WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast cancer prevention

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  3. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  7. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  8. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  9. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  10. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  12. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  13. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2012-02-01

    Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.

  14. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  15. Preventing invasive breast cancer using endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Mangesh A; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Developments in breast cancer treatment have resulted in reduction in breast cancer mortality in the developed world. However incidence continues to rise and greater use of preventive interventions including the use of therapeutic agents is needed to control this burden. High quality evidence from 9 major trials involving more than 83000 participants shows that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 38%. Combined results from 2 large trials with 8424 participants show that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 53%. These benefits are restricted to prevention of ER positive breast cancers. Restricting preventive therapy to high-risk women improves the benefit-harm balance and many guidelines now encourage healthcare professionals to discuss preventive therapy in these women. Further research is needed to improve our risk-prediction models for the identification of high risk women for preventive therapy with greater accuracy and to develop surrogate biomarkers of response. Long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I trial has provided valuable insights into the durability of benefits from preventive therapy, and underscores the need for such follow up to fully evaluate other agents. Full utilisation of preventive therapy also requires greater knowledge and awareness among both doctors and patients about benefits, harms and risk factors. Healthcare professionals should routinely discuss preventive therapy with women at high-risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast cancer: the importance of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Breast cancer currently accounts for 14% of new cancers in women in developing countries. As urbanization accelerates and more Third World women adopt Western diets and reproductive patterns, this rate can be expected to increase. Researchers have accumulated a significant knowledge base of the risk factors associated with breast cancer. Early 1st menstruation, having a 1st fullterm pregnancy after age 30 years, and going through menopause after age 50 years are all believed to increase this risk. Although studies have failed to reveal any consistent association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer, there is some evidence of an increased risk among women under age 45 years who started OC use early or used this contraceptive method for a long time. Obesity, and the diet prevalent in developed countries--high in fat, low in fiber, and high in calories--are other risk factors for breast cancer. Several studies have shown that women who moved to the US from countries such as Japan with low breast cancer rates approached the risk levels of US women within 1 generation as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle. Of particular concern in developing countries is the fact that most breast cancers go undiagnosed or are not detected early enough to allow for effective treatment, if treatment is even available. Cultural taboos often prevent both women and physicians from examining the breasts for lumps. Both developed and developing countries must begin devoting more attention to the prevention of breast cancer. An important preventive step is for mothers to breastfeed their infants for at least 1 years.

  18. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Breast cancer prevention across the cancer care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemp, Jennifer R

    2015-05-01

    To review the current state of breast cancer prevention from primary prevention through survivorship, highlight cross-cutting issues, and discuss strategies for clinical integration and future research. Published articles between 1985 and 2015 and original research. Cancer risk persists across the lifespan. Interprofessional strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer include primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention (survivorship). Prevention strategies across the cancer care continuum are cross-cutting and focus on measures to: prevent the onset of disease, identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have already developed risk factors or preclinical disease, and restore function, minimize the negative effects of disease, and prevent disease-related complications. Oncology nurses and advanced practice nurses are vital in the delivery of breast cancer prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Towards Prevention of Breast Cancer: What Are the Clinical Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Hall, Per; Lipkus, Isaac; Garber, Judy E

    2018-05-01

    The dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence compels a paradigm shift in our preventive efforts. There are several barriers to overcome before prevention becomes an established part of breast cancer management. The objective of this review is to identify the clinical challenges for improved breast cancer prevention and discuss current knowledge on breast cancer risk assessment methods, risk communication, ethics, and interventional efforts with the aim of covering the aspects relevant for a breast cancer prevention trial. Herein, the following five areas are discussed: (i) Adequate tools for identification of women at high risk of breast cancer suggestively entitled Prevent! Online. (ii) Consensus on the definition of high risk, which is regarded as mandatory for all risk communication and potential prophylactic interventions. (iii) Risk perception and communication regarding risk information. (iv) Potential ethical concerns relevant for future breast cancer prevention programs. (v) Risk-reducing programs involving multileveled prevention depending on identified risk. Taken together, devoted efforts from both policy makers and health care providers are warranted to improve risk assessment and risk counseling in women at risk for breast cancer to optimize the prevention of breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 11(5); 255-64. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer prevention strategies include avoiding known risks, having a healthy lifestyle, and medications or surgery for those at high risk. Learn more about breast cancer prevention, risks and protective factors, and how to estimate risk in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Priorities for the primary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent calls to intensify the search for new risk factors for breast cancer, acting on information that we already have could prevent thousands of cases each year. This article reviews breast cancer primary prevention strategies that are applicable to all women, discusses the underutilization of chemoprevention in high-risk women, highlights the additional advances that could be made by including young women in prevention efforts, and comments on how the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancer affects prevention research and strategies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. [Hormonotherapy for breast cancer prevention: What about women with genetic predisposition to breast cancer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Claire; Reyal, Fabien; Callet, Nasrine; This, Pascale; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fourme, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    In France, women carrying BRCA1/2 mutation, at an identified high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undergo breast MRI screening. That screening does not however prevent the risk of developing a breast cancer. The only alternative to breast cancer screening available in France is surgical prevention by prophylactic mastectomy. An interesting option for women who wish to reduce their breast cancer risk, but are unready for prophylactic mastectomy is a preventive hormonal treatment by aromatase inhibitors, or selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERMs). Reliable clinical trials show the efficiency of tamoxifen, raloxifen, exemestane, and anastrozole especially, in reducing breast cancer incidence by 33%, 34%, 65% and 53% respectively. This article tries to sum up the main published trials of breast cancer prevention with hormonal treatment, and presents the latest American and English clinical guidelines concerning hormonal prevention for women at high risk of breast cancer, and starts thinking about the possibilities of hormonoprevention, especially among women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation in France. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  7. Update on breast cancer risk prediction and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Ivana; Cuzick, Jack

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. This review will focus on current prevention strategies for women at high risk. The identification of women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer is key to breast cancer prevention. Recent findings have shown that the inclusion of breast density and a panel of low-penetrance genetic polymorphisms can improve risk estimation compared with previous models. Preventive therapy with aromatase inhibitors has produced large reductions in breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen confers long-term protection and is the only proven preventive treatment for premenopausal women. Several other agents, including metformin, bisphosphonates, aspirin and statins, have been found to be effective in nonrandomized settings. There are many options for the prevention of oestrogen-positive breast cancer, in postmenopausal women who can be given a selective oestrogen receptor modulator or an aromatase inhibitor. It still remains unclear how to prevent oestrogen-negative breast cancer, which occurs more often in premenopausal women. Identification of women at high risk of the disease is crucial, and the inclusion of breast density and a panel of genetic polymorphisms, which individually have low penetrance, can improve risk assessment.

  8. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  9. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  10. The selective estrogen receptor modulators in breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Dou, Jinli; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shixia; Liu, Juntian

    2016-05-01

    Persistently increased blood levels of estrogens are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor (ER). Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of its prophylactic administration. Incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer was reduced by SERMs treatment, especially for those women with high risk of developing breast cancer. In this study, we reviewed the clinical application of SERMs in breast cancer prevention. To date, four prospective randomized clinical trials had been performed to test the efficacy of tamoxifen for this purpose. Concerning on the benefit and cost of tamoxifen, various studies from different countries demonstrated that chemoprevention with tamoxifen seemed to be cost-effective for women with a high risk of invasive breast cancer. Based above, tamoxifen was approved for breast cancer prevention by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998. Raloxifene was also approved for postmenopausal women in 2007 for breast cancer prevention which reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer with a lower risk of unwanted stimulation of endometrium. Thus, raloxifene is considered to have a better clinical possesses as prophylactic agent. Several other agents, such as arzoxifene and lasofoxifene, are currently being investigated in clinic. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network had published guidelines on breast cancer chemoprevention by SERMs. However, use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for primary breast cancer prevention was still low. A broader educational effort is needed to alert women and primary care physicians that SERMs are available to reduce breast cancer risk.

  11. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN, daidzein) from legumes and red...Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41...38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN

  12. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  14. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early: prevention must also.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S

    2014-06-01

    Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors is related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention.

  15. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Months Subtask 1 IACUC approval -3 Complete Initial Comments Subtask 2 Pre-engage CRO for drug synthesis -2 Complete Subtask 3 Pre...publications, we showed that AFPep prevents mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to a harsh carcinogen (methyl nitroso urea , MNU). The purpose...behavior Stool consistency Rearing Urination Alertness Body tone Gait Overall animal reactivity Piloerection Body Weights

  17. Acupuncture Reduces Breast Cancer Joint Pain | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest, most rigorous study of its kind, acupuncture was found to significantly reduce the debilitating joint pain experienced by tens of thousands of women each year while being treated for early stage breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). |

  18. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; McDonald, Jasmine A; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care.

  19. Advanced breast cancer and its prevention by screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. J.; van Ineveld, B. M.; de Haes, J. C.; van Oortmarssen, G. J.; Klijn, J. G.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    In discussions on breast cancer screening, much attention has been focussed on the possible morbidity generated by screening. Favourable effects like the prevention of advanced disease seem underestimated, probably because quantification is that difficult. To analyse the amount of care and treatment

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  1. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive history and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The hormonal milieu of an early full-term pregnancy induces lobular development, completing the cycle of differentiation of the breast. This process induces a specific genomic signature in the mammary gland that is represented by the stem cell containing a heterochomatin condensed nucleus (HTN). Even though differentiation significantly reduces cell proliferation in the mammary gland, the mammary epithelium remains capable of responding with proliferation to given stimuli, such as a new pregnancy. The stem cell HTN is able to metabolize the carcinogen and repair the induced DNA damage more efficiently than the stem cell containing an euchromatinic structure (EUN), as it has been demonstrated in the rodent experimental system. The basic biological concept is that pregnancy shifts the stem cell EUN to the stem cell HTN that is refractory to carcinogenesis. Data generated by the use of cDNA micro array techniques have allowed to demonstrate that while lobular development regressed after pregnancy and lactation, programmed cell death genes, DNA repair genes, chromatin remodeling, transcription factors and immune-surveillance gene transcripts all of these genes are upregulated and are part of the genomic signature of pregnancy that is associated with the preventive effect of this physiological process.

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  4. Familial breast cancer - targeted therapy in secondary and tertiary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of an increasing number of individualized molecular targeted therapies into clinical routine mirrors their importance in modern cancer prevention and treatment. Well-known examples for targeted agents are the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. The identification of an unaltered gene in tumor tissue in colon cancer (KRAS) is a predictor for the patient's response to targeted therapy with a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab). Targeted therapy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has become a reality with the approval of olaparib for platin-sensitive late relapsed BRCA-associated ovarian cancer in December 2014. This manuscript reviews the status quo of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in the therapy of breast and ovarian cancer as well as the struggle for carboplatin as a potential standard of care for triple-negative and, in particular, BRCA-associated breast cancer. Details of the mechanism of action with information on tumor development are provided, and an outlook for further relevant research is given. The efficacy of agents against molecular targets together with the identification of an increasing number of cancer-associated genes will open the floodgates to a new era of treatment decision-making based on molecular tumor profiles. Current clinical trials involving patients with BRCA-associated cancer explore the efficacy of the molecular targeted therapeutics platinum and PARPi.

  5. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  6. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  7. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi...

  9. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  10. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter’s application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Results There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Conclusions Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used

  11. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Rollins, Stephen; Draper, Catherine R

    2013-10-29

    One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter's application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used mostly as a one-way communication tool. To

  12. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  13. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    immune system to maintain epithelial integrity. In this study our goal was to study the immune subsets associated with breast mucosa and develop the...into the mammary gland. Specific Aim 3: Determine an optimal oral vaccine approach able to minimize hyperplasia . 5 287 288 289 290 291 292...colonization, but also regulating homeostasis of the epithelial layer. As a part of the mucosal immune system, the mammary gland may have characteristic

  14. cGMP signaling as a target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Perrin F; Tinsley, Heather N

    2015-04-01

    One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. Advances in therapeutic strategies, diagnosis, and improved awareness have resulted in a significant reduction in breast cancer related mortality. However, there is a continued need for more effective and less toxic drugs for both the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer in order to see a continued decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Recent studies suggest that the cGMP signaling pathway may be aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. As such, this pathway may serve as a source of novel targets for future breast cancer drug discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of cGMP signaling in normal physiology and in breast cancer as well as current strategies being investigated for targeting this pathway in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  17. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  18. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  19. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  20. Evaluating the knowledge of breast cancer screening and prevention among Arab-American women in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Samia; Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S

    2011-03-01

    Arab-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced staged breast cancer. We analyzed data from 100 women utilizing a breast cancer literacy assessment tool aimed at understanding functional literacy levels about breast-self exams (BSE), clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. The educational program improved women's knowledge of BSE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.50) and CBE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54), more for women with higher education. Consideration of women's educational status is an important factor in planning educational programs to improve knowledge on breast cancer screening and prevention in this minority population.

  1. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using mouse genetics, we showed that RANKL and its receptor RANK are critical regulators of sex hormone and BRCA1 mutation-driven breast cancer...into breast cancer patients and controls due to self reporting and histological examination. We have tested differences in RANKL, OPG and RANKL/OPG...cohort, we determined RANKL and OPG serum levels of participants from the Bruneck study [28, 29], that allowed us to analyse matched patient samples

  2. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  3. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  4. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter..., that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K52, Atlanta...

  5. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  6. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  7. The potential contribution of dietary factors to breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation. The pathometabolic trajectory is affected by high estrogen, insulin, and growth factor cascades and resultant accelerated proliferation/progression. Anthropometric risk factors - high birth weight, adult tallness, adiposity/BMI, and weight gain - are often reflective of these trends. A sex-based nutritional approach targets women's specific risk in western obesogenic environments, associated with increasing fatness, estrogen metabolism, n-6 : n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid conversion to proinflammatory/carcinogenic eicosanoids, and effects of timing of life events, for example, ages at menarche, full-term pregnancy, and menopause. Recent large-scale studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the evidence-based recommendations against BC risk, emphasizing low-energy density diets, highly nutritious plant-based regimes, physical activity, and body/abdominal adiposity management. Better understanding of dietary inter-relationships with BC, as applied to food intake, selection, combination, and processing/preparation, and recommended patterns, for example, Mediterranean, DASH, plant-based, low energy density, and low glycemic load, with high nutrient/phytonutrient density, would increase public motivation and authoritative support for early

  8. Culture, attitude and knowledge about breast cancer and preventive measures: a qualitative study of South Asian breast cancer patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbani, Gulshan; Lim, Jennifer N W; Hewison, Jenny; Atkin, Karl; Horgan, Kieran; Lansdown, Mark; Chu, Carol E

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of culture and beliefs about breast cancer, and its implications on preventive health behaviour among South Asian people in the UK. Using a qualitative approach, 24 South Asian breast cancer patients and their significant others were interviewed. Most patients were unfamiliar with the subject of cancer; they expressed lack of knowledge of cancer as a disease and its symptoms. They identified a painless lump in the breast as sign of abnormality, but not cancer. They also did not know any non-lump breast symptoms. Over half participated in breast screening after encouragement from daughters or relatives. Most did not practise breast self-examination. Perceptions of cancer and health behaviour were influenced by cultural beliefs. Common themes were cancer is a taboo subject and cancer is a stigma. Patients also expressed misunderstandings about the cause of cancer. Cancer in the family had ramifications on children' s marriage prospects and may cause marital breakdown. Terminology used also caused communication problems with healthcare professionals and within the family: the use of ' chest' to substitute ' breast' changed the meaning of the message conveyed. Cultural beliefs and practices accentuate difficulties in understanding breast cancer, breast screening and breast self-examination, and can prevent South Asian women from adopting preventive health practices.

  9. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hargreaves, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Study objectives are to develop a quantitative assessment tool to describe barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer, to use this tool to establish preliminary norms in an urban...

  10. Predicting, preventing and managing persistent pain after breast cancer surgery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Kristin L; Kehlet, Henrik; Belfer, Inna

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) is increasingly recognized as a potential problem facing a sizeable subset of the millions of women who undergo surgery as part of their treatment of breast cancer. Importantly, an increasing number of studies suggest that individual variation...... in psychosocial factors such as catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, somatization and sleep quality play an important role in shaping an individual's risk of developing PPBCS. This review presents evidence for the importance of these factors and puts them within the context of other surgical, medical...

  11. Risk communication and decision-making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H

    2017-08-01

    Risk communication surrounding the prevention of invasive breast cancer entails not only understanding of the disease, risks and opportunities for intervention. But it also requires understanding and implementation of optimal strategies for communication with patients who are making these decisions. In this article, available evidence for the issues surrounding risk communication and decision making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer are reviewed and strategies for improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Albert L

    2016-02-16

    Update of the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for breast cancer. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the following: effectiveness of breast cancer screening in reducing breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, as well as the incidence of advanced breast cancer and treatment-related morbidity; harms of breast cancer screening; test performance characteristics of digital breast tomosynthesis as a primary screening strategy; and adjunctive screening in women with increased breast density. In addition, the USPSTF reviewed comparative decision models on optimal starting and stopping ages and intervals for screening mammography; how breast density, breast cancer risk, and comorbidity level affect the balance of benefit and harms of screening mammography; and the number of radiation-induced breast cancer cases and deaths associated with different screening mammography strategies over the course of a woman's lifetime. This recommendation applies to asymptomatic women aged 40 years or older who do not have preexisting breast cancer or a previously diagnosed high-risk breast lesion and who are not at high risk for breast cancer because of a known underlying genetic mutation (such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation or other familial breast cancer syndrome) or a history of chest radiation at a young age. The USPSTF recommends biennial screening mammography for women aged 50 to 74 years. (B recommendation) The decision to start screening mammography in women prior to age 50 years should be an individual one. Women who place a higher value on the potential benefit than the potential harms may choose to begin biennial screening between the ages of 40 and 49 years. (C recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening mammography in women aged 75 years or older. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to

  13. Prevention and Screening in Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Simon B; Stanislaw, Christine; Meisel, Jane L

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, we have learned a great deal about pathogenic mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, particularly mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here we review current guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer screening, prophylactic surgery, and other risk-reduction strategies in patients with these mutations, and we detail the data that drive these recommendations. We also discuss guidelines on screening and management for other cancers associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2, such as male breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer. Discussions about genetic testing have become more complex with the advent of panel testing, which often allows for testing of a more comprehensive panel of genes than traditional BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing, but which is also associated with a higher likelihood of obtaining results with less clear data to inform management. It is difficult to come to a consensus on how best to address the varied and potentially challenging situations that may arise from genetic testing. The complexity inherent in managing these cases makes a multidisciplinary team-including medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, genetic counselors, reproductive endocrinologists, and medical ethicists-critical to optimization of care.

  14. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  15. Endocrine therapy for breast cancer prevention in high-risk women: clinical and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Amy G; Younis, Tallal

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of breast cancer highlights the need for primary prevention strategies that demonstrate both favorable clinical benefit/risk profile and good value for money. Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has been associated with a favorable clinical benefit/risk profile in the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. The available endocrine therapy strategies differ in terms of their relative reductions of breast cancer risk, potential side effects, and upfront drug acquisition costs, among others. This review highlights the clinical trials of SERMs and AIs for the primary prevention of breast cancer, and the cost-effectiveness /cost-utility studies that have examined their "value for money" in various health care jurisdictions.

  16. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

  17. The knowledge of risk factors and prevention of breast cancer in Polish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj-Wierzchowska, K; Jurczyk, M U; Czech-Szczapa, B; Wilczak, M

    2017-01-01

    Currently, breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women and it constitutes a significant medical, economic, and social problem. The study was conducted in a group of 600 healthy women (aged 18 to 88 years) between September 2011 and February 2015 living in the region of Wielkopolska (Poland) in a private gynecological practice. A survey questionnaire designed specifically for purposes of the study was a tool used to conduct the study. With regards to risk factors for breast cancer: 93% - familial history of breast cancer, 46% - use of hormone treatment, and 40.16% - taking contraceptive pills. A significant component of breast cancer prevention should be providing information regarding prevention tests and increasing accessibility to medical services.

  18. The effect of knowledge on uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuhairwe, Christine; Amongin, Dinah; Agaba, Elly; Mugarura, Steven; Taremwa, Ivan M

    2018-02-23

    Breast cancer, the third most frequent cancer of women is preventable through knowledge on breast self-examination. Of the 44% of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute, only 22% go for check-up in less than three months. This study explored the effect of breast cancer knowledge on the uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda. A household survey of women in Kyadondo County was conducted during June, 2014 to August, 2015. This involved studying in-depth using a questionnaire the level of breast cancer knowledge of the respondents. Data was analyzed using logistic regression model. Chi-square test was used to establish relationships between knowledge base factors and the uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities. This study has established an empirical relationship between uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities and source of information especially radio (OR 1.94 95% CI: 1.16-3.24), television (OR 1.82 95%CI: 1.14-2.93), awareness of breast cancer (OR 4.03 95%CI: 1.01-15.98), knowledge on how to reduce risk of breast cancer (OR 1.98 95% CI: 1.20-3.27), what reduces breast cancer acquisition (OR 2.75 95% CI: 1.42-5.35), how to check for signs of breast cancer especially through breast self-examination (OR 3.09 95% CI: 1.62-5.88), and other methods of breast cancer diagnosis in a health care set up. The women's level of breast cancer awareness as a primary prevention strategy was found wanting, and requires a boost through community health education.

  19. Risk of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: Is preventive mastectomy warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jacob; Giannakeas, Vasily; Karlan, Beth; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Rosen, Barry; McLaughlin, John; Risch, Harvey; Sun, Ping; Foulkes, William D; Neuhausen, Susan L; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A

    2017-05-01

    Preventive breast surgery and MRI screening are offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. The clinical benefit of these two modalities has not been evaluated among mutation carriers with a history of ovarian cancer. Thus, we sought to determine whether or not BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer would benefit from preventive mastectomy or from MRI screening. First, the annual mortality rate for ovarian cancer patients was estimated for a cohort of 178 BRCA mutation carriers from Ontario, Canada. Next, the actuarial risk of developing breast cancer was estimated using an international registry of 509 BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer. A series of simulations was conducted to evaluate the reduction in the probability of death (from all causes) associated with mastectomy and with MRI-based breast surveillance. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the impacts of mastectomy and MRI screening on breast cancer incidence as well as on all-cause mortality. Twenty (3.9%) of the 509 patients developed breast cancer within ten years following ovarian cancer diagnosis. The actuarial risk of developing breast cancer at ten years post-diagnosis, conditional on survival from ovarian cancer and other causes of mortality was 7.8%. Based on our simulation results, among all BRCA mutation-carrying patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer at age 50, the chance of dying before age 80 was reduced by less than 1% with MRI and by less than 2% with mastectomy. Greater improvements in survival with MRI or mastectomy were observed for women who had already survived 10years after ovarian cancer, and for women with stage I or II ovarian cancer. Among BRCA mutation-carrying ovarian cancer patients without a personal history of breast cancer, neither preventive mastectomy nor MRI screening is warranted, except for those who have survived ovarian cancer without recurrence for ten years and for those with early stage ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017

  20. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  1. Targeting the NFκB signaling pathways for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nag, Subhasree A; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB), a proinflammatory transcription factor, is a commonly observed phenomenon in breast cancer. It facilitates the development of a hormone-independent, invasive, high-grade, and late-stage tumor phenotype. Moreover, the commonly used cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches activate NFκB, leading to the development of invasive breast cancers that show resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy. Inhibition of NFκB results in an increase in the sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation and restoring hormone sensitivity, which is correlated with increased disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In this review article, we focus on the role of the NFκB signaling pathways in the development and progression of breast cancer and the validity of NFκB as a potential target for breast cancer prevention and therapy. We also discuss the recent findings that NFκB may have tumor suppressing activity in certain cancer types. Finally, this review also covers the state-of-the-art development of NFκB inhibitors for cancer therapy and prevention, the challenges in targeting validation, and pharmacology and toxicology evaluations of these agents from the bench to the bedside.

  2. Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive acti...

  3. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  4. Breastfeeding and the prevention of breast cancer: a retrospective review of clinical histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; García, Pedro A; Aguilar, María José; Padilla, Carlos A; Álvarez, Judit

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate at what age parous and nonparous women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Factors taken into account for parous women were whether they had breastfed their children, and if so, the length of the lactation period. Other factors considered for both groups were obesity, family histories of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in younger women in Western countries. Its growing incidence as well as the increasingly early age of diagnosis led us to carefully analyse its possible causes and the preventive measures to be taken. This is a particularly important goal in epidemiological research. A retrospective study of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). In this study, we analysed 504 medical records of female patients, 19-91 years of age, who had been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer from 2004-2009 at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). Relevant data (age of diagnosis, period of lactation, family history of cancer, obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) were collected from the clinical histories of each patient and analysed. A conditional inference tree was used to relate the age of diagnosis to smoking habits and the length of the lactation period. The conditional inference tree identified significant differences between the age of the patients at breast cancer diagnosis, smoking habits (p cancer. Our study concluded that breastfeeding for over six months not only provides children with numerous health benefits, but also protects mothers from breast cancer when the mothers are nonsmokers. Nurses play a crucial role in encouraging new mothers to breastfeed their children, and this helps to prevent breast cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  6. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for prevention and treatment. However, nerve damage and radiotherapy appear to be significant risk factors for chronic pain. A proposal for the design of future prospective studies is presented. PERSPECTIVE: A comprehensive and systematic approach to research in chronic pain after breast cancer treatment......Chronic pain after breast cancer treatment is a major clinical problem, affecting 25 to 60% of patients. Development of chronic pain after breast cancer treatment, as well as other surgical procedures, involves a complex pathophysiology that involves pre-, intra- and post-operative factors....... This review is a systematic analysis on methodology and evidence in research into persistent pain after breast cancer treatment during the period 1995 to 2010, in order to clarify the significance and relative role of potential risk factors. Literature was identified by a search in PubMed and OVID, as well...

  7. The role of dietary factors in prevention and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder; Whyand, Tara; Caplin, Martyn Evan

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading global cause of cancer-related death in women. There is growing evidence for a role for dietary factors in BC pathophysiology. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the impact of dietary factors in BC risk. Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following terms: "nutrition and breast cancer", "nutrition and breast carcinoma", "dietary factors and breast cancer", "risk factors and breast cancer", "diet and breast cancer, "breast cancer epidemiology", "breast cancer and prevention". Consumption of well-done red meat appears to be associated with increased risk of BC, whereas fish may be protective. Total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and glycaemic load should be monitored and controlled in at risk populations because they may be associated with increased risk of BC, although the exact mechanisms involved are not clear. Alcohol intake should be minimized since it is a risk factor for BC. High intake of polyphenol/phyto-oestrogen -rich food (i.e. flavonoids, soya products), as well as fibres, fruits and vegetables, may have potential protective effects against BC occurrence but the results might vary according to hormonal status. Vitamin D supplements appear protective against BC development and similarly other vitamins and oligo-elements might decrease BC risk, although further large prospective studies are required. There exist increasing evidence that dietary factors can play an important role in both the development and prevention of BC. Large randomized clinical and epidemiological studies are required but are difficult to design due to the number of variable factors. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrigenomics: implications for breast and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riscuta, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Ramona G

    2012-01-01

    Nutrigenomics refers to the interaction between one's diet and his/her genes. These interactions can markedly influence digestion, absorption, and the elimination of bioactive food components, as well as influence their site of actions/molecular targets. Nutrigenomics comprises nutrigenetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics, coupled with other "omic," such as proteomics and metabolomics, that apparently account for the wide variability in cancer risk among individuals with similar dietary habits. Multiple food components including essential nutrients, phytochemical, zoochemicals, fungochemical, and bacterochemicals have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor behavior, admittedly with mixed results. Such findings suggest that not all individuals respond identically to a diet. This chapter highlights the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphism, copy number, epigenetic events, and transcriptomic homeostasis as factors influencing the response to food components and ultimately health, including cancer risk. Both breast and colorectal cancers are reviewed as examples about how nutrigenomics may influence the response to dietary intakes. As the concept that "one size fits all" comes to an end and personalized approaches surface, additional research data will be required to identify those who will benefit most from dietary change and any who might be placed at risk because of an adjustment.

  9. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of prevention for cervical cancer and breast cancer among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Feria, Pablo; Hernández-Flórez, Luis J; Rodríguez-Feria, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students for health promotion, primary prevention and early detection of breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm, as well as to make recommendations for improving the Public Health curriculum at the Universidad de los Andes. Methodology This study utilized a survey of medical knowledge, attitudes and practices applied to fifth year Colombian medical students attending the Universidad de los Andes in the first semester of 2013. Results 64/76 students answered the surveys (response rate 84.2 % ): 62.5 % (40/64) and 37.5 % (24/64) response rates from students in their ninth and tenth semesters, respectively; and 64.1 % (41/64) and 35.9 % (23/64) response rates from female and male students, respectively. Knowledge: clinical breast exam (CBE), breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography were recommended by 95.3 % (61/64) of students, 96.9 % (62/64) of medical students and 90.7 % (58/64) of students, respectively. Attitude: the most effective tests to reduce mortality in women aged ≥ 50 years were the Papanicolaou test according to 90.6 % (58/64) of students and mammography according to 82.8 % (53/64) of students. Practice: 55.0 % (35/64) of students had received training in the guidelines and protocols for breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm screening. Discussion To promote early detection of cervical and breast cancer, knowledge, attitudes and practices must be improved to enhance clinical practices (e.g. Papanicolaou test) and medical student training guidelines or protocols for these two cancers. Overall, with induced demand and support from research communities and institutions seeking to make these improvements, we collaborate to decrease missed opportunities in medical research and Public Health.

  11. Assessment of Knowledge and Perception towards Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hadi Alharbi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer was the ninth leading cause of mortality for women in Saudi Arabia, and to reduce the burden of this disease appropriate information about breast cancer and its’ early detection measures are highly needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perception of Northern Saudi Arabia people towards breast cancer prevention and early detection. Methodology: In this cross sectional descriptive study, data about breast cancer were obtained from 566 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Results: When the level of individual’s knowledge about breast cancer was assessed, the majority of the study subjects were found with good knowledge followed by moderate and poor representing 187 (34.3%, 170 (31.2% and 86 (15.8%, respectively. For females, most of them were found with good knowledge followed by moderate and poor constituting 142 (36.1%, 111 (28.2% and 62 (15.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study have delivered evidence that women in Northern Saudi Arabia lack appropriate information about breast cancer and its’ early detection measures.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  13. Paeoniflorin prevents hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Zhou,1,* Shunchang Wang,1,* Caijuan Song,2 Zhuang Hu11Department of Thyroid and Breast, Huaihe Hospital, Henan University, Kaifeng, 2Department of Immunization Program, Zhengzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Paeoniflorin (PF is a monoterpene glycoside extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF inhibits the growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells, as well as characterize the underlying mechanism. The results presented in this study demonstrate that PF blocks the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by repressing EMT under hypoxic conditions. PF also significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in HIF-1α level. Furthermore, PF prevented hypoxia-induced expression of phosphorylated PI3K and Akt in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, PF prevented hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1α expression via modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding provides evidence that PF can serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.Keywords: paeoniflorin, breast cancer, hypoxia, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  14. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets (corn oil control diet/CO, low fat /LF or stearate/ST) the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50% compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings. PMID:24832758

  15. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: extended long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I breast cancer prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Cawthorn, Simon; Hamed, Hisham; Holli, Kaija; Howell, Anthony; Forbes, John F

    2015-01-01

    .59-0.88], p=0.001) and after 10 years (124 [3.8%] in 3295 women vs 88 [2.6%] in 3343, respectively; HR 0.69 [0.53-0.91], p=0.009). The greatest reduction in risk was seen in invasive oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (HR 0.66 [95% CI 0.54-0.81], pbreast cancer (HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.71-1.57], p=0.8). These results show that tamoxifen offers a very long period of protection after treatment cessation, and thus substantially improves the benefit-to-harm ratio of the drug for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Research UK (UK) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia). Copyright © 2015 Cuzick et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  17. RANKL/RANK: from bone loss to the prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Verena; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-11-01

    RANK and RANKL, a receptor ligand pair belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, are the critical regulators of osteoclast development and bone metabolism. Besides their essential function in bone, RANK and RANKL have also been identified as the key factors for the formation of a lactating mammary gland in pregnancy. Mechanistically, RANK and RANKL link the sex hormone progesterone with stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Based on their normal physiology, RANKL/RANK control the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer through the expansion of mammary progenitor cells. Recently, we and others were able to show that RANK and RANKL are also critical regulators of BRCA1-mutation-driven breast cancer. Currently, the preventive strategy for BRCA1-mutation carriers includes preventive mastectomy, associated with wide-ranging risks and psychosocial effects. The search for an alternative non-invasive prevention strategy is therefore of paramount importance. As our work strongly implicates RANK and RANKL as key molecules involved in the initiation of BRCA1-associated breast cancer, we propose that anti-RANKL therapy could be a feasible preventive strategy for women carrying BRCA1 mutations, and by extension to other women with high risk of breast cancer. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  19. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and metabolic syndrome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Villarini, Anna; Traina, Adele; Johansson, Harriet; Mano, Maria Piera; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Simeoni, Milena; Consolaro, Elena; Mercandino, Angelica; Barbero, Maggiorino; Galasso, Rocco; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Zarcone, Maurizio; Zagallo, Emanuela; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Bellegotti, Manuela; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), conventionally defined by the presence of at least three out of five dismetabolic traits (abdominal obesity, hypertension, low plasma HDL-cholesterol and high plasma glucose and triglycerides), has been associated with both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. We investigated the association between the prevalence of MetS and a score of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations for the prevention of cancer in a cross-sectional study of BC patients. The DIet and ANdrogen-5 study (DIANA-5) for the prevention of BC recurrences recruited 2092 early stage BC survivors aged 35-70. At recruitment, all women completed a 24-hour food frequency and physical activity diary on their consumption and activity of the previous day. Using these diaries we created a score of adherence to five relevant WCRF/AICR recommendations. The prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS associated with the number of recommendations met were estimated using a binomial regression model. The adjusted PRs of MetS decreased with increasing number of recommendations met (p < 0.001). Meeting all the five recommendations versus meeting none or only one was significantly associated with a 57% lower MetS prevalence (95% CI 0.35-0.73). Our results suggest that adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations is a major determinant of MetS and may have a clinical impact. © 2015 UICC.

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention And Detection | Ihezue | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breasts are phylogentically considered as modifications of sweat glands. They are present in all mammals and particularly become prominent in females as the hallmark of pubertal development. Like all bilateral structures, slight inequality in the size of the breast is normal. The male breast is small, though it is subject to ...

  1. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  2. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  3. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  5. Risk-reducing mastectomy for the prevention of primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Nora E; Lostumbo, Liz; Wallace, Judi; Ko, Henry

    2018-04-05

    Recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of breast cancer and widely publicized reports of celebrities undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) have increased interest in RRM as a method of preventing breast cancer. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 and previously updated in 2006 and 2010. (i) To determine whether risk-reducing mastectomy reduces death rates from any cause in women who have never had breast cancer and in women who have a history of breast cancer in one breast, and (ii) to examine the effect of risk-reducing mastectomy on other endpoints, including breast cancer incidence, breast cancer mortality, disease-free survival, physical morbidity, and psychosocial outcomes. For this Review update, we searched Cochrane Breast Cancer's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 9 July 2016. We included studies in English. Participants included women at risk for breast cancer in at least one breast. Interventions included all types of mastectomy performed for the purpose of preventing breast cancer. At least two review authors independently abstracted data from each report. We summarized data descriptively; quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible due to heterogeneity of study designs and insufficient reporting. We analyzed data separately for bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) and contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM). Four review authors assessed the methodological quality to determine whether or not the methods used sufficiently minimized selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, and attrition bias. All 61 included studies were observational studies with some methodological limitations; randomized trials were absent. The studies presented data on 15,077 women with a wide range of risk factors for breast cancer, who underwent RRM.Twenty-one BRRM studies looking at the incidence of breast cancer or disease-specific mortality, or

  6. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  7. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  9. Are we ready for the challenge of implementing risk-based breast cancer screening and primary prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainey, L.; Waal, D. van der; Jervaeus, A.; Wengstrom, Y.; Evans, D.G.; Donnelly, L.S.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new

  10. Resveratrol for breast cancer prevention and therapy: Preclinical evidence and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dona; Sarkar, Nivedita; Biswas, Jaydip; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-10-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women. The major unresolved problems with metastatic breast cancer is recurrence after receiving objective response to chemotherapy, drug-induced side effects of first line chemotherapy and delayed response to second line of treatment. Unfortunately, very few options are available as third line treatment. It is clear that under such circumstances there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs. Phytochemicals are among the most promising chemopreventive treatment options for the management of cancer. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a non-flavonoid polyphenol present in several dietary sources, including grapes, berries, soy beans, pomegranate and peanuts, has been shown to possess a wide range of health benefits through its effect on a plethora of molecular targets.The present review encompasses the role of resveratrol and its natural/synthetic analogue in the light of their efficacy against tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, epigenetic alterations and for induction of apoptosis as well as sensitization toward chemotherapeutic drugs in various in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The roles of resveratrol as a phytoestrogen, an aromatase inhibitor and in stem cell therapy as well as adjuvent treatment are also discussed. This review explores the full potential of resveratrol in breast cancer prevention and treatment with current limitations, challenges and future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting Aberrant p70S6K Activation for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Qingling; Brady, Samuel W; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Yu, Dihua

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field, although antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early-stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway was highly activated in ER - premalignant breast lesions and ER - breast cancer. In addition, p70S6K activation induced transformation of ER - human mammary epithelial cells (hMEC). Therefore, we explored the potential of targeting Akt/p70S6K in the p70S6K activated, ER - hMEC models and mouse mammary tumor models for the prevention of ER - breast cancer. We found that a clinically applicable Akt/p70S6K dual inhibitor, LY2780301, drastically decreased proliferation of hMECs with ErbB2-induced p70S6K activation via Cyclin B1 inhibition and cell-cycle blockade at G 0 -G 1 phase, while it did not significantly reverse the abnormal acinar morphology of these hMECs. In addition, a brief treatment of LY2780301 in MMTV- neu mice that developed atypical hyperplasia (ADH) and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions with activated p70S6K was sufficient to suppress S6 phosphorylation and decrease cell proliferation in hyperplasic MECs. In summary, targeting the aberrant Akt/p70S6K activation in ER - hMEC models in vitro and in the MMTV- neu transgenic mouse model in vivo effectively inhibited Akt/S6K signaling and reduced proliferation of hMECs in vitro and ADH/MIN lesions in vivo , indicating its potential in prevention of p70S6K activated ER - breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 641-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  13. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  14. Women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention / Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet i wybrane ich determinanty w profilaktyce raka piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślusarska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE constitute a significant element of early prevention.

  15. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  16. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  17. Local delivery of hormonal therapy with silastic tubing for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeenah; Thomas, Scott; Zhong, Allison Y; Wolfe, Alan R; Krings, Gregor; Terranova-Barberio, Manuela; Pawlowska, Nela; Benet, Leslie Z; Munster, Pamela N

    2018-01-08

    Broad use of germline testing has identified an increasing number of women at risk for breast cancer with a need for effective chemoprevention. We report a novel method to selectively deliver various anti-estrogens at high drug levels to the breast tissue by implanting a device comprised of silastic tubing. Optimized tubing properties allow elution of otherwise poorly bioavailable anti-estrogens, such as fulvestrant, into mammary tissue in vitro and in vivo with levels sufficient to inhibit estrogen receptor activation and tumor cell proliferation. Implantable silastic tubing delivers fulvestrant selectively to mouse mammary fat tissue for one year with anti-tumor effects similar to those achieved with systemic fulvestrant exposure. Furthermore, local delivery of fulvestrant significantly decreases cell proliferation, as assessed by Ki67 expression, most effectively in tumor sections adjacent to tubing. This approach may thereby introduce a potential paradigm shift and offer a promising alternative to systemic therapy for prevention and early interception of breast cancer.

  18. The potential for oxytocin (OT) to prevent breast cancer: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, T G

    1995-08-01

    This hypothesis proposes that carcinogens in the breast are generated by the action of superoxide free radicals released when acinal gland distension, under the influence of unopposed prolactin, causes microvessel ischaemia. Inadequate nipple care in the at-risk years leads to ductal obstruction preventing the elimination of carcinogens from the breast. The regular production of oxytocin (OT) from nipple stimulation would cause contraction of the myoepithelial cells, relieving acinal gland distension and aiding the active elimination of carcinogenic fluid from the breast. Mechanical breast pump stimulation causes an increase in plasma OT levels in the luteal but not in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. OT production upon nipple stimulation in the luteal phase of premenopausal, non-lactating women may be protective against the high rates of mitotic breast cell division noted at this time via the potential to block the effect of oestrogen. The epidemiology of breast cancer suggests that lengthy lactation time is beneficial. Sexual activity in nulliparous women also protects and OT levels have been shown to rise with orgasm in women and in men. OT systems in the brain are intricately linked to oestrogen and progesterone levels, and it is possible that these hormones may modify the OT secretory response both centrally and through an effect on the sensitivity of the breast. OT production with nipple care and in sex and lactation, and the reduction in cycling ovarian hormones that occurs with pregnancy, may all be important preventative factors in the development of breast cancer both pre- and post-menopausally.

  19. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  20. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  1. RANK ligand as a potential target for breast cancer prevention in BRCA1-mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emma; Vaillant, François; Branstetter, Daniel; Pal, Bhupinder; Giner, Göknur; Whitehead, Lachlan; Lok, Sheau W; Mann, Gregory B; Rohrbach, Kathy; Huang, Li-Ya; Soriano, Rosalia; Smyth, Gordon K; Dougall, William C; Visvader, Jane E; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Individuals who have mutations in the breast-cancer-susceptibility gene BRCA1 (hereafter referred to as BRCA1-mutation carriers) frequently undergo prophylactic mastectomy to minimize their risk of breast cancer. The identification of an effective prevention therapy therefore remains a 'holy grail' for the field. Precancerous BRCA1(mut/+) tissue harbors an aberrant population of luminal progenitor cells, and deregulated progesterone signaling has been implicated in BRCA1-associated oncogenesis. Coupled with the findings that tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11; also known as RANKL) is a key paracrine effector of progesterone signaling and that RANKL and its receptor TNFRSF11A (also known as RANK) contribute to mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated a role for this pathway in the pre-neoplastic phase of BRCA1-mutation carriers. We identified two subsets of luminal progenitors (RANK(+) and RANK(-)) in histologically normal tissue of BRCA1-mutation carriers and showed that RANK(+) cells are highly proliferative, have grossly aberrant DNA repair and bear a molecular signature similar to that of basal-like breast cancer. These data suggest that RANK(+) and not RANK(-) progenitors are a key target population in these women. Inhibition of RANKL signaling by treatment with denosumab in three-dimensional breast organoids derived from pre-neoplastic BRCA1(mut/+) tissue attenuated progesterone-induced proliferation. Notably, proliferation was markedly reduced in breast biopsies from BRCA1-mutation carriers who were treated with denosumab. Furthermore, inhibition of RANKL in a Brca1-deficient mouse model substantially curtailed mammary tumorigenesis. Taken together, these findings identify a targetable pathway in a putative cell-of-origin population in BRCA1-mutation carriers and implicate RANKL blockade as a promising strategy in the prevention of breast cancer.

  2. Cultural values and secondary prevention of breast cancer in african american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Klassen, Ann C

    2008-01-01

    Improving mammography initiation and maintenance among African American women has been suggested as a strategy for reducing breast cancer mortality in this population. We examined cultural values in relation to self-reported breast cancer screening among 572 low-income, urban, African American women. Cultural values examined included time orientation, family authority, employment aspirations, value of past vs modern life, and reliance on medical professionals. Also, implications for continued development of culturally tailored health interventions and opportunities for the consideration of cultural values in health communication are discussed. Bivariate analyses showed that more traditional values were associated with worse screening histories and lower intentions for future screening. In multivariate analyses, two interactions were observed between cultural values and age: for younger women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of having ever received a mammogram, and for older women, more traditional values were associated with lower odds of intentions to receive a mammogram in the next 2 years. This study adds to the evidence that cultural constructs, such as values, are associated with secondary prevention of breast cancer and supports the consideration of cultural constructs as important in increasing mammography and reducing breast cancer disparities for African American women.

  3. Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer Using Multifunctional Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    suggesting an allosteric modification of estrogen receptor  RO blocks the production of an estrogen regulated gene ( progesterone receptor) in...alternative targets in the pathway leading to the production of cholesterol, which might be regulated with less toxic inhibitors to control the progression of...to effectively treat and prevent cancers of the breast. Our goal was to identify alternative targets in the pathway leading to the production of

  4. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Lauver, D. (1994). Care-seeking behavior with breast cancer symptoms in Caucasian and African-American women. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 421...Disorders the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4, 47-5 8. 181. Waller, G. & Hodgson, S. (1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia ...1996). Body image distortion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the role of perceived and actual control. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184

  5. Rat models of 17β-estradiol-induced mammary cancer reveal novel insights into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, James D; Dennison, Kirsten L; Chack, Aaron C; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2018-03-01

    Numerous laboratory and epidemiologic studies strongly implicate endogenous and exogenous estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer. Data summarized herein suggest that the ACI rat model of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer is unique among rodent models in the extent to which it faithfully reflects the etiology and biology of luminal types of breast cancer, which together constitute ~70% of all breast cancers. E2 drives cancer development in this model through mechanisms that are largely dependent upon estrogen receptors and require progesterone and its receptors. Moreover, mammary cancer development appears to be associated with generation of oxidative stress and can be modified by multiple dietary factors, several of which may attenuate the actions of reactive oxygen species. Studies of susceptible ACI rats and resistant COP or BN rats provide novel insights into the genetic bases of susceptibility and the biological processes regulated by genetic determinants of susceptibility. This review summarizes research progress resulting from use of these physiologically relevant rat models to advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  6. Abbreviated Breast MRI and Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography in Screening Women With Dense Breasts | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital tomosynthesis mammography work in detecting cancer in women with dense breasts. Abbreviated breast MRI is a low cost procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer and used to create detailed pictures of the breast in less than 10 minutes.

  7. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  8. Aromatase inhibitors for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Lucy Ann; Amir, Eitan; Casper, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer (BC) worldwide has resulted in widespread interest in primary prevention therapies. A number of large randomized trials have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators can reduce the relative risk for BC by 30% to 40% in high-risk women. In early-stage BC, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) showed a 35% relative reduction in the risk of contralateral BCs compared with tamoxifen. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of AIs in the primary prevention of BC and novel research on combination hormone therapy-medical therapy for the primary prevention of BC. Using PubMed/Medline, we comprehensively searched for studies of BC primary prevention using AIs, including studies of novel methods of prevention using combination hormone therapy-BC prevention. Two large multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have evaluated AIs--anastrozole (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study II) and exemestane (Mammary Prevention 3)--for BC risk reduction in women at increased risk for BC, which we summarize. We identified five studies (three completed and two ongoing) of combination AI-hormone therapy that are undergoing investigation for BC risk reduction. AIs are effective at BC risk reduction, although long-term follow-up data are required to assess whether this risk reduction will result in reduced mortality. Combination hormone therapy-AI for BC risk reduction is experimental and warrants further investigation.

  9. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Jelena; Milica Kostić-Stanković; Krstić, Goran; Stojanović, Ljupce

    2016-06-01

    Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October- December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. There is a difference among respondents' awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%), the majority of them had never performed mammography or ultrasonography (67%). The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71%) and mass media--television on the first place (74%), then specialized magazines about health (48%), radio (48%), web sites about health (42%), and daily newspapers (34%). The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about cancer prevention, while the self-initiative was

  10. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    widespread epithelial hyperplasia (Figure 1a) as well as low and high grade mammary W81XWH-12-1-0093 / Penninger 8 intraepithelial neoplasias (MIN) and...system, expression of oncogenic dRasV12 in the eye epithelium results in a rough adult eye phenotype due to epithelial hyperplasia that can be then...metastases of epithelial tumors, a finding that provided a mechanistic underpinning for clinical trials to delay bone metastases in prostate and breast

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  12. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  14. Worry and risk perception of breast cancer in a prevention trial of low dose tamoxifen in midlife postmenopausal hormone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanina, Gabriella; Puntoni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Marra, Domenico; Bonanni, Bernardo; DeCensi, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing interest in combining postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and SERMs in midlife women. We previously showed that refusal to participate in a prevention trial of low dose tamoxifen in HT users was associated with higher worry about breast cancer. Given this counterintuitive finding, we studied which factors influenced worry and risk perception of breast cancer. We assessed the relationships of breast cancer worry and risk perception with age, age at menopause, Gail risk, education, adherence to mammographic screening, BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol use, anxiety and depression in 457 midlife HT users who were eligible to participate in the trial. Women with menopause 52 years (OR = 5.0, 95% CI, 1.2-21.1). Worry was also associated with high absolute risk perception and former smoking. Factors associated with higher risk perception were age>60 years, at-risk life style, worry about breast cancer and depression. The inverse association between early menopause and worry about breast cancer is in contrast with the known protective effect of early menopause on breast cancer risk and seems to reflect a feeling of aging and disease vulnerability. Our findings indicate that worry about cancer has an affective construct which is independent of breast cancer biology but is engaged in health decision making. Increasing breast cancer risk awareness in subjects high in worry without a plan of emotional coping may therefore be counterproductive because of avoidant attitudes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  16. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  17. Leverage of an Existing Cervical Cancer Prevention Service Platform to Initiate Breast Cancer Control Services in Zambia: Experiences and Early Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeya F. Pinder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In 2005, the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ was implemented and has since provided cervical cancer screen-and-treat services to more than 500,000 women. By leveraging the successes and experiences of the CCPPZ, we intended to build capacity for the early detection and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Methods: Our initiative sought to build capacity for breast cancer care through the (1 formation of a breast cancer advocacy alliance to raise awareness, (2 creation of resource-appropriate breast cancer care training curricula for mid- and high-level providers, and (3 implementation of early detection and treatment capacity within two major health care facilities. Results: Six months after the completion of the initiative, the following outcomes were documented: Breast health education and clinical breast examination (CBE services were successfully integrated into the service platforms of four CCPPZ clinics. Two new breast diagnostic centers were opened, which provided access to breast ultrasound, ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy, and needle aspiration. Breast health education and CBE were provided to 1,955 clients, 167 of whom were evaluated at the two diagnostic centers; 55 of those evaluated underwent core-needle biopsy, of which 17 were diagnosed with invasive cancer. Newly trained surgeons performed six sentinel lymph node mappings, eight sentinel lymph node dissections, and 10 breast conservation surgeries (lumpectomies. Conclusion: This initiative successfully established clinical services in Zambia that are critical for the early detection and surgical management of breast cancer.

  18. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    childrens.harvard.edu. References 1. Krueger KE. The potential of serum proteomics for detection of cancer: promise or only hope ? Onkologie. 2006;29:498...plasma gel for the treatment of dia- betic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006; 52:68-70, 72, 74. 33. Knighton DR, Fiegel VD. Growth factors and

  19. Repurposing of bisphosphonates for the prevention and therapy of nonsmall cell lung and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Agnes; Yuen, Tony; Iqbal, Jameel; Sgobba, Miriam; Gupta, Yogesh; Lu, Ping; Colaianni, Graziana; Ji, Yaoting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Kim, Se-Min; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Peng; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Sangodkar, Jaya; Scherer, Thomas; Mujtaba, Shiraz; Galsky, Matthew; Gomez, Jorge; Epstein, Solomon; Buettner, Christoph; Bian, Zhuan; Zallone, Alberta; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Haider, Shozeb; New, Maria I; Sun, Li; Narla, Goutham; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-12-16

    A variety of human cancers, including nonsmall cell lung (NSCLC), breast, and colon cancers, are driven by the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Having shown that bisphosphonates, a class of drugs used widely for the therapy of osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease, reduce cancer cell viability by targeting HER1, we explored their potential utility in the prevention and therapy of HER-driven cancers. We show that bisphosphonates inhibit colony formation by HER1(ΔE746-A750)-driven HCC827 NSCLCs and HER1(wt)-expressing MB231 triple negative breast cancers, but not by HER(low)-SW620 colon cancers. In parallel, oral gavage with bisphosphonates of mice xenografted with HCC827 or MB231 cells led to a significant reduction in tumor volume in both treatment and prevention protocols. This result was not seen with mice harboring HER(low) SW620 xenografts. We next explored whether bisphosphonates can serve as adjunctive therapies to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), namely gefitinib and erlotinib, and whether the drugs can target TKI-resistant NSCLCs. In silico docking, together with molecular dynamics and anisotropic network modeling, showed that bisphosphonates bind to TKIs within the HER1 kinase domain. As predicted from this combinatorial binding, bisphosphonates enhanced the effects of TKIs in reducing cell viability and driving tumor regression in mice. Impressively, the drugs also overcame erlotinib resistance acquired through the gatekeeper mutation T790M, thus offering an option for TKI-resistant NSCLCs. We suggest that bisphosphonates can potentially be repurposed for the prevention and adjunctive therapy of HER1-driven cancers.

  20. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    that women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit deregulated RANKL and reduced OPG (the natural inhibitor of RANKL) levels during their menstrual cycle...and kidney cancer cell lines. Light blue indicates a copy number decrease; dark blue indicates a loss of the indicated regions; shades of yellow...indicate increased copy numbers; black indicates normal diploid DNA content. For the presented copy number analysis, 50 and 100k Affymetrix SNP chips

  1. Local transdermal therapy to the breast for breast cancer prevention and DCIS therapy: preclinical and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Allu, Subhashini; Shidfar, Ali; Kenney, Kara; Helenowski, Irene; Sullivan, Megan E; Muzzio, Miguel; Scholtens, Denise; Chatterton, Robert T; Bethke, Kevin P; Hansen, Nora M; Khan, Seema A

    2015-12-01

    Women at high risk of breast cancer and those with carcinoma in situ need non-toxic, well-tolerated preventive interventions. One promising approach is drug delivery through the breast skin (local transdermal therapy, LTT). Our goal was to test novel drugs for LTT, to establish that LTT is applicable to non-steroidal drugs. Athymic nude rats were treated with oral tamoxifen, transdermal 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) or endoxifen gel applied daily to the axillary mammary gland for 6 weeks (Study 1). Study 2 was identical to Study 1, testing transdermal telapristone acetate (telapristone) gel versus subcutaneous implant. At euthanasia, mammary glands and blood were collected. In Study 3, consenting women requiring mastectomy were randomized to diclofenac patch applied to the abdomen or the breast for 3 days preoperatively. At surgery, eight tissue samples per breast were collected from predetermined locations, along with venous blood. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Mammary tissue concentrations of 4-OHT, endoxifen, and telapristone were significantly higher in the axillary glands of the gel-treated animals, compared to inguinal glands or to systemically treated animals. Plasma concentrations were similar in gel and systemically treated animals. The clinical trial showed significantly higher mammary concentrations when diclofenac was applied to the breast skin versus the abdominal skin, but concentrations were variable. These results demonstrate that lipophilic drugs can be developed for LTT; although the nude rat is suitable for testing drug permeability, delivery is systemic. In human, however, transdermal application to the breast skin provides local delivery.

  2. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  3. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  4. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  5. The impact of community health educators on uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Onyeka, Tonia C; Odugu, Boniface U; Dim, Cyril C

    2017-06-01

    To determine the impact of trained community health educators on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. A prospective population-based intervention study, with a before-and-after design, involved four randomly selected communities in southeast Nigeria from February 2014 to February 2016. Before the intervention, baseline data were collected on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services. The intervention was house-to-house education on cervical cancer and breast cancer prevention. Postintervention outcome measures included the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination within 6 months of intervention. In total, 1327 women were enrolled. Before the intervention, 42 (3.2%) women had undergone cervical cancer screening; afterwards, 897 (67.6%) women had received screening (Pbreast examination was performed for 59 (4.4%) women before and 897 (67.6%) after the intervention (Pbreast cancer prevention education was associated with significant increases in the uptake of cervical cancer screening, clinical breast examination, and HPV vaccination. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Scalp cooling successfully prevents alopecia in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ines; Wiesske, Alexandra; Schoenegg, Winfried

    2018-04-13

    Chemotherapy for breast cancer induces alopecia, representing a major source of patient distress. This study assesses whether a scalp-cooling device is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, and assesses adverse treatment effects. A prospective observational study including women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and scalp cooling using a Paxman device. The primary efficacy end points were: successful hair preservation (no hair loss; <30% hair loss not requiring a wig; or <50% hair loss not requiring a wig) at the completion of chemotherapy. Secondary end points included adverse effects such as headache, pain, nausea or dizziness. The study enrolled 131 participants. Mean patient age was 49.8 years; 74% received anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and 26% received taxane-monotherapy based chemotherapy. Hair preservation was successful in 102 women who underwent scalp cooling (71.0%; 95% CI = 63-79%). Only adverse events related to device use were collected, representing 7% (95% CI = 3-11%) of cases. Scalp cooling is effective in preventing hair loss among breast cancer patients undergoing standard chemotherapy treatment, and has minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism: implications for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-15

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with "stemness," more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This "two-compartment" metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert "low-risk" breast cancer patients to "high-risk" status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results also show that

  8. Cancer prevention-the feasibility and acceptability of promoting breast cancer risk reduction in the screening setting through a lifestyle magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Maureen; Anderson, Annie S

    2018-03-01

    Cancer prevention and early detection strategies are fundamental to reducing breast cancer burden. Offering prevention guidance on modifiable risk factors within early detection settings is rare. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a magazine focused on lifestyle and cancer prevention for use in breast screening clinics. A lifestyle magazine was developed and distributed within two breast screening settings in the West of Scotland over a 2-month period. Women were either offered the magazine on arrival or in a self-service format. Uptake was recorded by NHS staff. Women's views were sought via an evaluation questionnaire. Staff were interviewed on their experiences of intervention delivery. Uptake was greatest when offered to attendees (95% vs. 20% self-service). The evaluation questionnaire response rate was 17.3%. Almost 60% of respondents reported an increased knowledge about breast cancer and lifestyle and felt motivated to find out more about cancer prevention and 40% expressed intentions to make lifestyle changes. Over 90% of respondents thought lifestyle factors were important in breast cancer prevention. Staff feedback was positive, indicating no detrimental effects on workloads. In conclusion, a cancer prevention lifestyle magazine can be successfully delivered in the breast screening setting and deserves further exploration for roll out. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. Methods. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October-December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. Results. There is a difference among respondents’ awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%, the majority of them had never per-formed mammography or ultrasonography (67%. The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71% and mass media - television on the first place (74%, then specialized magazines about health (48%, radio (48%, web sites about health (42%, and daily newspapers (34%. The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  11. Management and Prevention of Breast Cancer After Radiation to the Chest for Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adulthood Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Eva; Henderson, Michael A; Dwyer, Mary; Skandarajah, Anita R

    2015-12-01

    Women treated with chest irradiation for childhood, adolescent, and young adulthood (CAYA) malignancies, in particular Hodgkin's lymphoma, have an increased risk of developing second cancers of the breast (SCB). However, there are few uniform guidelines regarding surveillance and prevention for this high-risk group. A systematic search using PUBMED and OVID MEDLINE was performed. Publications listed under the terms "breast neoplasm", "neoplasm, radiation-induced", "therapeutic radiation-induced breast cancer", "screening", "surveillance", "prevention", and "prophylaxis" between January 1992 and January 2015 were assessed. A total of 138 publications were reviewed. Factors associated with increased SCB risk include young age at irradiation, prolong duration since irradiation (peak relative risk 13.87 at 15-19 years postradiation), and increased radiation dose and field. Early menopause reduces SCB risk. Annual screening mammography and breast MRI is recommended from age 25 or 8 years posttreatment for women treated with ≥20 Gy chest radiation before age 30 years. Compared with sporadic primary breast cancers (PBC), SCB more often are bilateral (6-34 %), managed with mastectomy (56-100 %), hormone receptor-negative (27-49 %), and high-grade (35 %). Women with SCB have a similar breast cancer event-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival compared to women with PBC. However, their overall survival is worse due to comorbid conditions. There is paucity of information regarding secondary prevention of SCB. Survivors of CAYA malignancy are at risk of many late effects, including iatrogenic breast cancer from chest irradiation. They are best managed in a multidisciplinary late-effects setting where tailored risk management can be provided.

  12. MPGD for breast cancer prevention: a high resolution and low dose radiation medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, R. M.; Cerquera, E. A.; Mañana, G.

    2012-07-01

    Early detection of small calcifications in mammograms is considered the best preventive tool of breast cancer. However, existing digital mammography with relatively low radiation skin exposure has limited accessibility and insufficient spatial resolution for small calcification detection. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) and associated technologies, increasingly provide new information useful to generate images of microscopic structures and make more accessible cutting edge technology for medical imaging and many other applications. In this work we foresee and develop an application for the new information provided by a MPGD camera in the form of highly controlled images with high dynamical resolution. We present a new Super Detail Image (S-DI) that efficiently profits of this new information provided by the MPGD camera to obtain very high spatial resolution images. Therefore, the method presented in this work shows that the MPGD camera with SD-I, can produce mammograms with the necessary spatial resolution to detect microcalcifications. It would substantially increase efficiency and accessibility of screening mammography to highly improve breast cancer prevention.

  13. [Latest international guidelines for screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer - implications for the relevant practice in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romics, László; Kocsis, Judit; Ormándi, Katalin; Molnár, Béla Ákos

    2016-07-01

    Screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer require a multidisciplinary approach. New guidelines were published in the United Kingdom for the management of familial breast cancer. The authors summarise these new guidelines and analyse the relevant practice in Hungary. Relevant guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Familial Breast Cancer Report (NHS Scotland) are described. New guidelines will increase the number of genetic tests as well as genetic counselling. An increase in the number of breast magnetic resonance imaging is expected, too. Chemoprevention can be offered for individuals with medium risk and above. Promising trials are underway with platinum based chemotherapy and polyADP-ribose polimerase inhibitors for the systemic treatment of familial breast cancer. The increase in the number of genetic tests, counselling, and breast magnetic resonance imaging may have a significant impact on health care budget. These guidelines will change some aspects of the current management of familial breast cancer. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(28), 1117-1125.

  14. Tea phytochemicals for breast cancer prevention and intervention: From bench to bedside and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dona; Biswas, Jaydip; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2017-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute of the United States had projected breast cancer as one of the topmost prevalent malignancies of 2016. It was estimated that in 2016, 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the US, along with 61,000 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer. The heterogeneity of breast cancer accounts for its differential molecular subtyping. Recent incorporation of high throughput approaches helps early prognosis of breast cancer, but recurrence of the disease stands to be one of the most daunting fact behind non-availability of third line treatment. At this point of crisis, application of chemopreventive measures could possibly resolve the enigma of breast cancer. The world class beverage tea has proven its efficacy in ameliorating various genetic and epigenetic anomalies in breast cancer. Tea phytoconstituents are known to modulate myriad molecular events which include prominent regulators of intracellular signaling, such as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/nuclear factor-κB, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein in the development and progression of breast carcinoma. This review aims to encompass the detailed modulatory roles of tea phytochemicals, their analogs and nanoformulations against mammary carcinoma and the probability of using tea in therapeutic management of breast cancer. Finally, current limitations, challenges and future directions of tea and breast cancer research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary prevention and screening practices among long-term breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelzweig, Lori; Chetrit, Angela; Amitai, Tova; Silverman, Barbara; Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2017-07-01

    Parallel to increasing survival of breast cancer (BC) patients, a need has arisen to characterize the follow-up required to improve and maintain their health. Our study aimed to assess changes in lifestyle habits over time among the study population, compare compliance rates of selected primary and secondary prevention practices between long-term BC survivors and an age-matched comparison group, and identify factors associated with compliance to these practices. The study population comprised 250 Israeli BC survivors, diagnosed with BC between 1999 and 2003, without evidence of disease after 8-12 years, and 250 women with no cancer history, individually matched to survivors by age and area of residence. Data collection and analysis were conducted during August 2012-June 2015 and included socio-demographic variables, lifestyle habits, health promotion by the family physician, and participation in screening procedures and prevention measures. Higher performance rates of mammography and colonoscopy among BC survivors were observed, as well as a greater likelihood of receiving an influenza vaccine and undergoing a bone mineral density scan (adjusted-ORs: 7.7, 1.48, 1.42, and 2.59, respectively) compared to controls. Factors identified with compliance to selected practices were age, higher levels of education and income, never smoking, and strenuous physical activity. The survivors adopted healthier lifestyles, which were similar to those of women who never had cancer. About 10 years after BC diagnosis, the survivors generally comply with primary and secondary prevention practices.

  16. The increasing roles of epigenetics in breast cancer: Implications for pathogenicity, biomarkers, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Clémence; Arock, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Nowadays, the mechanisms governing the occurrence of cancer are thought to be the consequence not only of genetic defects but also of epigenetic modifications. Therefore, epigenetic has become a very attractive and increasingly investigated field of research in order to find new ways of prevention and treatment of neoplasia, and this is particularly the case for breast cancer (BC). Thus, this review will first develop the main known epigenetic modifications that can occur in cancer and then expose the future role that control of epigenetic modifications might play in prevention, prognostication, follow-up and treatment of BC. Indeed, epigenetic biomarkers found in peripheral blood might become new tools to detect BC, to define its prognostic and to predict its outcome, whereas epi-drugs might have an increasing potential of development in the next future. However, if DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone desacetylase inhibitors have shown encouraging results in BC, their action remains nonspecific. Thus, additional clinical studies are needed to evaluate more precisely the effects of these molecules, even if they have provided encouraging results in cotreatment and combined therapies. This review will also deal with the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as epi-drugs. Finally, we will focus on the potential prevention of BC through epigenetic based on diet and we will particularly develop the possible place of isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables or of Genistein from soybean in a dietary program that might potentially reduce the risk of BC in large populations. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Relationship of ZNF423 and CTSO with breast cancer risk in two randomised tamoxifen prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Byers, Helen; Segal, Corrinne; Reuter, Caroline; Detre, Simone; Sestak, Ivana; Howell, Anthony; Powles, Trevor J; Newman, William G; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2016-08-01

    A case-control study from two randomised breast cancer prevention trials of tamoxifen and raloxifene (P-1 and P-2) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes ZNF423 and CTSO as factors which predict which women will derive most anti-cancer benefit from selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) therapy. In this article, we further examine this question using blood samples from two randomised tamoxifen prevention trials: the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (IBIS-I) and the Royal Marsden trial (Marsden). A nested case-control study was designed with 2:1 matching in IBIS-I and 1:1 matching in Marsden. The OncoArray was used for genotyping and included two SNPs previously identified (rs8060157 in ZNF423 and rs10030044 near CTSO), and 102 further SNPs within the same regions. Overall, there were 369 cases and 662 controls, with 148 cases and 268 controls from the tamoxifen arms. Odds ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression, with Wald 95 % confidence intervals. In the tamoxifen arms, the per-allele odds ratio for rs8060157 was 0.99 (95 %CI 0.73-1.34) and 1.00 (95 %CI 0.76-1.33) for rs10030044. In the placebo arm, the odds ratio was 1.10 (95 %CI 0.87-1.40) for rs8060157 and 1.01 (95 %CI 0.79-1.29) for rs10030044. There was no evidence to suggest that other SNPs in the surrounding regions of these SNPs might predict response to tamoxifen. Results from these two prevention trials do not support the earlier findings. rs8060157 in ZNF423 and rs10030044 near CTSO do not appear to predict response to tamoxifen.

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  20. [Prevention of phlebitis caused by vinorelbine chemotherapy in outpatients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yukiko; Suzuki, Tomoko; Narahashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Jun; Kojima, Makoto; Shimada, Retsu

    2008-09-01

    We studied the prevention of phlebitis in 10 patients who had developed the symptoms after receiving vinorelbine to treat breast cancer at our outpatient chemotherapy clinic from July 2005 to August 2006. Veins proximal to the injection site were warmed using hot compresses during the vinorelbine injection and physiological saline was increased to wash out the drug after the injection from 250 mL to 500 mL in combination to investigate whether the treatment was effective in preventing phlebitis. The severity of phlebitis was significantly decreased after the combined treatment compared with the pre-treatment level (p=0.039). The combination was effective to relieve vascular pain during the injection in all 10 patients, and the number of event occurrences was significantly decreased (pphlebitis caused by vinorelbine. The comparison of patient characteristics to find other contributing factors to phlebitis than vinorelbine revealed no association with the number of doses, diameter of the vein to be punctured, or pretreatment.

  1. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  2. Advances in breast cancer treatment and prevention: preclinical studies on aromatase inhibitors and new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, Rachel; Chamness, Gary C; Brown, Powel H

    2003-01-01

    Intensive basic and clinical research over the past 20 years has yielded crucial molecular understanding into how estrogen and the estrogen receptor act to regulate breast cancer and has led to the development of more effective, less toxic, and safer hormonal therapy agents for breast cancer management and prevention. Selective potent aromatase inhibitors are now challenging the hitherto gold standard of hormonal therapy, the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen. Furthermore, new selective estrogen-receptor modulators such as arzoxifene, currently under clinical development, offer the possibility of selecting one with a more ideal pharmacological profile for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Two recent studies in preclinical model systems that evaluate mechanisms of action of these new drugs and suggestions about their optimal clinical use are discussed

  3. Can weight gain be prevented in women receiving treatment for breast cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Z O; Reeves, M M

    2017-11-01

    Obesity and weight gain have been associated with poor disease-specific and health-related outcomes in women with breast cancer. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of weight gain prevention interventions among women with breast cancer. Completed and ongoing trials evaluating a behaviourally based dietary intervention with or without physical activity and with a focus on weight gain prevention during treatment for breast cancer were reviewed. Weight change and body composition data were extracted. Within-group weight change of ±1 kg and between-group (intervention versus control) weight difference of ≥2 kg were defined as successful weight gain prevention. Five completed trials (seven intervention arms) and five ongoing trials were identified. Completed trials exclusively recruited premenopausal or premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Within-group weight gain was prevented in two intervention arms, two arms achieved weight loss and three arms reported weight gain. Of the five comparisons with control groups, two reported significant differences in weight change between groups. Ongoing trials will provide further evidence on longer-term outcomes, cost-effectiveness and blood markers. This small but growing number of studies provides preliminary and promising evidence that weight gain can be prevented in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Decision making for breast cancer prevention among women at elevated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Tasleem J; Wills, Celia E; Yee, Lisa D; Paskett, Electra D

    2017-03-24

    Several medical management approaches have been shown to be effective in preventing breast cancer and detecting it early among women at elevated risk: 1) prophylactic mastectomy; 2) prophylactic oophorectomy; 3) chemoprevention; and 4) enhanced screening routines. To varying extents, however, these approaches are substantially underused relative to clinical practice recommendations. This article reviews the existing research on the uptake of these prevention approaches, the characteristics of women who are likely to use various methods, and the decision-making processes that underlie the differing choices of women. It also highlights important areas for future research, detailing the types of studies that are particularly needed in four key areas: documenting women's perspectives on their own perceptions of risk and prevention decisions; explicit comparisons of available prevention pathways and their likely health effects; the psychological, interpersonal, and social processes of prevention decision making; and the dynamics of subgroup variation. Ultimately, this research could support the development of interventions that more fully empower women to make informed and values-consistent decisions, and to move towards favorable health outcomes.

  5. Management of women at high risk of hereditary breast cancer in the Veneto Regional Program for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sole, Annamaria; Cinquetti, Sandro; Fedato, Chiara; Montagna, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Sbrogiò, Luca Gino; Zorzi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Today it is well-known that high risk of genetic breast cancer concerns a very limited part of the population: no more than 2-3 women are affected every thousand and this condition as a whole accounts for no more than 3%-5% of all breast cancers. Following the directions contained in the 2014-2018 National Prevention Plan, Veneto's 2014-2018 Regional Program of Prevention (PRP), approved by Regional Council Resolution (DGR) No. 749 of 14.5.2015, consolidation of a pathway of diagnosis, observation, and prophylaxis for women at high risk of hereditary breast carcinoma is thus proposed. The principal activities of this policy will be the following: creation of a regional working group, survey of currently existing pathways for the identification of women at risk of hereditary breast cancer and adoption of the same, approval and consolidation of a structured regional pathway for women at high risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, from paths of oncogenetic consultation and genetic testing to management of disease risk. Subsequent to the recognition of the pathway of diagnosis, observation, and prophylaxis for women at high risk of hereditary breast carcinoma, the Veneto region undertakes to develop a co-ordinated program of information and training on this pathway directed at the population and healthcare workers. It is firmly hoped that with the inclusion of a program for the management of women at high risk of hereditary breast cancer within the Veneto PRP this topic may become more defined and structured in terms of sustainability, integration with the existing regional networks (mammography network, Breast Unit), contrasting inequality, monitoring and evaluation, in this way pursuing the objectives of a reduction of cause-specific mortality and improvement of quality of life.

  6. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  7. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  8. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  9. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    endocrine disorders, menstrual status, history of cancer or prior breast disease, estrogen and progesterone receptor status of tissue, Her 2 neu...anesthetic cream , will be applied to the breast/areolar region that is to be sampled. The breast will then be warmed for 5-10 min with a heating pad...procedure include possible pain associated with the procedure. Participants will be advised that the results from this study will be combined with the

  10. [Cervical and breast cancer prevention among underprivileged women in France: an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Marielle; Antonielli, Alilla Brossard; Laurence, Sophie; Rochefort, Jeanine; Giboin, Catherine; Corty, Jean François

    2014-01-01

    If cervical cancer and breast cancer screening are frequent practices in general population, studies indicate that these practices are less common among underprivileged women. Doctors of the World conducted a study to measure cancer prevention and screening among women attending medical consultation in their health care centers (Caso) in France. The survey was conducted in 5 Caso. A questionnaire was proposed to all women (aged 14 years and older) attending medical consultation. 203 women participated in the survey. Only 33.1% of women aged 25-65 declared that they have ever realized a cervical smear in their lives. More than a third of the concerned women did not know cervical smear and 72% of the women under 35 years old do not know the HPV vaccine. 70.8% of women aged 50-74 said they had never realized a mammogram. The survey highlights less use of cancer screening among underprivileged women compared to the general population, underlines the need for appropriate actions for these populations and the need to facilitate health coverage access for women facing multiple vulnerability factors.

  11. Fluorescence-guided surgery of a highly-metastatic variant of human triple-negative breast cancer targeted with a cancer-specific GFP adenovirus prevents recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Miwa, Shinji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a genetically-engineered GFP-expressing telomerase-dependent adenovirus, OBP-401, which can selectively illuminate cancer cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that targeting a triple-negative high-invasive human breast cancer, orthotopically-growing in nude mice, with OBP-401 enables curative fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). OBP-401 enabled complete resection and prevented local recurrence and greatly inhibited lymph-node metastasis due to the ability of the virus to selectively label and subsequently kill cancer cells. In contrast, residual breast cancer cells become more aggressive after bright (white)-light surgery (BLS). OBP-401-based FGS also improved the overall survival compared with conventional BLS. Thus, metastasis from a highly-aggressive triple-negative breast cancer can be prevented by FGS in a clinically-relevant mouse model. PMID:27689331

  12. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2008-01-01

    ... and their reaction with DNA. Compelling evidence obtained in the various specific aims of this COE will be decisive for determining the risk of breast cancer by using the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts as biomarkers...

  13. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalieri, Ercole L

    2007-01-01

    ... and their reaction with DNA. Compelling evidence obtained in the various specific aims of this COE will be decisive for determining the risk of breast cancer by using the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts as biomarkers...

  14. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  15. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E for treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Marks, Lawrence B; Jones, Ellen L

    2018-04-23

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of breast cancer. Radiation-induced fibrosis is a side effect of radiation therapy and may occur in up to 13% of the cases in patients (Radiother Oncol, 2009;90:80), fortunately usually is modest/localized and not associated with marked symptoms. However, occasionally, fibrosis can be moderate-to-severe, and cause clinically-meaningful symptoms. The current review summarizes the use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E of treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in breast cancer patients. Even though data are limited, this regimen may reduce RT-associated toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  17. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of curcumin-treated human breast stem cells identifies a role for stearoyl-coa desaturase in breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacino, Justin A; McDermott, Sean P; Sartor, Maureen A; Wicha, Max S; Rozek, Laura S

    2016-07-01

    Curcumin is a potential agent for both the prevention and treatment of cancers. Curcumin treatment alone, or in combination with piperine, limits breast stem cell self-renewal, while remaining non-toxic to normal differentiated cells. We paired fluorescence-activated cell sorting with RNA sequencing to characterize the genome-wide changes induced specifically in normal breast stem cells following treatment with these compounds. We generated genome-wide maps of the transcriptional changes that occur in epithelial-like (ALDH+) and mesenchymal-like (ALDH-/CD44+/CD24-) normal breast stem/progenitor cells following treatment with curcumin and piperine. We show that curcumin targets both stem cell populations by down-regulating expression of breast stem cell genes including ALDH1A3, CD49f, PROM1, and TP63. We also identified novel genes and pathways targeted by curcumin, including downregulation of SCD. Transient siRNA knockdown of SCD in MCF10A cells significantly inhibited mammosphere formation and the mean proportion of CD44+/CD24- cells, suggesting that SCD is a regulator of breast stemness and a target of curcumin in breast stem cells. These findings extend previous reports of curcumin targeting stem cells, here in two phenotypically distinct stem/progenitor populations isolated from normal human breast tissue. We identified novel mechanisms by which curcumin and piperine target breast stem cell self-renewal, such as by targeting lipid metabolism, providing a mechanistic link between curcumin treatment and stem cell self-renewal. These results elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin may act as a cancer-preventive compound and provide novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  19. Optimizing resource allocation for breast cancer prevention and care among Hong Kong Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene O L; Tsang, Janice W H; Cowling, Benjamin J; Leung, Gabriel M

    2012-09-15

    Recommendations about funding of interventions through the full spectrum of the disease often have been made in isolation. The authors of this report optimized budgetary allocations by comparing cost-effectiveness data for different preventive and management strategies throughout the disease course for breast cancer in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese women. Nesting a state-transition Markov model within a generalized cost-effectiveness analytic framework, costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were compared to estimate average cost-effectiveness ratios for the following interventions at the population level: biennial mass mammography (ages 40-69 years or ages 40-79 years), reduced waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (by 15% or by 25%), adjuvant endocrine therapy (either upfront aromatase inhibitor [AI] therapy or sequentially with tamoxifen followed by AI) in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease, targeted immunotherapy in those with tumors that over express human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and enhanced palliative services (either at home or as an inpatient). Usual care for eligible patients in the public sector was the comparator. In descending order, the optimal allocation of additional resources for breast cancer would be the following: a 25% reduction in waiting time for postoperative radiotherapy (in US dollars: $5000 per QALY); enhanced, home-based palliative care ($7105 per QALY); adjuvant, sequential endocrine therapy ($17,963 per QALY); targeted immunotherapy ($62,092 per QALY); and mass mammography screening of women ages 40 to 69 years ($72,576 per QALY). Given the lower disease risk and different age profiles of patients in HK Chinese, among other newly emergent and emerging economies with similar transitioning epidemiologic profiles, the current findings provided direct evidence to support policy decisions that may be dissimilar to current Western practice. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  20. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  1. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  2. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  3. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Radiodermatitis prevention with sucralfate in breast cancer: fundamental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Sabrina; Trouillas, Patrick; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Bonnetblanc, Jean-Marie; Clavère, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiodermatitis induced by radiotherapy may affect the quality of life and in some cases requires withholding treatment. The present study concerns the protective effect of a 1% sucralfate lotion. We propose joint fundamental and clinical points of view. The free radical scavenging capacity of sucralfate was measured with electron spin resonance and was supported by theoretical calculations. The clinical effects of sucralfate lotion were evaluated on 21 women treated for breast cancer. Breast skin response was evaluated at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy, according to (1) the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) acute toxicity scale and (2) spectrophotometry data obtained with X-Rite SP60. Sucralfate appeared as a relatively poor free radical scavenger (compared to reference compounds such as vitamin E). The sucralfate-containing lotion used in the present study did not provide systematic radiodermatitis prevention. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the skin response to irradiation appeared to be a very effective and more sensitive technique than the RTOG scale. Its use should be recommended to study cutaneous radioprotective action.

  5. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Schepens, M., Jeuken, J., Sprenger, S., van de Zande, G., Bjerkehagen, B., Forus, A., Weibolt, V., Molenaar , I., van den Berg, E., Myklebost, O...carcinogenesis, how to interrupt the estrogen metabolic pathway leading to cancer. Both have authored books and/or articles in breast cancer

  7. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape [38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes... flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41] Tomar RS, Shiao R. Early life and adult exposure to isoflavones and breast cancer risk. J

  8. The Individualization of Risk and Responsibility in Breast Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The incidence rates are such that one in nine Canadian women will be diagnosed in her lifetime. While social science research has demonstrated the influence of social, political, economic and environmental factors on health outcomes, many still emphasize the role of…

  9. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Biblioteca Mandotti, Guastalla, Italy, September 12, 2005. 26. Cavalieri, E. L’origine commune du cancer et d’antres maladies. Rotary Club Lyon...67 SPECIFIC AIM 5 – INGLE A. Introduction Globally, breast cancer remains a major problem for many women and is a concern for virtually all

  10. Recruitment strategy cost and impact on minority accrual to a breast cancer prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Alexander; Khan, Seema; Babinski, Christie; Michel, Nancy; Heffernan, Marie; Stephan, Stefanie; Jordan, Neil; Jovanovic, Borko; Carney, Paula; Bergan, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    Recruitment of minorities to cancer prevention trials is difficult and costly. Early-phase cancer prevention trials have fewer resources to promote recruitment. Identifying cost-effective strategies that can replace or supplement traditional recruitment methods and improve minority accrual to small, early-phase cancer prevention trials are of critical importance. To compare the costs of accrual strategies used in a small breast cancer prevention trial and assess their impact on recruitment and minority accrual. A total of 1196 potential subjects with a known recruitment source contacted study coordinators about the SOY study, a breast cancer prevention trial. Recruitment strategies for this study included recruitment from within the Northwestern University network (internal strategy), advertisements placed on public transportation (Chicago Transit Authority (CTA)), health-related events, media (print/radio/television), and direct mail. Total recruitment strategy cost included the cost of study personnel and material costs calculated from itemized receipts. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of each recruitment strategy. If a strategy was more costly and less effective than its comparator, then that strategy was considered dominated. Scenarios that were not dominated were compared. The primary effectiveness measure was the number of consents. Separate ICERs were calculated using the number of minority consents as the effectiveness measure. The total cost of SOY study recruitment was US$164,585, which included the cost of materials (US$26,133) and personnel (US$138,452). The internal referral strategy was the largest source of trial contacts (748/1196; 63%), consents (107/150; 71%), and minority consents (17/34; 50%) and was the most expensive strategy (US$139,033). CTA ads generated the second largest number of trial contacts (326/1196; 27%), the most minority contacts (184/321; 57%), and 16

  11. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    significantly increased compared with positive controls at different time points. Histological examination showed that the malignancy of lesions in TNJ groups did not show a significant change when compared with that in positive and placebo groups.Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first study which indicates that TNJ possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rates.Key words: Morinda citrifolia, Tahitian noni® juice, breast cancer, cancer prevention

  12. Melatonin uses in oncology: breast cancer prevention and reduction of the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J; Mediavilla, Maria D; Alonso-Gonzalez, Carolina; Reiter, Russel J

    2012-06-01

    The possible oncostatic properties of melatonin on different types of neoplasias have been studied especially in hormone-dependent adenocarcinomas. Despite the promising results of these experimental investigations, the use of melatonin in breast cancer treatment in humans is still uncommon. This article reviews the usefulness of this indoleamine for specific aspects of breast cancer management, particularly in reference to melatonin's antiestrogenic and antioxidant properties: i) treatments oriented to breast cancer prevention, especially when the risk factors are obesity, steroid hormone treatment or chronodisruption by exposure to light at night (LAN); ii) treatment of the side effects associated with chemo- or radiotherapy. The clinical utility of melatonin depends on the appropriate identification of its actions. Because of its SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) and SEEM (selective estrogen enzyme modulators) properties, and its virtual absence of contraindications, melatonin could be an excellent adjuvant with the drugs currently used for breast cancer prevention (antiestrogens and antiaromatases). The antioxidant actions also make melatonin a suitable treatment to reduce oxidative stress associated with chemotherapy, especially with anthracyclines, and radiotherapy.

  13. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Postpartum Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    estrone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, and 17- hydroxyprogesterone in human pregnancy. I. Normal pregnancy, American journal of obstetrics and...Marchbanks PA: Reproductive history and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis, Obstet Gynecol 2004, 104:146-154 17. Stensheim H, Moller B, van Dijk T

  14. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  15. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah D

    2006-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  16. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah

    2004-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  17. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  18. Bone mineral density and breast cancer risk: Results from the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagel

    2017-12-01

    We found no association between BMD (DXA and breast cancer risk in our cohort. However, overall the present meta-analysis extends and confirms the statistically significant association between increasing BMD and increased breast cancer risk.

  19. From Halsted to prevention and beyond: advances in the management of breast cancer during the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B

    1999-12-01

    -oestrogen tamoxifen benefited patients with all stages of the disease. Tamoxifen also reduced the incidence of contralateral breast cancer, as well as tumour in the ipsilateral breast following lumpectomy. The use of preoperative therapy was also found to enhance breast-conserving surgery in women with large tumours, although its value in other circumstances is still being defined. The observation that, as a result of tamoxifen administration, invasive and non-invasive breast cancers can be prevented in women who are at increased risk for such tumours, and the finding that pathological entities such as atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and intraductal carcinoma (DCIS) can identify women who should be considered candidates for tamoxifen serve as a fitting capstone to the accomplishments of the twentieth century. Breast cancer prevention has now become a reality. Unfortunately, a variety of circumstances have arisen as the result of advances in the understanding and treatment of breast cancer over the last 30 years that threaten to nullify the progress that has been achieved. This distressing phenomenon may be reviewed as a 'paradox of accomplishment'. The numerous uncertainties, issues and questions that have arisen following the report of each advance in treatment, the surfeit of new information that has not yet been integrated into treatment strategies, the undesirable consequences of enhanced tumour detection, a reversion to Halstedianism and anecdotalism, and the uncertainty of therapeutic decision making resulting from the demonstration of small but statistically significant benefits, particularly in patients with good prognosis, need to be addressed. Inappropriate interpretation of those circumstances threatens to deny women with breast cancer and those at high risk for the disease the opportunity to benefit from treatments that have been proven to be of worth. Perhaps the most important accomplishment of the twentieth century relates to the change in the

  20. Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure factors influencing women's breast cancer prevention behaviors (ASSISTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Pashaei, Tahereh; Gholami, Ali; Ponnet, Koen

    2016-07-22

    Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors. A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested. Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds. The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  2. Prescribing tamoxifen in primary care for the prevention of breast cancer: a national online survey of GPs' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Foy, Robbie; McGowan, Jennifer A; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; DeCensi, Andrea; Brown, Karen; Side, Lucy; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-06-01

    The cancer strategy for England (2015-2020) recommends GPs prescribe tamoxifen for breast cancer primary prevention among women at increased risk. To investigate GPs' attitudes towards prescribing tamoxifen. In an online survey, GPs in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales ( n = 928) were randomised using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design to read one of four vignettes describing a healthy patient seeking a tamoxifen prescription. In the vignette, the hypothetical patient's breast cancer risk (moderate versus high) and the clinician initiating the prescription (GP prescriber versus secondary care clinician [SCC] prescriber) were manipulated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Outcomes were willingness to prescribe, comfort discussing harms and benefits, comfort managing the patient, factors affecting the prescribing decision, and awareness of tamoxifen and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline CG164. Half (51.7%) of the GPs knew tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer risk, and one-quarter (24.1%) were aware of NICE guideline CG164. Responders asked to initiate prescribing (GP prescriber) were less willing to prescribe tamoxifen than those continuing a prescription initiated in secondary care (SCC prescriber) (68.9% versus 84.6%, P preventive therapy in secondary care before asking GPs to continue the patient's care may overcome some prescribing barriers. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  3. Role, limitations and place of medical imaging in the prevention, screening and early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, J.L.; Pujol, J.; Rodiere, M.J.; Laurent, J.C.; Prat, X.; Martin, J.M.; Khodr, A.

    1986-01-01

    For prevention and screening of breast cancer the triad of CLINICAL SIGNS - RADIOLOGY - CYTOLOGY constitutes the most efficient and least costly method. If properly done, clinical examinations can predict the benignity or malignancy of a lesion with an accuracy rate of 80%. While self-examinations are of interest, they cannot replace a proper medical examination. Self-palpation may cause anxiety and cancerophobia both of which may have an as yet poorly understood effect on benign mastopathis. Mammography is currently the most reliable and specific imaging technique. While it can identify stage 0 lesions, it reaches its technical limits in patients with dense breast tissue. It is reserved for high-risk patients. Aspiration cytology is an excellent technique for evaluating areas with a diameter of 1 cm and more. While it cannot diagnose breast cancers in a very early stage, it helps avoid delays in the diagnosis by providing supportive evidence for radiological and clinical findings. Recent pathologic studies showed cancers to develop most often in the presence of proliferative epithelial lesions. This would seem to suggest the need for cytohistologic typing, which can be expected to pick out high-risk patients effectively, to ensure a truly early detection and diagnosis of cancer and to provide for a meaningful prevention. (Author)

  4. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  5. Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Forbes, John F

    2014-01-01

    of the disease. METHODS: Between Feb 2, 2003, and Jan 31, 2012, we recruited postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years from 18 countries into an international, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. To be eligible, women had to be at increased risk of breast cancer (judged on the basis of specific...

  6. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal...

  7. The role of MDM2 and MDM4 in breast cancer development and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sue; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Burgess, Andrew; Lim, Elgene; Haupt, Ygal

    2017-02-01

    The major cause of death from breast cancer is not the primary tumour, but relapsing, drug-resistant, metastatic disease. Identifying factors that contribute to aggressive cancer offers important leads for therapy. Inherent defence against carcinogens depends on the individual molecular make-up of each person. Important molecular determinants of these responses are under the control of the mouse double minute (MDM) family: comprised of the proteins MDM2 and MDM4. In normal, healthy adult cells, the MDM family functions to critically regulate measured, cellular responses to stress and subsequent recovery. Proper function of the MDM family is vital for normal breast development, but also for preserving genomic fidelity. The MDM family members are best characterized for their negative regulation of the major tumour suppressor p53 to modulate stress responses. Their impact on other cellular regulators is emerging. Inappropriately elevated protein levels of the MDM family are highly associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence. Exploration of the MDM family members as cancer therapeutic targets is relevant for designing tailored anti-cancer treatments, but successful approaches must strategically consider the impact on both the target cancer and adjacent healthy cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent findings pertaining to the role of the MDM family in normal and malignant breast cells. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  8. Inhibition of miR-155, a therapeutic target for breast cancer, prevented in cancer stem cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiangcheng; Yu, Yalan; Zhu, Man; Jing, Wei; Yu, Mingxia; Chai, Hongyan; Liang, Chunzi; Tu, Jiancheng

    2018-02-06

    Breast cancer is a common cancer in women of worldwide. Cancer cells with stem-like properties played important roles in breast cancer, such as relapse, metastasis and treatment resistance. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) is a well-known oncogenic miRNA overexpressed in many human cancers. The expression levels of miR-155 in 38 pairs of cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer patients were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. The invasive cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to quantify the expression of miR-155 by tumor-sphere forming experiment. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts was used to explore whether the inhibition of miR-155 could reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro. In the study, we found miR-155 was upregulated in BC. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts showed inhibition of miR-155 could significantly reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro, which confirmed that miR-155 is an effective therapeutic target of breast cancer. Sphere-forming experiment showed that overexpression of miR-155 significantly correlated with stem-like properties. Expressions of ABCG2, CD44 and CD90 were repressed by inhibition of miR-155, but CD24 was promoted. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-155 rendered MDA-MB-231 cells more sensitive to Doxorubicinol, which resulted in an increase of inhibition rate from 20.23% to 68.72%. Expression of miR-155 not only was a therapeutic target but also was associated with cancer stem cell formation and Doxorubicinol sensitivity. Our results underscore the importance of miR-155 as a therapeutic target and combination of Doxorubicinol and miR-155-silencing would be a potential way to cure breast cancer.

  9. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  10. Gene screening and prevention of hereditary breast cancer: a clinical view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J. G. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, the major tasks of the increasing number of family cancer clinics are to provide general information about cancer, to perform risk assessment, to offer (presymptomatic) DNA-testing, to advise on lifestyle, to take steps for early detection and prevention of cancer, for psychological

  11. Uptake of breast cancer preventive therapy in the UK: results from a multicentre prospective survey and qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Julia; Thorneloe, Rachael; Side, Lucy; Wolf, Michael; Horne, Rob; Cuzick, Jack; Smith, Samuel G

    2018-04-24

    Uptake of preventive therapy for women at increased breast cancer risk in England is unknown following the introduction of UK clinical guidelines in 2013. Preventive therapy could create socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence if it is more readily accepted by particular socio-demographic groups. In this multicentre study, we investigated uptake of tamoxifen and evaluated socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation. We explored women's experiences of treatment decision-making using qualitative interview data. Between September 2015 and December 2016, women (n = 732) attending an appointment at one of 20 centres in England to discuss breast cancer risk were approached to complete a survey containing socio-demographic details and nulliparity. Of the baseline survey respondents (n = 408/732, 55.7% response rate), self-reported uptake of tamoxifen at 3-month follow-up was reported in 258 (63.2%). Sixteen women participated in semi-structured interviews. One in seven (38/258 = 14.7%) women initiated tamoxifen. Women who had children were more likely to report use of tamoxifen than those without children (OR = 5.26; 95%CI: 1.13-24.49, p = 0.035). Interview data suggested that women weigh up risks and benefits of tamoxifen within the context of familial commitments, with exposure to significant other's beliefs and experiences of cancer and medication a basis for their decision. Uptake of tamoxifen is low in clinical practice. There were no socio-demographic differences in uptake, suggesting that the introduction of breast cancer preventive therapy is unlikely to create socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence. Women's decision-making was influenced by familial priorities, particularly having children.

  12. Hydrogen sulphide-releasing diclofenac derivatives inhibit breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevent osteolysis ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzias, J; Logan, J G; Mollat, P; Sparatore, A; Del Soldato, P; Ralston, S H; Idris, A I

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and prostaglandins are both involved in inflammation, cancer and bone turnover, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and H(2)S donors exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. H(2)S-releasing diclofenac (S-DCF) derivatives are a novel class of NSAIDs combining the properties of a H(2)S donor with those of a conventional NSAID. We studied the effects of the S-DCF derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity in vitro, human and mouse breast cancer cells support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro, and osteolysis ex vivo. The S-diclofenac derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited the increase in osteoclast formation induced by human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and mouse 4T1 breast cancer cells without affecting breast cancer cell viability. Conditioned media from human MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced IκB phosphorylation and osteoclast formation and these effects were significantly inhibited following treatment by ACS15 and ACS32, whereas the parent compound diclofenac had no effects. ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclast formation and resorption, and caused caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in mature osteoclasts via a mechanism dependent on IKK/NFκB inhibition. In calvaria organ culture, human MDA-MB-231 cells caused osteolysis, and this effect was completely prevented following treatment with ACS15 and ACS32. S-diclofenac derivatives inhibit osteoclast formation and activity, suppress breast cancer cell support for osteoclastogenesis and prevent osteolysis. This suggests that H(2)S-releasing diclofenac derivatives exhibit anti-resorptive properties, which might be of clinical value in the treatment of osteolytic bone disease. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer

  16. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  17. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  18. One life saved by four prevented recurrencies? Update of the early breast cancer trialists confirms. Postoperative radiotherapy improves survival after breast conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Budach, W.

    2012-01-01

    The debate about the impact of local control on survival in early breast cancer patients is still going on, in spite of the continuously growing evidence that avoidance of locoregional disease reduces the risk of tumor-specific death. Recently, B. Fisher, one of the pioneers of breast conserving therapy claimed that during the last two decades, as a result of the use of systemic therapy in conjunction with breast conserving surgery and radiation, the incidence of locoregional recurrence has been reduced to a level where further reduction is likely to have little impact on survival. The penultimate meta-analysis of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) reported the effect of radiotherapy in early breast cancer on recurrence and survival in 2005 and provided the essential message that four prevented local recurrences at 5 years would avoid one breast cancer death in 15 years. The scientific community has eagerly awaited the quinquennial update of the EBCTCG which has now been published. A total of 17 randomized studies comparing postoperative radiotherapy vs. none were analyzed and comprised 7 new studies in addition to follow-up data of from 9 previously reported trials. A total of 10,801 patients with pT1-2 tumors were included, the majority of whom (n=7,287) were node negative, while 1,050 were node positive (2,464 unknown). In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, all patients received breast conserving surgery, consisting of lumpectomy (n=8,422) or more extensive techniques like quadrantectomy or sectoral resection (n= 2,399). The effect of radiotherapy on 10-year recurrences of any type and their relation to the 15-year breast cancer death rate were studied in correlation to various prognostic parameters and treatment characteristics (e.g., surgery, tamoxifen use). Moreover, a subgroup analysis was performed according to low, intermediate, and high initial risk of recurrence, from which the expected absolute benefit was derived by

  19. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  20. New treatment option for women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian funct

  1. Synthetic Beta-Lactam Antibiotics as a Selective Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis Inducer: Significance in Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    References 1. Labbe S, Thiele DJ: Pipes and wiring: the regulation of copper uptake and distribution in yeast . Trends Microbiol 1999, 7:500-505. 2. Aggett...inhibitors. New agents in cancer therapy. Drugs Aging 2000, 17:249-255. 8. Brewer GJ: Copper control as an antiangiogenic anticancer therapy: lessons... Brewer GJ, Dick RD, Grover DK, LeClaire V, Tseng M, Wicha M, Pienta K, Redman BG, Jahan T, Sondak VK, et al.: Treatment of metastatic cancer with

  2. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  3. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0-0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  4. Prevention of Gynecomastia and Breast Pain Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Tamoxifen or Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo; Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godói; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, in a meta-analysis, whether gynecomastia and breast pain rates in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are reduced if treated with prophylactic radiotherapy (RT) or tamoxifen (TMX). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing RT or TMX with observation for men with prostate cancer using ADT. Results: Six RCTs (three RT trials and three TMX trials, N = 777 patients total) were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs comparing RT vs. observation showed a significant reduction in the incidence of gynecomastia and breast pain rates in patients treated with RT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12–0.37, p < 0.0001, and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20–0.57, p < 0.0001, respectively). Use of RT resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 29.4% and 19.9%, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.4 and 5 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Pooled results from trials comparing TMX vs. observation showed a statistical benefit for breast pain and gynecomastia in favor of TMX arms (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02–0.08, p < 0.0001 and OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.0–0.14, p < 0.00001). TMX resulted in an ARR = 64.1% and 47.6%, with an NNT of 1.56 and 2.1 to avoid one case of gynecomastia and breast pain, respectively. Considering adverse effects, TMX was 6 times more adverse effects than RT. Conclusions: Our data have shown that both TMX and RT prevented gynecomastia and breast pain in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Although TMX was two times more effective in preventing gynecomastia, RT should represent an effective and safe treatment option, to take into account mainly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or thrombotic diathesis.

  5. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  6. Assessment of Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer and Lymphoma Patients Receiving Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognitive impairments in cancer patients represent an important clinical problem. Studies to date estimating prevalence of difficulties in memory, executive function, and attention deficits have been limited by small sample sizes and many have lacked healthy control groups. More information is needed on promising biomarkers and allelic variants that may help to determine the

  7. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011-2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test-Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = - 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  8. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  9. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  10. DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOTOXICITY IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER FROM THE STANDPOINT OF AN ONCOLOGIST AND A CARDIOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Semiglazova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anthracycline antibiotics’ (AAs pathogenesis and main risk factors allowed to develop various methods of prevention and early detection of cardiotoxicity as well as to create several guidelines on decreasing the risk of its development. Traditional AAs are a crucial option in treatment of metastatic breast cancer including their repeated prescription. However, their application is significantly limited by various manifestations of toxicity, especially cumulative cardiotoxicity. The most promising is use of pegylated liposomal pharmaceutical formulations of AAs. Among these formulations, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin almost fully lacks anthracycline cardiotoxicity because due to its unique formulation it accumulates almost exclusively in tumor tissue.

  11. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  12. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  13. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  15. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  16. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  17. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  18. Effect of decision aid for breast cancer prevention on decisional conflict in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a multisite, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Poll, Aletta; Armel, Susan; Demsky, Rochelle; Carlsson, Lindsay; Nanda, Sonia; Kiss, Alexander; Narod, Steven A

    2017-03-01

    Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at high risk for breast cancer and must make important decisions about breast cancer prevention and screening. In the current study, we report a multisite, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a decision aid for breast cancer prevention in women with a BRCA mutation with no previous diagnosis of cancer. Within 1 month of receiving a positive BRCA result, women were randomized to receive either usual care (control group) or decision aid (intervention group). Participants were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months; were asked about preventive measures; and completed standardized questionnaires assessing decision making and psychosocial functioning. One hundred fifty women were randomized. Mean cancer-related distress scores were significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group at 6 months (P = 0.01) and at 12 months postrandomization (P = 0.05). Decisional conflict scores declined over time for both groups and at no time were there statistical differences between the two groups. The decision aid for breast cancer prevention in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is effective in significantly decreasing cancer-related distress within the year following receipt of positive genetic test results.Genet Med 19 3, 330-336.

  19. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  20. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  1. Training Primary Health Professionals in Breast Cancer Prevention: Evidence and Experience from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Valladares, Laura; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Rosas-Magallanes, Cynthia; Mejía-Arias, Miguel Ángel; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Knaul, Felicia M

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the key successful factors of a national educational strategy for early breast cancer detection developed in Mexico for primary health care personnel from 2008 to 2014, an educational strategy to train physicians, nurses, health promoters, and medical students from local ministries of health with a competency-based approach was developed and implemented using diverse educational modalities, face-to-face, blended, and a massive open online course (MOOC). Formative and summative evaluations were used during the implementation of the course. A total of 19,563 health professionals were trained from 2008 to 2014. The graduation rate, an average of all educational modalities, was 91 %, much higher than those previously reported in the literature. The factors that might have influenced this success were (1) the training strategy, which was designed according to the characteristics and specific needs of the target groups; (2) the political will and commitment of the country's health authorities; (3) the technological and educational models used; and (4) the punctual follow-up of participants. This study shows that carefully designed educational interventions can improve service professionals' competencies and that regardless of the modality, face-to-face, blended learning, or MOOC, high graduation rates can be achieved. Further evaluation is required to demonstrate that the competencies remained in all target groups after 6 months of the intervention and that the women served by the trained personnel were provided accurate information and timely diagnoses of breast cancer.

  2. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  3. Scalp cooling to prevent alopecia after chemotherapy can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, C.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Breed, W.P.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Nortier, J.

    2013-01-01

    With modern scalp cooling equipment cytotoxic damage of hair root cells can be prevented in half of the patients with cancer at high risk of alopecia. However, traditionally doubt has existed whether scalp cooling might facilitate hiding and disseminating scalp skin metastases and thus decrease

  4. Propolis in the prevention of oral mucositis in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piredda, M; Facchinetti, G; Biagioli, V; Giannarelli, D; Armento, G; Tonini, G; De Marinis, M G

    2017-11-01

    Chemo-induced oral mucositis (OM) is associated with significant symptoms, treatment delays and increased costs. This pilot randomised controlled trial aimed at evaluating the safety, tolerability and compliance with propolis in breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, testing preliminary clinical efficacy of propolis in the prevention of OM, and prospectively evaluating the incidence of OM. Sixty patients were randomised to receive either a dry extract of propolis with 8%-12% of galangin plus mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (experimental arm), or mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate (control arm). OM was evaluated with the NCI-CTCAE v4.0 after 5, 10, 15 and 21 days of treatment. Compliance with, tolerability of propolis and adverse events were recorded. The incidence of OM was also prospectively evaluated for 6 months. Two patients (6.7%) manifested a suspected skin reaction to propolis. No patient in the experimental arm developed OM > G1, while in the control arm OM > G1 was 16.7% (p = .02). The incidence of OM ≥ G1 at the end of cycles 2-8 was higher at the second (25%) and fifth cycles (45.8%). Propolis plus bicarbonate was safe, well tolerated and promisingly effective in the prevention of OM in patients with breast cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  6. Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy Versus GnRH Analogue in the Adjuvant Treatment of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients: Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Breast Cancer Outcome, Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandina, Gabriella; Amadio, Giulia; Marcellusi, Andrea; Azzolini, Elena; Puggina, Anna; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Scambia, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is no available evidence to recommend gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue-based ovarian suppression versus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer, since the two approaches are considered equivalent in terms of oncologic outcome. The role of surgical ovarian ablation has been revitalized based on the advances of minimally invasive surgery, and a better understanding of clinical and molecular basis of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndromes. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic BSO and GnRH analogue administration in patients aged 40-49 years with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. A probabilistic decision tree model was developed to evaluate costs and outcomes of ovarian ablation through laparoscopic BSO, or ovarian suppression through monthly injections of GnRH analogue. Results were expressed as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Laparoscopic BSO strategy was associated with a lower mean total cost per patient than GnRH treatment, and considering the difference in terms of QALYs, the incremental effectiveness did not demonstrate a notable difference between the two approaches. From the National Health Service perspective, and for a time horizon of 5 years, laparoscopic BSO was the dominant option compared to GnRH treatment; laparoscopic BSO was less expensive than GnRH, €2385 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2044, 2753] vs €7093 (95% CI = 3409, 12,105), respectively, and more effective. Surgical ovarian ablation is more cost-effective than GnRH administration in the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer patients aged 40-49 years, and the advantage of preventing ovarian cancer through laparoscopic BSO should be considered.

  7. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Rina; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2014-07-07

    Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. 1,000 Japanese women aged 20-69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05-2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36-0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01-2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51-2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75-3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22-0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Awareness was especially low among

  8. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavites, Lindsey C.; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A.; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women’s knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants’ breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  9. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavites, Lindsey C; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-11-09

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women's knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants' breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  10. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a low-fat diet in the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bós, Antônio M; Howard, Barbara V; Beresford, Shirley A A; Urban, Nicole; Tinker, Lesley F; Waters, Hugh; Bós, Angelo J; Chlebowski, Rowan; Ennis, Jacqueline M

    2011-01-01

    Results of the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) suggest that a low-fat diet may be associated with beneficial health outcomes for specific groups of women. The objective is to assess how cost-effective the WHI-DM would be if implemented as a public health intervention and under the sponsorship of private health insurers and Medicare. Breast and ovarian cancers are the health outcomes of interest. Two groups of WHI-DM participants form the target population for this analysis: participants consuming >36.8% of energy from fat at baseline, and participants at high risk for breast cancer with 32% or more of energy from fat at baseline. This study uses Markov cohort modeling, following societal and health care payer perspectives, with Monte Carlo simulations and one-way sensitivity analyses. WHI-DM records, nationally representative prices, and published estimates of medical care costs were the sources of cost information. Simulations were performed for hypothetical cohorts of women aged 50, 55, 60, 65, or 70 years at the beginning of the intervention. Effectiveness was estimated by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the main outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Following the societal perspective, the ICERs for the 50-year old cohort are $13,773/QALY (95% confidence interval $7,482 to $20,916) for women consuming >36.8% of energy from fat at baseline and $10,544/QALY ($2,096 to $23,673) for women at high risk for breast cancer. The comparable ICER from a private health care payer perspective is $66,059/QALY ($30,155 to $121,087) and from a Medicare perspective, it is $15,051/QALY ($6,565 to $25,105). The WHI-DM is a cost-effective strategy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancers in the target population, from both societal and Medicare perspectives. Private health care payers have a relative short timeframe to realize a return on investment, since after age 65 years the

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  13. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy population as well as treatment for patients already diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We found that PDA occurs quite frequently but is usually diagnosed too late, at its advanced stage. Screening for PDA is not very well defined except in subgroups of high-risk individuals with genetic disorders or with chronic pancreatitis. We present convincing, probable, and suggestive risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, many of which are modifiable and should be introduced and implemented in our society.

  14. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  15. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Bcl-2 overexpression prevents 99mTc-MIBI uptake in breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, Luigi; Zannetti, Antonella; Caraco, Corradina; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown a correlation between the absence of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) uptake and overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in human breast carcinoma. To establish a direct cause-effect relationship between Bcl-2 overexpression and reduced 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with the human Bcl-2 gene to increase intracellular protein levels and tested for 99m Tc-MIBI uptake. All clones overexpressing Bcl-2 showed a dramatic reduction of 99m Tc-MIBI uptake as compared with mock transfected control cells. Tracer uptake was promptly and partially restored by induction of apoptosis with staurosporine treatment. After 4.5 h of staurosporine treatment, a tenfold increase in 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was observed in treated as compared with untreated Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Our findings provide a rational basis for the development of an in vivo test to detect Bcl-2 overexpression in human tumours. (orig.)

  18. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  19. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  20. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  1. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination, Breast Cancer Prevention-Related Knowledge, and Healthy Lifestyles in Scholars from a Low-Income Area in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso-Calderón, A M; Meneses-Echávez, J F; Correa-Bautista, J E; Tovar-Cifuentes, A; Alba-Ramírez, P A; Charry-Ángel, C E

    2016-11-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, practices, and behavior change in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Uncontrolled trial was conducted in 155 scholars. Two educational sessions, 90 min each, were carried out in March 2015 according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire at pre- and post-intervention, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Breast self-examination was practiced by 78.1% of the scholars, and the overall knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was poor. The educational intervention resulted in significant improvements on breast self-examination practice, the knowledge of the technique, and the knowledge of the main risk factors for breast cancer as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable intake at 6 months follow-up. An educational intervention according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control improved the practice of breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable consumption in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  3. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast Cancer Knowledge among College Students: Influencing Factors and Resultant Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Mary F.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many misconceptions about breast cancer exist. College students have the opportunity to perform breast cancer risk-reducing behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess breast cancer knowledge among university students and examine the influence of breast cancer knowledge on health behaviors for breast cancer prevention.…

  5. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  6. Topical betamethasone for the prevention of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhan, F.; Kazemian, A.; Alagheband, H.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy in large numbers of cancers including breast cancer. Despite high prevalence rate of acute radiation dermatitis and also wet desquamation, a few trials on prophylaxis of this complication using topical treatment have been conducted. Despite effectiveness of topical corticosteroids in treatment of acute radiation dermatitis which are focused in the literature, yet there are some controversy about their usage in this regard. For this reason we attempted to investigate this subject via conducting a clinical trial. Materials and Methods: This trial included 76 patients with pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer for whom radiotherapy has been planned. Patients were 27-70 years old. Patients with radical mastectomy received 5000 cGy within 5 weeks, and those with conservative surgery received 6000 cGy within 6 weeks devided in 200 centigray fractions. Patients were divided randomly into two groups, betamethasone and placebo, 38 patients in each group. In placebo group, 3 patients did not attend for weekly assessment. Additional one patient did not refer during follow-up period. Thus, they were excluded from the study. One group was given betamethasone o.1% and other group was administered base of ointment as placebo. All patient consumed drug or placebo from the 1st day of treatment until one week after treatment completion as twice daily within tangential field. Patients were monitored for assessing dermatitis severity and its symptoms and also possible drug adverse effects one week after the therapy commenced and afterwards by one-week intervals as well as in an appointed day. Three weeks after termination of therapy, patients were also visited, and each examination provided information about dermatologic complications which were registered in the questionnaire. Results: Mean times development of dermatitis in both betamethasone and placebo groups were 3.2500 and 2.2571 (weeks

  7. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  8. Sandalwood Oil and Turmeric-Based Cream Prevents Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study was an investigator-blinded randomized study with Johnsons Baby Oil (JBO; Johnson & Johnson Ltd., Baddi, India as a comparator, administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in women receiving breast radiation therapy, 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions daily for 5 weeks. The endpoints were to ascertain the delay in the appearance and the degree of severity of dermatitis throughout the study period in accordance to the Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG score. Results: The results indicated that the topical application of VTC delayed and mitigated the radiodermatitis. When compared to the Johnson’s Baby Oil, a significant decrease (p = 0.025 in the incidence of grade 1 was seen at week two, and also in grade 2 and 3 at week 3 (p = 0.003 and week 4 (p = 0.02, respectively, in the VTC cohort. A concomitant decrease in the average severity was also observed at week 2 (p = 0.02, week 3 (p = 0.05 and week 4 (p = 0.03. Conclusions: The results indicate that VTC cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. The result of this study indicates the beneficial effects. Double blind randomized control studies are required to further confirm the beneficial effects of VTC in mitigating radiodermatitis is people undergoing radiation treatment for their cancer.

  9. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis. Results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Klinikum Braunschweig (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Mengs, Ulrich; Schaefer, Margitta [Rottapharm/Madaus, Koeln (Germany). Research and Development; Bulitta, Michael [CRM Biometrics GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    More than 80% of patients with breast cancer undergoing postsurgical radiotherapy (RT) will develop radiodermatitis and approximately 10% of these patients show grade 3 lesions. Side effects may reduce the patient's compliance and can be limiting factors to follow RT protocols. Therefore, there is a high need for more effective prophylactic treatments. In this study, a silymarin-based cream (Leviaderm {sup registered}) was tested in comparison to our standard of care (SOC) at the involved site. A total of 101 patients were evaluated after breast-conserving surgery followed by RT with 50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy. Of these, 51 patients were treated with the silymarin-based cream. In addition, 50 patients were documented receiving a panthenol-containing cream interventionally, if local skin lesions occurred. The acute skin reactions were classified according to the RTOG and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores. The median time to toxicity was prolonged significantly with silymarin-based cream (45 vs. 29 days (SOC), p < 0.0001). Only 9.8% of patients using silymarin-based cream showed grade 2 toxicity in week 5 of RT in comparison to 52% with SOC. At the end of RT, 23.5% of patients in the silymarin-based study group developed no skin reactions vs. 2% with SOC, while grade 3 toxicity occurred only in 2% in the silymarin-based arm compared to 28% (SOC). Silymarin-based cream Leviaderm {sup registered} may be a promising and effective treatment for the prevention of acute skin lesions caused by RT of breast cancer patients. To confirm the results of this nonrandomized, observational trial, this component should be tested in larger multicenter studies in this setting. (orig.)

  10. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  11. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  12. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  13. Breast Cancer Information System Designed to Foster Increased Proactive Prevention Activities Among Minority Populations, Volume 2. Appendices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackshear, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    .... During the past 20 years, the prospects of survival for young white women diagnosed with breast cancer have improved, while the prospects for black women, especially older ones, are increasingly grim...

  14. Breast Cancer Information System Designed to Foster Increased Proactive Prevention Activities Among Minority Populations, Volume 1. Narrative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackshear, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    .... During the past 20 years, the prospects of survival for young white women diagnosed with breast cancer have improved, while the prospects for black women, especially older ones, are increasingly grim...

  15. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  16. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  17. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  18. Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to Update the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D; Fu, Rochelle; Cantor, Amy; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Humphrey, Linda

    2016-02-16

    In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years and selective screening for those aged 40 to 49 years. To review studies of the effectiveness of breast cancer screening in average-risk women. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases to 4 June 2015. English-language randomized, controlled trials and observational studies of screening with mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography that reported breast cancer mortality, all-cause mortality, or advanced breast cancer outcomes. Investigators extracted and confirmed data and dual rated study quality; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Fair-quality evidence from a meta-analysis of mammography trials indicated relative risks (RRs) for breast cancer mortality of 0.92 for women aged 39 to 49 years (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.02) (9 trials; 3 deaths prevented per 10,000 women over 10 years); 0.86 for those aged 50 to 59 years (CI, 0.68 to 0.97) (7 trials; 8 deaths prevented per 10,000 women over 10 years); 0.67 for those aged 60 to 69 years (CI, 0.54 to 0.83) (5 trials; 21 deaths prevented per 10,000 women over 10 years); and 0.80 for those aged 70 to 74 years (CI, 0.51 to 1.28) (3 trials; 13 deaths prevented per 10,000 women over 10 years). Risk reduction was 25% to 31% for women aged 50 to 69 years in observational studies of mammography screening. All-cause mortality was not reduced with screening. Advanced breast cancer was reduced for women aged 50 years or older (RR, 0.62 [CI, 0.46 to 0.83]) (3 trials) but not those aged 39 to 49 years (RR, 0.98 [CI, 0.74 to 1.37]) (4 trials); less evidence supported this outcome. Most trials used imaging technologies and treatments that are now outdated, and definitions of advanced breast cancer were heterogeneous. Studies of effectiveness based on risk factors, intervals, or other modalities were unavailable or methodologically limited. Breast cancer mortality is generally reduced with mammography

  19. The preventative power of "pink": Delineating the effects of social identification and protection motivation theory in breast cancer-related advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.

  20. [Chances and risks of prevention in elderly people for the three major cancers: breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G F

    2006-06-01

    The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from informed about complication rates of colonoscopy during the screening programs. There is a lack of data according accuracy of barium enema, virtual colonoscopy and genetic stool test in comparison to colonoscopy in combination with fecal occult blood test (FOBT). And adherence to screening is

  1. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  2. [Promising new injection method to prevent angialgia/phlebitis from epirubicin hydrochloride therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Chiemi; Yamagami, Mitsue; Kamatani, Rika; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mukouyama, Tomoya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Suzuki, Taizan; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI)is well known to cause phlebitis as a typical adverse drug reaction. By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. We have previously reported promising results of a new injection method to prevent phlebitis from occurring during EPI therapy thorough a prospective clinical trial in our hospital(Jpn J Cancer Chemother 36: 969-974, 2009). In the present study, we have compared the conventional injection method(EPI main -route method, n=15)with our new method, which has been consistently practiced at present(EPI sub -route method, n=77). We found that in the EPI main -route method, angialgia/phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases(Grade 3, 53. 3%), leading to alteration of the regimen in 3 cases. On the other hand, with the EPI sub -route method, incidence of angialgia/phlebitis was markedly decreased, and only 6 of 77 cases developed these adverse reactions(Grade 3, 0%). One possible explanation for these results is that the reduction of intimal stimulation by the EPI sub -route method might be caused by the dilution and washout of EPI with pre-medication, as well as the shortened infusion times of EPI. Therefore, on the basis of the above hypothesis, we conclude that the EPI sub-route method might be a more effective treatment for the expected prevention of angialgia/phlebitis.

  3. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  4. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  5. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  6. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  7. Archives of Breast Cancer: An Academic Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaviani

    2014-05-01

    development of a journal that will specifically publish breast-cancer-related articles and papers. It will pave the way for those who are interested in the subject and who seek to find the results of the most recent research in this field.Thus, this journal, as its main goal, provides an opportunity for better communication and interaction among medical practitioners, basic science researchers, and health care professionals interested in breast diseases. To achieve this goal, ABC benefits from one of the most qualified editorial boards selected from related specialties with various academic affiliations. The vision of ABC is to become a source of reliable and wellresearched articles focusing on breast cancer. Second, it intends to be an outstanding media, introducing to the world of medicine, cutting edge technologies, recent clinical approaches, diagnostic and practical methods, and even surgical details crucial in dealing with breast cancer. We hope that we can make a considerable contribution to the prevention, early detection, management, and rehabilitation of patients suffering from breast cancer. All the members of ABC editorial staff believe that collaboration and interaction amongthe related scientists, physicians and surgeons, social experts, and policy makers from the four corners of the world would be the ultimate means to achieve the goals of the journal.

  8. 78 FR 57391 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... breast cancer risk, breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in young women... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and...

  9. 76 FR 62285 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... Care Act also established a committee tasked with advancing awareness and prevention of breast cancer... States, do hereby proclaim October 2011 as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. I encourage citizens...

  10. Pattern of breast cancer risk factors among pre and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In black women, breast cancer is associated with aggressive features and poor survival. Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. Study Design: A ...

  11. Physical consequences of surgery for breast cancer in the affected upper limb and proposal of preventive physiotherapeutic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis Tenorio, Ericka; Molina Vargas, Viviana M.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant growth that begins in breast tissue. The incidence rate in Costa Rica, for 2003, was 40.07 per 100,000 inhabitants (Registro Nacional de Tumores, 2007). The most used treatment for this pathology has been the surgery, has many variations; however, in Costa Rica the modified radical mastectomy and quadrantectomy (conservative surgery) are the most performed. Along with this, other treatments are practiced such as: hormonal therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. The physical consequences of such treatments are: lymphedema, decreased mobility of the shoulder joint on the side of surgery and postoperative pain. The consequences have represented an important change for people that live, because they will have limitations in activities of their daily lives. These can be treated, reduced and even avoided, through a program of physical therapy with techniques and exercises. Costa Rica lacks a prevention program, interdisciplinary and postoperative rehabilitation for people with breast surgery. Therefore, the creation of a proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention based on scientific criteria would be an instrument of great importance. The main objective of this transversal, descriptive and analytic study has been to examine the physical consequences of breast cancer surgery in the affected upper limb. A proposal of physiotherapeutic intervention was designed for the prevention of that physical consequences and possible treatments, from the literature review and valuing people post-breast surgery. In total 27 women were assessed post breast surgery (20 mastectomy and 7 with quadrantectomy), whose time post surgery was located at the range of 1 day -12 months (21 people), more than 12 months (6 people). The selection criteria were: unilateral breast surgery, radical type modified or quadrantectomy; located in the ranges of 35-59 years (19 people) and 60-85 years (8 people); no injuries previous in the upper limb the side of the surgery; with or

  12. Anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women (IBIS-II): an international, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Forbes, John F; Dowsett, Mitch; Knox, Jill; Cawthorn, Simon; Saunders, Christobel; Roche, Nicola; Mansel, Robert E; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Bonanni, Bernardo; Palva, Tiina; Howell, Anthony

    2014-03-22

    Aromatase inhibitors effectively prevent breast cancer recurrence and development of new contralateral tumours in postmenopausal women. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease. Between Feb 2, 2003, and Jan 31, 2012, we recruited postmenopausal women aged 40-70 years from 18 countries into an international, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. To be eligible, women had to be at increased risk of breast cancer (judged on the basis of specific criteria). Eligible women were randomly assigned (1:1) by central computer allocation to receive 1 mg oral anastrozole or matching placebo every day for 5 years. Randomisation was stratified by country and was done with blocks (size six, eight, or ten). All trial personnel, participants, and clinicians were masked to treatment allocation; only the trial statistician was unmasked. The primary endpoint was histologically confirmed breast cancer (invasive cancers or non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ). Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN31488319. 1920 women were randomly assigned to receive anastrozole and 1944 to placebo. After a median follow-up of 5·0 years (IQR 3·0-7·1), 40 women in the anastrozole group (2%) and 85 in the placebo group (4%) had developed breast cancer (hazard ratio 0·47, 95% CI 0·32-0·68, pbreast cancers after 7 years was 5·6% in the placebo group and 2·8% in the anastrozole group. 18 deaths were reported in the anastrozole group and 17 in the placebo group, and no specific causes were more common in one group than the other (p=0·836). Anastrozole effectively reduces incidence of breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. This finding, along with the fact that most of the side-effects associated with oestrogen deprivation were not attributable to treatment, provides support for the use of anastrozole in

  13. Supplemental Screening for Breast Cancer in Women With Dense Breasts: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Fenton, Joshua J; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Miglioretti, Diana L; Weyrich, Meghan S; Thompson, Jamie H; Shah, Kunal

    2016-02-16

    Screening mammography has lower sensitivity and specificity in women with dense breasts, who experience higher breast cancer risk. To perform a systematic review of reproducibility of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density categorization and test performance and clinical outcomes of supplemental screening with breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in women with dense breasts and negative mammography results. MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database from January 2000 to July 2015. Studies reporting BI-RADS density reproducibility or supplemental screening results for women with dense breasts. Quality assessment and abstraction of 24 studies from 7 countries; 6 studies were good-quality. Three good-quality studies reported reproducibility of BI-RADS density; 13% to 19% of women were recategorized between "dense" and "nondense" at subsequent screening. Two good-quality studies reported that sensitivity of ultrasonography for women with negative mammography results ranged from 80% to 83%; specificity, from 86% to 94%; and positive predictive value (PPV), from 3% to 8%. The sensitivity of MRI ranged from 75% to 100%; specificity, from 78% to 94%; and PPV, from 3% to 33% (3 studies). Rates of additional cancer detection with ultrasonography were 4.4 per 1000 examinations (89% to 93% invasive); recall rates were 14%. Use of MRI detected 3.5 to 28.6 additional cancer cases per 1000 examinations (34% to 86% invasive); recall rates were 12% to 24%. Rates of cancer detection with DBT increased by 1.4 to 2.5 per 1000 examinations compared with mammography alone (3 studies). Recall rates ranged from 7% to 11%, compared with 7% to 17% with mammography alone. No studies examined breast cancer outcomes. Good-quality evidence was sparse. Studies were small and CIs were wide. Definitions of recall were absent or inconsistent. Density ratings may be recategorized on serial screening mammography

  14. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  15. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  16. Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: Systematic Review to Update the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D; Pappas, Miranda; Cantor, Amy; Griffin, Jessica; Daeges, Monica; Humphrey, Linda

    2016-02-16

    In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years and selective screening for those aged 40 to 49 years. To review studies of screening in average-risk women with mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasonography that reported on false-positive results, overdiagnosis, anxiety, pain, and radiation exposure. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases through December 2014. English-language systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies of screening. Investigators extracted and confirmed data from studies and dual-rated study quality. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Based on 2 studies of U.S. data, 10-year cumulative rates of false-positive mammography results and biopsies were higher with annual than biennial screening (61% vs. 42% and 7% vs. 5%, respectively) and for women aged 40 to 49 years, those with dense breasts, and those using combination hormone therapy. Twenty-nine studies using different methods reported overdiagnosis rates of 0% to 54%; rates from randomized trials were 11% to 22%. Women with false-positive results reported more anxiety, distress, and breast cancer-specific worry, although results varied across 80 observational studies. Thirty-nine observational studies indicated that some women reported pain during mammography (1% to 77%); of these, 11% to 46% declined future screening. Models estimated 2 to 11 screening-related deaths from radiation-induced cancer per 100,000 women using digital mammography, depending on age and screening interval. Five observational studies of tomosynthesis and mammography indicated increased biopsies but reduced recalls compared with mammography alone. Studies of overdiagnosis were highly heterogeneous, and estimates varied depending on the analytic approach. Studies of anxiety and pain used different outcome measures. Radiation exposure was based on models. False-positive results are common and are higher for

  17. Can Exosomes Induced by Breast Involution Be Markers for the Poor Prognosis and Prevention of Post-partum Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    human body fluids, including plasma, malignant effusions and breast milk , and contain a wide variety of proteins , such as annexins, heat shock proteins ...membranes by wet transfer at 100V for 1 hour. The membranes were blocked with 5% non- fat dry milk in TBST and 10% goat serum and incubated with...at 275oC. Protein Identification: MS/MS spectra data were extracted from raw data files and exported as mascot generic format files (mfg) using

  18. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  19. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  20. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  1. Effectiveness of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Performing Preventive Measures for Breast Cancer Among Female Teachers in Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Kalan-Farmanfarma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preventive behaviors such as screening tests have an important role in prevention and control of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs on preventive behaviors of breast cancer based on the health belief model among female teachers of guidance schools in Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 240 female teachers from (120 participants in each of the control and intervention groups Zahedan guidance schools. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables, knowledge and health belief model structures. An educational program was performed based on the health belief model in five sessions through lectures, training videos, question and answer session for participants in the intervention group. Questionnaires were filled before and two months after the intervention in the two groups. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, chi-square and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-15 software. Results: There was no meaningful difference in the mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and performance between the two groups before the educational intervention, but the mean scores of variables increased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The health belief model was effective to promote preventive behaviors. Hence, educational interventions with an emphasis on raising awareness, change in beliefs and improving self-efficacy regarding breast cancer are recommended

  2. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...... stratification might help in the identification and characterization of novel risk factors for breast cancer subtypes. This may eventually result in further improvements in prevention, early detection and treatment.......Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes...... were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations...

  3. Breast Cancer Survivorship—A Personal Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-26

    Pam Bryant, a breast cancer survivor, talks about her personal journey and how being diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45 has impacted her life. .  Created: 9/26/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 9/26/2016.

  4. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  5. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  6. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  7. Prevention of Breast Cancer Cell Transformation by Blockade of the AP-1 Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    to transfection. pLPCX-TAM67 and control plasmids were transfected with Fugene 6 Regent (Roche) according to manufacture’s protocol. Chloroquine was...breast tu- mor growth with nonisomerizable analogues of similar to those in other reports (27,28). whether increasing or inhibiting AP-1 ac- tamoxifen

  8. Genetic variation in candidate obesity genes ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1 and risk for breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Tang, Weining; Patel, Alpa V; Stevens, Victoria L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Bouzyk, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has consistently been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins that are secreted by adipose tissue or are involved in regulating body mass may play a role in breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk for breast cancer. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose-related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each tagging SNP and risk for breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity. Two out of five tagging SNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P = 0.006; rs932335, P = 0.0001). rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2 = 0.74) and, when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-3.33 for C/C versus G/G). Three of the 11 SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P = 0.007; rs2289046, P = 0.016; rs754204, P = 0.03). When these three SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.92 for TGC versus CAT). IRS2 rs2289046, rs754204, and rs12584136 were also associated with adult weight gain but only among cases. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were associated with breast cancer or

  9. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  10. Screening Mammography for Women in Their 40s: The Potential Impact of the American Cancer Society and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Jenifer A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Soman, Rohan R; Drotman, Michele B; Reichman, Melissa B; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review screening mammograms obtained in one practice with the primary endpoint of determining the rate of detection of breast cancer and associated prognostic features in women 40-44 and 45-49 years old. The retrospective cohort study included women in their 40s with breast cancer detected at screening from June 2014 through May 2016. The focus was on cancer detection rate, pathologic findings, and risk factors. A total of 32,762 screens were performed, and 808 biopsies were recommended. These biopsies yielded 224 breast cancers (cancer detection rate, 6.84 per 1000 screens). Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of cancers detected; 50-59 years, 21.8%; 60-69 years, 32.6%; and 70-79 years, 21.4%. Among the 40- to 49-year-old women, women 40-44 years old underwent 5481 (16.7%) screens, had 132 biopsies recommended, and had 20 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 3.6/1000). Women 45-49 years old underwent 5319 (16.2%) screens, had 108 biopsies recommended, and had 22 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 4.1/1000). Thus, women 40-44 years old had 8.9% and women 45-49 years old had 9.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. Of these only a small percentage of women with detected cancers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (40-44 years, 15%; 45-49 years, 32%) or a BRCA mutation (40-44 years, 5%; 45-49 years, 5%), and over 60% of the cancers were invasive. Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. The two cohorts (40-44 and 45-49 years old) had similar incidences of screen-detected breast cancer (8.9%, 9.8%) and cancer detection rates within performance benchmark standards, supporting a similar recommendation for both cohorts and the American College of Radiology recommendation of annual screening mammography starting at age 40.

  11. Combining quantitative and qualitative breast density measures to assess breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Scott, Christopher G; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Pankratz, V Shane; Cummings, Steven R; Miglioretti, Diana L; Vachon, Celine M; Shepherd, John A

    2017-08-22

    Accurately identifying women with dense breasts (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] heterogeneously or extremely dense) who are at high breast cancer risk will facilitate discussions of supplemental imaging and primary prevention. We examined the independent contribution of dense breast volume and BI-RADS breast density to predict invasive breast cancer and whether dense breast volume combined with Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model factors (age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and BI-RADS breast density) improves identifying women with dense breasts at high breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study of 1720 women with invasive cancer and 3686 control subjects. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for the effect of BI-RADS breast density and Volpara™ automated dense breast volume on invasive cancer risk, adjusting for other BCSC risk model factors plus body mass index (BMI), and we compared C-statistics between models. We calculated BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, incorporating the adjusted ORs associated with dense breast volume. Compared with women with BI-RADS scattered fibroglandular densities and second-quartile dense breast volume, women with BI-RADS extremely dense breasts and third- or fourth-quartile dense breast volume (75% of women with extremely dense breasts) had high breast cancer risk (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.84-4.47, and OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.87-3.52, respectively), whereas women with extremely dense breasts and first- or second-quartile dense breast volume were not at significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.75-3.09, and OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.82-2.73, respectively). Adding continuous dense breast volume to a model with BCSC risk model factors and BMI increased discriminatory accuracy compared with a model with only BCSC risk model factors (C-statistic 0.639, 95% CI 0.623-0.654, vs. C-statistic 0.614, 95% CI 0.598-0.630, respectively; P breasts and fourth

  12. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Martijn M.; ten Tusscher, Marieke R.; Agasi-Idenburg, Carla S.; Lucas, Cees; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives To assess the effects of

  13. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  14. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  15. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  16. Population-based mammography screening below age 50: Balancing radiation-induced vs prevented breast cancer deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction:Exposure to ionizing radiation at mammography screening may cause breast cancer. Because the radiation risk increases with lower exposure age, advancing the lower age limit may affect the balance between screening benefits and risks. The present study explores the

  17. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  18. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M., E-mail: Austin_Guo@nymc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  19. An empirically derived dietary pattern associated with breast cancer risk is validated in a nested case-control cohort from a randomized primary prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Fabian, Carol J; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-02-01

    We reported an association between cytologic atypia, a reversible biomarker of breast cancer risk, and lower omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in blood and breast tissue. Our goal was to develop and validate a dietary pattern index in this high-risk sample of U.S. women, and test its capacity to predict incidence in a nested case-control cohort of Canadian women from a randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention for primary prevention of breast cancer. Food intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire in the U.S. sample (n = 65) and multiple dietary recalls in the Canadian sample (n = 220 cases; 440 controls). Principal component analysis identified a dietary pattern associated with atypia. We measured differences among dietary pattern tertiles in (a) fatty acid composition in blood lipids and breast tissue in the U.S. sample, and (b) risk of breast cancer subtypes in the Canadian cohort. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00148057. A Modern diet was characterized as consuming more grains, dairy, and sugar and less vegetables, fish and poultry; these women had lower tissue omega-3 fatty acids and higher omega-6 and trans fatty acids. The low-fat intervention increased the likelihood of a Modern diet after randomization. A Modern diet at baseline and post-randomization was associated with estrogen-receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer risk among those at least 160 cm tall. A Traditional diet (the reciprocal of Modern) at baseline was associated with lower ER-positive (ER+) risk in the comparison group, but not the low-fat intervention group. A Modern diet (high in grains, dairy, and sugar and low in vegetables, fish, and poultry) is associated with ER- breast cancer risk among taller women. Recommending dietary fat reduction may have untoward effects on breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  1. Vitamin D supplementation and breast cancer prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sperati

    Full Text Available In recent years, the scientific evidence linking vitamin D status or supplementation to breast cancer has grown notably. To investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer incidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing vitamin D with placebo or no treatment. We used OVID to search MEDLINE (R, EMBASE and CENTRAL until April 2012. We screened the reference lists of included studies and used the "Related Article" feature in PubMed to identify additional articles. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently extracted data on methodological quality, participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes. Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals for breast cancer were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 test. In sensitivity analysis, we assessed the impact of vitamin D dosage and mode of administration on treatment effects. Only two randomized controlled trials fulfilled the pre-set inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis included 5372 postmenopausal women. Overall, Risk Ratios and 95% Confident Intervals were 1.11 and 0.74-1.68. We found no evidence of heterogeneity. Neither vitamin D dosage nor mode of administration significantly affected breast cancer risk. However, treatment efficacy was somewhat greater when vitamin D was administered at the highest dosage and in combination with calcium (Risk Ratio 0.58, 95% Confident Interval 0.23-1.47 and Risk Ratio 0.93, 95% Confident Interval 0.54-1.60, respectively. In conclusions, vitamin D use seems not to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. However, the available evidence is still limited and inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Study protocol code: FARM8L2B5L.

  2. Soyfood intake in the prevention of breast cancer risk in women: a meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Qiang; Xu, Jia-Ying; Wang, Pei-Yu; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

    2006-12-01

    Many studies have suggested that the intake of soy products may protect against the occurrence of breast cancer because of the considerable amount of isoflavones they contain. To review the results of the observational studies, we performed this meta-analysis of the relevant literature. We searched Medline for reports that examined the association between soyfood consumption (or isoflavone intake) and breast cancer risk from January 1966 to April 2006. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR). Twenty-one independent studies (14 case-control studies and 7 cohort studies) were included in the final analysis. The pooled RR of breast cancer for soyfood intake was 0.75 with a 95% CI of 0.59-0.95. As the main types of soyfood in Japan and China, tofu and miso showed clear protective effects. Isoflavone intake resulted in a 20% decrease in risk (RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). The pooled RR varied little according to study stratification. When the studies published in Japanese and Chinese were added, the inverse associations between soyfood, tofu and breast cancer risk became slightly stronger. The weak association of miso was possibly due to the high concentration of salt in miso soup. In the present analysis, we did not find strong evidence for publication bias in the combination of the studies. This meta-analysis supported the hypotheses that soyfood intake may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer due to the isoflavones. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the soyfood, and more accurate assessment of the isoflavones.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of an aprepitant regimen for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with breast cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphreys S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Humphreys,1 James Pellissier,2 Alison Jones3 1Market Access Department, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, UK; 2Health Economic Statistics, Merck Research Laboratories, Upper Gwynedd, PA, USA; 3Department of Medical Oncology, University College Hospital, London, UK Purpose: Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV remains an important goal for patients receiving chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to define, from the UK payer perspective, the cost-effectiveness of an antiemetic regimen using aprepitant, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed to compare an aprepitant regimen (aprepitant, ondansetron, and dexamethasone with a standard UK antiemetic regimen (ondansetron, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide for expected costs and health outcomes after single-day adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The model was populated with results from patients with breast cancer participating in a randomized trial of CINV preventative therapy for cycle 1 of single-day chemotherapy. Results: During 5 days after chemotherapy, 64% of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen and 47% of those receiving the UK comparator regimen had a complete response to antiemetic therapy (no emesis and no rescue antiemetic therapy. A mean of £37.11 (78% of the cost of aprepitant was offset by reduced health care resource utilization costs. The predicted gain in quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs with the aprepitant regimen was 0.0048. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER with aprepitant, relative to the UK comparator, was £10,847/QALY, which is well below the threshold commonly accepted in the UK of £20,000–£30,000/QALY. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that aprepitant is cost-effective for preventing CINV associated with chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer in the UK health

  4. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have...... regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus...

  5. Down-staging of breast cancer in the pre-screening era ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increased breast cancer profiles and an overall burden of disease.[2]. We aimed to investigate the stage of breast cancer at first diagnosis and assessed possible determinants of ..... opportunities for prevention. Cancer 2012;118:4372-4384.

  6. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  7. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  8. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    investigated site-specific cancers, investigators provided little evidence of any effect of selenium supplementation. Two RCTs with 19,009 participants indicated that colorectal cancer was unaffected by selenium administration (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.43), as were non-melanoma skin cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.30 to 4.42; 2 studies, 2027 participants), lung cancer (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.50; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), breast cancer (RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.44 to 9.55; 1 study, 802 participants), bladder cancer (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.52; 2 studies, 19,009 participants), and prostate cancer (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 4 studies, 18,942 participants). Certainty of the evidence was high for all of these cancer sites, except for breast cancer, which was of moderate certainty owing to imprecision, and non-melanoma skin cancer, which we judged as moderate certainty owing to high heterogeneity. RCTs with low risk of bias suggested increased melanoma risk.Results for most outcomes were similar when we included all RCTs in the meta-analysis, regardless of risk of bias. Selenium supplementation did not reduce overall cancer incidence (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.14; 5 studies, 21,860 participants) nor mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.32; 2 studies, 18,698 participants). Summary RRs for site-specific cancers showed limited changes compared with estimates from high-quality studies alone, except for liver cancer, for which results were reversed.In the largest trial, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Trial, selenium supplementation increased risks of alopecia and dermatitis, and for participants with highest background selenium status, supplementation also increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. RCTs showed a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with supplementation. A hypothesis generated by the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial - that individuals with low blood selenium levels could reduce their risk of cancer (particularly prostate cancer) by

  9. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  10. Neratinib Approved for HER2+ Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The FDA approved the tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib for extended adjuvant treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. The decision adds another treatment option to help prevent recurrence, but its relatively small potential benefit must be weighed against the risk of serious side effects. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. Efficacy of a hydroactive colloid gel versus historical controls for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censabella, Sandrine; Claes, Stefan; Orlandini, Marc; Braekers, Roel; Bulens, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation (RIMD) is a complication that can affect patients' quality of life and jeopardize radiotherapy outcomes. The curative use of a hydroactive colloid gel has previously been shown effective in the management of RIMD in breast cancer patients. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of this same gel but in the prevention of RIMD. A group of breast cancer patients who applied the hydroactive gel from start to end of post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (Preventive Hydrogel group) were compared with two groups of matched historical controls: a group applying a dexpanthenol cream throughout their therapy and a group applying first the dexpanthenol cream then, after 11-14 fractions of radiotherapy, the hydroactive gel (Curative Hydrogel group). All patients received identical fractionation regimen. The clinical outcomes were the incidence and time to onset of RIMD. After 25 fractions of radiotherapy (50 Gy), patients in the Preventive Hydrogel group (N = 202) developed RIMD significantly less frequently and later than patients in the Dexpanthenol group (N = 131; incidence = 7% vs 35% respectively, odds ratios = 7.27; probability of RIMD-free survival after 50 Gy = 0.88 vs 0.62). There were no significant differences between the Preventive and the Curative Hydrogel group (N = 87). These findings confirm our previous results: applying the hydroactive colloid gel, rather than dexpanthenol, delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of RIMD in breast cancer patients. However, applying the hydrogel preventively offered no statistically significant advantages over applying it curatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stomatitis associated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition: A review of pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, and clinical implications for oral practice in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Rugo, Hope S; Litton, Jennifer K; Meiller, Timothy F

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer may develop oral morbidities that result from therapeutic interventions. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) is a common adverse event (AE), secondary to mTOR inhibitor therapy, that can have a negative impact on treatment adherence, quality of life, and health care costs. A multidisciplinary team approach is important to minimize mIAS and to maximize treatment benefits to patients with breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and natural history of mIAS. Current and new management strategies for the prevention and treatment of mIAS are described in the context of fostering a coordinated team care approach to optimizing patient care. The authors conducted a PubMed search from 2007 through 2017 using the terms "stomatitis," "mIAS," "everolimus," "mTOR," "metastatic breast cancer," and "oral care." They selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals that reported controlled trials and evidence-based guidelines. mIAS can be distinguished from mucositis caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy on the basis of cause, clinical presentation, and treatment paradigms. Specific preventive and therapeutic management strategies can be implemented across the continuum of patient oral health care. Oral health care providers are on the frontline of oral health care for patients with metastatic breast cancer and are uniquely positioned to provide patient education, advocate accurate reporting of mIAS, and support early identification, monitoring, and prompt intervention to mitigate the severity and duration of this manageable, potentially dose-limiting AE. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Empowering Women through Education and Advocacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through partnerships with the Peruvian Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization regional office, CGH co-supported the first Women’s Cancer Summit was held in Lima, Peru. This unique training workshop brought primary-level health care providers from 26 districts together with patient advocates and survivors from Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador.

  15. A pooled analysis of CYP2D6 genotype in breast cancer prevention trials of low-dose tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Harriet; Gandini, Sara; Serrano, Davide; Gjerde, Jennifer; Lattanzi, Monia; Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Aristarco, Valentina; Mellgren, Gunnar; Lien, Ernst; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-08-01

    Decreased CYP2D6 activity is associated with lower levels of active tamoxifen metabolites. We examined the impact of CYP2D6 genotype on tamoxifen pharmacokinetics, biomarker activity, and efficacy in a pooled analysis of low-dose tamoxifen. Four randomized breast cancer prevention trials of very-low-dose (1 mg/day, n = 52 or 10 mg/week, n = 152) or low-dose tamoxifen (5 mg/day, n = 171) were pooled. DNA from 367 subjects was genotyped for CYP2D6 alleles associated with absent (PM allele: *3, *4, *5, *6, *7, *8, *12, and *14), reduced (IM allele: *9, *10, *17, *29, *41), normal (EM allele), or increased (UM: *XN) enzyme activity. Associations of tamoxifen, metabolites, activity biomarkers, and event-free survival with rapid (UM/EM, UM/IM, EM/EM, EM/IM, or EM/PM alleles) versus slow metabolizers (PM/IM or PM/PM) were investigated through random effects models, with 'study' as the random factor, and Cox regression models, adjusting for confounders. Rapid metabolizers had higher endoxifen levels than slow metabolizers: 15.3 versus 12.2 ng/mL (P = 0.018) with 5 mg/day, and 3.8 versus 2.8 ng/mL (P = 0.004) with 1 mg/day or 10 mg/week tamoxifen. The IGF-I decrease correlated with endoxifen (P = 0.002) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen levels, demonstrating steeper decreases at higher metabolite levels (P = 0.001). After a median follow-up of 12 years, rapid metabolizers with prior history of breast neoplasms allocated to tamoxifen 5 mg/day had a 60 % reduction of risk of recurrences (HR = 0.40, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.99) compared to slow metabolizers. CYP2D6 genotype may have an impact on tamoxifen efficacy at low doses. Trials investigating tamoxifen dose adjustments based on the woman's hormonal context and CYP2D6 genotype are warranted.

  16. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  17. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  18. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  19. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...

  20. A pilot randomized trial to prevent sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors starting adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Pragati; Brewster, Abenaa M; Baum, George P; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-08-01

    A randomized pilot trial evaluated the hypothesis that early intervention lessens sexual dysfunction in the first year on aromatase inhibitors. A secondary aim was comparing the efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers. Fifty-seven postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer starting aromatase inhibitors were randomized to three treatment groups. All received a handout on managing sexual and other side effects. The Usual Care group received no additional therapy. The Active Treatment groups received a 6-month supply of a vaginal moisturizer (hyaluronic acid-based in Active Group-H and prebiotic in Active Group-P) and a vaginal lubricant and dilator, plus access to an educational website and phone coaching. Questionnaires completed at baseline, 6, and 12 months included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), and a menopausal symptom scale. Forty-nine women (86%) provided follow-up data. Mean age was 59 and 77% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. Sexual function was impaired at baseline, but remained stable over 12 months for all groups. The combined active treatment group had less dyspareunia (P = 0.07) and sexual distress (P = 0.02) at 6 months than the Usual Care group. At 6 months, the Active-H group improved significantly more than the Active-P group on FSFI total score (P = 0.04). Sexual counseling helped women maintain stable sexual function on aromatase inhibitors. Active intervention resulted in better outcomes at 6 months. This promising pilot trial suggests a need for more research on preventive counseling to maintain sexual function during aromatase inhibitor treatment.

  1. Restoring Lost Anti-HER-2 Th1 Immunity in Breast Cancer: A Crucial Role for Th1 Cytokines in Therapy and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Nadia F; Lee, M Catherine; De La Cruz, Lucy M; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The ErbB/B2 (HER-2/neu) oncogene family plays a critical role in the development and metastatic spread of several tumor types including breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. In breast cancer, HER-2/neu is expressed in early disease development in a large percentage of DCIS lesions and its expression is associated with an increased risk of invasion and recurrence. Targeting HER-2 with antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab has improved survival, but patients with more extensive disease may develop resistance to therapy. Interestingly, response to HER-2 targeted therapies correlates with presence of immune response genes in the breast. Th1 cell production of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα can enhance MHC class I expression, PD-L1 expression, augment apoptosis and tumor senescence, and enhances growth inhibition of many anti-breast cancer agents, including anti-estrogens and HER-2 targeted therapies. Recently, we have identified that a loss of anti-HER-2 CD4 Th1 in peripheral blood occurs during breast tumorigenesis and is dramatically diminished, even in Stage I breast cancers. The loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response is specific and not readily reversed by standard therapies. In fact, this loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response in peripheral blood correlates with lack of complete response to neoadjuvant therapy and diminished disease-free survival. This defect can be restored with HER-2 vaccinations in both DCIS and IBC. Correcting the anti-HER-2 Th1 response may have significant impact in improving response to HER-2 targeted therapies. Development of immune monitoring systems for anti-HER-2 Th1 to identify patients at risk for recurrence could be critical to improving outcomes, since the anti-HER-2 Th1 response can be restored by vaccination. Correction of the cellular immune response against HER-2 may prevent recurrence in high-risk patients with DCIS and IBC at risk of developing new or recurrent breast cancer.

  2. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  3. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  4. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  5. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. Breast cancer and breast health awareness as an evolving health promotion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Kovac, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in the majority of developed countries. In the last few years the introduction of mammography screening programmes has resulted in an improved survival of breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of the disease in these countries is still on the increase. Present focus on secondary breast cancer prevention activities, consisting of early detection and treatment, cannot ensure a decrease of breast cancer incidence. Improved breast health awareness could therefore represent a part of specific health promotion activities aimed at decreasing the incidence of breast cancer. Conclusions. In developed countries breast cancer is a significant health care issue. Secondary breast cancer prevention activities should therefore be complemented by specific health promotion activities in order to reduce its incidence in the future. Primary breast cancer prevention would include health promotion activities aimed at enhancement of the individual as well as collective breast health awareness. Properly enlightened members of the influential population groups could attain appropriate changes in the fields of legislation, taxation, customs and commercial regulations that would enable women to control their own breast health. (author)

  7. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  8. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  9. The history of hormone therapy use and recent controversy related to heart disease and breast cancer arising from prevention trial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ivy M

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for hormone therapy use have changed dramatically over time from being very popular for the purpose of preserving youth in women to menopause-related symptom management, disease prevention, and now back to menopause-related symptom management. Over time, several important risks associated with the use of hormone therapy have become evident, causing dramatic reductions in the use of hormone therapy for periods of time following identification of these risks. Most recently, randomized controlled prevention trials that evaluated hormone therapy for the purpose of reducing or preventing coronary heart disease among women have found that hormone therapy is associated with increased rather than decreased risks for coronary heart disease. The most recent of these trials again identified increased risks for breast cancer associated with estrogen plus progestogen therapy. The evolving evidence base from these randomized controlled prevention trials is complicated and in some cases contradictory. Specifically, the data suggest that the timing of when hormone therapy is initiated once a woman is postmenopausal may influence her risk for developing heart disease and breast cancer. In this article, contradictory evidence is carefully sifted so risks and benefits can be weighed by clinicians when partnering with women to individualize decisions about using hormone therapy. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  12. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  13. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  14. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  15. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  16. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  17. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  18. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  19. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  1. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .../practitioners regarding topics such as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal..., development, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer...

  2. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    .../practitioners regarding topics such as breast cancer risk, breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at...

  3. Impact of a Panel of 88 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Risk of Breast Cancer in High-Risk Women: Results From Two Randomized Tamoxifen Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam R; Segal, Corrinne; Byers, Helen; Reuter, Caroline; Detre, Simone; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Sestak, Ivana; Howell, Anthony; Powles, Trevor J; Newman, William G; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-03-01

    Purpose At least 94 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer. The extent to which an SNP panel can refine risk in women who receive preventive therapy has not been directly assessed previously. Materials and Methods A risk score on the basis of 88 SNPs (SNP88) was investigated in a nested case-control study of women enrolled in the International Breast Intervention Study (IBIS-I) or the Royal Marsden study. A total of 359 women who developed cancer were matched to 636 controls by age, trial, follow-up time, and treatment arm. Genotyping was done using the OncoArray. Conditional logistic regression and matched concordance indices (mC) were used to measure the performance of SNP88 alone and with other breast cancer risk factors assessed using the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) model. Results SNP88 was predictive of breast cancer risk overall (interquartile range odds ratio [IQ-OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.66; mC, 0.55), but mainly for estrogen receptor-positive disease (IQ-OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.79; P for heterogeneity = .10) versus estrogen receptor-negative disease. However, the observed risk of SNP88 was only 46% (95% CI, 19% to 74%) of expected. No significant interaction was observed with treatment arm (placebo IQ-OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.87; tamoxifen IQ-OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.64; P for heterogeneity = .5). The predictive power was similar to the TC model (IQ-OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.73; mC, 0.55), but SNP88 was independent of TC (Spearman rank-order correlation, 0.012; P = .7), and when combined multiplicatively, a substantial improvement was seen (IQ-OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.97; mC, 0.60). Conclusion A polygenic risk score may be used to refine risk from the TC or similar models in women who are at an elevated risk of breast cancer and considering preventive therapy. Recalibration may be necessary for accurate risk assessment.

  4. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  5. HALT-D: A Phase II Evaluation of Crofelemer for the Prevention and Prophylaxis of Diarrhea in Patients With Breast Cancer on Pertuzumab-Based Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jennifer J; Tan, Ming; Pohlmann, Paula R; Swain, Sandra M

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 40% to 80% of patients receiving pertuzumab-directed therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer will develop chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Loperamide and octreotide are frequently used to treat CID after diarrhea occurs, but neither is used prophylactically or targets the underlying mechanism. Previous studies suggest blocking epidermal growth factor receptor may cause excess chloride secretion, resulting in diarrhea. Crofelemer is derived from the red latex of the Croton lechleri tree, blocks gastrointestinal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels, and is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for relief of diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy. Crofelemer is not systemically absorbed, has relatively few side effects, and presents a targeted approach at preventing CID in patients receiving pertuzumab-based therapy. HALT-D (DiarrHeA Prevention and ProphyLaxis with Crofelemer in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, and Docetaxel or Paclitaxel with or without Carboplatin, NCT02910219) is a phase II, randomized, open-label trial that aims to recruit 46 patients from 3 MedStar sites. Adults with HER2-positive breast cancer being treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and docetaxel or paclitaxel (THP) or trastuzumab, pertuzumab, docetaxel, and carboplatin (TCHP) will be randomized to receive crofelemer or no medication for diarrhea prophylaxis. The primary endpoint is incidence of all grade diarrhea for ≥ 2 consecutive days during cycles 1 to 2 of THP or TCHP. Secondary endpoints include overall incidence, duration, and severity of diarrhea; time to onset of diarrhea; use of other anti-diarrheal medications; stool frequency and consistency; and quality of life. HALT-D will provide important information about the feasibility and tolerability of crofelemer in preventing diarrhea for patients receiving THP or TCHP

  6. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  7. Benefit-to-harm ratio of the Danish breast cancer screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beau, Anna-Belle; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2017-01-01

    cancer deaths prevented divided by the number of overdiagnosed breast cancer cases, varied considerably. The objective of the study was to estimate the benefit-to-harm ratio of breast cancer screening in Denmark. The numbers of breast cancer deaths prevented and overdiagnosed cases [invasive and ductal...... to age 69 and followed until age 79, we estimated that 5.4 breast cancer deaths would be prevented and 2.1 cases overdiagnosed, under the observed scenario in Denmark of a breast cancer mortality reduction of 23.4% and 2.3% of the breast cancer cases being overdiagnosed. The estimated benefit......-to-harm ratio was 2.6 for invited women and 2.5 for screened women. Hence, 2-3 women would be prevented from dying from breast cancer for every woman overdiagnosed with invasive breast cancer or DCIS. The difference between the previous published ratios and 2.6 for Denmark is probably more a reflection...

  8. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  9. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  10. Feature Extraction and Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some greater extent.

  11. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  12. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa; Munsell, Mark F.; Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Yu, T. Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid–based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid–based gel for reducing the development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid–based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop

  13. BRCA1-Associated Protein BRCC36: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Godwin, A.K. (2002) In Pasqualini , J.R. (eds), Breast Cancer: Prognosis, Treatment and Prevention. Marcel Dekker Inc., pp. 555–624. 5. King, M.C...Dunbrack R, Godwin AK (2002). BRAC 1, BRAC2, and hereditary breast cancer. In: Pasqualini J (ed). Breast Cancer: Prognosis, Treatment and Prevention

  14. Pregnancy and its role in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Correia Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Early full-term pregnancy is the only recognized factor able to prevent breast cancer. There are several hypotheses to explain the mechanisms of this protection, namely an altered hormonal milieu, a differentiation process or a switch in stem cell properties. To explore them, authors have been using animal models, mainly in rodents. Hormonal administration with estrogen and progesterone was the most widely used process to mimic the mammary changes during pregnancy. We have recently proposed that this enigmatic protective role of a full-term birth in breast cancer is carried out by tumor inhibition mediated by differentiated mammary epithelial cells. This explanation may give a new perspective of breast cancer prevention and treatment.

  15. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  16. SAFE trial: an ongoing randomized clinical study to assess the role of cardiotoxicity prevention in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines with or without trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Terziani, Francesca; Becherini, Carlotta; Airoldi, Mario; Allegrini, Giacomo; Amoroso, Domenico; Barni, Sandro; Bengala, Carmelo; Guarneri, Valentina; Marchetti, Paolo; Martella, Francesca; Piovano, Pierluigi; Vannini, Agnese; Desideri, Isacco; Tarquini, Roberto; Galanti, Giorgio; Barletta, Giuseppe; Livi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Over the years, thanks to the addition of new generation systemic agents, as well as the use of more advanced and precise radiotherapy techniques, it was able to obtain a high curability rate for breast cancer. Anthracyclines play a key role in the treatment of breast disease, with a well-known benefit on disease-free survival of patients with positive nodal status. Trastuzumab have shown a significant outcome advantage after 1-year administration in case of HER2-positive disease. Unfortunately, significant increase in cardiotoxicity has been observed after anthracyclines and trastuzumab therapies. Even though the cardiology and oncology community strongly recommend a cardiotoxicity prevention strategy for this subset of patients, there is still no consensus on the optimal patient's approach. We aimed to review the published and ongoing researches on cardioprevention strategies and to present the SAFE trial (CT registry ID: NCT2236806; EudraCT number: 2015-000914-23). It is a randomized phase 3, four-arm, single-blind, placebo-controlled study that aims to evaluate the effect of bisoprolol, ramipril or both drugs, compared to placebo, on subclinical heart damage evaluated by speckle tracking cardiac ultrasound in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

  17. Brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging

  18. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  19. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  20. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  1. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  2. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Bioengineering Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironments for the Study of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Xie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most prevalent disease amongst women worldwide and metastasis is the main cause of death due to breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer cells and embryonic stem (ES cells display similar characteristics. However, unlike metastatic breast cancer cells, ES cells are nonmalignant. Furthermore, embryonic microenvironments have the potential to convert metastatic breast cancer cells into a less invasive phenotype. The creation of in vitro embryonic microenvironments will enable better understanding of ES cell-breast cancer cell interactions, help elucidate tumorigenesis, and lead to the restriction of breast cancer metastasis. In this article, we will present the characteristics of breast cancer cells and ES cells as well as their microenvironments, importance of embryonic microenvironments in inhibiting tumorigenesis, convergence of tumorigenic and embryonic signaling pathways, and state of the art in bioengineering embryonic microenvironments for breast cancer research. Additionally, the potential application of bioengineered embryonic microenvironments for the prevention and treatment of invasive breast cancer will be discussed.

  4. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...

  5. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  6. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  7. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  8. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...

  9. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  10. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Rossella; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Muto, Paolo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Sammarco, Elena; Calvanese, Maria Grazia; De Natale, Flora; Falivene, Sara; Di Lecce, Ada; Giugliano, Francesca Maria; Murino, Paola; Manzo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy

  11. Estrogen receptor (ESR1) mRNA expression and benefit from tamoxifen in the treatment and prevention of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungyeul; Tang, Gong; Pogue-Geile, Katherine L; Costantino, Joseph P; Baehner, Frederick L; Baker, Joffre; Cronin, Maureen T; Watson, Drew; Shak, Steven; Bohn, Olga L; Fumagalli, Debora; Taniyama, Yusuke; Lee, Ahwon; Reilly, Megan L; Vogel, Victor G; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G; Geyer, Charles E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman; Paik, Soonmyung

    2011-11-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance of estrogen receptor (ER) -positive tumors, but a clinically useful explanation for such resistance has not been described. Because the ER is the treatment target for tamoxifen, a linear association between ER expression levels and the degree of benefit from tamoxifen might be expected. However, such an association has never been demonstrated with conventional clinical ER assays, and the ER is currently used clinically as a dichotomous marker. We used gene expression profiling and ER protein assays to help elucidate molecular mechanism(s) responsible for tamoxifen resistance in breast tumors. We performed gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded tumors from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trials that tested the worth of tamoxifen as an adjuvant systemic therapy (B-14) and as a preventive agent (P-1). This was a retrospective subset analysis based on available materials. In B-14, ESR1 was the strongest linear predictor of tamoxifen benefit among 16 genes examined, including PGR and ERBB2. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that, in the P-1 trial, a lower level of ESR1 mRNA in the tamoxifen arm was the main difference between the two study arms. Only ESR1 was downregulated by more than two-fold in ER-positive cancer events in the tamoxifen arm (P < .001). Tamoxifen did not prevent ER-positive tumors with low levels of ESR1 expression. These data suggest that low-level expression of ESR1 is a determinant of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer. Strategies should be developed to identify, treat, and prevent such tumors.

  12. Estrogen Receptor (ESR1) mRNA Expression and Benefit From Tamoxifen in the Treatment and Prevention of Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungyeul; Tang, Gong; Pogue-Geile, Katherine L.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Baehner, Frederick L.; Baker, Joffre; Cronin, Maureen T.; Watson, Drew; Shak, Steven; Bohn, Olga L.; Fumagalli, Debora; Taniyama, Yusuke; Lee, Ahwon; Reilly, Megan L.; Vogel, Victor G.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G.; Geyer, Charles E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman; Paik, Soonmyung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance of estrogen receptor (ER) –positive tumors, but a clinically useful explanation for such resistance has not been described. Because the ER is the treatment target for tamoxifen, a linear association between ER expression levels and the degree of benefit from tamoxifen might be expected. However, such an association has never been demonstrated with conventional clinical ER assays, and the ER is currently used clinically as a dichotomous marker. We used gene expression profiling and ER protein assays to help elucidate molecular mechanism(s) responsible for tamoxifen resistance in breast tumors. Patients and Methods We performed gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded tumors from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trials that tested the worth of tamoxifen as an adjuvant systemic therapy (B-14) and as a preventive agent (P-1). This was a retrospective subset analysis based on available materials. Results In B-14, ESR1 was the strongest linear predictor of tamoxifen benefit among 16 genes examined, including PGR and ERBB2. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that, in the P-1 trial, a lower level of ESR1 mRNA in the tamoxifen arm was the main difference between the two study arms. Only ESR1 was downregulated by more than two-fold in ER-positive cancer events in the tamoxifen arm (P < .001). Tamoxifen did not prevent ER-positive tumors with low levels of ESR1 expression. Conclusion These data suggest that low-level expression of ESR1 is a determinant of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer. Strategies should be developed to identify, treat, and prevent such tumors. PMID:21947828

  13. Lipídio: fator de risco e prevenção do câncer de mama Lipid: risk factor and breast cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Herrmann Cibeira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese de que uma dieta rica em gordura promova o desenvolvimento do câncer de mama na menopausa é fortalecida por estudos caso-controle, que mostram forte associação positiva entre uma dieta rica em lipídios e as taxas de incidência de câncer de mama. Por outro lado, a ingestão dietética de gordura não parece estar relacionada com o risco de câncer de mama em estudos de coorte. Em vista desses achados conflitantes, tem sido difícil propor qualquer recomendação nutricional para a prevenção do câncer de mama. Estudos com animais e observações recentes em humanos, entretanto, têm mostrado evidências de que a dieta rica em ácido graxo linoléico estimula vários estágios no desenvolvimento de câncer mamário. Alguns estudos ainda mostram que o óleo de peixe, constituído de ácidos graxos ômega-3, parece prevenir o câncer pela influência sobre a atividade de enzimas e proteínas relacionadas à proliferação celular. Assim, são necessários estudos epidemiológicos que integrem as interações de ácidos graxos específicos com o catabolismo hormonal, fatores nutricionais protetores e de risco relacionados com o câncer de mama. Nesse trabalho, abordaremos os fatores protetores, de risco e as implicações quali e quantitativas dos ácidos graxos da dieta sobre o câncer de mama.The hypothesis that a high fat diet promotes the development of postmenopausal breast cancer is supported by case-controls studies that show a strong correlation between fat intake and breast cancer rates. On the other hand, high fat intake is not correlated with breast cancer in cohort studies. In view of these conflicting findings, it has been difficult to propose nutritional recommendations for the prevention of breast cancer. Animal studies and recent observations in humans have shown that a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulates several stages in the development of mammary cancer. Some evidences show that fish oil

  14. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  15. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  16. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  17. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  18. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  20. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  1. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  2. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  3. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-10-01

    Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (P<.001). The BCSC BBD model accurately estimates women's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  5. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  6. Iranian women's attitude toward prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Majidzadeh-A

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preventive mastectomy has a higher rate of acceptability among women who have had a family history of breast cancer. Therefore, it may be concluded that raising public awareness about the advantages of prophylactic mastectomy could help better address breast cancer in Iran.

  7. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-song TENG; Yi ZHENG; Hao-hao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women today. Some of the patients are hereditary, with a large proportion characterized by mutation in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes. In this review, we provide an overview of these two genes,focusing on their relationship with hereditary breast cancers. BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers have unique features that differ from the general breast cancers, including alterations in cellular molecules, pathological bases, biological behavior, and a different prevention strategy. But the outcome of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers still remains controversial;further studies are needed to elucidate the nature of BRCA1/2 associated hereditary breast cancers.

  8. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  9. Vitamin D and breast cancer: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrozul Haq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem and cause of death worldwide. According to WHO, cancer accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Breast Cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide and it represents the second leading cause of death among women, after lung cancer. In India, BC is the most common diagnosed malignancy with 75,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed every year. The factors associated with BC are genetic mutation, reproductive factors, family history, breast density, increasing age and nutritional risk factors. Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying of BC. Several recent reports have found vitamin D intake is beneficial not only for cancer prevention but also for women recently diagnosed with BC. In India, vitamin D deficiency ranges between 70% and 100%. There is paucity of literature available on association of vitamin D and risk of BC in Indian women. The aim of this review is to present the association of vitamin D deficiency with BC. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a higher incidence of breast cancer in India, interventional possibilities to increase vitamin D status should be done. Revising the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA for vitamin D intake and defining serum 25(OHD cut off levels for the Asian population should be done with a high priority.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  11. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  12. Randomized sham-controlled pilot trial of weekly electro-acupuncture for the prevention of taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy in women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D; Capodice, Jillian; Awad, Danielle; Buono, Donna; Shi, Zaixing; Jeffres, Anne; Wyse, Sharon; Whitman, Wendy; Trivedi, Meghna S; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) as a non-pharmacological intervention to prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy of taxane. Women with stage I-III breast cancer scheduled to receive taxane therapy were randomized to receive a standardized protocol of 12 true or sham EA (SEA) weekly treatments concurrent with taxane treatment. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Taxane neurotoxicity subscale (FACT-NTX), and other assessments at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 16. A total of 180 subjects were screened, 63 enrolled and 48 completed week 16 assessments. Mean age was 50 with 25 % white, 25 % black, and 43 % Hispanic; 52 % had no prior chemotherapy. At week 12, both groups reported an increase in mean BPI-SF worst pain score, but no mean differences were found between groups (SEA 2.8 vs. EA 2.6, P = .86). By week 16, the SEA group returned to baseline, while the EA group continued to worsen (SEA 1.7 vs. EA 3.4, P = .03). The increase in BPI-SF worst pain score was 1.62 points higher in the EA group than in the SEA group at week 16 (P = .04). In a randomized, sham-controlled trial of EA for prevention of taxane-induced CIPN, there were no differences in pain or neuropathy between groups at week 12. Of concern, subjects on EA had a slower recovery than SEA subjects. Future studies should focus on EA for treatment as opposed to prevention of CIPN.

  13. d-Limonene: a bioactive food component from citrus and evidence for a potential role in breast cancer prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although limited, observations from cell culture, animal, and epidemiological studies support the presence of anti-cancer properties in citrus peel and the primary bioactive food constituent, d-limonene. Early evidence from animal models suggests that when ingested, d-limonene exhibits a wide spectrum of biologic activity including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. In some of these early models, an analog of d-limonene, perillyl alcohol, demonstrated a more potent effect than d-limonene itself. Yet, when perillyl alcohol advanced to clinical trials, several trials were ended early due to doselimiting toxicities. Alternatively, oral d-limonene administration in humans is well tolerated even at high doses supporting its investigation as a potential bioactive for cancer prevention. Though the exact mechanisms of action of d-limonene are unclear, immune modulation and antiproliferative effects are commonly reported. Here, we review the pre-clinical evidence for d-limonene’s anticancer mechanisms, bioavailability, and safety, as well as the evidence for anti-cancer effects in humans, focusing on studies relevant to its use in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Suraya, Faryal; Jamil, Badar; Rouq, Fwziah Al; Meo, Anusha Sultan; Sattar, Kamran; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Alasiri, Saleh A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Knowledge", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "ABO blood type", "Rhesus" blood type and "breast cancer". The research documents in which "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded. Blood group "A" has high incidence of breast cancer (45.88%), blood group "O" has (31.69%); "B" (16.16%) and blood group "AB" has (6.27%) incidence of breast cancer. Blood group "A" has highest and blood group "AB" has least association with breast cancer. Furthermore, "Rhesus +ve" blood group has high incidence of breast cancer (88.31%) and "Rhesus -ve" blood group has least association with breast cancer (11.68%). Blood group "A" and "Rhesus +ve" have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type "AB" and "Rhesus -ve" are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group "A" and "Rh +ve" as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  15. Self assessment and detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients

  16. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  17. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  18. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol-1) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited embryonic fibroblast cells (Wt-MEFs), and breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Free cisplatin and polymer drug core-shell nanoparticles showed similar cytotoxicity effects in the HeLa cells. In MCF-7 cells, the free cisplatin drug exhibited 50% cell death whereas complete cell death (100%) was accomplished by the polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that the core-shell nanoparticles were taken up by the MCF-7 and HeLa cells and they were accumulated both at the cytoplasm as well at peri-nuclear environments. The present investigation lays a new foundation for the polymer-based core-shell nanoparticles approach for overcoming detoxification in platinum drugs for the treatment of GSH over-expressed breast cancer cells.Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification

  19. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  20. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  1. Curcumin in chemoprevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Terlikowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women, both in Poland and worldwide. Due to the constantly increasing number of breast cancer cases, it is vital to develop effective activities in primary and secondary prevention. One of the promising methods of best value, connecting both types of cancer prevention, appears to be chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic compounds to inhibit, delay or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Among ingredients of natural origin, great attention is paid to curcumin – a broad-spectrum anti-cancer polyphenol derivative, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Curcumin has a number of chemopreventive properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the mentioned anti-cancer effect in the epithelial breast cell line MCF-10A and in the epithelial breast cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3-hr and MDA-MB-231. The main problem associated with the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive agent in humans is its low absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, poor solubility in body fluids and low bioavailability. Current studies are underway to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin in vivo. Good results in the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer could be ensured by curcumin nanoparticles coated with albumin, known as nanocurcumin. The studies using nanocurcumin, however, are still in the preclinical stage, which is why there is a need to conduct extensive long-term randomized clinical trials to determine its effectiveness.

  2. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  3. Skp2 is a Promising Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wan, Lixin; Liu, Pengda; Gao, Daming [Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Sarkar, Fazlul H. [Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Wei, Wenyi, E-mail: wwei2@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-04

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for female in the United States. It has been known that several signaling pathways and various factors play critical roles in the development and progression of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor, Notch, PTEN, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, PI3K/Akt, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Emerging evidence has shown that the F-box protein S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Therefore, in this brief review, we summarize the novel functions of Skp2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, we provide further evidence regarding the state of our knowledge toward the development of novel Skp2 inhibitors especially natural “chemopreventive agents” as targeted approach for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.

  4. Statins and risk of breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Karolina Akinosoglou,1 Anastasia Kostaki,2 Despina Spyropoulou,1 Angelos Koutras,1 1Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University Hospital, Patras Medical School, Patras, 2Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece Background: The primary end point of our study was to test whether the concurrent use of a statin is related to a lower risk of recurrence and increased relapse-free survival in patients with early breast cancer. Materials and methods: We reviewed 610 female patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer who had been surgically treated and who had subsequently received at least adjuvant chemotherapy in order to prevent recurrence. Results: Among the 610 patients with breast cancer, 83 (13.6% were receiving a statin on a chronic basis for other medical purposes. Overall, statin users displayed longer mean relapse-free survival (16.6 vs 10.2 years, P=0.028. After data had been adjusted for patient and disease characteristics, statin users maintained a lower risk of recurrence. This favorable outcome in statin users was particularly evident when we included only younger patients in the analysis (20 vs 10 years, P=0.006. Conclusion: Statins may be linked to a favorable outcome in early breast cancer patients, especially in younger age-groups. Keywords: statins, breast, cancer, adjuvant, recurrence

  5. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  6. Metastasis of breast cancer rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, L.; Santander, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient

  7. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  8. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  9. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  10. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  11. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  12. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  13. Familial breast cancer: what the radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are ''hereditary'', i.e. caused by a pathogenic mutation in one of the ''breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes'' (BRCA). The BRCA genes 1 and 2 identified to date follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. A clustering of breast cancer in a family without a documented mutation and without a recognizable inheritance pattern is usually referred to as ''familial cancer''. A distinction between hereditary and familial is difficult in the individual case because not all of the genetic mutations that cause breast cancer susceptibility are known and thus amenable to genetic testing. Women who are suspected of or documented as carrying a breast cancer susceptibility gene face a substantially increased lifetime risk of breast (and ovarian) cancer ranging from 60-80% for breast and up to 40% for ovarian cancer. In addition, the disease develops at a young age (the personal risk starts increasing at age 25; average age of diagnosis is 40). BRCA-associated breast cancers tend to exhibit histologic and histochemical evidence of aggressive biologic behavior (usually grade 3, receptor negative) with very fast growth rates. In particular BRCA1-associated breast cancer may be indistinguishable from fibroadenomas: They appear as well-defined, roundish, hypoechoic masses with smooth borders, without posterior acoustic shadowing on ultrasound, without associated microcalcifications on mammography, and with strong wash-out phenomenon on breast MRI. This article reviews the different options that exist for the prevention of familial or hereditary breast cancer and the specific difficulties that are associated with the radiological diagnosis of these cancers. Lastly, an overview is given of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of the different imaging modalities for early diagnosis of familial and hereditary breast cancer. (orig.)

  14. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  15. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  16. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  17. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  18. Condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados Breast cancer's secondary prevention and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leal Sclowitz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional na cidade de Pelotas, RS, em 2002, com amostra de 879 mulheres de 40 a 69 anos. Foram coletadas informações sobre variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, biológicas e referentes ao manejo médico. A análise estatística das variáveis foi realizada utilizando o método de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do "hábito de realizar o auto-exame" encontrada foi de 83,5% (IC 95%: 80,9-85,9, sendo que, dessas mulheres, 80,4% (IC 95%: 77,3-83,2 o realizavam ao menos uma vez ao mês. A prevalência de "exame clínico de mamas" foi de 83,3% (IC 95%: 80,6-85,7. "Mamografia alguma vez na vida" mostrou prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 66,8-73,0, sendo que 83,7% (IC 95%: 80,5-86,6 realizaram a última mamografia há dois anos ou menos. Das entrevistadas, 62% (IC 95%: 58,7-65,2 consultaram ginecologista ao menos uma vez no último ano. Os fatores associados a maiores prevalências das condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama foram: pertencer às classes sociais mais altas; ter a maior combinação de fatores de risco para neoplasia mamária; ter história familiar de câncer de mama; fazer uso de terapia de reposição hormonal e ter sido submetida à biópsia por patologia mamária. CONCLUSÕES: As medidas preventivas para o câncer de mama vêm sendo bastante utilizadas quantitativamente; entretanto, os dados apontam para limitações em relação à sua adequação. O nível socioeconômico parece ser o principal determinante do acesso à consulta ginecológica e, conseqüentemente, às demais condutas na prevenção secundária do câncer de mama.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of secondary prevention of breast cancer and associated factors. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of

  19. Cancer in Nigerian Women: A Critical Need for Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in Nigeria is assuming an alarming proportion. Recent public awareness on common female cancer such as breast, cervix, liver etc has shown an upsurge of cancer in women. This study aims to describe common cancers in Nigerian women and highlight strategy for cancer prevention. All records of histologically ...

  20. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  1. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  2. Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Leary, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    .... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...

  3. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  4. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  5. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  6. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  7. Selenium and Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    .... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...

  8. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  10. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  11. Relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behaviour of female students at a school of health and their healthy life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Yilmaz, Derya; Tuna, Aslan; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Turgay, Ayse San

    2010-01-01

    Regular breast self-examination (BSE) and pap-smear tests are the two of the positive heath behaviors for improving, promoting and protecting the health of adolescent girls. The present quasi-experimental research was carried out with the purpose of analyzing the relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behavior of female students at a School of Health and their health lifestyle. The research was conducted at Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University School of Health between November 2008 and February 2009. A total of 77 female students attending the first and second grades were included in the sample. Education pertinent to the matter was provided and evaluation was made three months later. A knowledge evaluation form for breast and gynecological examination, the Healthy Life-Style Behavior Scale (HPLP), was used in data collection. Number percentages, the McNemar Bowker test, the t test and the Mann Whitney U test were used in the evaluation. Despite the information they had received, not all of the students performed regular breast self-examination (BSE) prior to the education. For 24.7% (n=19) the reason for not doing regular BSE was their having no symptoms and for 29.9% (n=23) it was due to thinking that they would not have breast cancer. The reason for not having pap smear test was a virgin status. Three months after the education, knowledge level scores of the students increased approximately three and a half times (from 23.8-9.8) to 81.2-8.0). The rate of having regular BSE was 88.3% after three months, however; there was no pap smear test probably due to the fact that it was a taboo. When the rate of having regular BSE three months after the education and HLPL scores were compared, the scores of those having it regularly and the scores of those not having it regularly were found to be close and no statistically significant difference was detected (p> 0.05). In conclusion, consultancy service units should be established to comprehend the barriers

  12. Breast cancer of young women - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodnikova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of the female population, the incidence is increasing mainly statistically between 50. a 60s, 60s and 70s. Recently, however, we meet more often with the occurrence of breast cancer in women in 30 year and significantly between 30 and 40 year. Cases: The following are examples of four young women who had different symptoms who failed primary diagnosis was revalued the importance of sonography and age, did not think the possibility of the presence of cancer. Results: The patients presented were finally correctly diagnosed, treated with a relatively good prognosis. Their diagnosis, however, could be faster and smaller tumors. However, despite the fact that Slovakia has enacted preventive investigation of the breast young women from the 20 to 40th of clinically and sonographically, encountered in practice, often with cases of breast cancer diagnosed late. Conclusion: Case report we highlight the diversity of clinical symptoms and the possibility of imaging diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of breast disease of young women. We also want to draw attention to some underestimation of clinical symptoms, while revaluation results of sonographic examinations. An important factor is the quality of the ultrasound device and effective consultation and cooperation with other diagnostic departments. (author)

  13. Antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...

  14. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.

  15. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  16. BREAST CANCER IN SLOVENIA: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Primic Žakelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast is the most frequent cancer site in Slovenian female population. In the year 2000 there were 932 new breast cancer cases registered (91.2/100,000, the incidence is expected to increase in the next ten years. Primary prevention includes general recommendations for healthy life style, e.g. avoidance of obesity, diet, physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption. Randomised controlled trials conducted in the USA, Canada, Scotland and Sweden have shown that regular mammography, alone or in combination with clinical examination, is effective in reducing mortality for about 25% in women over the age of 50, and much less in younger population. However, mammography screening has several drawbacks, the major being its tendency towards false positive and false negative results with all their potential psychosocial consequences. High quality assurance and control, as well as effective and readily available diagnostics and treatment, all of which demand high investments, are indispensable for good results.Conclusions. In Slovenia there are standards for breast cancer screening units, but their implementation in every day’s work is still a problem. In any case, breast cancer control could be achieved only by combined efforts directed into primary prevention and early detection, as well as by improving availability of effective treatment.

  17. Environment and breast cancer - the role of xenooestrogens in breast cancer carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Druzina, B.; Kovac, V.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The survival rate of breast cancer patients has not changed much in the last few decades in developed countries. In order to improve the efficacy of breast cancer prevention and treatment, the role of xenooestrogens in the mechanisms of its development has been evaluated. These industrial chemicals bear little structural resemblance to each other and bind to the oestrogen receptors of exposed cells and/or trigger oestrogenic responses in laboratory test systems. Exposure to xenooestrogens has been regarded as a risk factor for carcinogenesis and a preventable cause of breast carcinoma. Several epidemiological and experimental studies in in vivo and in in vitro conditions of the influence of xenooestrogens on the occurrence of breast cancer have been conducted in the last decades and have shown ambiguous results. Conclusions. No increase in breast carcinoma incidence could be found in women who were exposed to relatively high concentrations of xenooestrogens for extended periods and small quantities of these compounds that are present in the environment probably cannot act as etiological agents for the occurrence of this disease. A multi step approach is suggested regarding the sequence of studies and measures that should be taken to further assess the importance of xenooestrogens on breast cancer carcinogenesis. (author)

  18. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...

  20. RAD51B in familial breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  1. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  2. [A multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase Ⅳ clinical study of PEG-rhG-CSF for preventing chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z F; Xu, F R; Fan, J; Li, B J; Gao, J N; Hu, J W; Wang, X J; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J H; Li, F; Liu, Q; Liu, Y H; Wang, S; Wang, Y S; Ouyang, Q C; Hu, B; Sun, G P; Zhang, Y; Zang, A M; Fan, P Z; Wu, C P; Liu, J; Zhang, H W; Wang, W; Hu, X C; Tang, L L; Zhang, J; Bao, Y Y; Geng, C Z; Sun, Q; Zhang, F; Yin, Y M; Jiang, H C; An, Y H

    2018-04-24

    Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycal recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patiens with breast cancer. Methods: There were two parts in the present phase Ⅳ clinical study. One was a randomized, controlled clinical study. Patients in this study received PEG-rhG-CSF or rhG-CSF in the first cycle and followed with both PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles. The other one was a single arm study. Patients who developed Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade neutropenia in the screening cycle received PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles chemotherapy. Results: In the first cycle of randomized, controlled study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia are 31.48% and 35.58% respectively in PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF group, with no statistically significant differences ( P =0.527 6). The duration of Ⅳ grade neutropenia respectively are 2.22±1.58 and 3.00±1.59 days, with a statistically significant difference ( P =0.016 6). In the single arm study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia was 57.76% in screening cycle. And the incidence decreased to 16.35%, 10%, and 8.57% in the followed 3 cycle after the use of PEG-rhG-CSF. The incidence of adverse effects was 5.06%, and the major adverse effect was bone pain which with an incidence of 2.8%. Conclusion: The fixed 6mg dose of PEG-rhG-CSF can effectively prevent neutropenia in patients with breast cancer in multicycle chemotherapy and it has a low incidence of adverse events and mild adverse reaction.

  3. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  4. Breast Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Start here to find information on breast cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  5. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  6. Vital Signs – Defeating Breast Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-12

    This podcast is based on the November 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Better screening and treatment have contributed to a decline in breast cancer deaths, however, not all women have benefited equally from these improvements. Learn how we can all help reduce deaths from breast cancer.  Created: 11/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/12/2012.

  7. Breast Cancer: Reactions, Choices, Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Alexia N.

    2000-01-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661

  8. Dietary habits contributing to breast cancer risk among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Hatmi, Nadia; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Dabiran, Sohaila; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast

  9. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  10. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  11. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, F. de

    1987-01-01

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  12. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  14. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  15. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  16. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  17. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  18. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  20. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opposed to the use of another type of lipid-lowering drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...

  1. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  2. EHMT2 is a metastasis regulator in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Son, Mi-Young; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-02-05

    Various modes of epigenetic regulation of breast cancer proliferation and metastasis have been investigated, but epigenetic mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Thus, in this study, EHMT2 (a histone methyltransferase) was determined to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and in Oncomine data. In addition, knockdown of EHMT2 reduced cell migration/invasion and regulated the expression of EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, Claudin 1, and Vimentin). Furthermore, treatment with BIX-01294, a specific inhibitor of EHMT2, affected migration/invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate functions of EHMT2 in breast cancer metastasis and suggest that targeting EHMT2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D.; Chen, Xiao Qing; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L.; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W.; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y.; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D.; Castelao, Jose E.; Chan, Tsun L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chia, Kee Seng; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L.; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M.; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; García-Sáenz, José A.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J.; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P.; Ma, Edmond S.K.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F.; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V. Shane; Park, Sue K.; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I.A.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th.; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J.; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O.; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A.; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yip, Cheng Har; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Bader, Gary D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and many common, mainly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. We report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry1. We identified 65 new loci associated with overall breast cancer at pcancer due to all SNPs in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the utility of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. PMID:29059683

  4. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  5. Risk factors for breast cancer in the breast cancer risk model study of Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Chong, Marie; White, Kami K; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Buyum, Arielle; Badowski, Grazyna; Blas-Laguaña, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Chamorro Pacific Islanders in the Mariana Islands have breast cancer incidence rates similar to, but mortality rates higher than, those of U.S. women. As breast cancer risk factors of women of the Mariana Islands may be unique because of ethnic and cultural differences, we studied established and suspected risk factors for breast cancer in this unstudied population. From 2010-2013, we conducted retrospective case-control study of female breast cancer (104 cases and 185 controls) among women in the Mariana Islands. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each of various lifestyle-related factors from logistic regression of breast cancer, in all women and in pre- and postmenopausal women separately. Tests for interaction of risk factors with ethnicity were based on the Wald statistics for cross-product terms. Of the medical and reproductive factors considered - age at menarche, breastfeeding, number of live births, age at first live birth, hormone use, and menopause - only age at first live birth was confirmed. Age at first live birth, among parous women, was higher among cases (mean 24.9 years) than controls (mean 23.2 years); with increased breast cancer risk (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.19 for age≥30y compared to risk and only in Filipino women. The association with many other established risk factors, such as BMI, hormone use and physical activity, were in the expected direction but were not significant. Associations for family history of breast cancer and alcohol intake were not evident CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a basis for cancer prevention guidance for women in the Mariana Islands. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  8. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  9. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  11. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  13. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  14. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    ... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...

  15. IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Surmacz, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...

  16. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  17. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  18. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  19. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  20. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.