account for a substantial fraction of breast cancer. Breast density is associated with risk of all of the proliferative lesions that are thought to be precursors of breast cancer. Studies of twins have shown that breast density is a highly heritable quantitative trait. Associations between breast density and variations in breast histology, risk of proliferative breast lesions, and risk of breast cancer may be the result of exposures of breast tissue to both mitogens and mutagens. Characterization of breast density by mammography has several limitations, and the uses of breast density in risk prediction and breast cancer prevention may be improved by other methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance or ultrasound tomography. PMID:20616353

  19. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  20. The Influence of Psycho-social Factors on Participation Levels in Community-based Breast Cancer Prevention Programs in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Redzuan, Ma’rof; Emby, Zahid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although significant consideration has been devoted to women participation in breast cancer prevention programs, our understanding about the psychosocial factors which influence participation remains incomplete. Method: The study applied a quantitative approach based on the cross-sectional survey design and multistage cluster random sampling. A total of 400 women aged 35-69 years, were surveyed at 4 obstetric and gynecologic clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran: the participation levels of 86 women who have had a mammogram were analyzed based on their self-efficacy, belief, social influence, and barriers concerning mammography utilization. Results: Consistent with the study framework, in bivariate analysis, the higher level of women’s participation in breast cancer prevention programs was significantly related to more positive belief about mammography (pwomen’s participation levels in breast cancer prevention programs might be associated with the specific psychosocial factors on breast cancer preventive behavior such as mammography screening. PMID:22980116

  1. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah D

    2008-01-01

    ...) for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2) participation in a structured training program in research methodology, biostatistics, molecular biology, and ethics...

  2. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah

    2004-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  3. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah D

    2006-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  4. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  5. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  6. Beating Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Beating Breast Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Melanie ... Her mother had died at age 49 of breast cancer after three battles with the disease. Ovarian cancer ...

  7. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  8. Clinical Updates in Women's Health Care Summary: Gynecologic and Obstetric Care for Breast Cancer Survivors: Primary and Preventive Care Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer Griffin

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer treatment has an impact on the physical, psychologic, sexual, and reproductive aspects of women's lives. Therefore, it is important for obstetrician-gynecologists to be well versed in the screening, diagnosis, and management of breast cancer. This monograph is an overview of critical issues related to the provision of ongoing care to breast cancer survivors.

  9. Screening for cervical and breast cancer: is obesity an unrecognized barrier to preventive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, C C; McCarthy, E P; Davis, R B; Phillips, R S

    2000-05-02

    Compared with thinner women, obese women have higher mortality rates for breast and cervical cancer. In addition, obesity leads to adverse social and psychological consequences. Whether obesity limits access to screening for breast and cervical cancer is unclear. To examine the relation between obesity and screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and mammography. Population-based survey. United States. 11 435 women who responded to the "Year 2000 Supplement" of the 1994 National Health Interview Survey. Screening with Pap smears and mammography was assessed by questionnaire. In women 18 to 75 years of age who had not previously undergone hysterectomy (n = 8394), fewer overweight women (78%) and obese women (78%) than normal-weight women (84%) had had Pap smears in the previous 3 years (P obese women (-5.3% [CI, -8.0% to -2.6%]). In women 50 to 75 years of age (n = 3502), fewer overweight women (64%) and obese women (62%) than normal-weight women (68%) had had mammography in the previous 2 years (P obese women. Overweight and obese women were less likely to be screened for cervical and breast cancer with Pap smears and mammography, even after adjustment for other known barriers to care. Because overweight and obese women have higher mortality rates for cervical and breast cancer, they should be targeted for increased screening.

  10. Defining High-Risk Precursor Signaling to Advance Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the incidence and lethality of breast cancer will require a detailed understanding of the earliest tissue changes that ultimately drive the process of...journal articles, reprints of manuscripts and abstracts, a curriculum vitae, patent applications, study questionnaires, and surveys, etc. NONE The

  11. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal...

  12. Inhibition of miR-155, a therapeutic target for breast cancer, prevented in cancer stem cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiangcheng; Yu, Yalan; Zhu, Man; Jing, Wei; Yu, Mingxia; Chai, Hongyan; Liang, Chunzi; Tu, Jiancheng

    2017-10-27

    Breast cancer is a common cancer in women of worldwide. Cancer cells with stem-like properties played important roles in breast cancer, such as relapse, metastasis and treatment resistance. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) is a well-known oncogenic miRNA overexpressed in many human cancers. The expression levels of miR-155 in 38 pairs of cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer patients were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. The invasive cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to quantify the expression of miR-155 by tumor-sphere forming experiment. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts was used to explore whether the inhibition of miR-155 could reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro. In the study, we found miR-155 was upregulated in BC. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts showed inhibition of miR-155 could significantly reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro, which confirmed that miR-155 is an effective therapeutic target of breast cancer. Sphere-forming experiment showed that overexpression of miR-155 significantly correlated with stem-like properties. Expressions of ABCG2, CD44 and CD90 were repressed by inhibition of miR-155, but CD24 was promoted. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-155 rendered MDA-MB-231 cells more sensitive to Doxorubicinol, which resulted in an increase of inhibition rate from 20.23% to 68.72%. Expression of miR-155 not only was a therapeutic target but also was associated with cancer stem cell formation and Doxorubicinol sensitivity. Our results underscore the importance of miR-155 as a therapeutic target and combination of Doxorubicinol and miR-155-silencing would be a potential way to cure breast cancer.

  13. Gene screening and prevention of hereditary breast cancer: a clinical view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J. G. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, the major tasks of the increasing number of family cancer clinics are to provide general information about cancer, to perform risk assessment, to offer (presymptomatic) DNA-testing, to advise on lifestyle, to take steps for early detection and prevention of cancer, for psychological

  14. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  15. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  16. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  17. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer

  19. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  20. Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Woditschka, Stephan; Reed, L. Tiffany; Nakayama, Joji; Mayer, Musa; Wetzel, Maria; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite important progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, metastatic disease often develops in breast cancer patients and remains the leading cause of their deaths. For patients with established metastatic disease, therapy is palliative, with few breaks and with mounting adverse effects. Many have hypothesized that a personalized or precision approach (the terms are used interchangeably) to cancer therapy, in which treatment is based on the individual characteristics of each patient, will provide better outcomes. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of breast cancer metastasis and the challenges in personalization of treatment. The instability of metastatic tumors remains a leading obstacle to personalization, because information from a patient’s primary tumor may not accurately reflect the metastasis, and one metastasis may vary from another. Furthermore, the variable presence of tumor subpopulations, such as stem cells and dormant cells, may increase the complexity of the targeted treatments needed. Although molecular signatures and circulating biomarkers have been identified in breast cancer, there is lack of validated predictive molecular markers to optimize treatment choices for either prevention or treatment of metastatic disease. Finally, to maximize the information that can be obtained, increased attention to clinical trial design in the metastasis preventive setting is needed. PMID:23895915

  1. Prescribing tamoxifen in primary care for the prevention of breast cancer: a national online survey of GPs' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Foy, Robbie; McGowan, Jennifer A; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; DeCensi, Andrea; Brown, Karen; Side, Lucy; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-06-01

    The cancer strategy for England (2015-2020) recommends GPs prescribe tamoxifen for breast cancer primary prevention among women at increased risk. To investigate GPs' attitudes towards prescribing tamoxifen. In an online survey, GPs in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales (n = 928) were randomised using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design to read one of four vignettes describing a healthy patient seeking a tamoxifen prescription. In the vignette, the hypothetical patient's breast cancer risk (moderate versus high) and the clinician initiating the prescription (GP prescriber versus secondary care clinician [SCC] prescriber) were manipulated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Outcomes were willingness to prescribe, comfort discussing harms and benefits, comfort managing the patient, factors affecting the prescribing decision, and awareness of tamoxifen and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline CG164. Half (51.7%) of the GPs knew tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer risk, and one-quarter (24.1%) were aware of NICE guideline CG164. Responders asked to initiate prescribing (GP prescriber) were less willing to prescribe tamoxifen than those continuing a prescription initiated in secondary care (SCC prescriber) (68.9% versus 84.6%, PGPs willing to prescribe were more likely to be aware of the NICE guideline (P = 0.039) and to have acknowledged the benefits of tamoxifen (PGPs to continue the patient's care may overcome some prescribing barriers. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Barriers to preventive therapy for breast and other major cancers and strategies to improve uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCensi, Andrea; Thorat, Mangesh A; Bonanni, Bernardo; Smith, Samuel G; Cuzick, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The global cancer burden continues to rise and the war on cancer can only be won if improvements in treatment go hand in hand with therapeutic cancer prevention. Despite the availability of several efficacious agents, utilisation of preventive therapy has been poor due to various barriers, such as the lack of physician and patient awareness, fear of side effects, and licensing and indemnity issues. In this review, we discuss these barriers in detail and propose strategies to overcome them. These strategies include improving physician awareness and countering prejudices by highlighting the important differences between preventive therapy and cancer treatment. The importance of the agent–biomarker–cohort (ABC) paradigm to improve effectiveness of preventive therapy cannot be overemphasised. Future research to improve therapeutic cancer prevention needs to include improvements in the prediction of benefits and harms, and improvements in the safety profile of existing agents by experimentation with dose. We also highlight the role of drug repurposing for providing new agents as well as to address the current imbalance between therapeutic and preventive research. In order to move the field of therapeutic cancer prevention forwards, engagement with policymakers to correct research imbalance as well as to remove practical obstacles to implementation is also urgently needed. PMID:26635899

  3. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, D; Lancaster, GA; Manning, JT

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  5. One life saved by four prevented recurrencies? Update of the early breast cancer trialists confirms. Postoperative radiotherapy improves survival after breast conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L. [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Sedlmayer, F. [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg (Austria); Budach, W. [University Hospital Duesseldorf (DE)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The debate about the impact of local control on survival in early breast cancer patients is still going on, in spite of the continuously growing evidence that avoidance of locoregional disease reduces the risk of tumor-specific death. Recently, B. Fisher, one of the pioneers of breast conserving therapy claimed that during the last two decades, as a result of the use of systemic therapy in conjunction with breast conserving surgery and radiation, the incidence of locoregional recurrence has been reduced to a level where further reduction is likely to have little impact on survival. The penultimate meta-analysis of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) reported the effect of radiotherapy in early breast cancer on recurrence and survival in 2005 and provided the essential message that four prevented local recurrences at 5 years would avoid one breast cancer death in 15 years. The scientific community has eagerly awaited the quinquennial update of the EBCTCG which has now been published. A total of 17 randomized studies comparing postoperative radiotherapy vs. none were analyzed and comprised 7 new studies in addition to follow-up data of from 9 previously reported trials. A total of 10,801 patients with pT1-2 tumors were included, the majority of whom (n=7,287) were node negative, while 1,050 were node positive (2,464 unknown). In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, all patients received breast conserving surgery, consisting of lumpectomy (n=8,422) or more extensive techniques like quadrantectomy or sectoral resection (n= 2,399). The effect of radiotherapy on 10-year recurrences of any type and their relation to the 15-year breast cancer death rate were studied in correlation to various prognostic parameters and treatment characteristics (e.g., surgery, tamoxifen use). Moreover, a subgroup analysis was performed according to low, intermediate, and high initial risk of recurrence, from which the expected absolute benefit was derived

  6. Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer Using Multifunctional Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    cholesterol biosynthetic pathway are attractive therapeutic targets for hormone-dependent breast cancer, because cholesterol serves as the metabolic ...reporter assay system (cat. no. IB03001; Indigo Biosciences) was used with 6α-f1 testosterone as the reference agonist for AR. for all reporter...inhibited a 6α- testosterone -mediated increase in AR transcriptional activity, which was also blocked by the AR antagonist hydroflutamide (OH-flut; Fig. 4

  7. Defining High-Risk Precursor Signaling to Advance Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    IRB-approved protocol that allows us to collect and analyze a portion of this tissue. Here, we propose detailed functional and molecular analysis of... protocol is shown below: Accomplishments: these analyses provided an unprecedented window in genomic aberrations in early breast cancer pathogenesis...benefit patients. This concept will be disseminated through the results of this research. None to report Delays in implementation of animal

  8. Development of genetic testing for breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer predisposition: a step closer to targeted cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, D M

    2011-12-01

    Individuals who inherit a high penetrance cancer susceptibility gene represent a population in which cancer diagnoses occur at younger ages and much more frequently than in the general population. Screening regimens aimed at early detection of cancer may reduce cancer mortality but in order to reduce cancer incidence, surgery and medical therapies have been advocated. In high genetic risk patients, either surgical or medical intervention may provide long term protection against cancer and at young ages co-morbidities will be low. The use of genetic testing for high risk predisposition genes to refine risk estimates and inform choices about cancer prevention is now readily available in many countries and routinely used to target cancer prevention strategies. Surgical approaches to cancer prevention are currently the mainstay in many conditions where a high risk is identified but medical prevention strategies also have demonstrated some efficacy in lowering cancer risk. Using the genetic status of an individual to target cancer treatment and prevent recurrence is increasingly gaining momentum as clinical trials involving known high risk gene carriers are now being conducted using both established cytotoxic drugs and novel targeted agents. Translation of new mechanistic insights into beneficial clinical care strategies requires more research. Robust evidence supporting medical approaches to cancer prevention in particular will require well designed large international collaborative clinical trials.

  9. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  10. Breast cancer epidemic in the early twenty-first century: evaluation of risk factors, cumulative questionnaires and recommendations for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Debald, Manuel; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Kuhn, Walther; Pešta, Martin; Costigliola, Vincenzo; Grech, Godfrey

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly increasing incidence of breast cancer is a new social challenge resulting from a spectrum of internal and external risk factors which appear to be well accepted as an attribute of the early twenty-first century, being, however, new for female sub-populations compared to the past. These include altered socio-economical conditions such as occupational exposure, rotating shift work, specific environmental factors (increased pollution and environmental toxicity, altered dietary habits, quality and composition of meal) as well as consequently shifted and/or adapted physiologic factors such as lower age at menarche, late age of first full-term pregnancy, if any, shorter periods of breastfeeding and later menopause. Consolidated expert statements suggest that over 50 % of all breast cancer cases may be potentially prevented by risk reduction strategy such as regulation of modifiable risk factors. Currently available risk assessment models may estimate potential breast cancer predisposition, in general; however, they are not able to predict the disease manifestation individually. Further, current deficits in risk assessment and effective breast cancer prevention have been recently investigated and summarised as follows: gaps in risk estimation, preventive therapy, lifestyle prevention, understanding of the biology of breast cancer risk and implementation of known preventive measures. This paper overviews the most relevant risk factors, provides recommendations for improved risk assessment and proposes an extended questionnaire for effective preventive measures.

  11. Diagnosis prevention and treatment for PICC-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Adhikari, Vishnu Prasad; Liu, Hong; Kong, Ling Quan; Liu, Sheng Chun; Li, Hong Yuan; Ren, Guo Sheng; Luo, Feng; Wu, Kai Nan

    2012-09-01

    To study the incidence, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in breast cancer patients using a PICC catheter for chemotherapy. The data of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of PICC-related upper extremity DVT in 187 breast cancer patients using a PICC catheter for chemotherapy, from August 2009 to July 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. In total 188 PICC were inserted between August 2009 and July 2011 and followed up for a total of 14 399 catheter-days (median placement, 76.6 days; range, 1 to 170 days). Four (2.1%) of 188 PICC were removed as a result of PICC-related upper extremity DVT in 14 to 112 catheter-days, at a rate of 0.28/1000 catheter-days. The use of PICCs in breast cancer patients for chemotherapy is safe and effective. However, some patients may develop catheter-related upper extremity DVT. In order to minimize complications, we should pay attention to its early symptoms and signs, as well as the timely removal of the catheter and appropriate anti-coagulant treatment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0-0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  13. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  14. Hormones in the etiology and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, R D

    1984-12-01

    Since the incidence of endometrial cancer among estrogen-treated women at Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center was not increased as reported by others, a prospective study was begun in 1975. With this data base, the cases of breast and endometrial cancer in estrogen and oral contraceptive users were reviewed. The incidence of mammary malignancy in postmenopausal estrogen users (141.0:100,000) was lower than that of the untreated women, ie, nonhormone users (342.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). The incidence of breast cancer in the estrogen-progestogen users (67.3:100,000) was significantly lower than that of the untreated women and than that expected from the Third National Cancer Survey (188.3:100,000) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) data (229.2:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). Oral contraceptives also decreased the risk of breast carcinoma, since the incidence in users (10.3:100,000) was significantly lower than expected in this age group according to both the Third National Cancer Survey (53.3:100,000) and the NCI data (57.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .01). Unopposed estrogen replacement therapy increased the incidence of endometrial cancer to 410.8:100,000, but progestogen added to estrogen therapy significantly decreased this incidence to 68.1:100,000 (P less than or equal to .0001). The estrogen-progestogen users also had a significantly lower incidence of endometrial carcinoma than the untreated women (258.3:100,000) (P less than or equal to .005). Oral contraceptives, particularly the combination pill with estrogen and progestogen in each tablet, are protective against adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The incidence of endometrial cancer apparently increased in premenopausal women during our study from 10.9:100,000 women in the first five years to 41.9:100,000 during the last two years as birth control pill use declined from 8,693 users in 1975 to 5,563 users during 1981, primarily in women over the age of 35.

  15. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  16. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón- Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. Methodology An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011–2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test–Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. Results An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = − 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. Conclusions The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way. PMID:26844079

  17. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R prevents experimental human breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Zhang, Yong; Matsumoto,Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Bouvet, Michael; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.; Zhao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a lethal and morbid late stage of breast cancer that is currently treatment resistant. More effective mouse models and treatment are necessary. High bone-metastatic variants of human breast cancer cells were selected in nude mice by cardiac injection. After cardiac injection of a high bone-metastatic variant of breast cancer, all untreated mice had bone metastases compared to only 20% with parental cells. Treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R completely...

  18. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  19. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  20. Synthetic Beta-Lactam Antibiotics as a Selective Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis Inducer: Significance in Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Dietary flavonoids as proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human leukemia cells. Biochem. Pharm., 2005; 69: 1421-1432. 56 Lu M, Dou QP...inhibitory activity relationships of dietary flavonoids in human cancer cells. Front Biosci. 2007;12:1935-45. 68 Pelley RP, Chinnakannu K, Murthy S...Letters, 2007; 18:1179-81. 83 Chen D, Landis-Piwowar KR, Chen MS, Dou QP. Inhibition of proteasome activity by the dietary flavonoid apigenin is

  1. DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOTOXICITY IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER FROM THE STANDPOINT OF AN ONCOLOGIST AND A CARDIOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Semiglazova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anthracycline antibiotics’ (AAs pathogenesis and main risk factors allowed to develop various methods of prevention and early detection of cardiotoxicity as well as to create several guidelines on decreasing the risk of its development. Traditional AAs are a crucial option in treatment of metastatic breast cancer including their repeated prescription. However, their application is significantly limited by various manifestations of toxicity, especially cumulative cardiotoxicity. The most promising is use of pegylated liposomal pharmaceutical formulations of AAs. Among these formulations, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin almost fully lacks anthracycline cardiotoxicity because due to its unique formulation it accumulates almost exclusively in tumor tissue.

  2. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Manni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  3. Preventive strategies for hereditary breast cancer pre-disposition; Praeventive Strategien bei familiaerer Brustkrebspraedisposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiechle, M. [Frauenklinik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Schmutzler, R. [Universitaets-Frauenklinik Bonn (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    First retrospective data show that hereditary Breast cancer risk can be positively influenced by prophylactic surgical procedures and hereby a thorough consultation seem to be an option for mutant gene carriers. A first evaluation of the women of 1050 high-risk families by the German Consortium 'Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer promoted by the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe)' has shown that approximately 80% of the women concerned decide to participate in an intensive early detection - programme and only 5% of the women have decided to submit themselves to prophylactic surgical measures. This again shows how absolutely necessary the elaboration and evaluation of early detection measures within the different investigation projects are. (orig.) [German] Erste retrospektive erhobene Daten zeigen, dass prophylaktische operative Massnahmen das Mammakarzinomrisiko bei familiaerer Belastung guenstig beeinflussen koennen und stellen somit eine Option fuer Anlagetraegerinnen dar, nachdem eine eingehende Beratung erfolgt ist. Eine erste Evaluation der Frauen aus 1050 Hochrisikofamilien des Deutschen Konsortiums 'Hereditaeres Mamma- und Ovarialkarzinom, gefoerdert von der Deutschen Krebshilfe' hat gezeigt, dass sich ca. 80% der Frauen fuer die Teilnahme an einem intensiven Frueherkennungsprogramm und nur 5% der Frauen fuer prophylaktische operative Massnahmen entscheiden. Dies macht noch einmal deutlich, wie dringend die Erarbeitung und Auswertung von Frueherkennungsmassnahmen innerhalb von Forschungsprojekten erforderlich ist. (orig.)

  4. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  5. Naringenin prevents TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer and suppresses pulmonary metastasis by inhibiting PKC activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fayun; Dong, Wenjuan; Zeng, Wenfeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Yuqi; Wang, Luoyang; Yin, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Chunling; Liang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Targeting the TGF-β1 pathway for breast cancer metastasis therapy has become an attractive strategy. We have previously demonstrated that naringenin significantly reduced TGF-β1 levels in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and effectively prevented pulmonary metastases of tumors. This raised the question of whether naringenin can block TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells and inhibit their pulmonary metastasis. We transduced a lentiviral vector encoding the mouse Tgf-β1 gene into mouse breast carcinoma (4T1-Luc2) cells and inoculated the transformant cells (4T1/TGF-β1) into the fourth primary fat pat of Balb/c mice. Pulmonary metastases derived from the primary tumors were monitored using bioluminescent imaging. Spleens, lungs and serum (n = 18-20 per treatment group) were analyzed for immune cell activity and TGF-β1 level. The mechanism whereby naringenin decreases TGF-β1 secretion from breast cancer cells was investigated at different levels, including Tgf-β1 transcription, mRNA stability, translation, and extracellular release. In contrast to the null-vector control (4T1/RFP) tumors, extensive pulmonary metastases derived from 4T1/TGF-β1 tumors were observed. Administration of the TGF-β1 blocking antibody 1D11 or naringenin showed an inhibition of pulmonary metastasis for both 4T1/TGF-β1 tumors and 4T1/RFP tumors, resulting in increased survival of the mice. Compared with 4T1/RFP bearing mice, systemic immunosuppression in 4T1/TGF-β1 bearing mice was observed, represented by a higher proportion of regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a lower proportion of activated T cells and INFγ expression in CD8(+) T cells. These metrics were improved by administration of 1D11 or naringenin. However, compared with 1D11, which neutralized secreted TGF-β1 but did not affect intracellular TGF-β1 levels, naringenin reduced the secretion of TGF-β1 from the cells, leading to an accumulation of intracellular TGF-β1. Further experiments

  6. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    questions raised than answered. Nutr Rev 2007;65:459–66. [36] Lof M, Weiderpass E. Impact of diet on breast cancer risk. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2009;21...Wnt and mammary stem cells: hormones cannot fly wingless. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2010; 10:643-649. 7. Tsukamoto AS, Grosschedl R, Guzman RC, Parslow T...Biol 2009;21:11–8. [16] Tlsty TD, Hein PW. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2001;11:54–9. [17

  7. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  8. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (Kap Study Regarding Prevention of Breast Cancer in Working Women of Chaloos City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azattalab

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, breast cancer is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidty and also the leading health concern of the world. Methods: This research was a descriptive study entitled; Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding prevention of breast cancer in working women of Chaloos city. The sample size of study included 612 women working in governmental centers. The instrument for data collection was a researcher –made questionnaire. For data analysis, central and coefficient index chi square ,t-test ,one way analysis of variation, Kruscal Wallis, Pearson,s correlation coefficient and Fisher test were used. Results: The findings showed that the most of samples were in the 30-39 years age group,(39.7% with an educational job(83/5% and without history of breast cancer history in the family.(94/9% Results also revealed that there was a weak positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (r=0.33 .The findings showed there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge and practice (p<0.05. Also, there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge level and breast self examination (BSE, time interval and also the time of performing BSE (p<0.0001 Similarly, the highest levels of knowledge were present in women with medical education and those with a bachelors or higher degree. The results showed that attitude scores were significantly different in various age, job and educational groups, (p<0.001, p<0.05,p<0.05 respectively Conclusion: The results showed that most of the population under study had a positive attitude but didn’t have good knowledge or practice.

  10. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  11. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  13. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, T. H. Oude; Nagengast, W. B.; Brouwers, A. H.; Schroder, C. P.; Hospers, G. A.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging of breast cancer can potentially be used for breast cancer screening, staging, restaging, response evaluation and guiding therapies. Techniques for molecular breast cancer imaging include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and radionuclide imaging with positron

  14. Preventing breast cancer in LMICs via screening and/or early detection: The real and the surreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit

    2014-08-10

    To review the present status of breast cancer (BC) screening/early detection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and identify the way forward, an open focused search for articles was undertaken in PubMed, Google Scholar and Google, and using a snowball technique, further articles were obtained from the reference list of initial search results. In addition, a query was put up on ResearchGate to obtain more references and find out the general opinion of experts on the topic. Experts were also personally contacted for their opinion. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the world. The rise in incidence is highest in LMICs where the incidence has often been much lower than high-income countries. In spite of more women dying of cancer than pregnancy or childbirth related causes in LMICs, most of the focus and resources are devoted to maternal health. Also, the majority of women in LMICs present at late stages to a hospital to initiate treatment. A number of trials have been conducted in various LMICs regarding the use of clinical breast examination and mammography in various combinations to understand the best ways of implementing a population level screening/early detection of BC; nevertheless, more research in this area is badly needed for different LMIC specific contexts. Notably, very few LMICs have national level programs for BC prevention via screening/early detection and even stage reduction is not on the public health agenda. This is in addition to other barriers such as lack of awareness among women regarding BC and the presence of stigma, inappropriate attitudes and lack of following proper screening behavior, such as conducting breast self-examinations. The above is mixed with the apathy and lack of awareness of policy makers regarding the fact that BC prevention is much more cost-effective and humane than BC treatment. Implementation of population level programs for screening/early detection of BC, along with use of ways to improve

  15. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Breed, W.P.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Nortier, J.

    2013-01-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  17. Training Primary Health Professionals in Breast Cancer Prevention: Evidence and Experience from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Valladares, Laura; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Rosas-Magallanes, Cynthia; Mejía-Arias, Miguel Ángel; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Knaul, Felicia M

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the key successful factors of a national educational strategy for early breast cancer detection developed in Mexico for primary health care personnel from 2008 to 2014, an educational strategy to train physicians, nurses, health promoters, and medical students from local ministries of health with a competency-based approach was developed and implemented using diverse educational modalities, face-to-face, blended, and a massive open online course (MOOC). Formative and summative evaluations were used during the implementation of the course. A total of 19,563 health professionals were trained from 2008 to 2014. The graduation rate, an average of all educational modalities, was 91 %, much higher than those previously reported in the literature. The factors that might have influenced this success were (1) the training strategy, which was designed according to the characteristics and specific needs of the target groups; (2) the political will and commitment of the country's health authorities; (3) the technological and educational models used; and (4) the punctual follow-up of participants. This study shows that carefully designed educational interventions can improve service professionals' competencies and that regardless of the modality, face-to-face, blended learning, or MOOC, high graduation rates can be achieved. Further evaluation is required to demonstrate that the competencies remained in all target groups after 6 months of the intervention and that the women served by the trained personnel were provided accurate information and timely diagnoses of breast cancer.

  18. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following protective factors decrease the risk of endometrial cancer: Pregnancy and breast-feeding Estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. The risk of endometrial cancer is lower in women who have had children. ...

  19. Breast cancer statistics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Ma, Jiemin; Bryan, Leah; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,620 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2013. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Breast cancer incidence rates increased slightly among African American women; decreased among Hispanic women; and were stable among whites, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives from 2006 to 2010. Historically, white women have had the highest breast cancer incidence rates among women aged 40 years and older; however, incidence rates are converging among white and African American women, particularly among women aged 50 years to 59 years. Incidence rates increased for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the youngest white women, Hispanic women aged 60 years to 69 years, and all but the oldest African American women. In contrast, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers declined among most age and racial/ethnic groups. These divergent trends may reflect etiologic heterogeneity and the differing effects of some factors, such as obesity and parity, on risk by tumor subtype. Since 1990, breast cancer death rates have dropped by 34% and this decrease was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. Nevertheless, survival disparities persist by race/ethnicity, with African American women having the poorest breast cancer survival of any racial/ethnic group. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  20. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Rina; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2014-07-07

    Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. 1,000 Japanese women aged 20-69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05-2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36-0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01-2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51-2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75-3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22-0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Awareness was especially low among

  1. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THERAPEUTIC AND PREVENTIVE MASTECTOMY. CHANGES IN THE PERCEPTION OF WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sánchez Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What point can there be in writing yet another study –considering the abundant literature specifically on the subject– that analyses the consequences of the mastectomy in women who either have been diagnosed previously with breast cancer or have a well-founded, genetics based fear of developing it in an unknown future due to the precedents in their family? In this paper, we review some studies emphasising the psychological impact of the mastectomy (whether as a form of secondary prevention against cancer or as a prophylactic measure compared to what is known as “conservative surgery” (lumpectomy, in order to evaluate the consensus or the dissent between the researchers. Our hypothesis is that a change of tendency has taken place in patients with breast cancer in their perspective of the mastectomy, coinciding with the change of century (and millennium, perhaps due to the widespread practice of mammary reconstructive surgery after the resection, which mitigates the trauma (imaginary, symbolic and physical of the amputation without reconstruction.

  2. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... information about cervical cancer: Cervical Cancer Screening Cervical Cancer Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and ...

  3. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  4. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  5. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    one or both breasts were affected. Family Member (e.g. grandmother, aunt) Paternal or Maternal Type or Location of Cancer (e.g. breast ...Local recurrences and distant metastases after breast -conserving surgery and radiation therapy for early breast cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: DAMD17-03-1-0454 TITLE: Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance

  6. Efficacy of Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigler, Tessa; Isseroff, Devora; Fiederlein, Barbara; Schneider, Sarah; Chuang, Ellen; Vahdat, Linda; Moore, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a distressing adverse effect of many chemotherapy agents. The TC (docetaxel [Taxotere] and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen is typically associated with complete alopecia. Scalp cooling with cold caps has been reported to minimize or prevent CIA. We conducted a prospective study to assess efficacy of scalp cooling in preventing CIA among women receiving adjuvant TC chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women at the Weill Cornell Breast Center who independently elected to use scalp cooling with cold caps during adjuvant TC chemotherapy were asked to participate. Degree of hair loss was assessed by a single practitioner using Dean's alopecia scale (grade 1/excellent [ 75% hair loss]), by digital photographs, and by patient self-report of hair thinning or the need to wear a wig/head covering, or both. Assessments were made before each chemotherapy treatment and at follow-up visits between 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of chemotherapy. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10% reported a need to wear a wig/head covering at the follow-up visit. Dean's alopecia score was excellent for 65% of patients, good for 25% of patients, and moderate or poor for 10% of patients. The majority of patients reported hair thinning after every chemotherapy cycle. No patient discontinued therapy because of an intolerance to cold caps. Scalp cooling with cold caps appears to be effective in preventing CIA among the majority of women undergoing treatment with TC chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  8. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first 3 months of pregnancy . Other Information About Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Key Points Lactation (breast milk production) and breast- ... has had breast cancer. To Learn More About Breast Cancer and Pregnancy For more information from the National Cancer Institute ...

  9. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Disorders the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4, 47-5 8. 181. Waller, G. & Hodgson, S. (1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia ...1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the role of perceived and actual control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184...Nevertheless, diets at any age could be contributing factors to both of these cancers. If dietary fat early in life - for example, during adolescence

  10. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  11. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination, Breast Cancer Prevention-Related Knowledge, and Healthy Lifestyles in Scholars from a Low-Income Area in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso-Calderón, A M; Meneses-Echávez, J F; Correa-Bautista, J E; Tovar-Cifuentes, A; Alba-Ramírez, P A; Charry-Ángel, C E

    2016-11-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, practices, and behavior change in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Uncontrolled trial was conducted in 155 scholars. Two educational sessions, 90 min each, were carried out in March 2015 according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire at pre- and post-intervention, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Breast self-examination was practiced by 78.1% of the scholars, and the overall knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was poor. The educational intervention resulted in significant improvements on breast self-examination practice, the knowledge of the technique, and the knowledge of the main risk factors for breast cancer as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable intake at 6 months follow-up. An educational intervention according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control improved the practice of breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable consumption in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted.

  12. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Prevents Tumor Metastasis by Maintaining the Epithelial Phenotype in Multiple Drug-Resistant Gastric and Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Che, Xiaofang; Guo, Tianshu; Cai, Ying; Li, Aodi; Li, Danni; Li, Ce; Wen, Ti; Fan, Yibo; Hou, Kezuo; Ma, Yanju; Hu, Xuejun; Liu, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis are two major factors that contribute to the failure of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Additionally, the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in metastasis of MDR gastric and breast cancer is not well known. In the present study, we found that MDR gastric and breast cancer cells possess a typical mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced cell migration capacity. Additionally, Cbl-b is poorly expressed in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. In MDR gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, gastric cancer patients with low Cbl-b expression were more likely to have tumor invasion (P=.016) and lymph node metastasis (P=.007). Moreover, overexpression of Cbl-b reduced cell migration in MDR cell cultures both in vitro and in vivo. Cbl-b overexpression also prevented EMT by inducing ubiquitination and degradation of EGFR, leading to inhibition of the EGFR-ERK/Akt-miR-200c-ZEB1 axis. However, further overexpression of EGFR on a background of Cbl-b overexpression restored both the mesenchymal phenotype and cell migration capacity of MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that Cbl-b is an important factor for maintenance of the epithelial phenotype and inhibition of cell migration in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  14. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  15. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  18. Obesity and the breast cancer methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William B

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, the nature of epigenetic changes, specifically changes to the methylome, are discussed in the context of obesity and breast cancer, and a potential mechanism for the interaction of obesity and breast cancer is proposed. This proposed mechanism identifies opportunities for intervention (using drugs or biologic therapies) to prevent breast cancer development in the obese patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis. Results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Klinikum Braunschweig (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Mengs, Ulrich; Schaefer, Margitta [Rottapharm/Madaus, Koeln (Germany). Research and Development; Bulitta, Michael [CRM Biometrics GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    More than 80% of patients with breast cancer undergoing postsurgical radiotherapy (RT) will develop radiodermatitis and approximately 10% of these patients show grade 3 lesions. Side effects may reduce the patient's compliance and can be limiting factors to follow RT protocols. Therefore, there is a high need for more effective prophylactic treatments. In this study, a silymarin-based cream (Leviaderm {sup registered}) was tested in comparison to our standard of care (SOC) at the involved site. A total of 101 patients were evaluated after breast-conserving surgery followed by RT with 50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy. Of these, 51 patients were treated with the silymarin-based cream. In addition, 50 patients were documented receiving a panthenol-containing cream interventionally, if local skin lesions occurred. The acute skin reactions were classified according to the RTOG and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores. The median time to toxicity was prolonged significantly with silymarin-based cream (45 vs. 29 days (SOC), p < 0.0001). Only 9.8% of patients using silymarin-based cream showed grade 2 toxicity in week 5 of RT in comparison to 52% with SOC. At the end of RT, 23.5% of patients in the silymarin-based study group developed no skin reactions vs. 2% with SOC, while grade 3 toxicity occurred only in 2% in the silymarin-based arm compared to 28% (SOC). Silymarin-based cream Leviaderm {sup registered} may be a promising and effective treatment for the prevention of acute skin lesions caused by RT of breast cancer patients. To confirm the results of this nonrandomized, observational trial, this component should be tested in larger multicenter studies in this setting. (orig.)

  20. Sandalwood Oil and Turmeric-Based Cream Prevents Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study was an investigator-blinded randomized study with Johnsons Baby Oil (JBO; Johnson & Johnson Ltd., Baddi, India as a comparator, administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in women receiving breast radiation therapy, 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions daily for 5 weeks. The endpoints were to ascertain the delay in the appearance and the degree of severity of dermatitis throughout the study period in accordance to the Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG score. Results: The results indicated that the topical application of VTC delayed and mitigated the radiodermatitis. When compared to the Johnson’s Baby Oil, a significant decrease (p = 0.025 in the incidence of grade 1 was seen at week two, and also in grade 2 and 3 at week 3 (p = 0.003 and week 4 (p = 0.02, respectively, in the VTC cohort. A concomitant decrease in the average severity was also observed at week 2 (p = 0.02, week 3 (p = 0.05 and week 4 (p = 0.03. Conclusions: The results indicate that VTC cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. The result of this study indicates the beneficial effects. Double blind randomized control studies are required to further confirm the beneficial effects of VTC in mitigating radiodermatitis is people undergoing radiation treatment for their cancer.

  1. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  3. Development of Intraductal Techniques for Breast Cancer Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    stimulating breast feeding. One of the investigators tried a nasal spray of oxytocin and noted no increase in breast ductal fluid. None of these were...withdraw saline) or acellular return. In our anatomical studies we found that the median number of lactating duct orifices identified per breast was 5...observations that are clinically relevant. "* The median number of lactating breast duct orifices per nipple is 5 with a range from 1-12. They form a

  4. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  5. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  6. Breast reconstruction after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletti, Joseph M; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas A; Disa, Joseph J; Bucky, Louis P

    2011-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the mental, emotional, and physical benefits of reconstruction in breast cancer patients. 2. Compare the most common techniques of reconstruction in patients and detail benefits and risks associated with each. 3. Outline different methods of reconstruction and identify the method considered best for the patient based on timing of the procedures, body type, adjuvant therapies, and other coexisting conditions. 4. Distinguish between some of the different flaps that can be considered for autologous reconstruction. Breast cancer is unfortunately a common disease affecting millions of women, often at a relatively young age. Reconstruction following mastectomy offers women an opportunity to mollify some of the emotional and aesthetic effects of this devastating disease. Although varying techniques of alloplastic and autologous techniques are available, all strive to achieve the same goal: the satisfactory reformation of a breast mound that appears as natural as possible without clothing and at the very least is normal in appearance under clothing. This article summarizes the various approaches to breast reconstruction and offers a balanced view of the risks and benefits of each, all of which in the end offer the opportunity for excellent and predictable results with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  7. Breast cancer: equal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fátima Carvalho Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is not any statistics related to encouraging breast cancer along the past century, and there has not been any in present century. It has been published in the scientific and lay press information on the crescent number of women attacked by breast cancer. How to spare women and family members of such pain when they experience this disease? Which rights provide assistance to the women with cancer?

  8. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  9. Breast cancer and Flammer syndrome: any symptoms in common for prediction, prevention and personalised medical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubor, Pavol; Gondova, Alexandra; Polivka, Jiri; Kasajova, Petra; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Danko, Jan; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2017-06-01

    An epidemic scale of the breast cancer (BC) prevalence is actually recognised as the reality of the early twenty-first century. Particularly alarming is that the sporadic BC (about 90% of all patients) creates currently unpredictable subpopulations in terms of disease predisposition, development and progression. Despite broad discussions run since years in BC area, no any plausible approach has been suggested so far to get the overall situation better controlled in the populations. Here, we present highly innovative concepts considering investigation of specific syndromes and symptoms underestimated till now in relationship with BC predisposition and development. Consequently, the purpose of our pilot project was to evaluate the prevalence of Flammer Syndrome (FS) in BC patient cohort. The results achieved here support the main hypothesis of the project clearly demonstrating the tendency of BC patients to the increased prevalence of FS symptoms compared to the disease-free individuals. Our study strongly indicates the relevance of FS symptoms for BC pathology such as feeling inadequately cold, deficient thermoregulation, altered sensitivity to different stimuli, potential dehydration, altered sleep patterns, tendency towards headache, migraine attacks and dizziness. Moreover, the symptoms' appearance is specifically linked to the individual BC subtypes. Potential mechanisms interconnecting FS with BC pathology are discussed.

  10. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  12. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  13. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  14. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  15. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  16. Lymphedema after breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Image in medicine Lymphedema is one of the most significant survivorship issues after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and in this population it has been documented to have significant quality...

  17. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  18. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared......, and in women giving birth to boys. These findings, however, did not reach statistical significance. Finally, risk reduction was slightly greater following milder forms of preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Our data is compatible with an approximately 20% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer following...

  19. Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival. Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. Study Design: A ...

  20. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  1. Soy and Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer Prevention in High Risk Pre-Menopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tice, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    .... 47 pre-menopausal women with breast density ! 50% on mammography were randomized to either 25 mgld of soy protein containing 50 mg total isoflavones or 25 mglday of milk protein containing 0 mg of total isoflavones for 6 months...

  2. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicheł, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT) and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy. PMID:26327829

  3. Bosnian, Iraqi, and Somali Refugee Women Speak: A Comparative Qualitative Study of Refugee Health Beliefs on Preventive Health and Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara E; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The low uptake of preventive services in disadvantaged communities is a continuing challenge to public health. Women refugee communities are particularly vulnerable populations, and disparities in both preventive care and breast cancer screening have been documented sparsely. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore Bosnian, Iraqi, and Somali women refugees' beliefs about preventive care and breast cancer screening to inform future community interventions and best practices. In an urban community health center, 57 interviews with Bosnian, Somali, and Iraqi women refugees were conducted by native language speakers. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed according to best practices for thematic and content analysis. The responses of three groups were compared. Similarities across participants included barriers to care such as fear of pain and diagnosis, modesty, and work and childcare commitments; facilitative factors such as outreach efforts, appointment reminders, and personal contact from health providers; perceptions of how the American medical infrastructure compared with inadequacies in their home countries; and positive attitude toward U.S. health professionals. Differences that emerged among groups were: varying degrees of medical exposure to doctors in home countries, the impact of war on health systems; and understanding preventive breast care. Taken together, duration of time in United States and prior exposure to Western medicine account for differences in refugee women's knowledge of preventive care. Understanding population-specific health beliefs, health information, and behavior are crucial for designing tailored prevention programs for refugee women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Simvastatin prevents triple-negative breast cancer metastasis in pre-clinical models through regulation of FOXO3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Adam R; Debeb, Bisrat G; Lacerda, Lara; Larson, Richard; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Huang, Xuelin; Bertucci, Francois; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Van Laere, Steven; Diagaradjan, Parmeswaran; Ruffell, Brian; Trenton, Nicholaus J; Chu, Khoi; Hittelman, Walter; Diehl, Michael; Levental, Ilya; Ueno, Naoto T; Woodward, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported using statins was correlated with improved metastasis-free survival in aggressive breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of statins on metastatic colonization by triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. TNBC cell lines were treated with simvastatin and then studied for cell cycle progression and proliferation in vitro, and metastasis formation in vivo, following injection of statin-treated cells. Reverse-phase protein assay (RPPA) analysis was performed on statin-treated and control breast cancer cells. RNA interference targeting FOXO3a was used to measure the impact of simvastatin on FOXO3a-expressing cells. The prognostic value of FOXO3a mRNA expression was examined in eight public breast cancer gene expression datasets including 1479 patients. Simvastatin increased G1/S-phase arrest of the cell cycle and inhibited both proliferation and migration of TNBC cells in vitro. In vitro pre-treatment and in vivo treatment with simvastatin reduced metastases. Phosphorylated FOXO3a was downregulated after simvastatin treatment in (RPPA) analysis. Ectopic expression of FOXO3a enhanced mammosphere formation and migratory capacity in vitro. Knockdown of FOXO3a attenuated the effect of simvastatin on mammosphere formation and migration. Analysis of public gene expression data demonstrates FOXO3a mRNA downregulation was independently associated with shorter metastasis-free survival in all breast cancers, as well as in TNBC breast cancers. Simvastatin inhibits in vitro endpoints associated with metastasis through a FOXO3a mechanism and reduced metastasis formation in vivo. FOXO3a expression is prognostic for metastasis formation in patient data. Further investigation of simvastatin as a cancer therapy is warranted.

  5. Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Ingrid; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-03-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer.

  6. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Effectiveness of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Performing Preventive Measures for Breast Cancer Among Female Teachers in Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Kalan-Farmanfarma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preventive behaviors such as screening tests have an important role in prevention and control of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs on preventive behaviors of breast cancer based on the health belief model among female teachers of guidance schools in Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 240 female teachers from (120 participants in each of the control and intervention groups Zahedan guidance schools. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables, knowledge and health belief model structures. An educational program was performed based on the health belief model in five sessions through lectures, training videos, question and answer session for participants in the intervention group. Questionnaires were filled before and two months after the intervention in the two groups. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, chi-square and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-15 software. Results: There was no meaningful difference in the mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and performance between the two groups before the educational intervention, but the mean scores of variables increased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The health belief model was effective to promote preventive behaviors. Hence, educational interventions with an emphasis on raising awareness, change in beliefs and improving self-efficacy regarding breast cancer are recommended

  8. Effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Khadijah Kalan Farman; Jalili, Zahra; Zareban, Iraj; Pour, Mahnaz Shahraki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. Methods of screening are the best among early detection methods. The goal of this study is effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model Materials and Methods: This study was a semi-experimental, a kind of case-control research. This study was carried on 240 female teachers in guidance schools, Zahedan city, in 2011-2012 academic years with multi-stage sampling. Data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used after confirmation of validity and reliability. Data were collected with questionnaire after analysis, educational intervention with lecture, view video, group discussion, question and answer performed. Two month after intervention, secondary evaluation was performed. Collected data with SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests like: Paired t-test, independent t-test, regression analysis, Chi-square were analyzed. Results: Persons mean age in this study was 39.40(±7.4) years. In awareness item and health belief model constructs (awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficiency, behavior) and also practice, paired t-test showed significant difference among before and after education (P > 0.0001). In two groups based on Chi-square in level of education and married status, there were no significant differences. Also, regression analysis outcomes showed that perceived barriers had the most effect on behavior, and this construct could be predictor of preventive behaviors from breast cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study could conclude that educational programs designed based on the health belief model have significant impact on improving preventive treatment of breast cancer. Given the fact that Iran has a very high incidence of breast cancer, since Iranian women's awareness level and performance specially

  9. Opportunistic breast cancer screening by mammography in Japan for women in their 40s at our preventive medical center: harm or benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Koyama, Tomomi; Kawakita, Toshiko; Suzuki, Koyu; Yamauchi, Hideko; Takahashi, Osamu; Saida, Yukihisa

    2014-03-01

    After recent revised grading by the US Preventive Services Task Force of mammography (MMG) recommendations for women in their 40s, it is urgent to collect data on the benefits and harm of MMG screenings in Japan. In this paper, we study the actual status and effectiveness of opportunistic breast cancer screening by MMG for women in their 40s. From January to December 2008, the total number of opportunistic breast cancer screenings by MMG at our institute was 12823. Of them, 398 (3.1 %) who were diagnosed as category 3 or more on MMG required further exams. The data were compared between two groups (women in their 40s, women aged 50 and older). Recall rate, detection rate of breast cancers, and implementation rate of further exams were evaluated. Recall rate was 4.0 % (166/4138) for women in their 40s and 2.4 % (166/6949) for women aged 50 and older. Detection rate of breast cancers was higher in women in their 40s (0.56 %) than women aged 50 and older (0.26 %). Non-cancer rate among women receiving invasive examination was higher in women in their 40s (0.76 %) than women aged 50 and older (0.42 %) (p = 0.02). The number of false positives required to detect one true cancer patient was smaller in women in their 40s (4.5) than women aged 50 and older (5.3). The results from our single institute revealed that opportunistic breast cancer screening by MMG for women in their 40s shows higher net benefits than for women aged 50 and older.

  10. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  11. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  12. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  13. Breast Cancer Survivorship—A Personal Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-26

    Pam Bryant, a breast cancer survivor, talks about her personal journey and how being diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45 has impacted her life. .  Created: 9/26/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 9/26/2016.

  14. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón- Garcidueñas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  15. AFPep, a novel drug for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, does not disrupt the estrous cycle or fertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Amanda M; Trinward, Andrea; Lee, Katie; Joseph, Leroy; Jacobson, Herbert I; Bennett, James A; Andersen, Thomas T

    2009-07-01

    Pregnancy lowers the risk of breast cancer, largely attributable to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). A small AFP-derived peptide (AFPep) which mimics the active site of AFP has been developed and may be useful for decreasing the risk of breast cancer for women. AFPep has been shown previously to stop the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer xenografts in mice and prevent carcinogen-induced breast cancer in a rat model. Since AFPep disrupts an estrogen-responsive pathway, it is essential to assess its effects on the female reproductive cycle and fertility. Ten cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 81 days) were given 100 microg AFPep in saline s.c. daily for 20 days. A second group of ten rats was given 50 microg tamoxifen s.c. daily and a third group received saline only. Vaginal smears were obtained twice per day and stained to assess estrous cycle phase. After completion of estrous cycle assessment (five cycles, 21 days), rats were maintained on drug and allowed to mate. Effects on birth of offspring and maternal body weights were assessed. AFPep had no significant effect on the incidence or duration of any estrous cycle phase, and no effect on reproductive potential or maternal body mass. Tamoxifen significantly increased the length of diestrus, locking the cycle in this phase for most animals. Only half of the tamoxifen-treated rats mated, and none became pregnant. Tamoxifen significantly slowed the rate of body mass increase. In rats, AFPep has no toxicity and no effect on female reproduction. This molecule may be developed into an attractive modality for prevention of breast cancer in women.

  16. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  17. Progress in breast cancer: overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-01-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer...

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This

  19. Adenoid cystic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenathan, James H; de la Roza, Gustavo

    2002-06-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that is generally reported in individual case reports or as series from major referral centers. To characterize early diagnostic criteria for adenoid cystic carcinoma and to determine whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for eradicating the disease, we reviewed clinical records of a large series of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast at a large health maintenance organization (HMO) that includes primary care facilities and referral centers. Using the data bank of the Northern California Cancer Registry of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Region (KPNCR), we retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Follow-up also was done for these patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in 22 of 27,970 patients treated for breast cancer at KPNCR from 1960 through 2000. All 22 patients were female and were available for follow-up. Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 37 to 94 years). In 17 (77%) of the women, a lump in the breast led to initial suspicion of a tumor; in 4 (23%) of the 22 patients, mammography led to suspicion of a tumor. Median tumor size was 20 mm. Pain was a prominent symptom. Surgical management evolved from radical and modified radical mastectomy to simple mastectomy or lumpectomy during the study period, during which time 1 patient died of previous ordinary ductal carcinoma of the contralateral breast, and 7 died of unrelated disease. At follow-up, 12 of the 13 remaining patients were free of disease; 1 patient died of the disease; and 1 patient remained alive despite late occurrence of lymph node and pulmonary metastases. Whether breast-preserving surgery with radiotherapy is as effective as mastectomy for treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast has not been determined.

  20. Kindness Interventions in Enhancing Well-Being in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  1. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  3. Clinical proteomics in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer imposes a significant healthcare burden on women worldwide. Early detection is of paramount importance in reducing mortality, yet the diagnosis of breast cancer is hampered by a lack of adequate detection methods. In addition, better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection

  4. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 years ... and physician vigilance are keys to early detection and treatment of breast cancer in the elderly. INTRODUCTION ..... Law TM, Hesketli PJ, Porter KA, Lawn-Tsao L,. McAxiaw R and Lopez MJ. Breast cancer in eld ...

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  7. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  8. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Martijn M.; ten Tusscher, Marieke R.; Agasi-Idenburg, Carla S.; Lucas, Cees; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives To assess the effects of

  9. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  10. Establishment of the Fox Chase Network Breast Cancer Risk Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Thompson, W.D. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance of Early-Onset Breast Cancer. Cancer, 73(3):643-651, 2/1/94. Ezzell, Carol . Breast Cancer Genes: Cloning...Promotion and Risk Prevention: Applications for Cancer Survivors. 0 N F 16(3):335-340, 1989. Van Riper, Marcia, Pridham, K., and Ryff , C. Symbolic

  11. Early breast cancer in the older woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWalde, Ari; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging; there is a rise in both breast cancer incidence and mortality with increasing age. With the aging of the US population, the number of older adults diagnosed with breast cancer and the number of breast cancer survivors is on the rise. The majority of cases of breast cancer are diagnosed with early stage (non-metastatic) potentially curable disease. This article will review the treatment of early stage breast cancer in older adults including a focus on the risks and benefits of surgery, radiation therapy, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and trastuzumab. Although the majority of studies to date demonstrate that older adults experience similar benefits from most multimodality treatments for breast cancer as compared to younger adults, these studies have primarily been performed in healthy and fit older adults. There are limited data at the extremes of age or in those patients with significant comorbidity or functional decline. A primary question facing the doctor and patient is whether the breast cancer is likely to impact the patient’s life expectancy or quality of life. If so, then the risks and benefits of treatment must be considered with a final decision regarding therapy made in the context of the patient’s preferences. This article will review the toxicities (both short- and long-term) from common cancer therapies in early breast cancer. Finally, the decision as to type of secondary screening and prevention of future breast cancers must also be weighed against the life expectancy of the older adult. PMID:22326036

  12. Combining quantitative and qualitative breast density measures to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Scott, Christopher G; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Pankratz, V Shane; Cummings, Steven R; Miglioretti, Diana L; Vachon, Celine M; Shepherd, John A

    2017-08-22

    Accurately identifying women with dense breasts (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] heterogeneously or extremely dense) who are at high breast cancer risk will facilitate discussions of supplemental imaging and primary prevention. We examined the independent contribution of dense breast volume and BI-RADS breast density to predict invasive breast cancer and whether dense breast volume combined with Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model factors (age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and BI-RADS breast density) improves identifying women with dense breasts at high breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study of 1720 women with invasive cancer and 3686 control subjects. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for the effect of BI-RADS breast density and Volpara™ automated dense breast volume on invasive cancer risk, adjusting for other BCSC risk model factors plus body mass index (BMI), and we compared C-statistics between models. We calculated BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, incorporating the adjusted ORs associated with dense breast volume. Compared with women with BI-RADS scattered fibroglandular densities and second-quartile dense breast volume, women with BI-RADS extremely dense breasts and third- or fourth-quartile dense breast volume (75% of women with extremely dense breasts) had high breast cancer risk (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.84-4.47, and OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.87-3.52, respectively), whereas women with extremely dense breasts and first- or second-quartile dense breast volume were not at significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.75-3.09, and OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.82-2.73, respectively). Adding continuous dense breast volume to a model with BCSC risk model factors and BMI increased discriminatory accuracy compared with a model with only BCSC risk model factors (C-statistic 0.639, 95% CI 0.623-0.654, vs. C-statistic 0.614, 95% CI 0.598-0.630, respectively; P breasts and fourth

  13. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  14. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  15. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M., E-mail: Austin_Guo@nymc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  16. Use of a prospective surveillance model to prevent breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Youngmi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) are at risk of lymphedema (LE). Successful management of LE relies on early diagnosis using sensitive modalities. In the current study, we explored the effectiveness of a surveillance program for lymphedema management (SLYM) compared to standard care. Breast cancer patients who underwent ALND in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 2008 to December 2015 were included in this prospective study. The SLYM commenced in May 2011. The LE outcomes of patients treated prior to initiation of the SLYM were compared with those of patients after SLYM implementation. A total of 707 patients were included, 390 in the SLYM group and 317 in the historical control (HC) group. A total of 203 patients (28.7 %) had episodes of all-stage LE during follow-up. Of these, 126 (19.7 %) were in the surveillance group and 77 (24.3 %) in the HC group. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE (greater than stage 3) was 25 (95 % CI 15.4-34.6) (6.4 %) in the SLYM group and 48 (95 % CI, 15.4-34.6) (15.1 %) in the HC group. In the SLYM group, poor compliance had a significant impact on LE incidence (OR = 2.98, P = 0.002). Low level of self-monitoring and insight scores were significantly related to LE incidence (OR = 1.31, P = 0.025) after adjusting for age, body mass index, the type of surgery chosen, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. With a cut-off of 29.5 days from operation to the first visit to the LE clinic, the sensitivity was 60 % and the specificity 61 % in terms of predicting a LE event. Surveillance improves LE prevention compared to clinical evaluation. The first visit to the LE clinic should be made within 1 month after surgery. In the first year, visits should be made at intervals of less than 3 months.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation and breast cancer prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sperati

    Full Text Available In recent years, the scientific evidence linking vitamin D status or supplementation to breast cancer has grown notably. To investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer incidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing vitamin D with placebo or no treatment. We used OVID to search MEDLINE (R, EMBASE and CENTRAL until April 2012. We screened the reference lists of included studies and used the "Related Article" feature in PubMed to identify additional articles. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently extracted data on methodological quality, participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes. Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals for breast cancer were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 test. In sensitivity analysis, we assessed the impact of vitamin D dosage and mode of administration on treatment effects. Only two randomized controlled trials fulfilled the pre-set inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis included 5372 postmenopausal women. Overall, Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals were 1.11 and 0.74-1.68. We found no evidence of heterogeneity. Neither vitamin D dosage nor mode of administration significantly affected breast cancer risk. However, treatment efficacy was somewhat greater when vitamin D was administered at the highest dosage and in combination with calcium (Risk Ratio 0.58, 95% Confident Interval 0.23-1.47 and Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% Confident Interval 0.54-1.60, respectively. In conclusions, vitamin D use seems not to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. However, the available evidence is still limited and inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Study protocol code: FARM8L2B5L.

  18. Knowledge and Awareness of Breast Cancer among Rural Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-10

    Oct 10, 2016 ... thus early diagnosis and increased survival rate of breast cancer cases. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of women on breast self-examination (BSE) in Umuowa, which would guide future intervention program on breast cancer prevention and control in the ...

  19. Knowledge and awareness of breast cancer among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many women with breast cancer present at the health institutions with advanced multiple nodal involvements have poor prognostic outcome. ... and awareness of women on breast self-examination (BSE) in Umuowa, which would guide future intervention program on breast cancer prevention and control in the ...

  20. PRAME is critical for breast cancer growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengwang; Wu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Fenglin; Guo, Qunfeng; Li, Lin; Li, Kun; Chen, Hui; Zhao, Juan; Song, Dianwen; Huang, Quan; Li, Lei; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-12-05

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women and ranks second among cancer deaths. Metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, the mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells remain largely elusive. Here we report that the protein PRAME, a tumor-associated antigen isolated from a melanoma, plays a role in preventing the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Knocking down of PRAME promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of PRAME promotes the invasion of breast cancer cells. To further examine the role of PRAME in vivo, we utilized mouse model and found the volume and the weight of tumors was markedly increased after PRAME was knocked down. This study demonstrates that PRAME functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  2. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  3. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  4. Genomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynce, Filipa; Graves, Kristi D.; Jandorf, Lina; Ricker, Charité; Castro, Eida; Moreno, Laura; Augusto, Bianca; Fejerman, Laura; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among Latinas in the United States and the leading cause of cancer-related death among this population. Latinas tend to be diagnosed at a later stage and have worse prognostic features than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Genetic and genomic factors may contribute to observed breast cancer health disparities in Latinas. Methods We provide a landscape of our current understanding and the existing gaps that need to be filled across the cancer prevention and control continuum. Results We summarize available data on mutations in high and moderate penetrance genes for inherited risk of breast cancer and the associated literature on disparities in awareness of and uptake of genetic counseling and testing in Latina populations. We also discuss common genetic polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in Latinas. In the treatment setting, we examine tumor genomics and pharmacogenomics in Latina patients with breast cancer. Conclusions As the US population continues to diversify, extending genetic and genomic research into this underserved and understudied population is critical. By understanding the risk of breast cancer among ethnically diverse populations, we will be better positioned to make treatment advancements for earlier stages of cancer, identify more effective and ideally less toxic treatment regimens, and increase rates of survival. PMID:27842325

  5. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    cerevisiae) -2.2 BAG4h BCL2-associated athanogene 4 -1.9 DDHD2 DDHD domain containing 2 -3.0 PPAPDC1B phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain...E, 40X). c: Histological section of an invasive adenocarcinoma growing into the muscle wall of the abdomen of a SCID mouse (An 6). Arrows indicate...skeletal muscle fibers (H&E, 40X). d: Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast immunoreacted against AE1 cytokeratin used as a positive control (40X

  7. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  8. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Blood group “A” and “Rhesus +ve” have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type “AB” and “Rhesus –ve” are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group “A” and “Rh +ve” as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  9. Efficacy of breast cancer appeals for promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalleh, Geoffrey; Donovan, Robert J; Slevin, Terry; Lin, Chad Y

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of breast cancer prevention messages in increasing intentions to be more active. We randomly assigned 200 females aged 30-60 years to a breast cancer and physical activity message or a cardiovascular disease and physical activity message. The breast cancer message was more believable and slightly more motivating to increase physical activity than the cardiovascular disease message, and 72% of respondents in the breast cancer condition increased their intention to increase their physical activity. The benefit of reducing the risk of breast cancer can be used to motivate increased physical activity in women.

  10. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have...... regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus...

  11. Prevention of quality-of-life deterioration with light therapy is associated with changes in fatigue in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Neelum; Liu, Lianqi; Rissling, Michelle; Trofimenko, Vera; Natarajan, Loki; Parker, Barbara A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2013-08-01

    During chemotherapy, women with breast cancer not only experience poor quality of life (QOL), they also have little exposure to bright light, which has been shown to be associated with depression, fatigue, and poor sleep in other chronic illnesses. This study examined whether increased light exposure would have a positive effect on QOL. Thirty-nine women with stage I-III breast cancer scheduled to receive ≥ 4 cycles of chemotherapy were randomized to a bright white light (BWL, n = 23) or dim red light (DRL, n = 16) treatment group. Data were collected before (baseline) and during cycles 1 and 4 of chemotherapy. Light was administered via a light box (Litebook(®), Ltd.). QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Compared with baseline, the DRL group demonstrated significant decline in QOL during the treatment weeks of both cycles (all ps decline (all ps > 0.05). Mixed model analyses revealed that there was a group-by-time interaction for FOSQ at the treatment week of cycle 4, and this interaction was mediated by fatigue. The data suggest that increased exposure to bright light during chemotherapy may prevent the decline in QOL via preventing the increase in fatigue.

  12. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  13. Perception of breast cancer prevention campaigns among women in Braşov

    OpenAIRE

    STEFAN Madalina; Gabriel BRATUCU; CHITU, Ioana Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Once health marketing appeared, the concern for its development and for health, generally speaking, has increased, especially as regards the prevention of certain diseases. Health marketing refers to marketing strategies and campaigns aimed not only at healthy individuals, but also at the sick ones. Given that it is easier to prevent a disease and that access to information nowadays is handy, the present paper aimed at analysing opinions and atti...

  14. Breast Self Examination- A Necessary Preventive Tool: Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast Self Examination- A Necessary Preventive Tool: Knowledge and Practice among Students of College of Education Gindiri, Plateau State. ... A non- statistically significant (p=0.116) association was established between presence of the associated breast cancer risk factors and the practice of BSE. Conclusion: Poor ...

  15. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  16. Improvement in risk prediction, early detection and prevention of breast cancer in the NHS Breast Screening Programme and family history clinics::a dual cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Dafydd; Astley, Susan; Stavrinos, Paula; Harkness, Elaine; Donnelly, Louise S; Dawe, Sarah; Jacob, Ian; Harvie, Michelle; Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam R.; Wilson, Mary; Harrison, Fiona; Payne, Katherine; Howell, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the UK, women are invited for 3-yearly mammography screening, through the NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), from the ages of 47–50 years to the ages of 69–73 years. Women with family histories of breast cancer can, from the age of 40 years, obtain enhanced surveillance and, in exceptionally high-risk cases, magnetic resonance imaging. However, no NHSBSP risk assessment is undertaken. Risk prediction models are able to categorise women by risk using known risk factors, al...

  17. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  18. Evaluation of Cyclooxygenase-2 as a Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    York. L. R. H. fractions were prepared after removing the cells from the dishes by incubation is a Lilith fellow, funded in part by proceeds from the... Lilith Fair. 2 To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Strang Cancer Research Laboratory, The Rockefeller University, Box 231, 1230 York

  19. Empowering Women through Education and Advocacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through partnerships with the Peruvian Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization regional office, CGH co-supported the first Women’s Cancer Summit was held in Lima, Peru. This unique training workshop brought primary-level health care providers from 26 districts together with patient advocates and survivors from Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador.

  20. Cytokines, Neovascularization and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Rationale Angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastases of human breast cancer . We hypothesize that this process is under the control of...staining patern seen in invasive cancer , in situ cancer , and benign breast tissue. Note that staining was graded as the most intensly staining area. The...blocked, tumors do not grow or metastasize . The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that breast cancer cells are capable of participating in this

  1. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of benefits: Taking Tamoxifen for 5 years after breast cancer surgery cuts the chance of cancer coming back by half. Some studies show that taking it for 10 years may work even better. It reduces the risk that cancer ...

  2. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  3. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  4. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  5. Metastatic breast cancer 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, M B; Roberts, E; Nixon, J; Probert, J C; Braatvedt, G D

    1997-01-01

    Subcutaneous mastectomy has a possible role as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of developing breast cancer. A case history is presented of a woman who developed metastatic breast carcinoma 42 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomies for non-malignant disease. This case is presented to draw attention to the persistent risk of developing breast cancer even decades after subcutaneous mastectomy and to point out that the role of such surgery in preventing breast cancer has still not been clarified. The appropriateness of prophylactic mastectomy for an individual is better assessed on the absolute risk of breast cancer developing over a defined period rather than the relative risk.

  6. Phase III randomized trial of Calendula officinalis compared with trolamine for the prevention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, P; Gomez, F; Sunyach, M P; D'Hombres, A; Carrie, C; Montbarbon, X

    2004-04-15

    The effectiveness of nonsteroid topical agents for the prevention of acute dermatitis during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast carcinoma has not been demonstrated. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of calendula (Pommade au Calendula par Digestion; Boiron Ltd, Levallois-Perret, France) with that of trolamine (Biafine; Genmedix Ltd, France), which is considered in many institutions to be the reference topical agent. Between July 1999 and June 2001, 254 patients who had been operated on for breast cancer and who were to receive postoperative radiation therapy were randomly allocated to application of either trolamine (128 patients) or calendula (126 patients) on the irradiated fields after each session. The primary end point was the occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher. Prognostic factors, including treatment modalities and patient characteristics, were also investigated. Secondary end points were the occurrence of pain, the quantity of topical agent used, and patient satisfaction. The occurrence of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher was significantly lower (41% v 63%; P calendula than with trolamine. Moreover, patients receiving calendula had less frequent interruption of radiotherapy and significantly reduced radiation-induced pain. Calendula was considered to be more difficult to apply, but self-assessed satisfaction was greater. Body mass index and adjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy after lumpectomy were significant prognostic factors for acute dermatitis. Calendula is highly effective for the prevention of acute dermatitis of grade 2 or higher and should be proposed for patients undergoing postoperative irradiation for breast cancer.

  7. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  8. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  9. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  10. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  11. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  12. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing

  13. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  14. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  15. Bisphosphonates for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, N; Schmidt, Rl; Stockler, M

    2005-07-20

    Bone is the most common site of metastatic disease associated with breast cancer affecting more than half of women during the course of their disease. Bone metastases are a significant cause of morbidity due to pain, pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression, and contribute to mortality. Bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, are standard care for tumour-associated hypercalcaemia, and have been shown to reduce bone pain, improve quality of life, and to delay skeletal events and reduce their number in patients with multiple myeloma. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. To assess the effect of bisphosphonates on skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival in women with early and advanced breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials were identified using the specialized register maintained by the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (the search was applied to the databases Medline, Central/CCTR, Embase, CancerLit, and included handsearches from a number of other relevant sources). See: Cochrane Collaboration Collaborative Review Group in Breast Cancer search strategy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating skeletal events in women with metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer comparing: 1. treatment with a bisphosphonate with the same treatment without a bisphosphonate 2. treatment with one bisphosphonate with treatment with a different bisphosphonate. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were evaluated for quality, particularly concealment of allocation to randomized groups. Data were extracted from the published papers or abstracts independently by the two primary reviewers for each of the specified endpoints (skeletal events, bone pain, quality of life and survival). Data on skeletal events and survival were presented as numbers of events, risk ratios and ratios of event rates

  16. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  17. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  18. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  19. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  20. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation - a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    .... This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial...

  1. Phototherapy 660 nm for the prevention of radiodermatitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marina Moreira; Silva, Sidney Benedito; Quinto, Ana Luiza Pereira; Pasquinelli, Priscilla Furtado Souza; de Queiroz dos Santos, Vanessa; de Cássia Santos, Gabriela; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-08-20

    Breast neoplasms are the second most common type of cancer worldwide, and radiation therapy is a key component of their treatment. Acute skin reactions are one of the most common side effects of radiation therapy, and prevention of this adverse event has been investigated in several studies. However, a clinically applicable, preventative treatment remains unavailable. It has been demonstrated that application of a low-power laser can promote tissue repair. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an indium gallium aluminum phosphorus (InGaAIP) laser operated at 660 nm in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. This is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial. A total of 52 patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer (stages I to III) will be enrolled. Patients will be randomly assigned to an intervention group to receive laser therapy (n = 26) or a control group to receive a placebo (n = 26). The laser or placebo will be applied five days a week, immediately before each radiotherapy session. Skin reactions will then be graded weekly by a nurse, a radiotherapist, and an oncologist (all of whom will be blinded) using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) developed by the National Cancer Institute and the Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria developed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Patients will also answer a modified visual analogue scale for pain (a self-evaluation questionnaire). Primary and secondary outcomes will be the prevention of radiodermatitis and pain secondary to radiodermatitis, respectively. The ideal tool for preventing radiodermatitis is an agent that mediates DNA repair or promotes cell proliferation. Application of a low-power laser has been shown to promote tissue repair by reducing inflammation and inducing collagen synthesis. Moreover, this treatment approach has not been associated with adverse events and is cost-effective. Thus, the results of

  2. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  3. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  4. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism: Implications for breast cancer prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    ...) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation...

  5. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  6. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  7. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  8. International breast cancer and nutrition: a model for research, training and policy in diet, epigenetics, and chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Teegarden, Dorothy; Welch, Ailsa; Hwalla, Nahla; Lelièvre, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from the International Breast Cancer and Nutrition workshop held during the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA, on 28 April 2014. An international collaboration was described among teams from low-, middle-, and high-income countries addressing environmental factors, especially diet, and epigenetic interactions that affect the risk of chronic disease. Speakers addressed opportunities and challenges involved in this type of international collaboration, assessing diet and nutritional status across a wide range of cultures, and research tools and discoveries from this group.

  9. SAFE trial: an ongoing randomized clinical study to assess the role of cardiotoxicity prevention in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines with or without trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Terziani, Francesca; Becherini, Carlotta; Airoldi, Mario; Allegrini, Giacomo; Amoroso, Domenico; Barni, Sandro; Bengala, Carmelo; Guarneri, Valentina; Marchetti, Paolo; Martella, Francesca; Piovano, Pierluigi; Vannini, Agnese; Desideri, Isacco; Tarquini, Roberto; Galanti, Giorgio; Barletta, Giuseppe; Livi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Over the years, thanks to the addition of new generation systemic agents, as well as the use of more advanced and precise radiotherapy techniques, it was able to obtain a high curability rate for breast cancer. Anthracyclines play a key role in the treatment of breast disease, with a well-known benefit on disease-free survival of patients with positive nodal status. Trastuzumab have shown a significant outcome advantage after 1-year administration in case of HER2-positive disease. Unfortunately, significant increase in cardiotoxicity has been observed after anthracyclines and trastuzumab therapies. Even though the cardiology and oncology community strongly recommend a cardiotoxicity prevention strategy for this subset of patients, there is still no consensus on the optimal patient's approach. We aimed to review the published and ongoing researches on cardioprevention strategies and to present the SAFE trial (CT registry ID: NCT2236806; EudraCT number: 2015-000914-23). It is a randomized phase 3, four-arm, single-blind, placebo-controlled study that aims to evaluate the effect of bisoprolol, ramipril or both drugs, compared to placebo, on subclinical heart damage evaluated by speckle tracking cardiac ultrasound in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

  10. Pregnancy and its role in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Correia Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Early full-term pregnancy is the only recognized factor able to prevent breast cancer. There are several hypotheses to explain the mechanisms of this protection, namely an altered hormonal milieu, a differentiation process or a switch in stem cell properties. To explore them, authors have been using animal models, mainly in rodents. Hormonal administration with estrogen and progesterone was the most widely used process to mimic the mammary changes during pregnancy. We have recently proposed that this enigmatic protective role of a full-term birth in breast cancer is carried out by tumor inhibition mediated by differentiated mammary epithelial cells. This explanation may give a new perspective of breast cancer prevention and treatment.

  11. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Siva Donepudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D, genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc., and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  12. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  13. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Rossella; Sammarco, Elena; Calvanese, Maria Grazia; De Natale, Flora; Falivene, Sara; Di Lecce, Ada; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Murino, Paola; Manzo, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Muto, Paolo; Ravo, Vincenzo

    2013-03-12

    The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy.

  14. Lipídio: fator de risco e prevenção do câncer de mama Lipid: risk factor and breast cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Herrmann Cibeira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese de que uma dieta rica em gordura promova o desenvolvimento do câncer de mama na menopausa é fortalecida por estudos caso-controle, que mostram forte associação positiva entre uma dieta rica em lipídios e as taxas de incidência de câncer de mama. Por outro lado, a ingestão dietética de gordura não parece estar relacionada com o risco de câncer de mama em estudos de coorte. Em vista desses achados conflitantes, tem sido difícil propor qualquer recomendação nutricional para a prevenção do câncer de mama. Estudos com animais e observações recentes em humanos, entretanto, têm mostrado evidências de que a dieta rica em ácido graxo linoléico estimula vários estágios no desenvolvimento de câncer mamário. Alguns estudos ainda mostram que o óleo de peixe, constituído de ácidos graxos ômega-3, parece prevenir o câncer pela influência sobre a atividade de enzimas e proteínas relacionadas à proliferação celular. Assim, são necessários estudos epidemiológicos que integrem as interações de ácidos graxos específicos com o catabolismo hormonal, fatores nutricionais protetores e de risco relacionados com o câncer de mama. Nesse trabalho, abordaremos os fatores protetores, de risco e as implicações quali e quantitativas dos ácidos graxos da dieta sobre o câncer de mama.The hypothesis that a high fat diet promotes the development of postmenopausal breast cancer is supported by case-controls studies that show a strong correlation between fat intake and breast cancer rates. On the other hand, high fat intake is not correlated with breast cancer in cohort studies. In view of these conflicting findings, it has been difficult to propose nutritional recommendations for the prevention of breast cancer. Animal studies and recent observations in humans have shown that a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulates several stages in the development of mammary cancer. Some evidences show that fish oil

  15. [Colorectal cancer prevention by flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoensch, Harald; Richling, Elke; Kruis, Wolfgang; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Valid, sustained and safe clinical means of colorectal cancer prevention are still lacking, but they are urgently needed to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer. Dietary factors and phytochemicals such as flavonoids play an important role for prevention. A selective search of the literature using PubMed was performed with the following key words: flavonoids, cancer, therapy, colorectal cancer focused on clinical queries. Results of clinical studies including the authors' own were compared. In vivo and in vitro studies with animals, cell cultures and subcellular components provide ample evidence for antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids as shown for multiple biological and molecular endpoints. Isoflavonoids in vitro have been shown to induce proliferation of breast cancer cells. Epidemiologic trials (cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies) yielded inconsistent results for flavonoid protection. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the protective role of tea flavonoids on adenoma incidence. An interventional pilot study with sustained flavonoid supplementation was shown to reduce the rate of neoplasia in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Selected flavonoids possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties and could reduce the incidence of colorectal neoplasias as shown in epidemiologic trials. Randomized controlled clinical studies with flavonoid intervention are necessary to provide evidence for their role in colorectal cancer prevention.

  16. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  17. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  18. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Predictors of competing mortality to invasive breast cancer incidence in the Canadian National Breast Screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Sharareh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening requires estimates of the absolute risk of breast cancer, which is modified by various risk factors. Breast cancer incidence, and thus mortality, is altered by the occurrence of competing events. More accurate estimates of competing risks should improve the estimation of absolute risk of breast cancer and benefit from breast cancer screening, leading to more effective preventive, diagnostic, and treatment policies. We have previously described the effect of breast cancer risk factors on breast cancer incidence in the presence of competing risks. In this study, we investigate the association of the same risk factors with mortality as a competing event with breast cancer incidence. Methods We use data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, consisting of two randomized controlled trials, which included data on 39 risk factors for breast cancer. The participants were followed up for the incidence of breast cancer and mortality due to breast cancer and other causes. We stratified all-cause mortality into death from other types of cancer and death from non-cancer causes. We conducted separate analyses for cause-specific mortalities. Results We found that “age at entry” is a significant factor for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific and non-cancer mortality. “Menstruation length” and “number of live births” are significant factors for all-cause mortality, and cancer-specific mortality. “Ever noted lumps in right/left breasts” is a factor associated with all-cause mortality, and non-cancer mortality. Conclusions For proper estimation of absolute risk of the main event of interest common risk factors associated with competing events should be identified and considered.

  20. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  1. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before age 12) or reached menopause late (after age 55). Breast cancer is more common among women who • Are older • ... 40. If you are at high risk for breast cancer, you should get an annual mammogram beginning at age 40. Talk with your provider about other screening ...

  2. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  3. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  4. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morin”. On the average it represents the prevalence of breast cancer in southern part of Nigeria. The mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in females in our series was 45.7 years. This age compares favourably With the mean age in other parts of Nigeria. In Calabar, South — South. Nigeria the mean age was found to be ...

  5. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2012-01-25

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.

  6. Chemoprevention of breast cancer in the older patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, S E

    2000-02-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for the development of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer continues to increase in American women until the age of 80 years. A family history of breast cancer helps identify those who possibly have the highest risk of developing breast cancer; however, most women who develop breast cancer do not have a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer. Currently, the Gail model is a commonly used model to identify risk, and this model has now been validated in several populations of women undergoing screening for breast cancer. The first large-scale breast cancer prevention trial investigating the preventive effects of tamoxifen has demonstrated a decrease in the development of breast cancer by almost 50% in the women in the tamoxifen treatment arm as compared with those receiving placebo. The NSABP P-1 trial was the largest of the three tamoxifen breast cancer prevention trials and had the greatest power to detect a difference between the two treatment groups in breast cancer events. This trial also included the largest percentage of postmenopausal women. It is unclear why the Italian and Royal Marsden Hospital trials had negative results regarding the preventive effects of tamoxifen. These two trials were strikingly different from the NSABP P-1 trial, however, and they included a different population of women. The issues surrounding the use of HRT for treatment of hot flashes in the Italian and Royal Marsden Hospital trials adds to the controversy concerning the negative results of these trials. The new SERM, raloxifene, has shown promise in preliminary studies as a preventive agent for breast cancer. The STAR trial will open soon and will evaluate the efficacy of raloxifene in preventing breast cancer in a prospective fashion, comparing its efficacy with tamoxifen treatment. Other endpoints will evaluate side effects such as menopausal symptoms, endometrial cancer, thromboembolic events, and benefits regarding

  7. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  8. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  9. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  10. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  11. Iranian women's attitude toward prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Majidzadeh-A

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preventive mastectomy has a higher rate of acceptability among women who have had a family history of breast cancer. Therefore, it may be concluded that raising public awareness about the advantages of prophylactic mastectomy could help better address breast cancer in Iran.

  12. Risk factors and risk reduction of breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurpose of review: Breast and ovarian cancer remain a significant burden for women living in the Western world. This paper reviews the risk factors and current strategies to prevent these diseases. Recent findings: Established factors associated with the risk of breast cancer include

  13. Promoting Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Care Strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    care for patients with advanced breast cancer because, at this stage, patients will no longer gain from antitumor interventions 10. The creation of palliative and supportive care for patients with advanced breast cancer will help to prevent unnecessary and avoidable suffering. Palliative and supportive care. Palliative care has ...

  14. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-10-01

    Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (Pwomen's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Prevention of surgery-induced suppression of granulocyte function by intravenous application of a fermented extract from Viscum album L. in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Bischof, Mechtild; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Bartsch, Felix; Soto-Vera, Danyl; Fronk, Eva-Maria; Gmeindl, Martin; Stein, Gerburg M

    2005-01-01

    Surgical stress and anaesthetics are able to suppress the immune system. This may accelerate the growth and metastasis of residual cancer cells. As Viscum album L. extracts (VA-E) are known to exert both effects, immunomodulating and apoptosis-inducing properties, a Good-Clinical-Practice-guided, prospective bi-centric phase II study was conducted to measure the influence of a perioperative intravenous application of a VA-E on granulocyte function. In 98 patients with breast cancer, it was shown that a single intravenous application of the standardized VA-E "Iscador M special" in a final concentration of 1 mg/individual prior to surgery prevented the surgery-associated inhibition of the oxidative burst. As no VA-E-related side-effects were observed, this distinct route of application may be a rationale to restrict immunosuppression by surgical stress and anaesthesia.

  16. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  17. Genetic risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Shackelford, R E; Anwar, F; Yeatman, T J

    2009-12-01

    Several cutting-edge strategies are being used to evaluate candidate genetic risk factors for breast cancer. These include linkage analysis for mapping out BRCA1 and BRCA2, mutational screening of candidate risk genes like CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1 and PALB2, which are associated with an intermediate level of breast cancer risk. Genome-wide association studies have revealed several low-penetrance breast cancer risk alleles. The predisposition factors are associated with different levels of breast cancer risk. Relative to control population, the risk in patients harboring high-risk BRCA1 and 2 mutations is over 10-fold, with intermediate penetrance genes 2 to 4-fold and with low penetrance alleles less than 1.5-fold. Overall, these factors account for about 25% of the genetic risk for breast cancer. In the remainder, genetic factors to contribute to the risk of breast cancer remain unknown and are a subject of current investigation. With discovery and validation of newer and clinically relevant predisposition factors, additional breast cancer risk categories may be recognized. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing allows identification of individuals at increased risk of breast cancer who are offered risk-reducing interventions. Targeted therapies are being developed that may refine management of patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Further genome-wide studies are required to identify clinically relevant molecular factors that will allow more accurate and widely applicable genetic risk stratification. Current efforts in discovery, validation and qualification of molecular markers of breast cancer risk offer considerable promise in the future to develop more accurate breast cancer risk assessment along with development of more effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2017-09-01

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Assessing Affect Reactivity and Regulation in Patients With Stage 0-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Healthy Subject; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Establishment of a southern breast cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurant, Kristina L; Harvey, Sarah; Klimberg, Suzanne; Kadlubar, Susan; Phillips, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be among the most common cancers affecting women in the United States. Researchers investigating the area are turning their attention to novel prevention, detection, and treatment options. Recent molecular epidemiology research has highlighted the effects of both genetic and environmental exposures on an individual's risk of developing breast cancer and predicted response to treatment. Cohort designs are a potentially powerful tool that researchers can utilize to investigate the genetic and environmental factors affecting breast cancer risk and treatment options. This paper describes the recruitment of a community-based cohort of women in a southern state. The Spit for the Cure Cohort (SFCC), being developed by researchers at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR), is designed to be representative of the female population of the state with oversampling of women with a history of breast cancer and women of color. To date, the SFCC includes more than 14,000 women recruited from all 75 counties of Arkansas and six neighboring states. Methods used to recruit and maintain the cohort and collect both questionnaire data and genetic material are described, as are the demographic characteristics of the cohort as it currently exists. The recruitment methods utilized for the SFCC are rapidly building a breast cancer cohort and providing a large biorepository for molecular epidemiology research. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Vitamin D and breast cancer: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrozul Haq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem and cause of death worldwide. According to WHO, cancer accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Breast Cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide and it represents the second leading cause of death among women, after lung cancer. In India, BC is the most common diagnosed malignancy with 75,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed every year. The factors associated with BC are genetic mutation, reproductive factors, family history, breast density, increasing age and nutritional risk factors. Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying of BC. Several recent reports have found vitamin D intake is beneficial not only for cancer prevention but also for women recently diagnosed with BC. In India, vitamin D deficiency ranges between 70% and 100%. There is paucity of literature available on association of vitamin D and risk of BC in Indian women. The aim of this review is to present the association of vitamin D deficiency with BC. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a higher incidence of breast cancer in India, interventional possibilities to increase vitamin D status should be done. Revising the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA for vitamin D intake and defining serum 25(OHD cut off levels for the Asian population should be done with a high priority.

  4. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  5. Representaciones sociales frente al autocuidado en la prevención del cáncer de mama Social representations towards self-care for breast cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Victoria Giraldo Mora

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comprender las representaciones sociales del cáncer de mama y su influencia en la prevención y el autocuidado en un grupo de mujeres de Medellín, Colombia, 2007-2008. Metodología: estudio cualitativo con 19 mujeres adultas que no han padecido cáncer mamario. Se realizan entrevistas semiestructuradas utilizando el criterio de máxima variación. El análisis se hace con base en la teoría fundamentada. Resultados y discusión: las representaciones son predominantemente estéticas. El conocimiento sobre las prácticas de autocuidado es vago y escaso; el autoexamen, la mamografía y el examen clínico no se hacen o se realizan sin la debida frecuencia, en lo que éste coincide con otros estudios. Ante la posibilidad de padecer cáncer de mama, algunas manifiestan su desorientación y escasa preparación para afrontarlo. Las mujeres requieren mayor autonomía para el autocuidado y el derecho a definir su salud y a imponerle límites. Las personas son responsables de sus estilos de vida, no obstante los factores no controlables. El autocuidado permite que la vida continúe y se desarrolle, es la contribución a nuestra propia existencia. Conclusiones: además de la representación social de las mamas como objeto de atracción, las entrevistadas adoptan una representación negativa del cáncer de mama que no favorece la prevención y el autocuidado. El estudio devela la poca educación acerca del autocuidado y la prevención. Nos intriga que las mujeres del estudio, aunque no han padecido de cáncer, describan vívidamente sus preocupaciones frente a sus efectos, lo que podría relacionarse con una construcción de la feminidad que merece revisarse.Objective: to understand the social representations of breast cancer in a group of women of Medellin, Colombia, 2007 -2008, and their influence in prevention and self-care practices. Methodology: qualitative study carried out with 19 semi-structured interviews to adult women who have not had

  6. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid prevents high glucose and insulin induced-invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, modulating the plasminogen activator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma-Rodríguez, Rubí; Martínez-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Flores-López, Luis Antonio; Baiza-Gutman, Luis Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus have contributed to the increase of breast cancer incidence worldwide. High glucose concentration promotes the proliferation of metastatic cells, favoring the activation of the plasminogen/plasmin system, thus contributing to tumor progression. The efficient formation of plasmin is dependent on the binding of plasminogen to the cell surface. We studied the effect of ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), an inhibitor of the binding of plasminogen to cell surface, on proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and plasminogen activation system, in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in a high glucose microenvironment and treated with insulin. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with EACA 12.5 mmol/L under high glucose 30 mmol/L (HG) and high glucose and insulin 80 nmol/L (HG-I) conditions, evaluating: cell population growth, % of viability, migratory, and invasive abilities, as well as the expression of uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and its inhibitor (PAI-1), by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs were evaluated by RT-PCR. Markers of EMT were evaluated by Western blot. Additionally, the presence of active uPA was studied by gel zymography, using casein-plasminogen as substrates. EACA prevented the increase in cell population, migration and invasion induced by HG and insulin, which was associated with the inhibition of EMT and the attenuation of HG- and insulin-dependent expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-enolase (ENO A), and HCAM. The interaction of plasminogen to the cell surface and plasmin formation are mediators of the prometastasic action of hyperglycemia and insulin, potentially, EACA can be employed in the prevention and as adjuvant treatment of breast tumorigenesis promoted by hyperglycemia and insulin.

  7. Managing hereditary breast cancer risk in women with and without ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mary Linton; Garber, Judy E; Tung, Nadine

    2017-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend that all women with ovarian cancer undergo germline genetic testing for BRCA1/2. Increasingly, genetic testing is being performed via panels that include other genes that confer a high or moderate risk of breast cancer. In addition, many women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer are not found to have a mutation, but may have increased risk of breast cancer for which surveillance and risk reduction strategies are indicated. This review discusses how to assess and manage an increased risk of breast cancer through surveillance, preventive medications, and risk-reducing surgery. Assessing and managing the increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer can be challenging. For the first few years after an ovarian cancer diagnosis, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a relatively low risk of breast cancer, and their prognosis is largely determined by the ovarian cancer. However, if these women remain in remission after two years, the risk of breast cancer becomes comparable with, and in some cases exceeds, their risk of ovarian cancer recurrence. For these women, breast cancer surveillance and risk reduction becomes important to their overall health. Specifically, for BRCA1/2 carriers who are diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer, we recommend regular breast cancer surveillance and consideration of risk reduction with medication and/or prophylactic mastectomy. For women with advanced ovarian cancer who do not achieve remission, breast cancer surveillance or prophylaxis is not of value. However, among carriers with more favorable advanced disease, it is reasonable to initiate breast cancer surveillance. Patients with less favorable advanced stage disease who achieve sustained remission (>2-5years) should also consider more aggressive strategies for breast cancer screening and prevention. For mutation carriers who remain in remission after five years, prophylactic mastectomy can be

  8. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    decreased the levels of VEGF/VEGFR2, IL-1 and Notch. Inhibition of leptin–cytokine crosstalk might serve as a preventative or adjuvant measure to target breast cancer, particularly in obese women. This review is intended to present an update analysis of leptin actions in breast cancer, highlighting its crosstalk to inflammatory cytokines and growth fact ors essential for tumor development, angiogenesis and potential role in BCSC. PMID:23562747

  9. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  10. Having children after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, K H

    1994-01-01

    Having children after breast cancer is an important clinical issue. Evidence from clinical studies on pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer has not shown a survival disadvantage. Clinical experience suggests that desire for children, support from family, and quality of life issues are also important factors in decisions about pregnancy. This qualitative study was done (1) to identify reasons why young women decide to become pregnant after breast cancer; (2) to describe concerns about subsequent pregnancy; (3) to describe helpful behaviors in decision making; and (4) to explore the meaning of having children after breast cancer. Twenty-three women were identified who had early-stage breast cancer and became pregnant after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Sixteen women participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results indicate that pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer is a powerful stimulus for young women to "get well" again. Reasons for subsequent pregnancy were related to the women's developmental age. Young women expressed concerns about the potential for future disease recurrence, about breast self-examination and mammography during pregnancy, and about surviving to see their children grow up. Perceived helpful behaviors included developing a realistic perspective, living with uncertainty, love and support of spouse, and delineating differences between personal and medical decision making.

  11. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  12. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  13. Population Attributable Risk of Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Pazaris, Mathew; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather; Hunter, David J

    2016-12-15

    We examined the proportions of multiple types of breast cancers in the population that were attributable to established risk factors, focusing on behaviors that are modifiable at menopause. We estimated the full and partial population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) by combining the relative risks and the observed prevalence rates of the risk factors of interest. A total of 8,421 cases of invasive breast cancer developed in postmenopausal women (n = 121,700) in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980-2010. We included the following modifiable risk factors in our analyses: weight change since age 18 years, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, breastfeeding, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Additionally, the following nonmodifiable factors were included: age, age at menarche, height, a combination of parity and age at first birth, body mass index at age 18 years, family history of breast cancer, and prior benign breast disease. When we considered all risk factors (and controlled for age), the PAR% for invasive breast cancers was 70.0% (95% confidence interval: 55.0, 80.7). When considering only modifiable factors, we found that changing the risk factor profile to the lowest weight gain, no alcohol consumption, high physical activity level, breastfeeding, and no menopausal hormone therapy use was associated with a PAR% of 34.6% (95% confidence interval: 22.7, 45.4). The PAR% for modifiable factors was higher for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers (PAR% = 39.7%) than for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers (PAR% = 27.9%). Risk factors that are modifiable at menopause account for more than one-third of postmenopausal breast cancers; therefore, a substantial proportion of breast cancer in the United States is preventable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  15. Family History of Breast Cancer, Breast Density, and Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Breast Cancer Screening Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Sprague, Brian L; Bissell, Michael C S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Buist, Diana S M; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Background: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density.Methods: We followed 222,019 participants ages 35 to 74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (first-degree, second-degree, or first- and second-degree female relative) breast cancer family history. We fit log-binomial models to estimate age-specific breast cancer associations for simple and detailed family history, accounting for breast density.Results: Simple first-degree family history was associated with increased breast cancer risk compared with no first-degree history [Risk ratio (RR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.1 at age 40; RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7 at age 50; RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6 at age 60; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 at age 70). Breast cancer associations with detailed family history were strongest for women with first- and second-degree family history compared with no history (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2 at age 40); this association weakened in higher age groups (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.88-1.5 at age 70). Associations did not change substantially when adjusted for breast density.Conclusions: Even with adjustment for breast density, a history of breast cancer in both first- and second-degree relatives is more strongly associated with breast cancer than simple first-degree family history.Impact: Future efforts to improve breast cancer risk prediction models should evaluate detailed family history as a risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 938-44. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. LEAPS Vaccine Incorporating HER-2/neu Epitope Elicits Protection That Prevents and Limits Tumor Growth and Spread of Breast Cancer in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ken S; Stone, Sarah; Koski, Gary; Zimmerman, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    The prototype J-LEAPS T cell vaccine for HER-2/neu breast cancer (J-HER) consists of the murine HER-2/neu66-74 H-2d CD8 T cell epitope covalently attached through a triglycine linker to the J-immune cell binding ligand (ICBL) (human β2 microglobulin38-50 peptide). The J-ICBL was chosen for its potential to promote Th1/Tc1 responses. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability of J-HER to prevent or treat cancer was tested in the TUBO cell-challenged BALB/c mouse model for HER-2/neu-expressing tumors. The J-HER vaccine was administered as an emulsion in Montanide ISA-51 without the need for a more potent adjuvant. When administered as a prophylactic vaccination before tumor challenge, J-HER protected against tumor development for at least 48 days. Despite eliciting protection, antibody production in J-HER-immunized, TUBO-challenged mice was less than that in unimmunized mice. More importantly, therapeutic administration of J-HER one week after challenge with TUBO breast cancer cells limited the spread of the tumors and the morbidity and the mortality in the challenged mice. The ability to elicit responses that prevent spread of the TUBO tumor by J-HER suggests its utility as a neoimmunoadjuvant therapy to surgery. Individual or mixtures of J-LEAPS vaccines can be readily prepared to include different CD8 T cell epitopes to optimize tumor therapy and customize treatment for individuals with different HLA types.

  17. Cancer in Nigerian Women: A Critical Need for Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in Nigeria is assuming an alarming proportion. Recent public awareness on common female cancer such as breast, cervix, liver etc has shown an upsurge of cancer in women. This study aims to describe common cancers in Nigerian women and highlight strategy for cancer prevention. All records of histologically ...

  18. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  19. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  20. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are also shown. A family history of breast cancer and other factors can increase ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  2. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  3. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadodkar, Aditi S; Suman, Suman; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Damodaran, Chendil

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States and many other countries. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for many cancers, especially for breast cancer. Natural products are being tested with a hope of identifying novel potent molecules as anticancer agents. Phytochemicals and dietary compounds have been used for the treatment of various illnesses throughout history due to their safety, low toxicity, and general availability. Currently, many active phytochemicals are in clinical trials. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that daily consumption of dietary phytochemicals reduces the risk of several cancers. Phytochemicals can inhibit, delay, or reverse carcinogenesis by inducing detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, by regulating inflammatory/proliferative signaling pathways, and by inducing apoptosis. This review article describes some of the potential natural cancer preventive compounds, along with a mechanistic discussion of their interactions with key cellular signal transduction pathways as well as their contribution to the suppression of breast cancer cell growth.

  4. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  5. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  6. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados Breast cancer's secondary prevention and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leal Sclowitz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional na cidade de Pelotas, RS, em 2002, com amostra de 879 mulheres de 40 a 69 anos. Foram coletadas informações sobre variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, biológicas e referentes ao manejo médico. A análise estatística das variáveis foi realizada utilizando o método de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do "hábito de realizar o auto-exame" encontrada foi de 83,5% (IC 95%: 80,9-85,9, sendo que, dessas mulheres, 80,4% (IC 95%: 77,3-83,2 o realizavam ao menos uma vez ao mês. A prevalência de "exame clínico de mamas" foi de 83,3% (IC 95%: 80,6-85,7. "Mamografia alguma vez na vida" mostrou prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 66,8-73,0, sendo que 83,7% (IC 95%: 80,5-86,6 realizaram a última mamografia há dois anos ou menos. Das entrevistadas, 62% (IC 95%: 58,7-65,2 consultaram ginecologista ao menos uma vez no último ano. Os fatores associados a maiores prevalências das condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama foram: pertencer às classes sociais mais altas; ter a maior combinação de fatores de risco para neoplasia mamária; ter história familiar de câncer de mama; fazer uso de terapia de reposição hormonal e ter sido submetida à biópsia por patologia mamária. CONCLUSÕES: As medidas preventivas para o câncer de mama vêm sendo bastante utilizadas quantitativamente; entretanto, os dados apontam para limitações em relação à sua adequação. O nível socioeconômico parece ser o principal determinante do acesso à consulta ginecológica e, conseqüentemente, às demais condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of secondary prevention of breast cancer and associated factors. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of

  8. Practice Bulletin No 182: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by multiple family members with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both. Based on the contemporary understanding of the origins and management of ovarian cancer and for simplicity in this document, ovarian cancer also refers to fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer. Clinical genetic testing for gene mutations allows more precise identification of those women who are at an increased risk of inherited breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For these individuals, screening and prevention strategies can be instituted to reduce their risks. Obstetrician-gynecologists play an important role in the identification and management of women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. If an obstetrician-gynecologist or other gynecologic care provider does not have the necessary knowledge or expertise in cancer genetics to counsel a patient appropriately, referral to a genetic counselor, gynecologic or medical oncologist, or other genetics specialist should be considered (1). More genes are being discovered that impart varying risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other types of cancer, and new technologies are being developed for genetic testing. This Practice Bulletin focuses on the primary genetic mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also will briefly discuss some of the other genes that have been implicated.

  9. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol-1) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited <5% of drug detoxification. In vitro drug-release studies revealed that the core-shell nanoparticles were ruptured upon exposure to lysosomal enzymes like esterase at the intracellular compartments. Cytotoxicity studies were performed both in normal wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (Wt-MEFs), and breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical

  10. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Breast Cancer by the Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society estimates that 40,000 women will die from breast cancer this year. But thanks to steady progress in the war on cancer, millions of U.S. women with a history of the disease are alive today. Key statistics on survival rates, therapies in use, and treatment costs are provided.

  12. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  13. Women's health, breast health: a review of the gynecologic effects of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mindy; O'Hair, Kim

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is very common and seen in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Research into prevention, better screening, and more effective treatments is occurring continually, and changes are translated into clinical practice relatively quickly. It is important for women's health care providers to have an understanding of breast cancer treatments and the gynecologic side effects. For premenopausal women interested in fertility, options should be discussed prior to chemotherapy. Issues pertaining to pregnancy after breast cancer should be discussed in a multidisciplinary fashion, involving the obstetrician/gynecologist, breast surgeon, and oncologist. Ovarian suppression is often used as part of breast cancer treatment in premenopausal women with hormone positive disease, and menopausal symptoms may be severe. Hormonal therapies including tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors are used in the treatment of hormone positive breast cancers. Each of these drugs has a variety of gynecologic implications. Understanding the options for treatment for menopausal complaints in breast cancer patients is important for women's health providers. Although most breast cancers are sporadic, a small percentage will be due to mutations in the BRCA genes. It is important for women's health providers to take an appropriate family history and refer to genetic counselors for possible testing when hereditary cancer is suspected. This review focuses on the various women's health issues pertaining to breast cancer and treatment.

  14. Relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behaviour of female students at a school of health and their healthy life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Yilmaz, Derya; Tuna, Aslan; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Turgay, Ayse San

    2010-01-01

    Regular breast self-examination (BSE) and pap-smear tests are the two of the positive heath behaviors for improving, promoting and protecting the health of adolescent girls. The present quasi-experimental research was carried out with the purpose of analyzing the relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behavior of female students at a School of Health and their health lifestyle. The research was conducted at Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University School of Health between November 2008 and February 2009. A total of 77 female students attending the first and second grades were included in the sample. Education pertinent to the matter was provided and evaluation was made three months later. A knowledge evaluation form for breast and gynecological examination, the Healthy Life-Style Behavior Scale (HPLP), was used in data collection. Number percentages, the McNemar Bowker test, the t test and the Mann Whitney U test were used in the evaluation. Despite the information they had received, not all of the students performed regular breast self-examination (BSE) prior to the education. For 24.7% (n=19) the reason for not doing regular BSE was their having no symptoms and for 29.9% (n=23) it was due to thinking that they would not have breast cancer. The reason for not having pap smear test was a virgin status. Three months after the education, knowledge level scores of the students increased approximately three and a half times (from 23.8-9.8) to 81.2-8.0). The rate of having regular BSE was 88.3% after three months, however; there was no pap smear test probably due to the fact that it was a taboo. When the rate of having regular BSE three months after the education and HLPL scores were compared, the scores of those having it regularly and the scores of those not having it regularly were found to be close and no statistically significant difference was detected (p> 0.05). In conclusion, consultancy service units should be established to comprehend the barriers

  15. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  16. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Thune, Inger; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Hankins, Gary D V; Malone, Fergal D; D'Alton, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021). An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  17. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  18. Knowledge and prevention practices before breast cancer diagnosis in a cross-sectional study among survivors: impact on patients' involvement in the decision making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Joseph, Gail R; Robertson, Linda; Eckstein, Stacy; Ragin, Camille

    2014-03-01

    Disparities exist in breast cancer knowledge and education, which tend to influence symptom interpretation and decision to seek screening/care. The present project describes a cohort of women's experiences, knowledge, and health behavior prior to and after a diagnosis of breast cancer. It also studies how knowledge and demographic factors are associated with level of involvement participants had in the treatment of their breast cancer. Women >18 years who have been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer within 10 years were recruited in Pittsburgh, PA, through the Healthy People Cohort Registry, a database of volunteers from the community, and Brooklyn, NY, through the American Cancer Society breast cancer survivor database. Subsequent to institutional ethics approval, a questionnaire was administered by mail and through an electronic interactive format. The study included 124 breast cancer survivors, one-quarter of whom were of African ancestry. Roughly half of the women indicated that their overall knowledge of breast cancer was limited before diagnosis; no significant association between overall knowledge before diagnosis and stage at diagnosis or an active role of the patient in treatment choices was observed. Two-third of the women reported using personal research on internet, books, and other media to increase knowledge on breast cancer after diagnosis; the improvement of knowledge was associated with an active role in therapy choice. White women's self report of breast cancer knowledge prior to diagnosis was higher than that of women of African origin (p = 0.03); the latter experienced more delays in getting results about the diagnosis (p = 0.002), in starting treatment (p = 0.03), and in having treatment available at local facilities (p = 0.007) than white women. White women were more likely to improve their knowledge through their own research (p = 0.08) and through the contribution of their physician (p = 0.06) than women of

  19. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. © 2015 UICC.

  20. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA2, and others increase your risk. Gene mutations account for about 10% of all breast cancer cases. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  1. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  3. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  4. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  5. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  6. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for...

  7. BREAST CANCER IN SLOVENIA: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Primic Žakelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast is the most frequent cancer site in Slovenian female population. In the year 2000 there were 932 new breast cancer cases registered (91.2/100,000, the incidence is expected to increase in the next ten years. Primary prevention includes general recommendations for healthy life style, e.g. avoidance of obesity, diet, physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption. Randomised controlled trials conducted in the USA, Canada, Scotland and Sweden have shown that regular mammography, alone or in combination with clinical examination, is effective in reducing mortality for about 25% in women over the age of 50, and much less in younger population. However, mammography screening has several drawbacks, the major being its tendency towards false positive and false negative results with all their potential psychosocial consequences. High quality assurance and control, as well as effective and readily available diagnostics and treatment, all of which demand high investments, are indispensable for good results.Conclusions. In Slovenia there are standards for breast cancer screening units, but their implementation in every day’s work is still a problem. In any case, breast cancer control could be achieved only by combined efforts directed into primary prevention and early detection, as well as by improving availability of effective treatment.

  8. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental toxins. When ionizing radiation hits an atom or ...

  9. Results of a diet/exercise feasibility trial to prevent adverse body composition change in breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Case, L Douglas; Blackwell, Kimberly; Marcom, P Kelly; Kraus, William; Aziz, Noreen; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Shaw, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy can experience weight gain and concurrent losses in muscle mass. Exercise interventions can prevent these changes, but time and travel pose barriers to participation. The Survivor Training for Enhancing Total Health (STRENGTH) trial assessed the feasibility and impact of 2 home-based interventions. Ninety premenopausal patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to a calcium-rich diet (CA) intervention (attention control) or to 2 experimental arms: a CA + exercise (EX) arm or a CA + EX and high fruit and vegetable, low-fat diet (FVLF) arm. Exercise arms included aerobic and strength-training exercises. Body composition, weight status, waist circumference, dietary intake, physical activity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, serum lipids, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin, proinsulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1B, and tumor-necrosis factor receptor-II were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Accrual targets were achieved and modest attrition was observed (8.8%). Self-reports suggest increased calcium intakes in all arms, and higher fruit and vegetable and lower fat intake in the CA + EX + FVLF arm; no differences in physical activity were observed. While measures of adiposity were generally lower in the CA + EX + FVLF arm, the only significant difference was in percentage of body fat (arms and legs); change in scores (mean +/- standard deviation) were +0.7% +/- 2.3% (CA); +1.2% +/- 2.7% (CA + EX); and +0.1% +/- 2% (CA + EX + FVLF; P = .047). Lean body mass was largely preserved, even in the control arm (net gain of 452 g +/- 2395 g). No differences were observed in other endpoints. Diet and exercise interventions can prevent weight gain and adverse body composition changes, but more research is needed to determine optimally effective interventions that can be implemented during active treatment and that promote adherence.

  10. [Preventive effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan on the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in the adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhao-zhe; Liu, Yong-ye; Zheng, Zhen-dong; Liang, Xue-feng; Han, Ya-ling; Xie, Xiao-dong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effect of low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan in the prevention of acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer. Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group with chemotherapy plus low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan (20 cases) and control group with chemotherapy alone (20 cases). The same chemotherapy was given to the two groups. All the 40 patients had no contraindication for carvedilol and candesartan. Patients of the experimental group received low-dose carvedilol from 2.5 mg orally twice a day at first cycle to 5 mg twice a day gradually if no side reactions, and candesartan 2.5 mg orally once a day. Electrocardiogram, ultrasonic cardiogram, arrhythmia, troponin and non-hematologic toxicity were recorded and compared after the second, forth and sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Each cycle included 21 days. LVEF was decreased along with the prolongation of chemotherapy in the experimental group and control group. LVEDD and LVESD showed no significant changes in the experimental group, but gradually increased in the control group. After four and six cycles of chemotherapy, LVEF were (57.00 ± 5.13)% and (45.95 ± 3.68)%, respectively, in the control group, significantly lower than that of (67.00 ± 5.13)% and (57.50 ± 2.57)%, respectively, in the experimental group (P candesartan can reduce the acute and chronic cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs, and with tolerable toxicities. This may provide a new approach to prevent cardiotoxicity of anthracycline drugs in adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  11. Breast cancer epigenetics: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable molecular changes during cell division without any change in the sequence of DNA molecules is known as epigenetic. Molecular mechanisms involved in this process, including histone modifications, methylation of DNA, protein complex and RNA antisense. Cancer genome changes happen through a combination of DNA hypermethylation, long-term epigenetic silencing with heterozygosis loss and genomic regions loss. Different combinations of N-terminal’s changes cooperate with histone variants with a specific role in gene regulation. It have led to load a setting histone that determine transcription potential of a particular gene or genomic regions. DNA methylation analysis in genome region using methylation-specific digital karyotyping of normal breast tissue detect gene expression patterns and DNA specific methylation can be found in breast carcinoma too more than 100 genes in breast tumors or cell lines of breast cancer are reported hypermethylated. Important of DNA methylation on cancer has been concentrated CpG islands hypermethylation. Most of the techniques are able to identify hypermethylated areas. Often, methylated genes play important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, metastasis and tissue invasion, angiogenesis and hormonal signaling. Cyclin D2 (CCND2 gene is an important regulator of cell cycle and increased of expression inhibits the transition from G1 to S cell cycle. This gene is frequently methylated in breast cancer and has been proposed as the first event. Other cell cycle regulator is p16ink4A / CDKN2A that methylated in a large number of human cancers, including breast cancer. Another regulator of the proliferation of breast cancer that methylated is tumor suppressor RAR-β cancer that has been found in lobular and ductal carcinoma. Recent studies have showed the role of epigenetic silencing in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in which tumor suppressor genes have been changed by acetylation and DNA deacetylation

  12. Murine model of hepatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhi, Rishi; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Deas, Olivier; Svalina, Matthew N; Bial, John; Mansoor, Atiya; Cairo, Stefano; Keller, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in this population. Breast cancer related deaths have declined due to screening and adjuvant therapies, yet a driving clinical need exists to better understand the cause of the deadliest aspect of breast cancer, metastatic disease. Breast cancer metastasizes to several distant organs, the liver being the third most common site. To date, very few murine models of hepatic breast cancer exist. In this study, a novel murine model of liver breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 cell line is introduced as an experimental (preclinical) model. Histological typing revealed consistent hepatic breast cancer tumor foci. Common features of the murine model were vascular invasion, lung metastasis and peritoneal seeding. The novel murine model of hepatic breast cancer established in this study provides a tool to be used to investigate mechanisms of hepatic metastasis and to test potential therapeutic interventions.

  13. Digital Mammography: Improvements in Breast Cancer Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño Zetina, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    X-ray mammography is the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of breast cancer (diagnostics). It is performed by a radiological system equipped with a rotating molybdenum (Mo) anode tube with an additional Mo filter. In the production of X-ray, bremsstrahlung photons produce an intense diffuse radiation, affecting the contrast between normal and cancerous tissue. So it is known that a good mammographic imaging can help to detect cancer in the first stages avoiding surgery, amputation or even death. In the last years there has been some developments in new imaging techniques to improve the contrast spatial resolution between different tissues: digital imaging, or the so call digital mammography. Digital mammographic imaging is considered an improvement in the prevention of breast cancer due to the advantages it offers.

  14. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  15. Breast cancer, dermatofibromas and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzig Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer.

  16. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MO, Eggleston IM. The cancer chemopreventive actions of phytochemicals derived from glucosinolates. European Journal of Nutrition 2008; ... vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 2001;285(6):769- ...

  17. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  18. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  19. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  20. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  1. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  2. Vital Signs – Defeating Breast Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-12

    This podcast is based on the November 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Better screening and treatment have contributed to a decline in breast cancer deaths, however, not all women have benefited equally from these improvements. Learn how we can all help reduce deaths from breast cancer.  Created: 11/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/12/2012.

  3. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  4. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  5. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  6. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    at the initial biopsy, the strength of the family history, meno- pausal status, and histologic findings of the biop- sy, as compared with expected...breast cancers for 646/758 (85%) of the cases. We assessed the significance of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining...TERMS Benign Breast Disease, Biomarkers, Histology , Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  7. Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin; Maring, Benjamin; Kutner, Susan E; Fulton, Regan S; Lee, Marion M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Caan, Bette J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer...

  8. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  9. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  10. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Penninger JM, Kroemer G. AIF and cyclophilin A coop- erate in apoptosis-associated chromatinolysis. Oncogene 2004; 23:1514–1521. Cardoso F, Durbecq V, Laes ...effects of estrogen and antie- strogen on in vitro clonogenic growth of human breast cancers in soft agar, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990) 1146–1149

  11. Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health. At the same time, literary data support that anovulatory infertility is a very strong risk for breast cancer in young women either with or without obesity. In the majority of premenopausal women, obesity associated insulin resistance is moderate and may be counteracted by their preserved circulatory estrogen level. Consequently, it is not obesity but rather the still sufficient estrogen-level, which may be protective against breast cancer in young adult females. In obese older women, never using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the breast cancer risk is high, which is associated with their continuous estrogen loss and increasing insulin-resistance. By contrast, obese postmenopausal women using HRT, have a decreased risk for breast cancer as the protective effect of estrogen-substitution may counteract to their obesity associated systemic alterations. The revealed inverse correlation between circulatory estrogen-level and breast cancer risk in obese women should advance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and promotes primary prevention measures. New patents recommend various methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity

  12. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  13. Avoiding risk information about breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Darya; Shepperd, James A

    2012-10-01

    Learning about personal risk can provide numerous benefits yet people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. Two studies examined the role of perceived control, coping resources, and anticipated regret in women's decision to avoid breast cancer risk information. Women completed a health inventory and then read a brochure about either controllable or uncontrollable predictors of breast cancer, or received no brochure. Participants then received an opportunity to learn their lifetime risk for breast cancer based on their inventory responses. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduced avoidance of risk information compared with reading about uncontrollable predictors or receiving no information. In addition, fewer coping resources, anticipated greater regret over seeking breast cancer risk information, and less regret over avoiding breast cancer risk information predicted information avoidance. Reading about controllable predictors of breast cancer reduces avoidance of breast cancer risk information.

  14. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  15. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  16. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. During the 5-year project period, 6 predoctoral and 2 postdoctoral trainees were appointed to the training program and received training in biopsychosocial breast cancer research...

  17. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  18. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  19. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Targeting Alpha5 Beta1 Integrin to Prevent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Invasion: PhScN Target Site Definition and Plasma Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase and its downstream signals in erbB-2- mediated transformation . Mol Cancer Res, 2003. 1(7): p. 551-60. PMID: 12754302 16. Aota S, Nomizu M... mediated invasion through noncovalent interaction with α5β1 receptors of SUM149PT and MDA-MB-231 metastatic human breast cancer cells, and laid the...foundation for detailed structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies for both peptides as inhibitors of α5β1– mediated metastatic breast cancer invasion

  3. Prevention of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia with an antiperspirant in breast cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (SAKK 92/08).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Arnoud J; Ribi, Karin; Surber, Christian; Sun, Hong; Hsu Schmitz, Shu-Fang; Beyeler, Michael; Dietrich, Daniel; Borner, Markus; Winkler, Annette; Müller, Andreas; von Rohr, Lukas; Winterhalder, Ralph C; Rochlitz, Christoph; von Moos, Roger; Zaman, Khalil; Thürlimann, Beat J K; Ruhstaller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of doxorubicin are found in eccrine sweat glands of the palms and soles. We therefore evaluated an antiperspirant as preventive treatment for palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (hand-foot syndrome) in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. An antiperspirant containing aluminum chlorohydrate or placebo cream was applied to the left or right hand and foot in a double-blinded manner (intra-patient randomization). The primary endpoint was the rate of grade 2 or 3 palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. A secondary endpoint was the patient-reported symptom burden (tingling, numbness, pain, or skin problems). Using McNemar's matched pairs design, 53 patients were needed to detect a 20% difference between the treatment and placebo sides with a significance level of 5% and power of 90%. Grade 2 or 3 PPE occurred in 30 (58%) of 52 evaluable patients; in six patients adverse effects occurred on the placebo side but not on the treatment side, whereas one patient developed palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia on the treatment side only (P = 0.07). Four patients developed grade 2 or 3 palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia on their foot on the placebo side but not on the treatment side (P = 0.05). In the cohort with grade 2 or 3 palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia there was a trend towards fewer dermatologic symptomatologies with the active treatment (P = 0.05), and no difference for other adverse events. Using topical aluminum chlorohydrate as an antiperspirant appears to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or 3 palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia following pegylated liposomal doxorubicin chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The {Delta}Np63 Proteins Are Key Allies of BRCA1 in the Prevention of Basal-Like Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Niamh E

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the origin of basal-like breast cancers, an aggressive disease that is highly similar to BRCA1-mutant breast cancers. p63 family proteins that are structurally related to the p53 suppressor protein are known to function in stem cell regulation and stratified epithelia development in multiple tissues, and p63 expression may be a marker of basal-like breast cancers. Here we report that ΔNp63 isoforms of p63 are transcriptional targets for positive regulation by BRCA1. Our analyses of breast cancer tissue microarrays and BRCA1-modulated breast cancer cell lines do not support earlier reports that p63 is a marker of basal-like or BRCA1 mutant cancers. Nevertheless, we found that BRCA1 interacts with the specific p63 isoform ΔNp63γ along with transcription factor isoforms AP-2α and AP-2γ. BRCA1 required ΔNp63γ and AP-2γ to localize to an intronic enhancer region within the p63 gene to upregulate transcription of the ΔNp63 isoforms. In mammary stem\\/progenitor cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ΔNp63 expression resulted in genomic instability, increased cell proliferation, loss of DNA damage checkpoint control, and impaired growth control. Together, our findings establish that transcriptional upregulation of ΔNp63 proteins is critical for BRCA1 suppressor function and that defects in BRCA1-ΔNp63 signaling are key events in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Res; 71(5); 1933-44. ©2011 AACR.

  5. Cancer prevention: take charge of your lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts with your lifestyle. Quit Smoking and Using Tobacco Quitting smoking has a direct effect on your ... much alcohol is linked to the following cancers: Oral cancer Esophageal cancer Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Liver cancer ...

  6. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2010-06-01

    Genetic and lifestyle/environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on rare high penetrance mutations, as well as moderate and low-penetrance genetic variants implicated in breast cancer aetiology. We summarize recent discoveries from large collaborative efforts to combine data from candidate gene studies, and to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS), primarily in breast cancers in the general population. These findings are compared with results from collaborative efforts aiming to identify genetic modifiers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers display distinct pathological characteristics when compared with tumours unselected for family history. The relationship between genetic variants and pathological subtypes of breast cancer, and the implication of discoveries of novel genetic variants to risk prediction in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and in populations unselected for mutation carrier status, are discussed. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  8. Breast Cancer: Modelling and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaghan, D. J.; Brady, J. M.; Behrenbruch, C. P.; Highnam, R. P.; Maini, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of the mathematical models used in cancer modelling and then chooses a specific cancer, breast carcinoma, to illustrate how the modelling can be used in aiding detection. We then discuss mathematical models that underpin mammographic image analysis, which complements models of tumour growth and facilitates diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mammographic images are notoriously difficult to interpret, and we give an overview of the primary image enhancement technolog...

  9. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  10. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  11. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  12. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  13. Cancer prevention and population-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Vardy, Lianne; Paci, Eugenio; Adewole, Isaac; Sasco, Annie; Calvacante, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention, screening and early detection can provide some of the greatest public health benefits for cancer control. In low resource settings, where cancer control is challenged by limited human, financial and technical resources, cancer prevention and screening are of utmost importance and can provide significant impacts on the cancer burden. Public policies, social, environmental and individual level interventions which promote and support healthy eating and physical activity can lower cancer risks. Tobacco use, a significant cancer risk factor, can be reduced through the application of key mandates of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In addition, cancer screening programs, namely for cervical and breast cancers, can have a significant impact on reducing cancer mortality, including in low resource settings. Comprehensive cancer control programs require interventions for cancer prevention, screening and early detection, and involve sectors outside of health to create supportive environments for healthy ways of life. Sharing experiences in implementing cancer control programs in different settings can create opportunities for interchanging ideas and forming international alliances.

  14. Saussurea lappa Clarke-Derived Costunolide Prevents TNFα-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Inhibiting NF-κB Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saussurea lappa Clarke (SLC has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China, and Japan for the treatment of abdominal pain and tenesmus. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from SLC, has diverse medicinal effects. However, the anticancer effects of costunolide are still unclear in breast cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that costunolide suppresses tumor growth and metastases of MDA-MB-231 highly metastatic human breast cancer cells via inhibiting TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Costunolide inhibited MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and metastases without affecting body weights in the in vivo mouse orthotopic tumor growth assays. In addition, costunolide inhibited in vitro TNFα-induced invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Costunolide further suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB signaling activation, resulting in a reduced expression of MMP-9, a well-known NF-κB-dependent gene to mediate breast cancer cell growth and metastases. Therefore, we conclude that SLC and its derivative costunolide suppress breast cancer growth and metastases by inhibiting TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, suggesting that costunolide as well as SLC may be promising anticancer drugs, especially for metastatic breast cancer.

  15. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuiver, Martijn M; ten Tusscher, Marieke R; Agasi-Idenburg, Carla S; Lucas, Cees; Aaronson, Neil K; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2015-02-13

    Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. To assess the effects of conservative (non-surgical and non-pharmacological) interventions for preventing clinically-detectable upper-limb lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's (CBCG) Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, PsycINFO, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform in May 2013. Reference lists of included trials and other systematic reviews were searched. Randomised controlled trials that reported lymphoedema as the primary outcome and compared any conservative intervention to either no intervention or to another conservative intervention. Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Outcome measures included lymphoedema, infection, range of motion of the shoulder, pain, psychosocial morbidity, level of functioning in activities of daily life (ADL), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Where possible, meta-analyses were performed. Risk ratio (RRs) or hazard ratio (HRs) were reported for dichotomous outcomes or lymphoedema incidence, and mean differences (MDs) for range of motion and patient-reported outcomes. Ten trials involving 1205 participants were included. The duration of patient follow-up ranged from 2 days to 2 years after the intervention. Overall, the quality of the evidence generated by these trials was low, due to risk of bias in the included trials and inconsistency in the results. Manual lymph drainageIn total, four studies used manual lymph drainage (MLD) in combination with usual care or other interventions. In one study, lymphoedema incidence was lower in patients receiving MLD and usual care (consisting of standard education or exercise, or

  16. Breast Cancer Screening in Albania During 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeci, Aurel; Çanaku, Dorina; Muja, Herion; Petrela, Kreshnik; Mone, Iris; Qirjako, Gentiana; Hyska, Jolanda; Preza, Krenar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of breast cancer among women who showed up and participated in the breast cancer screening program during October 2007-October 2008 in Tirana, the Albanian capital city. Methods: A breast cancer prevention and treatment campaign was undertaken in Tirana, Albania, in 2007 which included also mammography examination for the early detection of breast cancer. All women residing in Tirana municipality were invited to undergo a mammography examination free of charge. Results: A total number of 5224 women underwent mammography examination during October 2007 – October 2008 time period in Tirana. The highest number of mammography tests were performed in October 2008 (1284 tests), followed by June 2008 with 746 mammography examinations realized. In general, the prevalence of breast cancer positive mammography readings where higher among women older than 60 years, followed by the 51-60 and 41-50 years age-groups. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that, among 5224 examined women during a one-year period, 1.9% had a positive reading in mammography. This is one of the few reports large-scale breast cancer screening in Albania. The increasing of breast cancer rates necessitates implementation of multi-directional programs to prevent, early diagnose and control this condition in Albanian women. PMID:24511273

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  18. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  19. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Multiparametric Breast MRI of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Breast MRI has increased in popularity over the past two decades due to evidence for its high sensitivity for cancer detection. Current clinical MRI approaches rely on the use of a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI) acquisition that facilitates morphologic and semi-quantitative kinetic assessments of breast lesions. The use of more functional and quantitative parameters, such as pharmacokinetic features from high temporal resolution DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) on diffusion weighted MRI, and choline concentrations on MR spectroscopy, hold promise to broaden the utility of MRI and improve its specificity. However, due to wide variations in approach among centers for measuring these parameters and the considerable technical challenges, robust multicenter data supporting their routine use is not yet available, limiting current applications of many of these tools to research purposes. PMID:26613883