WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer prevention

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  2. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  3. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  4. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  5. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  6. Prevention of osteoporosis after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David M

    2009-09-20

    Breast cancer is a devastating illness but cure rates are increasing and as they do the secondary effects of breast cancer treatment on bone are becoming more prominent. Of particular concern is the increased fracture rates and dramatic bone loss seen in studies of patients undergoing therapy with aromatase inhibitors. Recently a UK Expert Group has drawn up guidelines for the prevention of bone loss. The main recommendations can be summarised as follows: Bone loss in women who experience a premature menopause due to treatment before the age of 45 or who are receiving ovarian suppression therapy is accelerated by the concomitant use of aromatase inhibitors. As they are at high risk of significant bone loss they should have a baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of BMD. As randomised clinical trials in postmenopausal women indicate that bisphosphonates prevent the bone loss and accelerated bone turnover associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy their use as the main preventative therapy is recommended, along with a healthy lifestyle and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Decisions on the initiation of treatment initiation should be based on a combination of risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and BMD levels. Due to the rate of bone loss associated with breast cancer treatments, and uncertainties about the interaction between aromatase inhibitor use and BMD for fracture risk, the thresholds for intervention have been set at a higher levels than generally recommended for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  8. Developing phytoestrogens for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mandy M; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer.

  9. Genetic variations may help identify best candidates for preventive breast cancer drugs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly discovered genetic variations may help predict breast cancer risk in women who receive preventive breast cancer therapy with the selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs tamoxifen andraloxifene, a Mayo Clinic-led study has found. The study is published in the journal Cancer Discovery. "Our findings are important because we identified genetic factors that could eventually be used to select women who should be offered the drugs for prevention," said James Ingle, M.D., an oncologist at Mayo Clinic. |

  10. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    chronic myeloid leukaemia | colorectal cancer | Down syndrome | infantile haemangiomas | multiple myeloma | non-small-cell lung cancer | rheumatoid...Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital...From - To) 15 FEB 2004 - 14 FEB 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer 5b

  11. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0398 TITLE: Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey...Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0398 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stefanie Jeffrey 5d...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT During the research period, we tested a role for CD81 in breast cancer metastases and found that loss of CD81

  12. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  13. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  14. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts.

  15. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  16. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  17. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    comprised of fibroblasts, endothelial cells and adipocytes, which collectively form the mammary fat pad . Breast cancer originates from subversions of...luminal epithelial cells embedded in a complex stromal matrix (‘mammary fat pad ’) comprised predominantly of fibroblasts, adipocytes and macrophages (Fig. 1...report, we showed that limited exposure (i.e., in utero and lactational only) of female rat offspring to a maternal diet containing soy protein isolate

  18. Molecular Mechanism by Which Retinoids Prevent Breast Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    clinicians to conquer this disease is to prevent the incidence, detect early and treat breast cancer with effective therapy resulting in long overall... biological functions such as embryogenesis, growth, differentiation, vision and reproduction (3-6). Retinoids also contain anti- proliferative...and are currently available to treat psoriasis , acne, photoaging, actinic keratosis or cancers such as acute promelocytic leukemia, cutaneous T-cell

  19. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  20. [Breast self-examination as main technique for breast cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Mercedes, Rocío; Llamas Muñoz, M Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast self-examination stands out as the main preventive measure, since almost 95% of breast tumours are detected by the woman herself through this technique. Nursing is the group most closely related to health education appropriate guidelines to perform the technique correctly: monthly technical realization, recognition of abnormalities in the breast, go to the doctor for possible doubt about changes in them, etc.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  2. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future.

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  4. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  6. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  7. Dihydroartemisinin prevents breast cancer-induced osteolysis via inhibiting both breast caner cells and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Xuan; Hong, Jian-Xin; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Yong-Yong; Yuan, Chi-Ting; Lei, Xin-Huan; Zhu, Min; Qin, An; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Hong, Dun

    2016-01-08

    Bone is the most common site of distant relapse in breast cancer, leading to severe complications which dramatically affect the patients' quality of life. It is believed that the crosstalk between metastatic breast cancer cells and osteoclasts is critical for breast cancer-induced osteolysis. In this study, the effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on osteoclast formation, bone resorption, osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were initially assessed in vitro, followed by further investigation in a titanium-particle-induced osteolysis model in vivo. Based on the proved inhibitory effect of DHA on osteolysis, DHA was further applied to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-induced mouse osteolysis model, with the underlying molecular mechanisms further investigated. Here, we verified for the first time that DHA suppressed osteoclast differentiation, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption through suppressing AKT/SRC pathways, leading to the preventive effect of DHA on titanium-particle-induced osteolysis without affecting osteoblast function. More importantly, we demonstrated that DHA inhibited breast tumor-induced osteolysis through inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells via modulating AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, DHA effectively inhibited osteoclastogenesis and prevented breast cancer-induced osteolysis.

  8. RAMBAs for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    dUTP nick -end-labelling) reaction mixture containing the enzyme terminal transferase and the label solution for 60 min at 371C in a humidified atmosphere...Huggins, C.; Hodges , C. V. Cancer Res. 1941, 1, 293. 32. Huggins, C., Jr.; Stevens, R. E.; Hodges , C. V. Arch. Surg. 1941, 43, 209. 33. Edwards, J

  9. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  10. Prevention of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients. Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Beuzeboc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four breast cancer patients is at risk of developing bone metastases in her life time. The early prevention of bone metastases is a crucial challenge. It has been suggested that the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL in the adjuvant setting may reduce the persistence of disseminated tumor cells and thereby might improve outcome, specifically in a population of patients with a low estrogen microenvironment. More recently, the results of a large meta-analysis from 41 randomized trials comparing a bisphosphonate (BP to placebo or to an open control have been presented at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Meeting. Data on 17,016 patients confirm that adjuvant BPs, irrespective of the type of treatment or the treatment schedule and formulation (oral or intra-venously (IV, significantly reduced bone recurrences and improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal women. No advantage was seen in premenopausal women. BPs are soon likely to become integrated into standard practice. Published data on the mechanisms involved in tumor cell seeding from the primary site, in homing to bone tissues and in the reactivation of dormant tumor cells will be reviewed; these might offer new ideas for innovative combination strategies.

  11. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  12. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    cells. In this experiment, the oligoclonality of breast and gut epithelium associated intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD8αβ and CD8αα subsets) will be...intraepithelial immune memory. In the previous report, we showed that intra- glandular immunization leads to generation of immune responses. In this subtask, the...goal is to determine whether tissue resident memory is established in the glandular tissue by performing a longitudinal analysis following

  13. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Virus Control While Maintaining Efficacy in an Engineered Cancer Vaccine Kevin D Pavelko1, Michael P Bell1, Lavakumar Karyampudi1, Michael J Hansen1... Germany ). Congenic CD45.1 mice received 1 × 107 purified CD8+ T cells labeled with CFSE by intravenous transfer and were intraperitoneally infected...features. Clin Cancer Res 17: 888–895. 33. Chiu, CY, Greninger, AL, Kanada, K, Kwok, T, Fischer , KF, Runckel, C et al. (2008). Identification of

  14. Phytoestrogens and prevention of breast cancer: The contentious debate

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Iqra; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Davidson, Juliet; Whitehead, Saffron

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have multiple actions within target cells, including the epigenome, which could be beneficial to the development and progression of breast cancer. In this brief review the action of phytoestrogens on oestrogen receptors, cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, steroid synthesis and epigenetic events in relation to breast cancer are discussed. Phytoestrogens can bind weakly to oestrogen receptors (ERs) and some have a preferential affinity for ERβ whic...

  15. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    rapidly assess the role of novel candidate breast cancer genes. In addition to finding essential new cancer pathways using fly and murine haploid ES...with their wild type counterparts after tumour onset (Figure 4C), showing that the apelin signalling pathway is a promising target for cancer ... pathway blockage are predicted to be minimal. Toxicity is a relevant issue often associated with anti- cancer treatments including anti-angiogenic therapy

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer : US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: Update of the 2002 U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening for breast cancer in the general population. Methods: The USPSTF examined the evidence on the efficacy of 5 screening modalities in reducing mortality from breast cancer: film mammogra

  17. All-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes prevent the relapse of breast cancer arising from the cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruo-Jing; Ying, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Ju, Rui-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Yao, Hong-Juan; Men, Ying; Tian, Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Ren-Jie; Lu, Wan-Liang

    2011-02-10

    The relapse of cancer is mostly due to the proliferation of cancer stem cells which could not be eliminated by a standard chemotherapy. A new kind of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was developed for preventing the relapse of breast cancer and for treating the cancer in combination with a cytotoxic agent, vinorelbine stealth liposomes. In vitro studies were performed on the human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo evaluations were performed on the newly established relapse model with breast cancer stem cells. Results showed that the particle size of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was approximately 80nm, and the encapsulation efficiency was >90%. Breast cancer stem cells were identified with the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype and characterized with properties: resistant to cytotoxic agent, stronger capability of proliferation, and stronger capability of differentiation. Inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes was more potent in cancer stem cells than in cancer cells. The mechanisms were defined to be two aspects: arresting breast cancer stem cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase in mitosis, and inducing the differentiation of breast cancer stem cells. The cancer relapse model was successfully established by xenografting breast cancer stem cells into NOD/SCID mice, and the formation and growth of the xenografted tumors were significantly inhibited by all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes. The combination therapy of all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes with vinorelbine stealth liposomes produced the strongest inhibitory effect to the relapse tumor model. It could be concluded that all-trans retinoic acid stealth liposomes could be used for preventing the relapse of breast cancer by differentiating cancer stem cells and arresting the cell-cycle, and for treating breast cancer as a co-therapy, thus providing a novel strategy for treating breast cancer and preventing relapse derived from breast cancer stem cells.

  18. Epigenetic Programming of Breast Cancer and Nutrition Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Cyclooxygenase -2 promoter activation by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer MCF-7 cells: repressive effects of conjugated linoleic acid. Nutr...CpG island promoter methylation and silencing of 14-3- 3sigma gene expression in LNCaP and Tramp-C1 prostate cancer cell lines is associated with

  19. Study Confirms Letrozole Prevents More Breast Cancer Recurrences than Tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a median of 8 years of follow-up, women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer who received 5 years of letrozole were less likely to have their cancer recur or to die during follow-up than women who received 5 years of tamoxifen.

  20. Molecular pathways involved in pregnancy-induced prevention against breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBarton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy produces a protective effect against breast cancer in women who had their first full term pregnancy in their middle twenties. Postponement of the first delivery increases a woman’s breast cancer risk. Also, transiently, during the postpartum period, the risk of developing breast cancer increases. This transient increased risk is taken over by a long lasting protective period. The genomic profile of parous women has shown pregnancy induces a long lasting genomic signature that explains the preventive effect on breast cancer. This signature reveals that the differentiation process, conferred by earlier full term pregnancy, is centered in chromatin remodeling. The chromatin remodeling process may be the ultimate step mediating the protection of the breast against developing breast cancer in postmenopausal years.

  1. Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Gonder, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, each year approximately one million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), in Germany 65 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants are registered, yearly. The fact that incidence has been rising in parallel with economic development indicates that environmental factors might play a role in the causation of BC. Migrational data have pointed to nutrition as one of the more relevant external factors involved. Preventive dietary advice often includes a reduction of alcohol, red meat and animal fat and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fibre and lately, phyto-estrogens from various sources. Clearly, the scientific basis for these recommendations appears sparse. The available prospective data from epidemiological studies and interventional trials do not support the overall hypothesis that higher fat-intakes are a relevant risk factor for BC development, more important seems the relative distribution of various fatty acids. A non-vegetarian eating habit (consumption of animal products) per se does not elevate BC risk, while consumption of broiled or deep fried meats cannot be ruled out as a risk factor in genetically susceptible individuals. It appears prudent to abstain from regular and increased alcohol consumption. This should be particularly true for pubescent girls, in whom glandular breast tissue is particularly vulnerable. In general, if alcohol is consumed on a regular basis, a sufficient supply of fresh vegetables and fruit is essential. While there is no overall protective effect of a high fruit and vegetable consumption speculation remains over possible beneficial effects of certain subcategories, especially brassica vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. In essence, regional differences in BC incidence are probably partially attributable to life long dietary habits. There is no need to adopt a foreign dietary plan in order to protect oneself against BC. Traditional western diets also have their beneficial ingredients

  2. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  3. Blocking the adhesion cascade at the premetastatic niche for prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-06-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)(-)/CD44(+) hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER(+)/CD44(-/low) hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44(+) breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER(-) breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44(+) cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer.

  4. Lipid Peroxidation, Chronic Oxidative Stress and Breast Cancer Inci-dence: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    status of the archived collec- tion of breast tissue that she had donated on her retirement to the University of New Mexico Health Sci- ences Center...UNM HSC). Together, they met with Dr. Wiggins, the Director of New Mexico Tumor Reg- istry, University of New Mexico Cancer Research and Treatment...study. The finding is reminiscent of the finding evidence of atherosclerosis at post-mortem in very young US soldiers who died in the Korean war6. It

  5. Prevention of rat breast cancer by genistin and selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Soha M; Latif, Abdel Karim M Abdel; Drees, Ehab A; Soliman, Sahar M

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. In this study, we investigated the chemoprevention efficacy of each of soy genistin, selenium or a combination of them against breast cancer. Seventy-five female rats were divided into five groups : control group (I); 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) group (II); DMBA treated with genistin group (III); DMBA treated with selenium group (IV); and DMBA treated with genistin combined with selenium group (V). The treatments were daily administered for 3 months. There were a significant decrease in body weight and serum total antioxidant, while a significant elevation in serum total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen, prolactin, estradiol, nitric oxide, and malondialdhyde of DMBA injected rats compared with control group. Administration of genistin and selenium was associated with decreasing levels of tumorigenicity, endocrine derangement, and oxidative stress. Formation of breast carcinoma in DMBA-induced rats and abnormal changes were ameliorated in the rats treated with genistin/selenium or genistin alone. Supplementation of genistin alone or with selenium provided antioxidant defense with high-potential chemopreventive activity against DMBA-induced mammary tumors more than selenium alone.

  6. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

  7. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  8. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  9. Dipyridamole prevents triple-negative breast-cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Daniela; Marshall, Jean-Claude; Marino, Natascia; De Martino, Daniela; Romano, Alessia; Scoppettuolo, Maria Nunzia; Bello, Anna Maria; Di Dato, Valeria; Navas, Luigi; De Vita, Gennaro; Medaglia, Chiara; Steeg, Patricia S; Zollo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Dipyridamole is a widely prescribed drug in ischemic disorders, and it is here investigated for potential clinical use as a new treatment for breast cancer. Xenograft mice bearing triple-negative breast cancer 4T1-Luc or MDA-MB-231T cells were generated. In these in vivo models, dipyridamole effects were investigated for primary tumor growth, metastasis formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling pathways, immune cell infiltration, and serum inflammatory cytokines levels. Dipyridamole significantly reduced primary tumor growth and metastasis formation by intraperitoneal administration. Treatment with 15 mg/kg/day dipyridamole reduced mean primary tumor size by 67.5 % (p = 0.0433), while treatment with 30 mg/kg/day dipyridamole resulted in an almost a total reduction in primary tumors (p = 0.0182). Experimental metastasis assays show dipyridamole reduces metastasis formation by 47.5 % in the MDA-MB-231T xenograft model (p = 0.0122), and by 50.26 % in the 4T1-Luc xenograft model (p = 0.0292). In vivo dipyridamole decreased activated β-catenin by 38.64 % (p < 0.0001), phospho-ERK1/2 by 25.05 % (p = 0.0129), phospho-p65 by 67.82 % (p < 0.0001) and doubled the expression of IkBα (p = 0.0019), thus revealing significant effects on Wnt, ERK1/2-MAPK and NF-kB pathways in both animal models. Moreover dipyridamole significantly decreased the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in primary tumors (p < 0.005), and the inflammatory cytokines levels in the sera of the treated mice. We suggest that when used at appropriate doses and with the correct mode of administration, dipyridamole is a promising agent for breast-cancer treatment, thus also implying its potential use in other cancers that show those highly activated pathways.

  10. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  12. Tubal sterilization and breast cancer incidence: results from the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Sun, Juzhong; Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-03-15

    Tubal sterilization is a common form of contraception in the United States and is hypothesized to be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. However, prior observational studies have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk among 77,249 postmenopausal, cancer-free women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort, enrolled in 21 states in the United States during 1992-1993. During 15 years of follow-up through June 30, 2007, 4,084 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis including the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort results with other published results from 4 case-control studies and 3 prospective studies was conducted to provide a summary estimate for the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk. In the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, tubal sterilization was not associated with breast cancer incidence (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.20). Associations stratified by year of tubal sterilization, age, and time since surgery were also null. The meta-analysis also found no association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.09). Tubal sterilization does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  13. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.

  14. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  15. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan, RN, FNP, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer survivors or women with no history of cancer, and compared the proportions after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results A significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors had mammography in the previous year (79.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76.0%–83.0% than did other cancer survivors (68.1%; 95% CI, 65.6%–70.7% or women with no history of cancer (66.4%; 95% CI, 65.5%–67.3%. Breast cancer survivors were also more likely to have had a Papanicolaou (Pap test within the previous 3 years than women with no history of cancer (89.4%; 95% CI, 85.9%–93.0 vs 85.1%; 95% CI, 84.4%–85.8% and a colonoscopy within the previous 10 years (75.4%; 95% CI, 71.7%–79.0% than women with no history of cancer (60.0%; 95% CI, 59.0%–61.0%. Current smoking was significantly lower among survivors of breast cancer (10.3%; 95% CI, 7.4%–13.2% than other cancer survivors (20.8%; 95% CI, 18.4%–23.3% and women with no history of cancer (18.3%; 95% CI, 17.5%–19.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, we found that breast cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have had mammography, a Pap test, and colonoscopy, and less likely to be current smokers. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors are more likely to engage in cancer screening and less likely to be current smokers than female survivors of other types of cancer or women with no history of cancer.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  17. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  18. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2012-08-01

    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  19. Diet modulation is an effective complementary agent in preventing and treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate (ST) and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary ST with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets [corn oil (CO) control diet, low fat (LF) or ST] the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50 % compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings.

  20. Paeoniflorin prevents hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Zhou,1,* Shunchang Wang,1,* Caijuan Song,2 Zhuang Hu11Department of Thyroid and Breast, Huaihe Hospital, Henan University, Kaifeng, 2Department of Immunization Program, Zhengzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Paeoniflorin (PF is a monoterpene glycoside extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF inhibits the growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells, as well as characterize the underlying mechanism. The results presented in this study demonstrate that PF blocks the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by repressing EMT under hypoxic conditions. PF also significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in HIF-1α level. Furthermore, PF prevented hypoxia-induced expression of phosphorylated PI3K and Akt in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, PF prevented hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1α expression via modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding provides evidence that PF can serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.Keywords: paeoniflorin, breast cancer, hypoxia, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  1. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  2. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  3. Biomarker and Phenotypic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Lymphedema | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lymphedema (LE) following treatment for breast cancer is the most common form of secondary LE in the industrialized world. It occurs in 20% to 87% of patients following treatment for breast cancer and results in significant disability. At the |

  4. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and metabolic syndrome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Villarini, Anna; Traina, Adele; Johansson, Harriet; Mano, Maria Piera; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Simeoni, Milena; Consolaro, Elena; Mercandino, Angelica; Barbero, Maggiorino; Galasso, Rocco; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Zarcone, Maurizio; Zagallo, Emanuela; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Bellegotti, Manuela; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), conventionally defined by the presence of at least three out of five dismetabolic traits (abdominal obesity, hypertension, low plasma HDL-cholesterol and high plasma glucose and triglycerides), has been associated with both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. We investigated the association between the prevalence of MetS and a score of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations for the prevention of cancer in a cross-sectional study of BC patients. The DIet and ANdrogen-5 study (DIANA-5) for the prevention of BC recurrences recruited 2092 early stage BC survivors aged 35-70. At recruitment, all women completed a 24-hour food frequency and physical activity diary on their consumption and activity of the previous day. Using these diaries we created a score of adherence to five relevant WCRF/AICR recommendations. The prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS associated with the number of recommendations met were estimated using a binomial regression model. The adjusted PRs of MetS decreased with increasing number of recommendations met (p < 0.001). Meeting all the five recommendations versus meeting none or only one was significantly associated with a 57% lower MetS prevalence (95% CI 0.35-0.73). Our results suggest that adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations is a major determinant of MetS and may have a clinical impact.

  5. Field cancerization in mammary carcinogenesis - Implications for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of breast cancer unfolds with the development of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in normal breast tissue, and evolution of this pre-invasive neoplasm into invasive cancer. The mechanisms that drive these processes are poorly understood, but evidence from the literature suggests that mammary carcinogenesis may occur through the process of field cancerization. Clinical observations are consistent with the idea that (i) DCIS may arise in a field of altered breast epithelium, (ii) narrow surgical margins do not remove the entire altered field (contributing to recurrence and/or disease progression), and (iii) whole-breast radiation therapy is effective in elimination of the residual field of altered cells adjacent to the resected DCIS. Molecular studies suggest that the field of altered breast epithelial cells may carry cancer-promoting genetic mutations (or other molecular alterations) or cancer promoting epimutations (oncogenic alterations in the epigenome). In fact, most breast cancers develop through a succession of molecular events involving both genetic mutations and epimutations. Hence, in hereditary forms of breast cancer, the altered field reflects the entire breast tissue which is composed of cells with a predisposing molecular lesion (such as a BRCA1 mutation). In the example of a BRCA1-mutant patient, it is evident that local resection of a DCIS lesion or localized but invasive cancer will not result in elimination of the altered field. In sporadic breast cancer patients, the mechanistic basis for the altered field may not be so easily recognized. Nonetheless, identification of the nature of field cancerization in a given patient may guide clinical intervention. Thus, patients with DCIS that develops in response to an epigenetic lesion (such as a hypermethylation defect affecting the expression of tumor suppressor genes) might be treated with epigenetic therapy to normalize the altered field and reduce the risk of secondary occurrence of

  6. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behavior Among Filipino Women in a Rural Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashiwagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high among Filipino women. The lack of knowledge on preventive behavior and early detection related to breast cancer is considered a reason. Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge about breast cancer and selected sociodemographic characteristics, daily life factors, reproductive factors, and perceived breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. The study population consisted of 527 women. Interviews were conducted by the investigators. The contents of the questionnaire collected basic characteristics of the respondents, including their sociodemographic profiles, their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors, early detection, and their daily life and reproductive factors. Predictor variables were analyzed using a Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and a t-test. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for any significant differences (P < 0.005 among the predictor variables. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HDS were used to evaluate the association between education level and reproductive factors. Results Less than half of the women (42.7% had knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, and an equivalent number had knowledge on breast cancer symptoms. Women with higher educational levels were noted to give birth to their first child at a significantly older age and have a significantly lower number of childbirths. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index, education history, knowledge about symptoms, knowing how to conduct a breast self-examination, family history of cancer, and passive smoking could predict breast cancer knowledge. Conclusions Women who were aware of risk factors for breast cancer possessed a higher education level and had knowledge of the association of risk factors with preventive behaviors and early detection. However, a minority of

  7. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  8. Women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention / Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet i wybrane ich determinanty w profilaktyce raka piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślusarska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE constitute a significant element of early prevention.

  9. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  10. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  11. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  12. Perception of breast cancer prevention campaigns among women in Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN Madalina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Once health marketing appeared, the concern for its development and for health, generally speaking, has increased, especially as regards the prevention of certain diseases. Health marketing refers to marketing strategies and campaigns aimed not only at healthy individuals, but also at the sick ones. Given that it is easier to prevent a disease and that access to information nowadays is handy, the present paper aimed at analysing opinions and attitudes of women in Brasov regarding prevention campaigns for breast cancer. Based on the information from the quantitative research, conclusions have been drawn concerning the level of knowledge of women in Brasov.

  13. 3 Lifestyle Changes to Help Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many other cancers and chronic disease," said Alice Bender, head of nutrition programs at AICR. The first ... obesity increases the risk of 10 other cancers, Bender said in an institute news release. The second ...

  14. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    carcinoma 25 15 Cribriform carcinoma 5 Adenosquamous carcinoma 5 5 Glandular carcinoma 5 Mammary carcinoma in situ 5 Lymph node hyperplasia 5... Glandular carcinoma 7.14 Mammary carcinoma in situ 5.00 Lymph node hyperplasia 5.00 14.29 Lymph node with metastasis 5.00 7.14 a n...2010. Bidirectional signaling of mammary epithelium and stroma: implications for breast cancer- preventive actions of dietary factors. J Nutr Biochem

  15. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedenson Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this "BRCA pathway" due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Methods Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Results Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. Conclusion An important function of the BRCA pathway is to

  16. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior.

  17. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  18. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  19. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  20. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    and neck cancer, CNS tumours ( child ) • Phase II: Solid tumours, NSCLC, glioblastoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, neurofibromatosis, ovarian, CLL...Clinical Diagnostics, 100 Indigo Creek Drive, Rochester, NY 14626, Running Foot: PF-4 as a marker for early tumor detection

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case control study in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Marjorie L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Patel, Roshni; Jacobs, Eric J.; Bain, Elizabeth B; Horst, Ronald L.; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J.; Calle, Eugenia E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D status measured during adulthood has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk in some, but not all, studies. Vitamin D has been hypothesized to prevent breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic actions in cell-cycle regulation. Methods A subset (n = 21,965) of female participants from the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort provided a blood sample from 1998-2001 and were followed through 2005. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...

  2. Meaningful prevention of breast cancer metastasis: candidate therapeutics, preclinical validation, and clinical trial concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alexandra S; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    The development of drugs to treat breast and other cancers proceeds through phase I dose finding, phase II efficacy, and phase III comparative studies in the metastatic setting, only then asking if metastasis can be prevented in adjuvant trials. Compounds without overt cytotoxic activity, such as those developed to inhibit metastatic colonization, will likely fail to shrink established lesions in the metastatic setting and never be tested in a metastasis prevention scenario where they were preclinically validated. We and others have proposed phase II primary and secondary metastasis prevention studies to address this need. Herein, we have asked whether preclinical metastasis prevention data agrees with the positive adjuvant setting trials. The data are limited but complimentary. We also review fundamental pathways involved in metastasis, including Src, integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and fibrosis, for their clinical progress to date and potential for metastasis prevention. Issues of inadequate preclinical validation and clinical toxicity profiles are discussed.

  3. Development of the Physical activity and Your Nutrition for Cancer (PYNC) smartphone app for preventing breast cancer in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenyi, Gina M.; Bowen, Deborah; De Leo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background In the U.S., breast cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women than any site other than lung cancer. Based upon attributable risks, about 30–35% of breast cancers could potentially be prevented by addressing obesity, physical inactivity, increased alcohol consumption, and carcinogenic exposures such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We need methods of reducing women’s risks of this disease that are attractive and easy to use, widely accessible to diverse women, and able to be easily amended to account for new research. Methods The overall objective of this 12-month project is to develop and test a smartphone app to provide women with information about how they can reduce their risk of breast cancer through healthy behaviors such as physical activity, weight management, restricting caloric intake, consuming a healthy diet and proper nutrition, engaging in regular physical activity, and avoiding carcinogenic exposures such as HRT and alcohol. The specific aims are: (I) to develop a smartphone app for breast cancer prevention using a behavioral framework; (II) to ensure interconnectivity with commercially available products (Fitbit device for monitoring physical activity and the LoseIt! smartphone app for monitoring and tracking diet and nutrition); and (III) to ensure that the mHealth intervention is suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. Results The app, referred to as Physical activity and Your Nutrition for Cancer (PYNC), is being coded on an iOS platform. Users will be able to access the breast cancer prevention app using their smartphone or tablet. The app’s design will ensure interconnectivity with commercially available products for monitoring and tracking physical activity, caloric intake, diet and nutrition. Using the app, it will be feasible for users to connect and sync their Fitbit and LoseIt! accounts so that information collected about physical activity, caloric intake, diet, and

  4. Preventing Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Just the Next Step in the Evolution of Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Wong, Jasmine M; Esserman, Laura J

    2015-06-01

    The problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment has been highlighted in breast cancer and many other cancer types, most notably prostate cancer. Addressing this problem presents an opportunity to continue the evolution of breast cancer care. Advances in technology, such as molecular subtyping, have increased the understanding of breast cancer biology and the range of associated behavior, and have provided tools that allow greater personalization of treatment. This article identifies 3 areas of breast cancer care where opportunity currently exists to refine management strategies and help decrease overtreatment and overdiagnosis: the use of adjuvant-external beam radiation in invasive breast cancer, the application of aggressive treatment for all ductal carcinoma in situ, and the authors' approach to breast cancer screening. Personalizing treatment based on patient and tumor characteristics holds promise for minimizing harms and maximizing benefits. This approach will allow continual improvement and ultimately result in providing the right treatment for each patient.

  5. Repurposing of bisphosphonates for the prevention and therapy of nonsmall cell lung and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Agnes; Yuen, Tony; Iqbal, Jameel; Sgobba, Miriam; Lu, Ping; Colaianni, Graziana; Ji, Yaoting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Kim, Se-Min; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Peng; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Sangodkar, Jaya; Scherer, Thomas; Mujtaba, Shiraz; Galsky, Matthew; Gomez, Jorge; Epstein, Solomon; Buettner, Christoph; Bian, Zhuan; Zallone, Alberta; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Haider, Shozeb; New, Maria I.; Sun, Li; Narla, Goutham; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    A variety of human cancers, including nonsmall cell lung (NSCLC), breast, and colon cancers, are driven by the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Having shown that bisphosphonates, a class of drugs used widely for the therapy of osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease, reduce cancer cell viability by targeting HER1, we explored their potential utility in the prevention and therapy of HER-driven cancers. We show that bisphosphonates inhibit colony formation by HER1ΔE746-A750-driven HCC827 NSCLCs and HER1wt-expressing MB231 triple negative breast cancers, but not by HERlow-SW620 colon cancers. In parallel, oral gavage with bisphosphonates of mice xenografted with HCC827 or MB231 cells led to a significant reduction in tumor volume in both treatment and prevention protocols. This result was not seen with mice harboring HERlow SW620 xenografts. We next explored whether bisphosphonates can serve as adjunctive therapies to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), namely gefitinib and erlotinib, and whether the drugs can target TKI-resistant NSCLCs. In silico docking, together with molecular dynamics and anisotropic network modeling, showed that bisphosphonates bind to TKIs within the HER1 kinase domain. As predicted from this combinatorial binding, bisphosphonates enhanced the effects of TKIs in reducing cell viability and driving tumor regression in mice. Impressively, the drugs also overcame erlotinib resistance acquired through the gatekeeper mutation T790M, thus offering an option for TKI-resistant NSCLCs. We suggest that bisphosphonates can potentially be repurposed for the prevention and adjunctive therapy of HER1-driven cancers. PMID:25453078

  6. Training Grant in Epidemiology and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    at first birth 25-29 years/!-4 children, age at first immunoassay. The laboratory of Dr. Christopher Longcope at the University of birth Ž->30 years/l...postmenopausal women. J NatI Cancer Inst 1995:87:190-7. (2) Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer (25) Zeleniuch-Jacquotte...Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer (30) Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, Stone K, Browner W, Cummings SR. MJ, et al. Alcohol

  7. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Victor G; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Cronin, Walter M; Cecchini, Reena S; Atkins, James N; Bevers, Therese B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Pajon, Eduardo R; Wade, James L; Robidoux, André; Margolese, Richard G; James, Joan; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Ganz, Patricia A; Reis, Steven E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G; Jordan, V Craig; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-06-01

    The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen became the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for reducing breast cancer risk but did not gain wide acceptance for prevention, largely because it increased endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). Raloxifene caused less toxicity (versus tamoxifen), including reduced thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. In this report, we present an updated analysis with an 81-month median follow-up. STAR women were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 5 years. The risk ratio (RR; raloxifene:tamoxifen) for invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.47) and for noninvasive disease, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.95-1.59). Compared with initial results, the RRs widened for invasive and narrowed for noninvasive breast cancer. Toxicity RRs (raloxifene:tamoxifen) were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P = 0.003) for endometrial cancer (this difference was not significant in the initial results), 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.29) for uterine hyperplasia, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.93) for thromboembolic events. There were no significant mortality differences. Long-term raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer over time to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, with far less toxicity (e.g., highly significantly less endometrial cancer). These results have important public health implications and clarify that both raloxifene and tamoxifen are good preventive choices for postmenopausal women with elevated risk for breast cancer.

  8. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  9. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  11. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. Methods. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October-December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. Results. There is a difference among respondents’ awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%, the majority of them had never per-formed mammography or ultrasonography (67%. The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71% and mass media - television on the first place (74%, then specialized magazines about health (48%, radio (48%, web sites about health (42%, and daily newspapers (34%. The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about

  12. Histamine prevents radiation-induced mesenchymal changes in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Tamara E; Mohamad, Nora A; Táquez Delgado, Mónica A; Vedoya, Guadalupe M; Crescenti, Ernesto J; Bergoc, Rosa M; Martín, Gabriela A; Cricco, Graciela P

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a prime option for treatment of solid tumors including breast cancer though side effects are usually present. Experimental evidence shows an increase in invasiveness of several neoplastic cell types through conventional tumor irradiation. The induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is proposed as an underlying cause of metastasis triggered by gamma irradiation. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of histamine on the ionizing radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition events in breast cancer cells with different invasive phenotype. We also evaluated the potential involvement of Src phosphorylation in the migratory capability of irradiated cells upon histamine treatment. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cells were exposed to a single dose of 2Gy of gamma radiation and five days after irradiation mesenchymal-like phenotypic changes were observed by optical microscope. The expression and subcellular localization of E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and Slug were determined by immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence. There was a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin after irradiation. E-cadherin and β-catenin were mainly localized in cytoplasm. Slug positive nuclei, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and cell migration and invasion were significantly increased. In addition, a significant enhancement in Src phosphorylation/activation could be determined by immunoblot in irradiated cells. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells also received 1 or 20μM histamine during 24h previous to be irradiated. Notably, pre-treatment of breast cancer cells with 20μM histamine prevented the mesenchymal changes induced by ionizing radiation and also reduced the migratory behavior of irradiated cells decreasing phospho-Src levels. Collectively, our results suggest that histamine may block events related to epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated mammary cancer

  13. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, Suzanne A.; Aboagye, Eric O; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P.; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Bryant, Helen E; Bundred, Nigel J; Burchell, Joy M; Campbell, Anna M; Carroll, Jason S.; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice.Methods: More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molec...

  14. Work at night and breast cancer - report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2012-01-01

    actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26-27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations for prevention of the effects of night work on breast...... cancer. Among those studies that quantified duration of shift work, there were statistically significant elevations in risk only after about 20 years working night shift. It is unclear from these studies whether or not there is a modest but real elevated risk for shorter durations. Hence, restriction...... by suppression of melatonin secretion. Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted...

  15. [Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment: possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, C; Boccardo, F; Zilli, A; Maccio, A; Napoli, F; Ferreira Azevedo, W; Fulcheri, E; Taddei, G

    2002-01-01

    We performed a prospective randomized study upon 50 patients who had undergone a breast cancer treatment, considering particularly the possibility of appearance of arm secondary lymphedema. The patients were divided in two groups of 25 patients each. In the 1st group, we performed only a clinical follow-up, whilst in the 2nd one, we used also lymphoscintigraphy. The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of arm secondary lymphedema in the two groups, and relate the data with those of the international literature, in order to identify diagnostic procedures indicative of the risk of development of lymphedema and find proper therapeutic preventive measures. It is certainty complex to foresee the appearance of arm lymphedema due to breast cancer treatment. No specific preventive therapeutic methods based upon particular diagnostic investigations were ever reported. Patients had undergone surgery and radiation for breast cancer in the period between April 1992 and June 1994, and controlled at over 5 years after operation. Upper limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed only in one of the two groups of 25 patients, before operation and, furthermore, after 1-3-6 months and 1-3 years from the treatment. Patients who presented lymphoscintigraphic alterations (dermal back flow, diffused or delayed transit of the tracer, etc.), before edema appeared clinically, underwent physical and rehabilitative therapy (bandages, manual lymphatic drainage, mechanical lymph drainage, elastic garments, etc.) and microsurgery (lymphatic-venous anastomoses at the arm), performed early (stages Ib and II) in patients not responsive to physical therapy. In the first group followed only clinically, secondary arm lymphedema occurred in 9 cases (36%), and appeared after a period variable from 1 week to 2 years (3-6 months averagely). In the second group, lymphoscintigraphy, performed preoperatively, permitted to find lymphatic impairment (absence of deltoid way, reduced axillary lymph nodal

  16. Development of Intraductal Technique for Breast Cancer Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment (97 Breast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Surgeons 2. Presentations: (1) Istituto Europeo di Oncologia ( Milan) Grand Rounds, "Intraductal approach to the breast," July 7, 1999. (2) Yale...in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) using manual breast pumps (Petrakis et al and Sartorius et al), nipple aspiration is a relatively inefficient technique

  17. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  19. Prevention of Bone Loss with Risedronate in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Susan L.; Vujevich, Karen T.; Brufsky, Adam; Lembersky, Barry C.; van Londen, G.J.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Rastogi, Priya; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, are associated with bone loss and fractures. Our objectives were to determine if 1) oral bisphosphonate therapy can prevent bone loss in women on an AI and, 2) early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) can predict later changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a 2 year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 109 postmenopausal women with low bone mass on an aromatase inhibitor (AI-anastrozole, letrozole, or exemestane) for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Participants were randomized to once weekly risedronate 35 mg or placebo and all received calcium plus vitamin D. The main outcome measures included BMD, BTM [carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] and safety. Results Eighty-seven percent completed 24 months. BMD increased more in the active treatment group compared to placebo with an adjusted difference at 24 months of 3.9 ± 0.7 percentage points at the spine and 3.2 ± 0.5 percentage points at the hip (both p<0.05). The adjusted difference between the active treatment and placebo groups were 0.09 ± 0.04 nmol/LBCE for CTX and 23.3 ± 4.8 µg/mL for P1NP (both p<0.05). Women with greater 12-month decreases in CTX and P1NP in the active treatment group had a greater 24-month increase in spinal BMD (p<0.05). The oral therapy was safe and well tolerated. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and breast cancer on an AI, the oral bisphosphonate risedronate maintained skeletal health. PMID:25792492

  20. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  1. Lymphatic microsurgical preventing healing approach (LYMPHA) for primary surgical prevention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: over 4 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, Francesco; Casabona, Federico; De Cian, Franco; DeCian, Franco; Friedman, Daniele; Murelli, Federica; Puglisi, Maria; Campisi, Corrado C; Molinari, Lidia; Spinaci, Stefano; Dessalvi, Sara; Campisi, Corradino

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) represents an important morbidity that jeopardizes breast cancer patients' quality of life. Different attempts to prevent LE brought about improvements in the incidence of the pathology but LE still represents a frequent occurrence in breast cancer survivors. Over 4 years ago, Lymphatic Microsurgical Preventing Healing Approach (LYMPHA) was proposed and long-term results are reported in this study. From July 2008 to December 2012, 74 patients underwent axillary nodal dissection for breast cancer treatment together with LYMPHA procedure. Volumetry was performed preoperatively in all patients and after 1, 3, 6, 12 months, and once a year. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 45 patients preoperatively and in 30 also postoperatively after at least over 1 year. Seventy one patients had no sign of LE, and volumetry was coincident to preoperative condition. In three patients, LE occurred after 8-12 months postoperatively. Lymphoscintigraphy showed the patency of lymphatic-venous anastomoses at 1-4 years after operation. LYMPHA technique represents a successful surgical procedure for primary prevention of arm LE in breast cancer patients.

  2. Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Hu, Pingting; Xie, Dong; Qin, Ying; Wang, Fudi; Wang, Hui

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin D and calcium intake have been suggested to have protective effects against breast cancer; however, the data have been inconclusive. The present meta-analysis examined the overall effects of vitamin D intake, circulating 25(OH)D and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D levels, and calcium intake on breast cancer risk. Data from 11 studies on vitamin D intake, 7 studies on circulating 25(OH)D levels, 3 studies of circulating 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D levels, and 15 studies on calcium intake and breast cancer risk were included in this analysis. From the meta-analysis, there was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk, with an overall relative risk (RR) of high versus low vitamin D intake for breast cancer of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.85-0.97). The highest quantile of circulating 25(OH)D was found to be associated with a 45% (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.38-0.80) decrease in breast cancer when compared with the lowest quantile. No significant association for the circulating 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D level and breast cancer was found (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.68-1.44). For calcium, a 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.90) decrease in breast cancer risk was found for those with highest quantile of calcium intake compared to the lowest quantile. These results provide strong evidence that vitamin D and calcium have a chemopreventive effect against breast cancer.

  3. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer - the LYCA feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...

  4. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  5. Community readiness to promote Latinas' participation in breast cancer prevention clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawsin, Catalina R; Borrayo, Evelinn A; Edwards, Ruth; Belloso, Carolina

    2007-07-01

    The high breast cancer (BC) mortality rates that exist among Hispanic women (Latinas) are a health disparity burden that needs to be addressed. Prevention clinical trials are a burgeoning area of cancer prevention efforts and may serve to promote parity. Unfortunately, Latinas, along with other ethnic minority women, continue to be under-represented in this form of research. Previous studies have examined individual barriers to ethnic minorities' participation, but none have assessed community factors contributing to Latinas' under-representation in these studies. The present study addressed these limitations from a community perspective by exploring which factors might inhibit Latinas' participation in clinical trials, specifically BC prevention trials. Using the Community Readiness Model (CRM), 19 key informants were interviewed in four communities, two rural and two urban, in Colorado, USA. The key informant assessment involved a semistructured interview that measured the level of community readiness to encourage participation in BC prevention activities. The results reflected a community climate that did not recognise BC as a health problem that affected Latinas in participating communities. Compared to other healthcare priorities, participation in BC prevention clinical trials was considered a low priority in these communities. Overall, leadership and community resources were not identified or allocated to encourage the participation of Latinas. The results highlight the lack of awareness regarding clinical trials among both community members and leaders. According to the CRM, strategies to enhance awareness at multiple levels in the community are necessary. This study demonstrates how the CRM can be used to better understand a community's perspective on BC, and specifically, the under-representation of Latinas in clinical trials.

  6. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  7. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  8. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  10. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  11. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nagaprashanthi et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom plays a major role in the life of human beings and animals. A great deal of Pharmacological research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs in cancer treatment. Phytochemical tests in Pharmacognosy, structure elucidation in medicinal chemistry and various screening procedures in pharmacology helped to boost immune system in the body against cancer as breast cancer is the most serious problem in Oncology and fifth most leading cause of mortality in developed and also developing countries. Scientists have contributed number of years to investigate a remedy with no side effects and interested in finding a potent phytotherapeutic agent from herbs for this disease. They performed several research works by taking the active principles of many herbs and developed various herbal formulations which inhibit growth and spread of breast cancer on the metastatic phase stage IV. Some important ethanomedicinal plants (indigenous system of medicine evidenced for breast cancer by scientific study have been discussed here.

  12. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  13. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  14. The Individualization of Risk and Responsibility in Breast Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The incidence rates are such that one in nine Canadian women will be diagnosed in her lifetime. While social science research has demonstrated the influence of social, political, economic and environmental factors on health outcomes, many still emphasize the role of…

  15. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    significantly increased compared with positive controls at different time points. Histological examination showed that the malignancy of lesions in TNJ groups did not show a significant change when compared with that in positive and placebo groups.Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study which indicates that TNJ possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rates.Key words: Morinda citrifolia, Tahitian noni® juice, breast cancer, cancer prevention

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  18. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer treatment is a major clinical problem, affecting 25 to 60% of patients. Development of chronic pain after breast cancer treatment, as well as other surgical procedures, involves a complex pathophysiology that involves pre-, intra- and post-operative factors....... This review is a systematic analysis on methodology and evidence in research into persistent pain after breast cancer treatment during the period 1995 to 2010, in order to clarify the significance and relative role of potential risk factors. Literature was identified by a search in PubMed and OVID, as well...... principles of surgical and adjuvant therapy. In summary, the data show inconsistencies in definition of chronic pain and treatment groups, as well as in the collection of pre- intra- and post-operative data, precluding conclusions with regard to pathophysiologic mechanisms as well as rational strategies...

  19. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  20. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  1. Study on interleukin-18 gene transfer into human breast cancer cells to prevent tumorigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明勇; 郑树; 于金明; 彭佳萍; 郭其森; 王家林

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of interleukin-18 gene transfection on the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cell line Bacp37, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 were transfected with Lipofectamine and selected by G418. The biological expression of rhIL-18 was tested by RT-PCR and ELISA method; nude mice were injected with Bcap37 cell with or without the hIL-18 gene. The hIL-18 cDNA was successfully integrated into Bcap37 cell; 126.3±4.5 pg hIL-18 secreted by one million transduced cells in 24 hours. Nude mice injected with IL-18 gene engineered Bcap37 cell had no tumor growth. These findings indicated that human breast cancer cells were successfully modified by the gene of IL-18 cytokine; the IL-18 gene engineered Bcap37 cells secreted hIL-18 and lost their tumorigenicity. The Bcap37 cells transduced with IL-18 gene may be used as breast cancer vaccine.

  2. Study on interleukin-18 gene transfer into human breast cancer cells to prevent tumorigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明勇; 郑树; 于金明; 彭佳萍; 郭其森; 王家林

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of interleukin-18 gene transfection on the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cell line Bacp37,human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 were transfected with Lipofectamine and selected by G418.The biological expression of rhIL-18 was tested by RT-PCR and ELISA method;nude mice were injected with Bcap37 cell with or without the hIL-18 gene.The hIL-18 cDNA was successfully integrated into Bcap37 cell; 126.3±4.5pg hIL-18 secreted by one million transduced cells in 24 hours. Nude mice injected with IL-18 gene engineered Bcap37 cell had no tumor growth.These findings indicated that human breast cancer cells were successfully modified by the gene of IL-18 cytokine;the IL-18 gene engineered Bcap37 cells secreted hIL-18 and lost their tumorigenicity.The Bcap37 cells transduced with IL-18 gene may be used as breast cancer vaccine.

  3. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal...

  4. Effects of an Art-Based Curriculum on Clinical Trials Attitudes and Breast Cancer Prevention Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Patricia M.; Larkey, Linda K.

    2006-01-01

    Although Latinos now comprise the largest minority in the U.S. population, they continue to be seriously underrepresented in clinical trials. A nonrandomized controlled study of an innovative community-developed clinical trial and breast cancer education program targeting Latinas tested whether use of an art-based curriculum could increase…

  5. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal, ...

  6. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  7. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    A, Sherman ME, Sutter TR, Garcia-Closas M. Abstract Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1B1 (Ex2 + 143 C > G, Ex2 +356 G > T, Ex3...testosterone on the expression of CYP19, CYP1B1 , COMT and NQO1 in the prostate of male Noble rats. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res., 45:14, 2004. 12. Zhang... polymorphisms on estrogen metabolism in relation to initiation of breast cancer. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res., 47:835, 2006. 35. Cavalieri, E

  8. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  9. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer

  11. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  12. Comparative Study on The Preventive Effect of Saffron Carotenoids, Crocin and Crocetin, in NMU-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Zahra Bathaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Crocin (Cro and crocetin (Crt are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU. The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages. Thus, Cro/Crt was administered by gavage 20 days before, or one week after, the first NMU injection, for the prevention at the initiation or promotion stages respectively. The treatment was repeated every three days, and continued up to the end of experiment. Tumor appearance was checked by palpation and some parameters were determined after sacrifice. Results Tumor volume, latency period, and tumor number were significantly decreased in the rat groups treated with both saffron carotenoids for prevention at both the initiation and promotion stages. Tumor incidence was 77% due to NMU injection, which was decreased to 45 and 33% (on average after Cro and Crt administration, respectively. In addition, enkephaline degrading aminopeptidase (EDA was decreased significantly in the ovaries of the animals, however, changes in the brain were not significant. Conclusion Crt/Cro showed a significant protective effect against the NMU-induced breast cancer in rats. However, Crt was more effective than Cro and prevention at the initiation stage was more effective than at the promotion stage.

  13. Comparative Study on The Preventive Effect of Saffron Carotenoids, Crocin and Crocetin, in NMU-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Meysam; Bathaie, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Objective Crocin (Cro) and crocetin (Crt) are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages. Thus, Cro/Crt was administered by gavage 20 days before, or one week after, the first NMU injection, for the prevention at the initiation or promotion stages respectively. The treatment was repeated every three days, and continued up to the end of experiment. Tumor appearance was checked by palpation and some parameters were determined after sacrifice. Results Tumor volume, latency period, and tumor number were significantly decreased in the rat groups treated with both saffron carotenoids for prevention at both the initiation and promotion stages. Tumor incidence was 77% due to NMU injection, which was decreased to 45 and 33% (on average) after Cro and Crt administration, respectively. In addition, enkephaline degrading aminopeptidase (EDA) was decreased significantly in the ovaries of the animals, however, changes in the brain were not significant. Conclusion Crt/Cro showed a significant protective effect against the NMU-induced breast cancer in rats. However, Crt was more effective than Cro and prevention at the initiation stage was more effective than at the promotion stage.

  14. Impact of a National Cancer Prevention and Treatment Program on the Prevalence of Late-Stage Breast Cancer Diagnoses in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitz, Amanda; Wendelboe, Aaron M.; Chou, Ann F.; Frank, Summer; Watkins, Angela; Thompson, David; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act (BCCPTA) to provide coverage through Medicaid to women who screened positive for breast and cervical cancer. We aimed to determine if late-stage breast cancer prevalence decreased among Oklahoma women after passage of BCCPTA. Data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry during 2000–2011. We estimated prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) using modified Poisson regression between the proportion of women with late-stage breast cancer and timing of diagnosis related to BCCPTA. Among uninsured women, the probability of being diagnosed with late-stage cancer after enactment of the BCCPTA was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.96) times the probability before enactment. This was significant among uninsured women living in metro counties (PPR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.90) but not in non-metro counties (PPR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.56). These findings may be similar to other rural states with large uninsured populations. PMID:27885306

  15. 乳腺癌的营养预防%Nutritional prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区俊文

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors play important roles in the initiation and development of breast cancer. There are numerous articles on this topic and most of them focus on the associations between dietary fat, vegetable, fruit, alcohol, phytoestrogen intakes and breast cancer. Different conclusions have been reached.%膳食营养因素在乳腺癌的发生、发展过程中起着重要的作用,关于营养因素对乳腺癌影响有大量的研究报道,较多的研究把注意力集中在观察膳食中脂肪、蔬菜、水果,酒精类饮料以及植物雌激素对乳腺癌的影响上.

  16. Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: Mimicking the protective effect of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness of perphenazine, a potent mitogenic and differentiating agent. Here, we show that short term treatment of nulliparous rats with pregnancy levels ...

  17. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  18. Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer Using Multifunctional Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    concentrations as low as 1 nM effectively reduced BT-474 and MCF-7 cell viability in 7-day assays (Fig. 1b). To determine whether RO...146:51–62 53 123 mammary cells . Concentrations of RO up to 10 lM reduced cancer cell viability , but had no effect on normal cells (Fig. 1c). We also...thus Fig. 6 Modulation of ERb activity influences RO-mediated effects on breast cancer cell viability . a BT-474 cells were treated with 10 lM RO ± 1

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  20. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  1. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0-0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  2. Prevention and treatment of bone loss in patients with nonmetastatic breast or prostate cancer who receive hormonal ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Connie; Maxwell, Cathy; Mautner, Beatrice

    2014-04-01

    Hormone ablation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. However, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) used in men with prostate cancer contribute to substantial bone loss, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Evidence-based guidelines, therefore, urge oncology practices to screen these patients for bone loss and, if needed, provide treatment to maintain bone health. In addition to lifestyle modification and calcium or vitamin D supplementation, bone protection strategies include treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand. Identification of patients at greater risk for bone loss and fracture and proper interventions can reduce fracture rates. Oncology nurses can play an important role in screening these patients. The purpose of this article is to inform oncology nurses about the effects of cancer treatment on bone health, review current prevention and treatment options for cancer treatment-induced bone loss, and discuss recommendations for identifying high-risk individuals.

  3. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  5. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  6. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón- Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. Methodology An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011–2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test–Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. Results An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = − 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. Conclusions The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way. PMID:26844079

  7. Postoperative hormonal therapy prevents recovery of neurological damage after surgery in patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sato, Chiho; Matsudaira, Izumi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawai, Masaaki; Tada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Takanori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors are exposed to several risk factors for cognitive dysfunction, such as general anesthesia, surgical trauma, and adjuvant therapies. In our recent study we showed that thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction occurred shortly after surgery. Here, we examined the 6-month prognosis of the 20 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery. Seven patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy after the surgery and 13 patients received a hormonal therapy after the surgery. We assessed their attentional functions, and thalamic volumes shortly after and 6 months after surgery. We found a significant group x time interaction in the attentional functions (p = 0.033) and the right thalamus (p <  0.05, small volume correction), suggesting the thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction recovered in patients without adjuvant therapy. Our findings provide a better understanding of the potential role of hormonal therapy in relation to the cognitive dysfunction of cancer survivors. PMID:27708377

  8. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  9. Assessment of Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer and Lymphoma Patients Receiving Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognitive impairments in cancer patients represent an important clinical problem. Studies to date estimating prevalence of difficulties in memory, executive function, and attention deficits have been limited by small sample sizes and many have lacked healthy control groups. More information is needed on promising biomarkers and allelic variants that may help to determine the etiology of impairment, identify those most vulnerable to impairment, and develop interventions for these difficulties. |

  10. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  11. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Andrea; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Russo, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  12. Preventive strategies for hereditary breast cancer pre-disposition; Praeventive Strategien bei familiaerer Brustkrebspraedisposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiechle, M. [Frauenklinik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Schmutzler, R. [Universitaets-Frauenklinik Bonn (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    First retrospective data show that hereditary Breast cancer risk can be positively influenced by prophylactic surgical procedures and hereby a thorough consultation seem to be an option for mutant gene carriers. A first evaluation of the women of 1050 high-risk families by the German Consortium 'Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer promoted by the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe)' has shown that approximately 80% of the women concerned decide to participate in an intensive early detection - programme and only 5% of the women have decided to submit themselves to prophylactic surgical measures. This again shows how absolutely necessary the elaboration and evaluation of early detection measures within the different investigation projects are. (orig.) [German] Erste retrospektive erhobene Daten zeigen, dass prophylaktische operative Massnahmen das Mammakarzinomrisiko bei familiaerer Belastung guenstig beeinflussen koennen und stellen somit eine Option fuer Anlagetraegerinnen dar, nachdem eine eingehende Beratung erfolgt ist. Eine erste Evaluation der Frauen aus 1050 Hochrisikofamilien des Deutschen Konsortiums 'Hereditaeres Mamma- und Ovarialkarzinom, gefoerdert von der Deutschen Krebshilfe' hat gezeigt, dass sich ca. 80% der Frauen fuer die Teilnahme an einem intensiven Frueherkennungsprogramm und nur 5% der Frauen fuer prophylaktische operative Massnahmen entscheiden. Dies macht noch einmal deutlich, wie dringend die Erarbeitung und Auswertung von Frueherkennungsmassnahmen innerhalb von Forschungsprojekten erforderlich ist. (orig.)

  13. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  14. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  15. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  18. Preventing breast cancer in LMICs via screening and/or early detection: The real and the surreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit

    2014-08-10

    To review the present status of breast cancer (BC) screening/early detection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and identify the way forward, an open focused search for articles was undertaken in PubMed, Google Scholar and Google, and using a snowball technique, further articles were obtained from the reference list of initial search results. In addition, a query was put up on ResearchGate to obtain more references and find out the general opinion of experts on the topic. Experts were also personally contacted for their opinion. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the world. The rise in incidence is highest in LMICs where the incidence has often been much lower than high-income countries. In spite of more women dying of cancer than pregnancy or childbirth related causes in LMICs, most of the focus and resources are devoted to maternal health. Also, the majority of women in LMICs present at late stages to a hospital to initiate treatment. A number of trials have been conducted in various LMICs regarding the use of clinical breast examination and mammography in various combinations to understand the best ways of implementing a population level screening/early detection of BC; nevertheless, more research in this area is badly needed for different LMIC specific contexts. Notably, very few LMICs have national level programs for BC prevention via screening/early detection and even stage reduction is not on the public health agenda. This is in addition to other barriers such as lack of awareness among women regarding BC and the presence of stigma, inappropriate attitudes and lack of following proper screening behavior, such as conducting breast self-examinations. The above is mixed with the apathy and lack of awareness of policy makers regarding the fact that BC prevention is much more cost-effective and humane than BC treatment. Implementation of population level programs for screening/early detection of BC, along with use of ways to improve

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  20. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  1. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  2. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  3. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination, Breast Cancer Prevention-Related Knowledge, and Healthy Lifestyles in Scholars from a Low-Income Area in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso-Calderón, A M; Meneses-Echávez, J F; Correa-Bautista, J E; Tovar-Cifuentes, A; Alba-Ramírez, P A; Charry-Ángel, C E

    2016-11-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, practices, and behavior change in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Uncontrolled trial was conducted in 155 scholars. Two educational sessions, 90 min each, were carried out in March 2015 according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire at pre- and post-intervention, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Breast self-examination was practiced by 78.1% of the scholars, and the overall knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was poor. The educational intervention resulted in significant improvements on breast self-examination practice, the knowledge of the technique, and the knowledge of the main risk factors for breast cancer as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable intake at 6 months follow-up. An educational intervention according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control improved the practice of breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable consumption in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted.

  4. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... breast cancer is an important part of its prevention. Risk factors for breast cancer include family and personal history, radiation therapy to the chest for previous cancers, obesity, and certain genetic changes... commitment to supporting breast cancer research, and to educating all Americans about its risk...

  5. Interaction between cyclooxygenase-2 and insulin-like growth factor in breast cancer: A new field for prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAROMARU, GIULIANA CÁSSIA MORRONE; DE OLIVEIRA, VILMAR MARQUES; SILVA, MARIA ANTONIETA LONGO GALVÃO; MONTOR, WAGNER RICARDO; BAGNOLI, FABIO; RINALDI, JOSÉ FRANCISCO; AOKI, TSUTOMU

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis, including, Bcl-2, Bax, Ki-67 and the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1-R) in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), present in the same surgical specimen. A total of 110 cases were evaluated using tissue microarrays. Cases were classified in scores from 0 to 3 according to pre-defined methods. The results showed that the positivity rates were COX-2 in 87% of cases in DCIS and IDC; Bcl-2 in 55% of cases in DCIS and IDC; Bax in 23% of cases in IDC and 19% in DCIS, IGF-1 in 24% of cases in DCIS and IDC; and Ki-67 in 81% of cases in DCIS and IDC. We also observed a positive correlation between the expression of COX-2 and IGF1-R (p=0.045). Our results demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression of COX-2 and IGF1-R in DCIS and IDC, demonstrating that they are involved in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Further studies are required to prove the effectiveness of COX-2 and IGF1-R inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, as well as to explain their mechanism of action. PMID:22740976

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  7. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  8. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis. Results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Klinikum Braunschweig (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Mengs, Ulrich; Schaefer, Margitta [Rottapharm/Madaus, Koeln (Germany). Research and Development; Bulitta, Michael [CRM Biometrics GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    More than 80% of patients with breast cancer undergoing postsurgical radiotherapy (RT) will develop radiodermatitis and approximately 10% of these patients show grade 3 lesions. Side effects may reduce the patient's compliance and can be limiting factors to follow RT protocols. Therefore, there is a high need for more effective prophylactic treatments. In this study, a silymarin-based cream (Leviaderm {sup registered}) was tested in comparison to our standard of care (SOC) at the involved site. A total of 101 patients were evaluated after breast-conserving surgery followed by RT with 50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy. Of these, 51 patients were treated with the silymarin-based cream. In addition, 50 patients were documented receiving a panthenol-containing cream interventionally, if local skin lesions occurred. The acute skin reactions were classified according to the RTOG and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores. The median time to toxicity was prolonged significantly with silymarin-based cream (45 vs. 29 days (SOC), p < 0.0001). Only 9.8% of patients using silymarin-based cream showed grade 2 toxicity in week 5 of RT in comparison to 52% with SOC. At the end of RT, 23.5% of patients in the silymarin-based study group developed no skin reactions vs. 2% with SOC, while grade 3 toxicity occurred only in 2% in the silymarin-based arm compared to 28% (SOC). Silymarin-based cream Leviaderm {sup registered} may be a promising and effective treatment for the prevention of acute skin lesions caused by RT of breast cancer patients. To confirm the results of this nonrandomized, observational trial, this component should be tested in larger multicenter studies in this setting. (orig.)

  9. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  10. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... regarding topics such as breast cancer risk, breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote...

  11. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.

  12. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  13. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  14. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  15. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  16. Mapping out a search for environmental causes of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, J G; Rudel, R; Maxwell, N I; Swedis, S R

    1996-01-01

    Geographic patterns and time trends for breast cancer suggest there are preventable causes that may include environmental factors. This article describes the development of new methods used in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study to investigate whether synthetic chemicals in the environment contribute to breast cancer risk.

  17. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  19. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20032432 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  20. The breast cancer conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  1. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  2. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnaz Demirkan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed molecular connections between breast and bone. Genes, important in the control of bone remodeling, such as receptor activator of nuclear kappa (RANK, receptor activator of nuclear kappa ligand (RANKL, vitamin D, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteopontin (OPN, and calcitonin, are expressed in breast cancer and lactating breast. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET effectors play critical roles during embryonic development, postnatal growth, and epithelial homeostasis, but also are involved in a number of pathological conditions, including wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation, as well as cancer progression and bone metastasis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor I & II (IGF I & II, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH(rP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, epithelial growth factors II/I (ErbB/EGF, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, IL-1, integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, catepsin K, hypoxia, notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP, and hedgehog signaling pathways are important EMT and MET effectors identified in the bone microenviroment facilitating bone metastasis formation. Recently, Runx2, an essential transcription factor in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation into the osteoblast lineage and proper bone development, is also well-recognized for its expression in breast cancer cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Understanding the precise mechanisms of EMT and MET in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastasis can inform the direction of therapeutic intervention and possibly prevention.

  4. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  5. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Postpartum Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    MD Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: Virginia.borges@ucdenver.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...KK, Biroc SL, Metz RP, Singh M, Porter W, Schedin P: Remodeling of the mammary microenvironment after lactation promotes breast tumor cell metastasis

  6. Insulin receptor what role in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A

    1997-10-01

    It is commonly believed that the insulin receptor mainly mediates the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas the closely related IGF-I receptor is considered a major factor for the regulation of cell proliferation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates, however, that insulin and insulin receptors may play an important role in breast cancer. This article reviews evidence indicating that (a) insulin receptors are overexpressed in human breast cancer, (b) insulin stimulates growth in breast cancer cells, (c) cells transfected with human insulin receptor may acquire a ligand-dependent transformed phenotype, and (d) breast cancer is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These findings may open new possibilities in breast cancer prevention, prognosis assessment, and therapy. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:306-312). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. Effectiveness of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Performing Preventive Measures for Breast Cancer Among Female Teachers in Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Kalan-Farmanfarma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preventive behaviors such as screening tests have an important role in prevention and control of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs on preventive behaviors of breast cancer based on the health belief model among female teachers of guidance schools in Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 240 female teachers from (120 participants in each of the control and intervention groups Zahedan guidance schools. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables, knowledge and health belief model structures. An educational program was performed based on the health belief model in five sessions through lectures, training videos, question and answer session for participants in the intervention group. Questionnaires were filled before and two months after the intervention in the two groups. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, chi-square and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-15 software. Results: There was no meaningful difference in the mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and performance between the two groups before the educational intervention, but the mean scores of variables increased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The health belief model was effective to promote preventive behaviors. Hence, educational interventions with an emphasis on raising awareness, change in beliefs and improving self-efficacy regarding breast cancer are recommended

  8. Breast Cancer Survivorship—A Personal Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-26

    Pam Bryant, a breast cancer survivor, talks about her personal journey and how being diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45 has impacted her life. .  Created: 9/26/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 9/26/2016.

  9. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  10. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  11. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón- Garcidueñas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  13. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  14. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices of women for breast cancer in the educational institutions of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Samina; Qureshi, Warda; Mahmood, Saqib; Saleem, Afaf; Mahmud, Sumbal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence rates, pattern of presentation and survival rates vary worldwide. High incidence, advanced stage disease presentation and low survival rates have been reported from Pakistan. Lack of awareness and screening facilities along with poor socioeconomic status are the main causes. A survey based upon multiple choice questionnaires was conducted during an awareness campaign in women educational institutions of Lahore, to assess the baseline knowledge, attitude towards breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and source of information used by them. 1155 filled questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 12. The majority (83.7%) of the respondents were 10 and 31.5% had education. Only 27% had "good" while 14% had "poor" and 59% had "fair" knowledge scores about breast cancer. Television was the most commonly cited source of information but was associated with lower knowledge score. The knowledge scores and practice of BSE had a positive association with education level. The respondents had better knowledge of life time risk and association of early diagnosis with better chances of cure, but worse knowledge of risk factors as compared to women in educational institutions of other countries. Generally the respondents of present study had low level of knowledge of breast cancer. Properly designed awareness campaign on television and in educational institutions can be effective to raise the knowledge level, the best long term strategy for this purpose.

  15. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Stuiver; M.R. ten Tusscher; C.S. Agasi-Idenburg; C. Lucas; N.K. Aaronson; P.M.M. Bossuyt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives: To assess the effects of conser

  16. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  17. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  18. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M., E-mail: Austin_Guo@nymc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  19. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Yuzhong; Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Yue, Jiang; Guo, Austin M; Yang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr(458)), phospho-PDK (Ser(241)) and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE2, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE2, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE2, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities.

  20. Vitamin D supplementation and breast cancer prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sperati

    Full Text Available In recent years, the scientific evidence linking vitamin D status or supplementation to breast cancer has grown notably. To investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer incidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing vitamin D with placebo or no treatment. We used OVID to search MEDLINE (R, EMBASE and CENTRAL until April 2012. We screened the reference lists of included studies and used the "Related Article" feature in PubMed to identify additional articles. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently extracted data on methodological quality, participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes. Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals for breast cancer were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 test. In sensitivity analysis, we assessed the impact of vitamin D dosage and mode of administration on treatment effects. Only two randomized controlled trials fulfilled the pre-set inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis included 5372 postmenopausal women. Overall, Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals were 1.11 and 0.74-1.68. We found no evidence of heterogeneity. Neither vitamin D dosage nor mode of administration significantly affected breast cancer risk. However, treatment efficacy was somewhat greater when vitamin D was administered at the highest dosage and in combination with calcium (Risk Ratio 0.58, 95% Confident Interval 0.23-1.47 and Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% Confident Interval 0.54-1.60, respectively. In conclusions, vitamin D use seems not to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. However, the available evidence is still limited and inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Study protocol code: FARM8L2B5L.

  1. 维生素D代谢与乳腺癌预防%Vitamin D Metabolism and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍刘莉; 李哲光; 彭景

    2012-01-01

    流行病学研究表明维生素D的缺乏能增加乳腺癌的患病风险,日常饮食中维生素D的摄入量及血清中维生素D水平均与乳腺癌呈负相关。活性维生素D可调节多种正常或肿瘤组织细胞的生长和分化,这种作用是受其胞内受体一维生素D受体介导的,故维生素D受体的多态性可能改变维生素D的正常作用路径从而影响乳腺癌的发病风险。合理的膳食供给及正确的生活方式能有效地降低乳腺癌的发病率。%Although the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer remains unclear, epidemiological studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of breast cancer. Both dietary intake and se rum levels of vitamin D are negatively correlated with breast cancer. The biologically active vitamin D can ad just cell growth and differentiation in a variety of normal or tumor tissues, which acts through the intracellular receptor vitamin D receptor. The genetic polymorphism of vitamin D receptor may change the normal metabo lism of vitamin D, thus reduce the risk of breast cancer. Proper dietary supply of vitamin D and healthy life style will effectively decrease incidence rate of breast cancer.

  2. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  3. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  4. Proliferation and ovarian hormone signaling are impaired in normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations: benefit of a progesterone receptor modulator treatment as a breast cancer preventive strategy in women with inherited BRCA1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communal, Laudine; Courtin, Aurélie; Mourra, Najat; Lahlou, Najiba; Le Guillou, Morwenna; de Jotemps, Muriel Perrault; Chauvet, Marie-Pierre; Chaouat, Marc; Pujol, Pascal; Feunteun, Jean; Delaloge, Suzette; Forgez, Patricia; Gompel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Women with inherited BRCA1 mutations have an elevated risk (40-80%) for developing breast and ovarian cancers. Reproductive history has been reported to alter this risk, suggesting a relationship between ovarian hormone signaling and BRCA1-related tumor development. BRCA1 interactions with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) signaling were previously described in human breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. However, few studies have examined the effect of ovarian hormone regulation in normal human breast tissues bearing a heterozygous BRCA1 mutation. This study compares the proliferation level (Ki67) and the expression of ER, PR, and of the PR target gene, fatty acid synthase (FASN), in histologically normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/mut, n=23) or without BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/+, n=28). BRCA1+/mut tissues showed an increased proliferation and impaired hormone receptor expression with a marked loss of the PR isoform, PR-B. Responses to estradiol and progesterone treatments in BRCA1+/mut and BRCA1+/+ breast tissues were studied in a mouse xenograft model, and showed that PR and FASN expression were deregulated in BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. Progesterone added to estradiol treatment increased the proliferation in a subset of BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. The PR inhibitor, ulipristal acetate (UPA), was able to reverse this aberrant progesterone-induced proliferation. This study suggests that a subset of women with BRCA1 mutations could be candidates for a UPA treatment as a preventive breast cancer strategy. PMID:27246982

  5. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    cerevisiae) -2.2 BAG4h BCL2-associated athanogene 4 -1.9 DDHD2 DDHD domain containing 2 -3.0 PPAPDC1B phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain...E, 40X). c: Histological section of an invasive adenocarcinoma growing into the muscle wall of the abdomen of a SCID mouse (An 6). Arrows indicate...skeletal muscle fibers (H&E, 40X). d: Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast immunoreacted against AE1 cytokeratin used as a positive control (40X

  6. Evaluation of Cyclooxygenase-2 as a Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    previously found mutation of the NF-IL6 site to have little effect on COX-2 promoter responsiveness to the lipid ceramide (49), we believe _j 200...derived in different tissues. In mouse skin carcinogenesis, promoter growth factor (PDGF) and ceramide requires activation of activation by upstream...at Eicosanoids & Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases, Nashville, TN, October 2001 Figure 1 Figure 2 Cancer Research

  7. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  8. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  9. Perception of breast cancer prevention campaigns among women in Braşov

    OpenAIRE

    STEFAN Madalina; BRATUCU Gabriel; CHITU, Ioana Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Once health marketing appeared, the concern for its development and for health, generally speaking, has increased, especially as regards the prevention of certain diseases. Health marketing refers to marketing strategies and campaigns aimed not only at healthy individuals, but also at the sick ones. Given that it is easier to prevent a disease and that access to information nowadays is handy, the present paper aimed at analysing opinions and atti...

  10. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  11. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  12. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  13. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  14. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  15. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  16. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Cavalieri, E. L’origine del cancro e dialtre malattie. Biblioteca Mandotti, Guastalla, Italy, September 12, 2005. 26. Cavalieri, E. L’origine...departmental officials on issues and topics pertaining to the protection of human research subjects. National Cancer Institute Central Institutional Review

  17. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  19. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  20. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  1. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  2. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  3. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  4. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  6. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  7. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  8. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  9. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  10. Highlights from the Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference, Glasgow, 19–21 March 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Munzone, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9), one of the largest breast cancer conferences in the world, was held in Glasgow in March 2014, and brought together the voices of doctors, researchers, nurses, and patients. All the major breast cancer advocacy groups and institutions were united in one forum (Europa Donna, the EORTC Breast Cancer group, and EUSOMA). The Scientific Programme for EBCC-9 highlighted a holistic picture of breast cancer, including research, prevention, treatmen...

  11. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  12. Brachytherapy in breast cancer: an effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS with following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT of the conserved breast has become widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of EBRT after BCS is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 42.5 to 50 Gy. An additional dose is given to treated volume as a boost to a portion of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer, research has shown that the area requiring radiation treatment to prevent the cancer from local recurrence is the breast tissue that surrounds the area where the initial cancer was removed. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin rather than the whole breast and as a result allows accelerated delivery of the radiation dose in four to five days. There has been a growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-EBRT and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT. Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include MammoSite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy, Contura, hybrid brachytherapy devices. Another indication for breast brachytherapy is reirradiation of local recurrence after mastectomy. Published results of brachytherapy are very promising. We discuss the current status, indications, and technical aspects of breast cancer brachytherapy.

  13. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Sugumar A, Liu YC, Xia Q , Koh YS, Matsuo K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 3 and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a...stimulates autophagy and promotes the survival of breast cancer cells exposed to adverse microenvironments. Oncogene 32(19): 2412 2420. 29. Mehta HH, Gao Q ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0474 TITLE: The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew R. Hoffman CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  14. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  15. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  16. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  17. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  18. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  19. The myth about contraceptives and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, J

    1993-03-18

    Science and modern medicine accord us many advantages, e.g., contraceptive drugs, but many people still do not use them. Contraceptive drugs include oral contraceptives and injectables. OCs are very effective and are associated with minor side effects (e.g., mood changes, breast tenderness, nausea, and changes in weight, mild headache, and spotting between periods), perhaps explaining why they are one of the most often used contraceptive in essentially every country. Women who smoke; are 35 years old; or either have or have a family history of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and use OCs are at higher risk of a cardiovascular episode. On the other hand, OCs protect against ovarian and endometrial cancers. Research does not yet confirm or disprove their effect on breast cancer development. OCs appear not to be linked to breast cancer through age 59. Yet, studies of women 45 years old suggest that OCs increases the breast cancer risk in these women who had their first menses before age 13 and used OCs for a long time before their first pregnancy. OCs may facilitate growth of breast tumors that other causes activated, and therefore, do not likely increase the overall risk. Researchers recognize the death of knowledge about breast cancer development, so they call for more research, including basic molecular, cellular, and biochemical studies. In Nigeria, breast cancer is rare, while deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth are common, indicating that OC use can prevent many female deaths. Prolonged breast feeding; later age at first menses; earlier age at menopause; earlier age at first full-term pregnancy larger families; low fat, high fiber diets; and thinness, all of which are common in developing countries, have a protective effect against breast cancer. Further, women in developing countries begin OC use later than women in developed countries.

  20. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  1. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  2. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  3. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  4. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  5. Feature Extraction and Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some greater extent.

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  7. Pregnancy and its role in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Correia Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Early full-term pregnancy is the only recognized factor able to prevent breast cancer. There are several hypotheses to explain the mechanisms of this protection, namely an altered hormonal milieu, a differentiation process or a switch in stem cell properties. To explore them, authors have been using animal models, mainly in rodents. Hormonal administration with estrogen and progesterone was the most widely used process to mimic the mammary changes during pregnancy. We have recently proposed that this enigmatic protective role of a full-term birth in breast cancer is carried out by tumor inhibition mediated by differentiated mammary epithelial cells. This explanation may give a new perspective of breast cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Preventing premature deaths from breast and cervical cancer among underserved women in the United States: insights gained from a national cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Wong, Faye L

    2015-05-01

    This commentary highlights some of the valuable insights gained from a special collection of papers that utilized data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and appear in this special issue. The data and experiences of the NBCCEDP can inform the identification of new opportunities and directions for meeting the cancer screening needs of underserved women in a complex and changing health care environment.

  9. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Lucci, Anthony

    2002-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, is expressed in normal brain and kidney, activated macrophages, synoviocytes during inflammation, and malignant epithelial cells. COX-2 expression is stimulated by a number of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, lipopolysaccharides, and tumor promoters. There is evidence that COX-2 plays a key role in tumorigenesis through stimulating epithelial cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis, enhancing cell invasiveness, mediating immune suppression, and by increasing the production of mutagens. Results of several studies using mouse models of colon cancer and the results of clinical trials have shown COX-2 to be a useful target for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. Studies with several other epithelial cancers involving different organ sites, e.g., breast, prostate, bladder, lung, and pancreas, suggest that COX-2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these cancers. In this review, we summarize the studies that pertain to the involvement of COX-2 in breast cancer. COX-2 overexpression affects the physiological processes at different organ sites in a similar manner, although specific effectors and targets of COX-2 may differ at different sites. Thus in reviewing the data on the involvement of COX-2 in breast cancer, we have also considered the findings regarding the role of COX-2 in other organ sites. Studies from mouse models of mammary tumorigenesis and from human breast cancer cell lines provide evidence that COX-2 overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant breast cancer in humans. Because of availability of effective and relatively safe COX-2 inhibitors, it should be soon possible to evaluate their effectiveness in the clinic for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. It is likely that the COX-2 inhibitors will be effective in the treatment regimens involving combination

  12. Utility of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen YW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Wei Shen,1 Xiao-Man Zhang,1 Meng Lv,1 Ling Chen,1 Tian-Jie Qin,1 Fan Wang,1 Jiao Yang,1 Pei-Jun Liu,2 Jin Yang1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy are major concerns for premenopausal women with breast cancer. A potential ovarian function preservation strategy is administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists during adjuvant chemotherapy; however, studies of the clinical efficacy of GnRH agonists to protect chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage have shown mixed results. Objective: This meta-analysis study was designed to estimate the efficacy of GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Methods: Electronic literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library databases searching, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, and the Wanfang Data were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs published until September 2015. Only RCTs that examined the effect of GnRH agonists for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The rate of spontaneous resumption of menses and spontaneous pregnancy were collected. All data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark and Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA. Results: Eleven RCTs with a total of 1,062 participants (GnRH agonists administered concurrently with chemotherapy, n=541; chemotherapy alone, n=521 were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly greater number of women treated with GnRH agonist experienced spontaneous resumption of menses after the adjuvant chemotherapy, yielding a pooled odds ratio of 2.57 (versus chemotherapy alone, 95

  13. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  14. Lipídio: fator de risco e prevenção do câncer de mama Lipid: risk factor and breast cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Herrmann Cibeira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese de que uma dieta rica em gordura promova o desenvolvimento do câncer de mama na menopausa é fortalecida por estudos caso-controle, que mostram forte associação positiva entre uma dieta rica em lipídios e as taxas de incidência de câncer de mama. Por outro lado, a ingestão dietética de gordura não parece estar relacionada com o risco de câncer de mama em estudos de coorte. Em vista desses achados conflitantes, tem sido difícil propor qualquer recomendação nutricional para a prevenção do câncer de mama. Estudos com animais e observações recentes em humanos, entretanto, têm mostrado evidências de que a dieta rica em ácido graxo linoléico estimula vários estágios no desenvolvimento de câncer mamário. Alguns estudos ainda mostram que o óleo de peixe, constituído de ácidos graxos ômega-3, parece prevenir o câncer pela influência sobre a atividade de enzimas e proteínas relacionadas à proliferação celular. Assim, são necessários estudos epidemiológicos que integrem as interações de ácidos graxos específicos com o catabolismo hormonal, fatores nutricionais protetores e de risco relacionados com o câncer de mama. Nesse trabalho, abordaremos os fatores protetores, de risco e as implicações quali e quantitativas dos ácidos graxos da dieta sobre o câncer de mama.The hypothesis that a high fat diet promotes the development of postmenopausal breast cancer is supported by case-controls studies that show a strong correlation between fat intake and breast cancer rates. On the other hand, high fat intake is not correlated with breast cancer in cohort studies. In view of these conflicting findings, it has been difficult to propose nutritional recommendations for the prevention of breast cancer. Animal studies and recent observations in humans have shown that a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulates several stages in the development of mammary cancer. Some evidences show that fish oil

  15. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  16. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  17. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to make all of the body's estrogen. Aromatase inactivators stop the enzyme from working. Possible harms from taking aromatase inhibitors include muscle and joint pain, osteoporosis, hot flashes, and feeling very tired. Risk-reducing ...

  18. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  19. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  20. The Financial Cost of Preventive and Curative Programs for Breast Cancer: A Case Study of Women in Shiraz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the average costs of breast cancer screening and treatment among women with the age of 25 and over in Shiraz-Iran. Methods Three majors hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS were selected for data collection. Financial documents and interviews with the hospitals’ financial officers were used for data collection. Results Finding shows that the total cost of screening would be 5,847,544.96 US dollars for age groups of 25–34 and 35 and above, demonstrating the huge expense of screening programs. On the other hand, the average cost of breast cancer treatment for each patient would be 3608.47, 996.89, and 311.47 US dollars for mastectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, respectively. In addition, the total average cost for treatment of 2217 patients would be 1,466,988.9 US dollars, which is much less than screening programs expenses. Conclusion It is concluded that although screening can be effective for improving quality of life and treatment effectiveness, considering the high costs of screening, it is not economical in Iran. Screening methods within suitable intervals, and also considering patients’ medical history have been recommended by the present study.

  1. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  2. Iranian women's attitude toward prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Majidzadeh-A

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preventive mastectomy has a higher rate of acceptability among women who have had a family history of breast cancer. Therefore, it may be concluded that raising public awareness about the advantages of prophylactic mastectomy could help better address breast cancer in Iran.

  3. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  4. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  5. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  6. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  7. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-11-14

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol(-1)) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited drug detoxification. In vitro drug-release studies revealed that the core-shell nanoparticles were ruptured upon exposure to lysosomal enzymes like esterase at the intracellular compartments. Cytotoxicity studies were performed both in normal wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (Wt-MEFs), and breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Free cisplatin and polymer drug core-shell nanoparticles showed similar cytotoxicity effects in the HeLa cells. In MCF-7 cells, the free cisplatin drug exhibited 50% cell death whereas complete cell death (100%) was accomplished by the polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that the core-shell nanoparticles were taken up by the MCF-7 and HeLa cells and they were accumulated both at the cytoplasm as well at peri-nuclear environments

  8. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  9. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-song TENG; Yi ZHENG; Hao-hao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women today. Some of the patients are hereditary, with a large proportion characterized by mutation in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. In this review, we provide an overview of these two genes,focusing on their relationship with hereditary breast cancers. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers have unique features that differ from the general breast cancers, including alterations in cellular molecules, pathological bases, biological behavior, and a different prevention strategy. But the outcome of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers still remains controversial;further studies are needed to elucidate the nature of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers.

  10. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2016-08-26

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  11. d-Limonene: a bioactive food component from citrus and evidence for a potential role in breast cancer prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although limited, observations from cell culture, animal, and epidemiological studies support the presence of anti-cancer properties in citrus peel and the primary bioactive food constituent, d-limonene. Early evidence from animal models suggests that when ingested, d-limonene exhibits a wide spectrum of biologic activity including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. In some of these early models, an analog of d-limonene, perillyl alcohol, demonstrated a more potent effect than d-limonene itself. Yet, when perillyl alcohol advanced to clinical trials, several trials were ended early due to doselimiting toxicities. Alternatively, oral d-limonene administration in humans is well tolerated even at high doses supporting its investigation as a potential bioactive for cancer prevention. Though the exact mechanisms of action of d-limonene are unclear, immune modulation and antiproliferative effects are commonly reported. Here, we review the pre-clinical evidence for d-limonene’s anticancer mechanisms, bioavailability, and safety, as well as the evidence for anti-cancer effects in humans, focusing on studies relevant to its use in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  13. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  15. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  16. Investigation and analysis of prevalence rate of breast cancer and knowledge,attitude and practice of breast cancer prevention among rural women in dashi street of panyu district%番禺区大石街农村妇女乳腺癌患病率及乳腺癌预防知信行调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢有彩; 植妙演; 冯金葵; 张小兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对番禺区大石街农村妇女的乳腺癌患病率及乳腺癌预防知信行的调查结果,分析番禺区农村妇女乳腺癌预防的现状及存在问题,为有关机构及部门如何制定对策,预防农村妇女乳腺癌的发生发展提供参考依据。方法采用随机整群抽样法,通过乳腺检查及乳腺癌预防知信行问卷调查的方式,调查番禺区大石街1428名农村妇女乳腺癌患病率及乳腺癌预防的知信行现状,回收有效问卷1420份。结果受调查者对乳腺癌的12项危险因素平均知晓率为42.25%,乳腺癌的5项征兆的平均知晓率为41.06%;对乳腺癌预防的3项态度调查,同意及非常同意的平均占89.74%,不一定及不同意的平均占10.26%;乳腺彩超或X线检查中从未检查的13.73%,定期检查的18.31%,乳腺自检中从未自检的37.75%、定期自检的仅0.99%;乳腺癌患病率为0.14%,其他乳腺疾病以乳腺增生和乳腺囊肿为主,患病率依次为29.44%、6.55%。结论番禺区大石街农村妇女对乳腺癌预防基本知识的知晓率低,约10%对乳腺癌预防持消极态度,乳腺定期检查率低,乳腺癌及其他乳腺疾病患病率较高。社区卫生服务机构及其主管部门应针对存在问题制定对策,有效防控农村妇女乳腺癌的发生发展。%Objective To analyze the current status and existing problems of breast cancer prevention among the rural women in Panyu District and provide reference to related authorities and departments on how to develop countermeasures and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer among rural women through investigating the prevalence rate of breast cancer and the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP) of breast cancer prevention among the rural women in Dashi street of Panyu district. Methods Using the random cluster sampling method and through the breast examination and breast cancer prevention KAP questionnaire survey, the

  17. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol-1) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited cisplatin and polymer drug core-shell nanoparticles showed similar cytotoxicity effects in the HeLa cells. In MCF-7 cells, the free cisplatin drug exhibited 50% cell death whereas complete cell death (100%) was accomplished by the polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that the core-shell nanoparticles were taken up by the MCF-7 and HeLa cells and they were accumulated both at the cytoplasm as well at peri-nuclear environments. The present investigation lays a new foundation for the polymer-based core-shell nanoparticles approach for overcoming detoxification in platinum drugs for the treatment of GSH over-expressed breast cancer cells.Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over

  19. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  20. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  1. Socio-Demographic and Cognitive Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the causes of cancer death among women. In developed countries, one out of every nine women is diagnosed with this type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and cognitive determinants related to breast cancer screening among Iranian women’s based on the protection motivation theory (PMT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 women’s aged 35 to 50 years old referred to health centers in Abadan city, the southwest of Iran, during 2016. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlation, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 39.12 years [95% CI: 38.72, 39.53], ranged from 35 to 50 years. Almost 7.5% and 19.1% of the participants had mammography and self-breast examination during last year. Age, education and positive history of breast cancer among family were the best socio-demographic predictive factors of breast cancer screening. Also among theoretical constructs of PMT, perceived severity and self-efficacy were the best predictors on breast cancer screening. Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of breast cancer and increase self-efficacy toward breast cancer screening behavior may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of breast cancer.

  2. In utero exposure and breast cancer development: an epigenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob; Hodsdon, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous and detrimental disease of breast cancer requires continual research into new and alternative forms of treatment and prevention. The emerging field of epigenetics is beginning to unfold an array of contemporary approaches to reduce the risk and improve the clinical approach to breast cancer. The information contained in this non-systematic review highlights and expands on the estrogen-based model of breast cancer epigenetics to provide an overview of epigenetic alterations induced by nutrition and environmental exposure. The majority of evidence suggests that various sources of excess estrogen correlate to future breast cancer development. In addition, maternal macro- and micronutrient balance appear to play a role in genomic regulation, and preliminary data suggest that specific superfoods, such as blueberries, have a protective epigenetic effect. Identifying the influence of environmental toxicants, hormonal exposure, maternal nutrition, and maternal disease on fetal epigenetics may have potential for development of new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of breast cancer.

  3. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  4. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  5. Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Mary Atanga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE; 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83% having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17% of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE.

  6. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  7. Pregnancy-related characteristics and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-09-01

    Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  8. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  9. The role of captopril and losartan in prevention and regression of tamoxifen-induced resistance of breast cancer cell line MCF-7: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Soha; Rostami-Yalmeh, Javad; Sahebi, Ebrahim; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Hosseini, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Innate and acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is an important problem in adjuvant endocrine therapy. The underlying mechanisms of TAM resistance is yet unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the acquisition of TAM resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and the potential role of captopril and captopril+losartan combination in the prevention and reversion of the TAM resistant phenotype. MCF-7 cells were continuously exposed to 1 μmol/L TAM to develop TAM resistant cells (TAM-R). MTT cell viability assay was used to determine the growth response of MCF-7 and TAM-R cells, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor type-1 and type-2 (AGTR1 and AGTR2) mRNA expressions. Preventive and therapeutic effects of RAS blockers - captopril and losartan - were examined on MCF-7 and TAM-R cells. Based on qRT-PCR, TAM-R cells compared to MCF-7 cells, had a mean ± SD fold increase of 319.1 ± 204.1 (P = 0.002) in production of ACE mRNA level, 2211.8 ± 777.9 (P = 0.002) in AGTR1 mRNA level, and 265.9 ± 143.9 (P = 0.037) in production of AGTR2 mRNA level. The combination of either captopril or captopril+losartan with TAM led to the prevention and even reversion of TAM resistant phenotype.

  10. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  11. Condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados Breast cancer's secondary prevention and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leal Sclowitz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional na cidade de Pelotas, RS, em 2002, com amostra de 879 mulheres de 40 a 69 anos. Foram coletadas informações sobre variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, biológicas e referentes ao manejo médico. A análise estatística das variáveis foi realizada utilizando o método de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do "hábito de realizar o auto-exame" encontrada foi de 83,5% (IC 95%: 80,9-85,9, sendo que, dessas mulheres, 80,4% (IC 95%: 77,3-83,2 o realizavam ao menos uma vez ao mês. A prevalência de "exame clínico de mamas" foi de 83,3% (IC 95%: 80,6-85,7. "Mamografia alguma vez na vida" mostrou prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 66,8-73,0, sendo que 83,7% (IC 95%: 80,5-86,6 realizaram a última mamografia há dois anos ou menos. Das entrevistadas, 62% (IC 95%: 58,7-65,2 consultaram ginecologista ao menos uma vez no último ano. Os fatores associados a maiores prevalências das condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama foram: pertencer às classes sociais mais altas; ter a maior combinação de fatores de risco para neoplasia mamária; ter história familiar de câncer de mama; fazer uso de terapia de reposição hormonal e ter sido submetida à biópsia por patologia mamária. CONCLUSÕES: As medidas preventivas para o câncer de mama vêm sendo bastante utilizadas quantitativamente; entretanto, os dados apontam para limitações em relação à sua adequação. O nível socioeconômico parece ser o principal determinante do acesso à consulta ginecológica e, conseqüentemente, às demais condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of secondary prevention of breast cancer and associated factors. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of

  12. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  13. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  14. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  15. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S

    1982-08-01

    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  16. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  17. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  18. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  19. Metals and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  20. 乳腺癌防治社区干预模式及效果评价研究%Effect evaluation study of community intervention model for breast cancer prevention and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚瑞峰; 卢雪珍; 刘政红; 刘湘晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of community intervention on women's awareness of breast cancer prevention and treatment and explore suitable community intervention model for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Methods From 2011 to 2013,married women within jurisdiction received breast cancer screening and their personal information was recorded. Results (1)From 2011 to 2013,the breast ultrasound examination rates were 16.05%,18.39% and 25.47% respectively,with statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). (2)The breast cancer detection rates were 10.61/100 thousand,67.85/100 thousand and 110.29/100 thousand. The breast molybdenum target screening model was further used for the abnormal results in breast black-and-white ultrasound B, and the breast cancer detection rates were 66.09/100 thousand,369.00/100 thousand and 433.09/100 thousand. For the breast cancer screening using only clinical palpation and breast infrared ray,the detection rate was 0. (3)Of the 17 cases of breast cancer,14 cases were in clinical stage I. Conclusion Community intervention can improve the women's awareness of breast cancer prevention and treatment. Suitable breast cancer screening method can improve the early detection,early diagnosis and early cure rates of breast cancer,avoid health damage caused by subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy,improve the patients' quality of life through allowing breast-conserving surgery,and obtain favorable social benefits.%目的:了解社区干预对妇女防治乳腺癌意识的影响,探索适合社区的乳腺癌防治干预模式。方法2011~2013年对辖区内已婚育龄妇女进行乳腺癌筛查,并记录个人信息。结果(1)2011~2013年乳腺超声受检率分别为16.05%、18.39%、25.47%,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(2)乳腺癌检出率分别为10.61/10万、67.85/10万、110.29/10万。其中采用乳腺黑白B超异常进一步乳腺钼靶筛查模式,乳腺癌检出率为66.09/10

  1. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  2. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs of vulvar cancer. This is known as self-examination. Some women choose to examine themselves monthly using ... Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

  3. The impact of oophorectomy on survival after breast cancer in BRCA1-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzarski, T; Byrski, T; Gronwald, J; Cybulski, C; Oszurek, O; Szwiec, M; Gugała, K; Stawicka, M; Morawiec, Z; Mierzwa, T; Falco, M; Janiszewska, H; Kilar, E; Marczyk, E; Kozak-Klonowska, B; Siołek, M; Surdyka, D; Wiśniowski, R; Posmyk, M; Domagała, P; Sun, P; Lubiński, J; Narod, S A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to identify treatments which predict survival for women with a BRCA1 mutation, including oophorectomy and chemotherapy. 476 women with stage I to stage III breast cancer who carried a BRCA1 mutation were followed from diagnosis until April 2015. Information on treatment was obtained from chart review and patient questionnaires. Dates of death were obtained from the Poland vital statistics registry. Survival curves were compared for different subgroups according to treatment received. Predictors of overall survival were determined using the Cox proportional hazards model. The ten-year overall survival was 78.3 % (95 % CI 74.2-82.6 %) and the ten-year breast cancer-specific survival was 84.2 % (95 % CI 80.5-88.0 %). Sixty-two patients died of breast cancer, 14 patients died of ovarian cancer, and 2 patients died of peritoneal cancer. Oophorectomy was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality in the entire cohort (adjusted HR = 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69; p = 0.0008) and in breast cancer-specific mortality among ER-negative breast cancer patients (HR = 0.44; 95 % CI 0.22-0.89; p = 0.02). Among women with breast cancer and a BRCA1 mutation, survival is greatly improved by oophorectomy due to the prevention of deaths from both breast and ovarian cancer.

  4. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  5. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  6. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  7. Vital Signs – Defeating Breast Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-12

    This podcast is based on the November 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Better screening and treatment have contributed to a decline in breast cancer deaths, however, not all women have benefited equally from these improvements. Learn how we can all help reduce deaths from breast cancer.  Created: 11/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/12/2012.

  8. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  9. N-acetylcysteine prevents cadmium-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB468 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, M; Alaie, S H

    2014-05-11

    Cadmium is a heavy metal posing severe risks and destructive effects on human health. Although cadmium was classified as a human carcinogen, it has been also shown to be a cytotoxic agent that induces cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role of N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, on cadmium induced apoptosis in MDA-MB468 cells. The breast cancer cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdCl2 in the presence and absence of NAC and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. The microscopic studies of apoptosis were carried out with fluorescent staining. To investigate the induction of apoptosis, cellular DNA was isolated using DNA kit extraction and analyzed electrophoretically. The results showed significant decrease in cellular viability upon 48 hours exposure to CdCl2 in a dose-dependent manner (p cadmium cytotoxicity effects and protected cells from apoptotic death. DNA Hoechst staining showed the apoptotic bodies. The electrophoresis of extracted DNA identified a fragmentation pattern consistent with apoptosis mechanism. The results suggest that cytotoxic effects and induction of apoptosis caused by CdCl2 are mediated, by oxidative stress.

  10. An autoimmune-mediated strategy for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaini, Ritika; Kesaraju, Pavani; Johnson, Justin M; Altuntas, Cengiz Z; Jane-Wit, Daniel; Tuohy, Vincent K

    2010-07-01

    Although vaccination is most effective when used to prevent disease, cancer vaccine development has focused predominantly on providing therapy against established growing tumors. The difficulty in developing prophylactic cancer vaccines is primarily due to the fact that tumor antigens are variations of self proteins and would probably mediate profound autoimmune complications if used in a preventive vaccine setting. Here we use several mouse breast cancer models to define a prototypic strategy for prophylactic cancer vaccination. We selected alpha-lactalbumin as our target vaccine autoantigen because it is a breast-specific differentiation protein expressed in high amounts in the majority of human breast carcinomas and in mammary epithelial cells only during lactation. We found that immunoreactivity against alpha-lactalbumin provides substantial protection and therapy against growth of autochthonous tumors in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer and against 4T1 transplantable breast tumors in BALB/c mice. Because alpha-lactalbumin is conditionally expressed only during lactation, vaccination-induced prophylaxis occurs without any detectable inflammation in normal nonlactating breast tissue. Thus, alpha-lactalbumin vaccination may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer for women in their post-child-bearing, premenopausal years, when lactation is readily avoidable and risk for developing breast cancer is high.

  11. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with risk of recurrence in women with early-stage breast cancer can be used to identify the most appropriate ... novel agents, technologies, and markers for better diagnosis, prognosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer. Summer 2014 Issue: Volume 9 Number 2 Page ...

  12. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  13. Cardiovascular Complications of Breast Cancer Therapy in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Igor; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Patel, Manesh R.; Winchester, Mark A.; Owusu, Cynthia; Kimmick, Gretchen G.

    2011-01-01

    Older adults frequently have pre-existing and cancer-related risk factors for cardiovascular toxicity from cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the risk factors and strategies for prevention and management of cardiovascular complications in older women with breast cancer. PMID:21737575

  14. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? Most women have one or more ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests ...

  15. Rural-urban disparities of breast cancer patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Bu, Yulan; Gao, Hua

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rural-urban disparities in breast cancer patients in China. The retrospective study was performed with a total of 2,139 breast cancer patients hospitalized in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between the years 1997 and 2011. We applied Chi-square analysis to identify significant disparities between rural and urban populations. Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors associated with the adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Two-fifths of patients were considered rural dwellers. Significant disparities were found in marriage age (p rural-urban differences were also shown in the choice of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0050) and surgical procedures (p rural-urban breast cancer patients exist in China. Interventions to increase early diagnosis of breast cancer among rural area are in need. Further research is needed to investigate potential attitude and perception differences between rural and urban populations with respect to breast cancer preventions and treatments.

  16. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  17. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  18. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC) This type of breast cancer starts in ... that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the ...

  19. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  20. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  1. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  5. Do cosmetic products which are prevent sweating cause breast cancer?Terlemeyi önleyen kozmetik ürünler meme kanserine mi neden oluyor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Güler Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, underarm and antiperspirant deodorants are extensively consumed cosmetic products in order to prevent sweating. Increasing use of these products is revived the claims of increasing of breast cancer risk. While discussing these claims, drawn attention at society, in the popular press and on the Internet, it has begun to discuss in the scientific literature at the same time. There are academic studies which are shown the relation between underarm cosmetic products and breast cancer as well as the opposites. In this article, literature about whether there is relationship between underarm cosmetic products and breast cancer is reviewed and obtained findings are explained.    Özet Günümüzde koltuk altı ve antiperspirant deodorantlar terlemeyi önlemek amacıyla yaygın olarak kullanılan kozmetik ürünlerdir. Bu ürünlerin kullanımının artması, özellikle meme kanseri riskini arttırdığı iddialarını gündeme getirmiştir. Toplumun ilgisini de çeken bu iddialar popüler basın ve internet üzerinde tartışılırken, aynı zamanda bilimsel literatürde de tartışılmaya başlamıştır. Literatürde koltuk altı kozmetik ürünlerle meme kanseri arasında ilişki olduğunu belirten çalışmaların yanı sıra ilişki olmadığını gösteren çalışmalarda yer almaktadır. Bu makalede, koltuk altı kozmetik ürünlerle meme kanseri arasında ilişki olup olmadığına ilişkin literatür taranmış ve elde edilen bulgular açıklanmıştır.

  6. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  9. Misconceptions about breast lumps and delayed medical presentation in urban breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Garth H; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Kaiser, Karen; Campbell, Richard; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Warnecke, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite current recommendations for women to be screened for breast cancer with mammography every one to two years, less than half of all newly diagnosed breast cancers are initially detected through screening mammography. Prompt medical attention to a new breast symptom can result in earlier stage at diagnosis, yet many patients delay seeking medical care after becoming aware of a breast symptom. METHODS In a population-based study of breast cancer we examined factors potentially associated with patient delay in seeking health care for a breast symptom among 436 symptomatic urban breast cancer patients (146 White, 197 Black and 95 Hispanic). Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health care access and utilization, and misconceptions about the meaning of breast lumps were the key independent variables. RESULTS Sixteen percent of patients reported delaying more than 3 months before seeking medical advice about breast symptoms. Misconceptions about breast lumps, and lacking a regular provider, health insurance and recent preventive care were all associated with prolonged patient delay (p<0.005 for all). Misconceptions were much more common among ethnic minorities and women of lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION Reducing patient delay and disparities in delay will require both educating women about the importance of getting breast lumps evaluated in a timely manner, and providing greater access to regular health care. PMID:20200436

  10. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  11. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  12. The {Delta}Np63 Proteins Are Key Allies of BRCA1 in the Prevention of Basal-Like Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Niamh E

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the origin of basal-like breast cancers, an aggressive disease that is highly similar to BRCA1-mutant breast cancers. p63 family proteins that are structurally related to the p53 suppressor protein are known to function in stem cell regulation and stratified epithelia development in multiple tissues, and p63 expression may be a marker of basal-like breast cancers. Here we report that ΔNp63 isoforms of p63 are transcriptional targets for positive regulation by BRCA1. Our analyses of breast cancer tissue microarrays and BRCA1-modulated breast cancer cell lines do not support earlier reports that p63 is a marker of basal-like or BRCA1 mutant cancers. Nevertheless, we found that BRCA1 interacts with the specific p63 isoform ΔNp63γ along with transcription factor isoforms AP-2α and AP-2γ. BRCA1 required ΔNp63γ and AP-2γ to localize to an intronic enhancer region within the p63 gene to upregulate transcription of the ΔNp63 isoforms. In mammary stem\\/progenitor cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ΔNp63 expression resulted in genomic instability, increased cell proliferation, loss of DNA damage checkpoint control, and impaired growth control. Together, our findings establish that transcriptional upregulation of ΔNp63 proteins is critical for BRCA1 suppressor function and that defects in BRCA1-ΔNp63 signaling are key events in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Res; 71(5); 1933-44. ©2011 AACR.

  13. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  14. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  15. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  16. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  17. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  18. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  19. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  1. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? NCI is developing a phase II placebo-controlled trial to evaluate whether lovastatin can reverse ...

  2. Cancer of the breast. Radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Deutsch, M

    1979-01-01

    There are many questions that have to be answered concerning the role of radiotherapy in the management of primary breast cancer. Hopefully, prospective clinical trials will provide some answers, but more basic research into the biology of breast cancer and the host-tumor relationship will be needed. There are indications that radiotherapy alone, or following minimal extirpative surgery in selected cases, may be as effective for control of breast cancer as conventional mastectomies. The role of radiotherapy following segmental mastectomy, with or without axillary dissection, needs to be clarified. The possibility exists that high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation such as neutron or pi meson beams may provide better local control than conventional radiation. Thus, it may be possible to treat effectively all primary breast cancers with such radiations and obviate the need for any type of mastectomy. It remains to be demonstrated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is as effective as radiotherapy in preventing chest wall and regional node recurrences. If it is not, there may be a place for both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Likewise, effective chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy may increase the local and regional control achieved with radiotherapy alone and make more primary lesions suitable for treatment without mastectomy. Meyer (1970) recently called attention to the leukopenia and cellualr immune deficiency produced by irradiation to the thorax and mediastinum. Further study is necessary to define exactly how much immunosuppression results from radiotherapy, its clinical significance and what can be done to avoid or counter it. If Stjervsward's thesis (1974) concerning the deleterious effects of radiotherapy on survival is correct, then it is of great importance to identify those patients most likely to be adversely affected by radiotherapy. Conversely, it may be possible in the future to identify a

  3. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  4. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  6. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  7. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amódio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient’s general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03. The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100% in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72% in controls (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors’ quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment.

  8. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  9. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  10. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  11. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  12. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  13. Targeting Alpha5 Beta1 Integrin to Prevent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Invasion: PhScN Target Site Definition and Plasma Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    mediated invasion through noncovalent interaction with α5β1 receptors of SUM149PT and MDA-MB-231 metastatic human breast cancer cells, and laid the...foundation for detailed structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies for both peptides as inhibitors of α5β1– mediated metastatic breast cancer invasion...100,000–fold more potent than PHSCN at blocking α5β1– mediated invasion. Furthermore, inclusion of a total of 8 (acetylated) Ac-PhScNGGK sequences on a

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  16. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  17. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  18. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  19. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  20. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  1. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  2. N1-Guanyl-1,7-Diaminoheptane Sensitizes Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin by Preventing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Inhibition of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 30% of breast cancer does not express the estrogen receptor (ER, which is necessary for endocrine-based therapy approaches. Many studies demonstrated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2 serves as a proliferation-related oncogene in tumorigenic processes. Methods: The present study used cell viability assays, EdU incorporation assays, western blot, and immunofluorescence to explore whether N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7, which inhibits eIF5A2 activation, exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in breast cancer. Results: We found that GC7 enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in ER-negative HCC1937 cells but had little effect in ER-positive MCF-7 and Bcap-37 cells. Administration of GC7 reversed the doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Knockdown of eIF5A2 by siRNA inhibited the doxorubicin-induced EMT in ER-negative HCC1937 cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that GC7 combination therapy may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in estrogen negative breast cancer cells by preventing EMT through inhibition of eIF5A2 activation.

  3. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  4. Dietary fiber and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A

    1999-01-01

    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  5. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  6. Perspectives of breast cancer etiology: synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Hong Zhu; Cao-Hui Hu; Paul Strickland

    2011-01-01

    To explore breast cancer etiology, literature was searched using Medline. We explored the (1)plausibility of smoking in breast carcinogenesis; (2) physiological properties, susceptibility windows, and exposure timing of breast cells; (3) role of exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; (4) biological mechanism of synergistic interactions between smoking and exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; and (5) evidence from epidemiologic studies and the fitted secular trend between smoking rate, exogenous hormone use, and breast cancer incidence in past decades. We deduced that exogenous hormone use per se is not a significant cause and its association with breast cancer is distorted by chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens, especially smoking. We hypothesize that smoking is one of the causes of breast cancer and that this causality is strengthened by synergistic interaction between smoking and exogenous hormone use. Physicians should be cautious of prescribing exogenous hormones for those with chronic exposure to environmental carcinogens to prevent breast cancer.

  7. BREAST AND/OR OVARIAN CANCER AS PART OF FAMILY CANCER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lyubchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in the early diagnosis, primary and secondary prevention of family cancer of the breast and/or ovaries are successfully solved within medical genetic counseling at a cancer clinic. Its genetic diagnosis is confirmed, individual risks for breast and/or ovarian cancer are calculated, risk-modifying factors are studied, and treatment, family planning, and childbirth are discussed during clinicogenetic studies.

  8. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Marquart, Louise; McGuffog, Lesley;

    2011-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies.......Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies....

  9. Resistance to Trastuzumab in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Paula R; Mayer, Ingrid A; Mernaugh, Ray

    2009-12-15

    HER2 is a transmembrane oncoprotein encoded by the HER2/neu gene and is overexpressed in approximately 20 to 25% of invasive breast cancers. It can be therapeutically targeted by trastuzumab, a humanized IgG1 kappa light chain monoclonal antibody. Although trastuzumab is currently considered one of the most effective treatments in oncology, a significant number of patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer do not benefit from it. Understanding the mechanisms of action and resistance to trastuzumab is therefore crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review discusses proposed trastuzumab mode of action as well as proposed mechanisms for resistance. Mechanisms for resistance are grouped into four main categories: (1) obstacles preventing trastuzumab binding to HER2; (2) upregulation of HER2 downstream signaling pathways; (3) signaling through alternate pathways; and (4) failure to trigger an immune-mediated mechanism to destroy tumor cells. These potential mechanisms through which trastuzumab resistance may arise have been used as a guide to develop drugs, presently in clinical trials, to overcome resistance. The mechanisms conferring trastuzumab resistance, when completely understood, will provide insight on how best to treat HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The understanding of each mechanism of resistance is therefore critical for the educated development of strategies to overcome it, as well as for the development of tools that would allow definitive and efficient patient selection for each therapy. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7479-91).

  10. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  11. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  12. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  13. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  14. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  15. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  16. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  17. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...comprehensive and systematic manner is the underlying principle of my goal to develop ’rational combination immunotherapy’ for breast cancer, one

  18. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  19. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  20. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  1. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  2. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  3. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  4. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Induction of PTEN-p53 crosstalk in mammary epithelial cells: A novel mechanism of breast cancer prevention by the dietary factor genistein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of soy foods either at an early age or for lifetime has been associated with reduced risk for developing breast cancer in humans and in animal models. However, this association continues to be controversial, and the precise mechanisms for protection remain elusive. Among the soy products...

  6. Prevention of febrile leucopenia after chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients : no significant difference between granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factor or ciprofloxacin plus amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, CP; de Vries, EGE; Muder, NH; Willemse, PHB; Sleijfer, DT; Hospers, GAP; van der Graaf, WTA

    1999-01-01

    In a prospective randomized trial, 40 stage IV breast cancer patients undergoing intermediate high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil plus epirubicin or methotrexate), received either recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF, group I) or ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B (CAB, group II) for

  7. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  8. A New Immunologic Method for Detection of Occult Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    215, 1988. 29 P.I., Rishab K. Gupta, Ph.D. 38. Repetto L, Onetto M, Gardin G, Costanzi B, Guidici S, Vitiello E, Merlini L, Naso C, Zannini C...Serum CA15-3 assay in the diagnosis and follow-up of breast cancer. BrJ Cancer 58: 213-215, 1988. 40. Repetto L, Onetto M, Gardin G, Costanzi B... REPETTO L, ONETTO M, GARDIN G, et al: Serum CEA, CA15-3, and MCA in breast cancer patients: A clinical evaluation. Cancer Detection & Prevention 17:411

  9. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  10. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  11. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Kelly M. [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); Kirby, John A. [Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lennard, Thomas W.J. [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Meeson, Annette P., E-mail: annette.meeson@ncl.ac.uk [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-19

    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  12. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  13. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  14. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  15. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  16. An Immunotherapeutic Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer, Based on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant, Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    34 J Immunol 148(5): 1547-53. Pai, L.H. and I. Pastan (1994). Immunotoxins and recombinant toxins for cancer treatment. Important Advances in Oncology ...V. T. DeVita , S. Hellman and S. A. Rosenberg. Philadelphia, Lippincott Company: 3-19. Parker, S.L., T. Tong, S. Bolden and P.A. Wingo (1996). "Cancer

  17. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  18. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  19. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  20. 27-Hydroxycholesterol Links Hypercholesterolemia and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik R.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Jasper, Jeff S.; Park, Sunghee; Suchindran, Sunil; Howe, Matthew K.; Carver, Nicole J.; Pillai, Ruchita V.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Sondhi, Varun; Umetani, Michihisa; Geradts, Joseph; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers and is associated with a decreased response of tumors to endocrine therapies. Here we show that 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC), a primary metabolite of cholesterol and an ER and Liver X receptor (LXR) ligand, increases ER-dependent growth and LXR-dependent metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer. The effects of cholesterol on tumor pathology required its conversion to 27HC by the cytochrome P450 oxidase CYP27A1, and were attenuated by treatment with CYP27A1 inhibitors. In human breast cancer specimens, CYP27A1 expression levels correlated with tumor grade. In high-grade tumors, both tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages exhibited high expression levels of the enzyme. Thus, lowering circulating cholesterol levels or interfering with its conversion to 27HC may be a useful strategy to prevent and/or treat breast cancer. PMID:24288332

  1. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  2. Deregulation of splicing factors and breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silipo, Marco; Gautrey, Hannah; Tyson-Capper, Alison

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that many genes implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer undergo aberrant alternative splicing events to produce proteins with pro-cancer properties. These changes in alternative splicing can arise from mutations or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA sequences of cancer-related genes, which can strongly affect the activity of splicing factors and influence the splice site choice. However, it is important to note that absence of mutations is not sufficient to prevent misleading choices in splice site selection. There is now increasing evidence to demonstrate that the expression profile of ten splicing factors (including SRs and hnRNPs) and eight RNA-binding proteins changes in breast cancer cells compared with normal cells. These modifications strongly influence the alternative splicing pattern of many cancer-related genes despite the absence of any detrimental mutations within their DNA sequences. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of the splicing factor status in breast cancer is important to provide insights into the mechanisms that lead to breast cancer development and metastasis. Whilst most studies focus on mutations that affect alternative splicing in cancer-related genes, this review focuses on splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins that are themselves deregulated in breast cancer and implicated in cancer-related alternative splicing events.

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  4. Using Breast Cancer Risk Associated Polymorphisms to Identify Women for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Elad; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Sprague, Brian; Vachon, Celine M.; Cummings, Steven R.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention. Methods We used the risk distribution among women ages 35–69 estimated by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model. We modeled the effect of adding 70 SNPs to the BCSC model and examined how this would affect how many women are reclassified above and below the threshold for chemoprevention. Results We found that most of the benefit of SNP testing a population is achieved by testing a modest fraction of the population. For example, if women with a 5-year BCSC risk of >2.0% are tested (~21% of all women), ~75% of the benefit of testing all women (shifting women above or below 3% 5-year risk) would be derived. If women with a 5-year risk of >1.5% are tested (~36% of all women), ~90% of the benefit of testing all women would be derived. Conclusion SNP testing is effective for reclassification of women for chemoprevention, but is unlikely to reclassify women with <1.5% 5-year risk. These results can be used to implement an efficient two-step testing approach to identify high risk women who may benefit from chemoprevention. PMID:28107349

  5. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  6. Tumor slice culture system to assess drug response of primary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Naipal (Kishan); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); S.H. Sanchez (Humberto); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R. Kanaar (Roland); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); A. Jager (Agnes); D.C. van Gent (Dik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The high incidence of breast cancer has sparked the development of novel targeted and personalized therapies. Personalization of cancer treatment requires reliable prediction of chemotherapy responses in individual patients. Effective selection can prevent unnecessary treatme

  7. The basic mechanisms the influence of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer and metabolic syndrome remains one of the most urgent problems of modern medicine worldwide. In this review, highlights the molecular pathways that underlie the negative impact of metabolic syndrome on the risk and prognosis of breast cancer. A better understanding of these pathways will help to optimize prevention and treatment of breast cancer in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  10. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  11. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  12. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  13. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  14. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  15. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Vijai, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation...... of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical prevention of breast cancer....

  16. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  18. Breast cancer and breast screening: perceptions of Chinese migrant women living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Migrant Chinese constitute a significant and increasing proportion of New Zealand women. They have lower rates of participation in breast cancer screening than other New Zealanders, but reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting Chinese women’s understanding of, and access to, breast health services, to better understand reasons for low participation in screening and their experiences of breast cancer clinic care. METHODS: The participants were 26 Chinese migrant women—19 recruited in the community and seven recruited from 17 eligible women attending a breast clinic between 2008 and 2010 in Wellington, New Zealand. The design was that of a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews and thematic content analysis. FINDINGS: There were low levels of awareness about the national breast screening programme and limited engagement with preventive primary care services. Concerns about privacy and a range of communication difficulties were identified that related to oral language, lack of written information in Chinese, and limited understanding about Chinese perceptions of ill health and traditional Chinese medicine by New Zealand health professionals. CONCLUSION: Addressing communication barriers for Chinese migrant women has the potential to raise awareness about breast cancer and breast health, and to increase successful participation in breast cancer screening. Greater efforts are needed to ensure this group has an understanding of, and is engaged with a primary care provider. Such efforts are key to improving health for this growing sector of the New Zealand population.

  19. Breast Imaging in Evaluation of Breast Cancer: Radiologist’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sedighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In every breast imaging, the radiologist confronts these questions:"n1. Finding the lesion"n2. Is the lesion real?"n3. Where the pathology lies"n4. What the lesion is "n5. What should be done about it?"nThe major objective in breast imaging is the detection of breast cancers at a small size and early stage in an effort to reduce mortality."nSome conditions limit evaluation of breast cancer imaging."nWhen additional mammographic views or ultrasound are unable to triangulate the location of a lesion, computed tomography can be very helpful for locating lesions three dimensionally. MRI with and without contrast is the other modality for evaluation of problematic cases or ambiguous findings in other modalities."nImplants present a problem for breast imaging in that they may prevent optimal visualization of the tissues."nA focal asymmetric density may merely represent an island of breast tissue. DCIS, with or without calcification, and metastatic axillary lymph nodes in a normal mammogram are some of the problematic cases of breast cancer."nThis presentation is expected to include real cases of breast cancer with the above-mentioned problems or unusual manifestations, which are resolved by a combination of different imaging modalities.    

  20. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  1. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  2. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  4. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Michael A; Ebelt, Nancy D; Pfefferle, Adam D; Perou, Charles M; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-05-20

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis.

  5. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  6. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  7. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: MWilliamson@salud.unm.edu Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  8. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  9. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  10. Predictors of breast self-examination as cancer prevention practice among women of reproductive age-group in a rural town in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of breast cancer plays an important role in decreasing its morbidity and mortality. This study therefore examines the factors influencing breast self-examination (BSE awareness and practices among women in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between 22 April and 13 May 2013 using a semi- structured questionnaire. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select one participant per household into the study. Results: A total of 495 women were interviewed in this study, the mean age of the respondents was 36.45 ± 5.12 years. About half (58.2% of respondents have heard of BSE and 24.4% have ever perform BSE. Only 5.3% of our respondents perform BSE regularly (monthly as recommended. Barrier to non-performance of BSE were perception of not being at risk (47.6%, lack of knowledge of how to perform BSE (47.6%. Only 18.5% of respondents have ever had their breast examined by physicians for lump and all of them had continued to perform BSE afterwards. The only predictor of awareness and practice of breast self-examination was tertiary level of education [odds ratio (OR = 1.43 cumulative incidence (CI = 1.12-2.18]. Conclusion: The study shows level of education, smoking habits and history of breast exam by health professional and were the factors found associated with BSE practice. Training on BSE should be given to women especially during antenatal care in order to increase the practice of BSE thus averting the severe morbidity and mortality of breast cancer in developing countries.

  11. ANTISENSE TECHNIQUE TO TREAT BREAST CANCER – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many genes which are responsible for developing breast cancer especially, BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2 and HER2 are extensively involved in developing breast cancer and hence it is the centre of attractions for all the researchers. Nano-particles conjugated with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies are called as “Trastazumab” which directly target the HER2 gene. The major advantage of this technology is that the cells can be prevented before they evolve in to mature stages i.e. metastases production. The BRCA2 gene belongs to the family of tumor suppressor genes and its protein product is responsible for the error free repair mechanisms of DNA. This BRCA2 gene interacts with RAD51 gene to fix the DNA breaks. Mutation in BRCA2 gene such as insertion and deletion leads to breast cancer. More than 800 mutations are found in this gene that lead to increased risk of the breast cancer. Furthermore, BRCA2 gene is also associated with various cancers like prostate, ovarian, fallopian, male breast cancer. Researchers believe that altered products produced due to defects in this gene are unable to interact with the gene RAD51 and cannot repair the DNA. Antisense RNA is the tool which can used to block any RNA or DNA to synthesize its product. In this review we focus in using Antisense RNA against the sense RNA of an altered BRCA2 gene to block the altered affectivity of that gene on the DNA repair mechanism. However, Antisense RNA technique may not help in treating breast cancer, it can better manage the breast cancer to occur.

  12. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  13. Tannic Acid Preferentially Targets Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Booth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts investigating the potential of natural compounds in the fight against cancer are growing. Tannic acid (TA belongs to the class of hydrolysable tannins and is found in numerous plants and foods. TA is a potent collagen cross-linking agent; the purpose of this study was to generate TA-cross-linked beads and assess the effects on breast cancer cell growth. Collagen beads were stable at body temperature following crosslinking. Exposure to collagen beads with higher levels of TA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. TA-induced apoptosis involved activation of caspase 3/7 and caspase 9 but not caspase 8. Breast cancer cells expressing the estrogen receptor were more susceptible to the effects of TA. Taken together the results suggest that TA has the potential to become an anti-ER+ breast cancer treatment or preventative agent.

  14. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F

    1984-03-01

    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  15. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101, 1767 (Apr 18, 2000). 33. E. A. Rakha, Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast...cancer patients at diagnosis IL-6 plasma levels have been shown to be elevated in advanced metastatic BC patients (15, 31). To investigate whether the...plasma from BC patients was collected at diagnosis prior to surgery or any therapy. Interestingly, we found that IL-6 plasma levels were not

  16. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  17. Conferences point to growing concern about possible links between breast cancer, environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, B

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is growing that there may be a connection between certain chemicals in the environment and the rising incidence of breast cancer in North America. Two recent Canadian conferences have been held to disseminate information and another is planned for 1996. "We have a situation that is similar to global warming, " Devra Lee Davis, founder of the US Breast Cancer Prevention Collaborative Research Group, warned people attending a conference in Niagara Falls, Ont. "Breast cancer continues t...

  18. Outcomes of a Weight Loss Intervention among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Austin, Heather; Perri, Michael G.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Fabian, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Obese breast cancer survivors have increased risk of recurrence and death compared to their normal weight counterparts. Rural women have significantly higher obesity rates, thus weight control intervention may be a key strategy for prevention of breast cancer recurrence in this population. This one arm treatment study examined the impact of a group-based weight control intervention delivered through conference call technology to obese breast cancer survivors living in remote rural locations. ...

  19. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  20. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  1. An Immunotherapeutic Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer, Based on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant, Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    effects of heparin and heparin derivatives on the growth and differentiation of human foreskin keratinocytes. 7/90-8/91 Cell Biology: Dr. Patrick ...Department of Biology (Dr. Patrick Williamson) - Spring 󈨟 Facilitator Instructor Tutor Phlebotomist Clinical Arts. Medical school course...Association for Cancer Research, 38:243, 1997. Pillai , S., Gilliam, L., Conrad, H.E., and Holleran, W.M.: Heparin and Its Non- Anticoagulant

  2. Cost-effectiveness of febrile neutropenia prevention with primary versus secondary G-CSF prophylaxis for adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, T; Rayson, D; Jovanovic, S; Skedgel, C

    2016-10-01

    The adoption of primary (PP) versus secondary prophylaxis (SP) of febrile neutropenia (FN), with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) regimens in breast cancer (BC) could be affected by its "value for money". This systematic review examined (i) cost-effectiveness of PP versus SP, (ii) FN threshold at which PP is cost-effective including the guidelines 20 % threshold and (iii) potential impact of G-CSF efficacy assumptions on outcomes. The systematic review identified all cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analyses (CEA/CUA) involving PP versus SP G-CSF for AC in BC that met predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five relevant CEA/CUA were identified. These CEA/CUA examined different AC regimens (TAC = 2; FEC-D = 1; TC = 2) and G-CSF formulations (filgrastim "F" = 4; pegfilgrastim "P" = 4) with varying baseline FN-risk (range 22-32 %), mortality (range 1.4-6.0 %) and utility (range 0.33-0.47). The potential G-CSF benefit, including FN risk reduction with P versus F, varied among models. Overall, relative to SP, PP was not associated with good value for money, as per commonly utilized CE thresholds, at the baseline FN rates examined, including the consensus 20 % FN threshold, in most of these studies. The value for money associated with PP versus SP was primarily dependent on G-CSF benefit assumptions including reduced FN mortality and improved BC survival. PP G-CSF for FN prevention in BC patients undergoing AC may not be a cost-effective strategy at the guidelines 20 % FN threshold.

  3. Dasatinib inhibits c-src phosphorylation and prevents the proliferation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells which overexpress Syndecan-Binding Protein (SDCBP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rong-Gang; Li, Wei-Dong; Sun, Hui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) progresses rapidly but lacks effective targeted therapies. Our previous study showed that downregulating syndecan-binding protein (SDCBP) in TNBC inhibits the proliferation of TNBC cells. Dasatinib is a new small-molecule inhibitor of c-src phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to investigate if SDCBP is a potential marker to indicate whether a TNBC is suitable for dasatinib therapy. This study applied co-immunoprecipitation to identify the interaction between SDCBP and c-src in TNBC cell lines. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate SDCBP and tyrosine-419 phosphorylated c-src (p-c-src-Y419) expression in TNBC tissues. SDCBP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells were then constructed to evaluate the effects of dasatinib on SDCBP-induced TNBC progression in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. We found wild-type SDCBP interacted with c-src and promoted the phosphorylation of c-src; this phosphorylation was completely blocked by dasatinib. SDCBP lacking the PDZ domain had no such effect. Among the 52 consecutive random TNBC cases examined, the expression of SDCBP was consistent with that of p-c-src-Y419, and positively correlated with histological grading or Ki-67 levels. SDCBP overexpression significantly accelerated the proliferation and cell cycle progression of the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231; these effects were prevented by dasatinib treatment. However, the subsequent inhibition of p27 expression partially restored the proliferation and viability of the TNBC cells. The results of this study suggest that SDCBP interacts with c-src, regulates G1/S in TNBC cells, and enhances tumor cell proliferation by promoting the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-src at residue 419. Dasatinib inhibits such phosphorylation and blocks SDCBP-induced cell cycle progression. Therefore, SDCBP might be an important marker for identifying TNBC cases that are suitable for dasatinib therapy. PMID:28141839

  4. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  5. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  6. Modern surgical management of breast cancer therapy related upper limb and breast lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nelson; Furniss, Dominic; Giele, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in the UK. Advances in breast cancer treatment means that the sequelae of treatment are affecting more women and for a longer duration. Lymphoedema is one such sequela, with wide-ranging implications, from serious functional and psychological effects at the individual level to wider economic burdens to society. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema is principally managed by conservative therapy comprising compression garments and manual decongestive massage. This approach is effective for early stages of lymphoedema, but it is not curative and the effectiveness depends on patient compliance. Early surgical approaches were ablative, gave significant morbidity and hence, reserved for the most severe cases of refractory lymphoedema. However, recent non-ablative reconstructive surgical approaches have seen a revival of interest in the prevention or surgical management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. This review examines the modern surgical techniques for the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Liposuction reduces the volume and symptoms of lymphedema, but requires continual compressive therapy to avoid recurrence. Lymphatic reconstruction or bypass techniques including lymph node transfer (inguinal nodes are transferred to the affected limb), lymphatico-lymphatic bypass (lymphatics bypass the axilla using a lymph vessel graft reconstructing lymphatic flow from arm to neck) and lymphaticovenous anastomoses (lymphatics in the arm are joined to the venous system aiding lymph drainage) show promise in reducing lymphedema significantly. Further research is required, including into the role of primary lymphaticovenous anastomoses in the prevention of lymphedema at the time of axillary dissection.

  7. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  8. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  9. [Genomic Tests as Predictors of Breast Cancer Patients Prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielčiková, Z; Petruželka, L

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal dependent breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease from a molecular and clinical perspective. The relapse risk of early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy varies. Validated predictive markers concerning adjuvant cytotoxic treatment are still lacking in ER+/ HER2-  breast cancer, which has a good prognosis in general. This can lead to the inefficient chemotherapy indication. Molecular classification of breast cancer reports evidence about the heterogeneity of hormonal dependent breast cancer and its stratification to different groups with different characteristics. Multigene assays work on the molecular level, and their aim is to provide patients risk stratification and therapy efficacy prediction. The position of multigene assays in clinical practice is not stabile yet. Non uniform level of evidence connected to patients prognosis interpretations and difficult comparison of tests are the key problems, which prevent their wide clinical use. The article is a summary of some of the most important multigene assays in breast cancer and their current position in oncology practice.

  10. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  11. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  12. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  13. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  14. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  15. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non......BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...

  16. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  17. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  18. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  19. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  20. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  1. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  2. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  3. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  4. Beta-endorphin neuron regulates stress response and innate immunity to prevent breast cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipak K; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Body and mind interact extensively with each other to control health. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic neurobehavioral stress can promote various tumor growth and progression. The biological reaction to stress involves a chemical cascade initiated within the central nervous system and extends to the periphery, encompassing the immune, endocrine, and autonomic systems. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, such as what happens in the "fight or flight" response, downregulates tumor-suppressive genes, inhibits immune function, and promotes tumor growth. On the other hand, an optimistic attitude or psychological intervention helps cancer patients to survive longer via increase in β-endorphin neuronal suppression of stress hormone levels and sympathetic outflows and activation of parasympathetic control of tumor suppressor gene and innate immune cells to destroy and clear tumor cells.

  5. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Ultraviolet B, vitamin D, and their mechanisms in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Cedric F.; Garland, Frank C.; Gorham, Edward D.; Lipkin, Martin; Newmark, Harold; Raffa, Joseph V.; Holick, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Recent advances confirming the role of vitamin D in prevention of cancer have created new scientific interest. The main source of vitamin D is exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB). Factors that reduce atmospheric penetration of UVB play a role in increasing risk of cancers of the colon, breast, and other sites. Objective: To systematically review available epidemiological and laboratory studies concerning effects of UVB or vitamin D on colon, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer. Methods: All published research articles that identified the role of ultraviolet B, vitamin D, and its metabolites in conjunction with colon and breast cancer were ascertained and abstracts or articles were reviewed. Results: The preponderance of epidemiological and laboratory studies support the hypothesis that moderate exposures to ultraviolet B and vitamin D provide protection against colon and breast cancer, among others. The effect is present throughout life for colon cancer, but is exerted mostly during the first two decades for breast cancer. Conclusion: Latitude, climate, sulfate air pollution, stratospheric ozone, and behavioral factors combine to reduce the dermal synthesis of vitamin D to virtually zero during winter months. Populations at 37+ degrees of latitude are at markedly elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency, and, consequently, of colon, breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

  7. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  8. Randomized Double-Blind 2 × 2 Trial of Low-Dose Tamoxifen and Fenretinide for Breast Cancer Prevention in High-Risk Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decensi, Andrea; Robertson, Chris; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Mora, Serena; Gulisano, Marcella; Johansson, Harriet; Galimberti, Viviana; Cassano, Enrico; Moroni, Simona M.; Formelli, Franca; Lien, Ernst A.; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Johnson, Karen A.; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tamoxifen and fenretinide are active in reducing premenopausal breast cancer risk and work synergistically in preclinical models. The authors assessed their combination in a two-by-two biomarker trial. Patients and Methods A total of 235 premenopausal women with pT1mic/pT1a breast cancer (n = 21), or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN, n = 160), or 5-year Gail risk ≥ 1.3% (n = 54) were randomly allocated to either tamoxifen 5 mg/d, fenretinide 200 mg/d, their combination, or placebo. We report data for plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), mammographic density, uterine effects, and breast neoplastic events after 5.5 years. Results During the 2-year intervention, tamoxifen significantly lowered IGF-I and mammographic density by 12% and 20%, respectively, fenretinide by 4% and 10% (not significantly), their combination by 20% and 22%, with no evidence for a synergistic interaction. Tamoxifen increased endometrial thickness principally in women becoming postmenopausal, whereas fenretinide decreased endometrial thickness significantly. The annual rate of breast neoplasms (n = 48) was 3.5% ± 1.0%, 2.1% ± 0.8%, 4.7% ± 1.3%, and 5.2% ± 1.3% in the tamoxifen, fenretinide, combination, and placebo arms, respectively, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.32 to 1.52), 0.38 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.90), and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.46 to 1.99) relative to placebo (tamoxifen × fenretinide adverse interaction P = .03). There was no clear association with tumor receptor type. Baseline IGF-I and mammographic density did not predict breast neoplastic events, nor did change in mammographic density. Conclusion Despite favorable effects on plasma IGF-I levels and mammographic density, the combination of low-dose tamoxifen plus fenretinide did not reduce breast neoplastic events compared to placebo, whereas both single agents, particularly fenretinide, showed numerical reduction in annual odds of breast neoplasms. Further follow-up is indicated. PMID:19597031

  9. Occupation as a risk identifier for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C H; Burnett, C A; Halperin, W E; Seligman, P J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Breast cancer mortality may be reduced if the disease is detected early through targeted screening programs. Current screening guidelines are based solely on a woman's age. Because working populations are accessible for intervention, occupational identification may be a way of helping to define and locate risk groups and target prevention. METHODS. We used a database consisting of 2.9 million occupationally coded death certificates collected from 23 states between 1979 and 1987 to calculate age-adjusted, race-specific proportionate mortality ratios for breast cancer according to occupation. We performed case-control analyses on occupational groups and on stratifications within the teaching profession. RESULTS. We found a number of significant associations between occupation and frequency of breast cancer. For example, white female professional, managerial, and clerical workers all had high proportions of breast cancer death. High rates of breast cancer in teachers were found in both proportionate mortality ratio and case-control analyses. CONCLUSIONS. These findings may serve as in an aid in the effective targeting of work-site health promotion programs. They suggest that occupationally coded mortality data can be a useful adjunct in the difficult task of identifying groups at risk of preventable disease. PMID:8363008

  10. Impact of Nutrition on Non-Coding RNA Epigenetics in Breast and Gynecological Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowsky, Rosanna H. E.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in females. According to the American Cancer Society, there are 327,660 new cases in breast and gynecological cancers estimated in 2014, placing emphasis on the need for cancer prevention and new cancer treatment strategies. One important approach to cancer prevention involves phytochemicals, biologically active compounds derived from plants. A variety of studies on the impact of dietary compounds found in cruciferous vegetables, green tea, and spic...

  11. The Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Liposome Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposome-based chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of breast cancer can in principle enhance the therapeutic index of otherwise unencapsulated anticancer drugs. This is partially attributed to the fact that encapsulation of cytotoxic agents within liposomes allows for increased concentrations of the drug to be delivered to the tumor site. In addition, the presence of the phospholipid bilayer prevents the encapsulated active form of the drug from being broken down in the body prior to reaching tumor tissue and also serves to minimize exposure of the drug to healthy sensitive tissue. While clinically approved liposome-based chemotherapeutics such as Doxil have proven to be quite effective in the treatment of breast cancer, significant challenges remain involving poor drug transfer between the liposome and cancerous cells. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements made in the development of liposome-based chemotherapeutics with respect to improved drug transfer for use in breast cancer therapy.

  12. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  13. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  14. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Giri D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide Arrays Abstract presentation USCAP 2005. 5...Bone Metastasis. Submitted Lal P, Donaton M, Girl D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide

  16. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;

    1996-01-01

    be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  17. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  18. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  19. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  20. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years.

  1. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  2. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  3. Risks of online advertisement of direct-to-consumer thermography for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Liang, Bryan A

    2011-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer online advertising for thermography as a sole agent with which to diagnose breast cancer is misleading and exploits women who are seeking preventive health care for breast cancer. Regulatory action should be taken against companies who continue to mislead the public to ensure patient safety and evidence-based public health information.

  4. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Pharoah, Paul D P; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking. M...

  5. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mavaddat (Nasim); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M.N. Brook (Mark N.); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune F.); H. Flyger (Henrik); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Johnson (Nichola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Verhoef; E.J. Rutgers (Emiel J.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L.A. Brinton (Louise); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); D. Lambrechts (Diether); H. Wildiers (Hans); C. van Ongeval (Chantal); E. van Limbergen (Erik); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G. Grenaker Alnæs (Grethe); S. Nord (Silje); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); A. Trentham-Dietz (Amy); P. Newcomb (Polly); L. Titus (Linda); K.M. Egan (Kathleen M.); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); R. Tamimi (Rulla); P. Kraft (Peter); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); S. Seal (Sheila); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); L. Bernstein (Leslie); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofyeva (Darya); Z. Takhirova (Zalina); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Sutter (Christian); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Schürmann (Peter); M. Bremer (Michael); H. Christiansen (Hans); T.-W. Park-Simon; P. Hillemanns (Peter); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); J. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); A.J. Sigurdson (Alice); M.M. Doody (Michele M.); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Försti (Asta); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A. Marie Mulligan (Anna); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Balleine (Rosemary); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); U. Eilber (Ursula); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); L.B. Koppert (Linetta); J. Carpenter (Jane); C. Clarke (Christine); R.J. Scott (Rodney J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Karina Dieffenbach (Aida); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); K. Offit (Kenneth); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); R. Rau-Murthy (Rohini); M. Dwek (Miriam); R. Swann (Ruth); K. Annie Perkins (Katherine); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); D. Eccles (Diana); W. Tapper (William); M. Rafiq (Meena); E.M. John (Esther M.); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); S. Slager (Susan); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A.E. Toland (Amanda); S. Yao (Song); W. Zheng (Wei); S.L. Halverson (Sandra L.); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (G.); M. Rosario Alonso; N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M. García-Closas (Montserrat)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is l

  6. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  8. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  9. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  10. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  11. Precision medicine and personalized breast cancer: combination pertuzumab therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Reynolds, Sasmit Sarangi, Aditya Bardia, Don S Dizon Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Trastuzumab (Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2, is the poster child for antibody-based targeted therapy in breast cancer. Pertuzumab, another humanized monoclonal antibody, binds to a different domain of HER2 and prevents the formation of HER2:HER3 dimers, which is the most potent heterodimer in the HER family. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab has synergistic activity, and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy originally as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in 2012, and more recently as neoadjuvant therapy for localized disease in 2013. Pertuzumab is the first neoadjuvant drug to receive accelerated approval by the FDA based on pathological complete response as the primary end point. In this article, we review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and current role of pertuzumab in the management of breast cancer, as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions regarding the utility of pertuzumab as a personalized therapeutic option for HER2-positive breast cancer. In the coming years, we anticipate increased utilization of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, biomarker discovery, and validation, and envision conduct of personalized breast cancer clinics in which therapies will be routinely selected based on genetic alterations in the tumor. Regardless of the targeted therapy combinations employed based on tumor genomic profile, trastuzumab and pertuzumab will likely continue to form the backbone of the personalized regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer. Keywords: pertuzumab, HER2 breast cancer, personalized therapy

  12. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  14. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...

  16. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  17. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  18. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  19. Assessment of knowledge of cancer and lymphoedema among breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krzywonos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer and lymphoedema symptoms among mastectomy survivors. Material and methods: The research was carried out in the Centre of Oncology Branch in Cracow. The survey comprised 60 hospitalized patients as well as 30 healthy subjects from the Małopolska region. The scientific method used was a specially designed questionnaire. Results : Women with a history of cancer demonstrate a health-oriented approach. The subjects known as the experimental group perform breast self-examinations, regularly visit a gynaecologist, are aware of the most severe mastectomy complication – lymphoedema, and recognize the impact of physical activity on it. Breast cancer operation survivors have a good knowledge of breast cancer and lymphoedema, however, existing shortcomings in practical issues are worrying. On the contrary, the control group neglects regular check-ups, evaluates its own knowledge as negligible and, most surprisingly, is not interested in the subject of breast cancer and lymphoedema, even though the subjects of the group believe that arm swelling is connected to all types of breast cancer surgeries. Conclusions : Breast cancer survivors have a good knowledge of their disorder but are still lacking some essential information. Respondents from the control group have a limited knowledge in the field of cancer and lymphoedema, are not interested in breast cancer matters and are not encouraged by gynaecologists to perform breast self-examinations. Educational prevention programs should develop a health-oriented approach among all women and emphasize their basic role in therapy.

  20. Aspergillosis of bilateral breast and chest wall in an immunocompetent male masquerading as breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra G Nasit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal species are not frequently encountered in an immunocompetent host. Invasive aspergillosis typically occurs in severely immunocompromised patient. Aspergillus infection of breast and chest wall are rarely encountered in an immunocompetent as well as in immunocompromised host. Till date only 13 cases of fungal infection of breast and chest wall have been reported in the literature. This report presents a case of aspergillosis of bilateral breast and chest wall in an immunocompetent male, clinically mimicking breast cancer. Diagnosis was achieved by fine-needle aspiration cytology and subsequently Aspergillus flavus was identified on fungal culture. The patient was successfully treated with voriconazole. Prompt diagnosis by cytology and appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent adverse outcome. Here, we present this rare case of fungal infection of breast and chest wall with relevant review of the literature.