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Sample records for breast cancer prevalence

  1. CHEK2 1100delC is prevalent in Swedish early onset familial breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblom Annika

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A truncating variant, 1100delC, in check point-kinase CHEK2, has been identified as a risk factor for familial and sporadic breast cancer. The prevalence in healthy non-breast cancer cases is low and varies between populations. Methods We analyzed the prevalence of CHEK2 1100delC in 763 breast cancer patients with a defined family history and 760 controls from the Stockholm region. The breast cancer patients originated from; a population-based cohort (n = 452 and from a familial cancer clinic (n = 311, the detailed family history was known in both groups. Results The variant was found in 2.9% of the familial cases from the population-based cohort and in 1.9% from the familial cancer clinic. In total 2.2% of the patients with a family history of breast cancer carried the variant compared to 0.7% of the controls (p = 0.03. There was no increased prevalence in sporadic patients (0.3%. The variant was most frequent in young familial patients (5.1% of cases ≤45 years, p = 0.003. The mean age at diagnosis of variant carriers was 12 years lower than in non-carriers (p = 0.001. Conclusion In conclusion, CHEK2 1100delC exists in the Swedish population. The prevalence is increased in familial breast cancer and the variant seems to influence age at onset.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Deo S; Ray S; Rath G; Shukla N; Kar M; Asthana S; Raina V

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cance...

  3. Obesity in post menopausal women with a family history of breast cancer: prevalence and risk awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Parvin; Richardson, Caroline E; Carmichael, Amtul R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and physical activity are modifiable risk factors in the development of postmenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and prevalence of these factors in women attending family history clinics. Methods: Women attending the breast cancer family history clinic from 2004 to 2006 completed a questionnaire (SP15 format) about their knowledge of and exposure to various diet and lifestyle factors. All women had been counselled by a Co...

  4. CHEK2 1100delC is prevalent in Swedish early onset familial breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margolin, Sara; Eiberg, Hans; Lindblom, Annika;

    2007-01-01

    763 breast cancer patients with a defined family history and 760 controls from the Stockholm region. The breast cancer patients originated from; a population-based cohort (n = 452) and from a familial cancer clinic (n = 311), the detailed family history was known in both groups. RESULTS: The variant......BACKGROUND: A truncating variant, 1100delC, in check point-kinase CHEK2, has been identified as a risk factor for familial and sporadic breast cancer. The prevalence in healthy non-breast cancer cases is low and varies between populations. METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of CHEK2 1100delC in...... was found in 2.9% of the familial cases from the population-based cohort and in 1.9% from the familial cancer clinic. In total 2.2% of the patients with a family history of breast cancer carried the variant compared to 0.7% of the controls (p = 0.03). There was no increased prevalence in sporadic...

  5. Prevalence, sources, and predictors of soy consumption in breast cancer

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    Lis Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of components in soy appear to have anticancer properties, including the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. The use of soy by women with breast cancer is now being questioned because of the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones and possible interactions with tamoxifen. Clinicians providing nutrition counseling to these women are concerned because the availability of soy foods has increased dramatically in the past few years. The goal of this study was to quantify the intake of isoflavones in women with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study of 100 women with breast cancer treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® between 09/03 and 02/04. Each patient completed a soy food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was scored by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Demographic and clinical predictors of soy intake were evaluated using one-way non-parametric Mann Whitney test and non-parametric spearman's rank correlation. Results Mean age was 50.5 years (std. dev. = 9.4; range 31–70 and mean BMI was 27.3 kg/m2 (std. dev. = 6.75; range 17–59. Genistein and Daidzein consumption was limited to 65 patients with a mean intake of 11.6 mg/day (std. dev. = 21.9; range 0–97.4 and 7.6 mg/day (std. dev. = 14.1; range 0–68.9 respectively. Soy milk (37% and pills containing soy, isoflavones, or "natural" estrogen (24% were the two biggest contributors to isoflavone intake. Conclusion Our study suggests that the isoflavone intake of breast cancer patients at our hospital was quite variable. Thirty-five patients reported no soy intake. The mean daily intake of 11.6 mg genistein and 7.4 mg daidzein, is the equivalent of less than 1/4 cup of tofu per day. This amount is higher than what has been previously reported in non-Asian American women.

  6. Exploring the Prevalence of Ten Polyomaviruses and Two Herpes Viruses in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Annika; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Rockett, Rebecca J.; Jacob, Kevin; Ian C. Bennett; Sloots, Theo P.

    2012-01-01

    Several different viruses have been proposed to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of a subset of viruses in breast cancer tissue. We investigated the prevalence of 12 DNA viruses: EBV and CMV from the Herpesviridae family and SV40, BKV, JCV, MCV, WUV, KIV, LPV, HPyV6, HPyV7, and TSV from the Polyomaviridae family in 54 fresh frozen breast tumour specimens. Relevant clinical data and basic lifestyle data were available for all patient...

  7. Prevalence of lymphedema in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer in a referral center in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva Daniella MF; Rodrigues Vivian O; Cesca Marcelle G; Palma Pamella V; Leite Isabel CG

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymphedema is a highly prevalent condition in women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer. Lymphedema negatively affects the quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema and associated factors in women treated for breast cancer in the municipality of Juiz de Fora. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that evaluated 250 women who were being treated for breast cancer. Pre-screening of the sample by analysis of med...

  8. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  9. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  10. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cancer centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred treated breast cancer patients with a minimum follow up of one year were evaluated for the prevalence and risk factors for lymphedema. Lymphedema was assessed using a serial circumferential measurement method. More than 3 cm difference in circumference is considered as clinical significant lymphedema. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for evaluating the risk factors by using the Chi square test and Cox logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant lymphedema was 33.5 % and 17.2 % had severe lymphedema. The prevalence of lymphedema was 13.4 % in patients treated with surgery only where as the prevalence was 42.4% in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Stage of the disease, body surface area> 1.5 m2, presence of co-morbid conditions, post operative radiotherapy and anthracycline based chemotherapy were significant risk factors in univariate analysis where as axillary irradiation and presence of co-morbid conditions have emerged as independent risk factors in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Post treatment lymphedema continues to be a significant problem following breast cancer therapy. Presence of co-morbid conditions and axillary radiation significantly increases the risk of lymphedema. A combination of axillary dissection and axillary radiation should be avoided whenever feasible to avoid lymphedema. (author)

  12. Exploring the prevalence of ten polyomaviruses and two herpes viruses in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Antonsson

    Full Text Available Several different viruses have been proposed to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of a subset of viruses in breast cancer tissue. We investigated the prevalence of 12 DNA viruses: EBV and CMV from the Herpesviridae family and SV40, BKV, JCV, MCV, WUV, KIV, LPV, HPyV6, HPyV7, and TSV from the Polyomaviridae family in 54 fresh frozen breast tumour specimens. Relevant clinical data and basic lifestyle data were available for all patients. The tissue samples were DNA extracted and real-time PCR assays were used for viral detection.The highest prevalence, 10% (5/54, was found for EBV. MCV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 were detected in single patient samples (2% each, while WUV, KIV, JCV, BKV, LPV, SV40, TSV and CMV were not detected in the 54 breast cancer specimens analysed here. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the potential role of viruses, and particularly EBV, in breast carcinogenesis.

  13. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  14. Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Jeanette; Ewertz, Marianne; Kroman, Niels; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. A study questionnaire was sent to the women between January and April 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, location, and severity of persistent pain and sensory disturbances in 12 well-defined treatment groups assessed an average of 26 months after surgery, and......CONTEXT: Persistent pain and sensory disturbances following surgical treatment for breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. The pathogenic mechanisms are complex and may be related to patient characteristics, surgical technique, and adjuvant therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine prevalence of and...

  15. Prevalence of PIK3CA mutations and the SNP rs17849079 in Arab breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Bedri; Colak, Dilek; Kaya, Namik; Ghebeh, Hazem; Al-Qasem, Abeer; Hendrayani, Fawziah; Toulimat, Mohamed; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Park, Ben Ho; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Carcinomas initiate and progress due to genetic and epigenetic alterations in epithelial cells. However, recently, these alterations have also been reported in stromal fibroblasts. The gain-of-function mutations in the PI3K p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) have been identified in many cancers with a current global incidence of 26% (18–40%) in breast carcinomas. We analyzed the mutational frequency of PIK3CA of three hotspots (exons 1, 9, and 20) in 81 primary invasive breast cancers (BC) and 25 cultured breast cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) samples by Sanger sequencing in Arab breast cancer patients. Associations between the incidence of any PIK3CA mutation and several clinicopathologic characteristics were assessed using chi-square tests for categorical or t test for continuous variables. Furthermore, survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log rank test to evaluate the significance of their differences. We identified a total of 21 PIK3CA missense mutations with a frequency of 25.9%. The majority of the mutations, 17 out of 21 (81%), were in exon 20 (p.His1047Arg, p.His1047Lys, p.Thr1025Ala, p.Gly1049Arg, p.Asp1056Asn) while the remainder, 4 out of 21 (19%) were in exon 9 (p.Glu545Lys). PIK3CA mutations were significantly associated with lower grade and hormone receptor positivity. Although there was a favorable trend in overall survival for patients whose tumor harbored PIK3CA mutations, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10). However, we did not detect any somatic mutations in CAFs. Furthermore, we have shown a high prevalence (8.2-fold) of a silent variant (SNP, rs17849079) in the Arab breast cancer population compared with disease-free individuals. PMID:23982433

  16. Prevalence of PIK3CA mutations and the SNP rs17849079 in Arab breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Bedri; Colak, Dilek; Kaya, Namik; Ghebeh, Hazem; Al-Qasem, Abeer; Hendrayani, Fawziah; Toulimat, Mohamed; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Park, Ben Ho; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2013-10-01

    Carcinomas initiate and progress due to genetic and epigenetic alterations in epithelial cells. However, recently, these alterations have also been reported in stromal fibroblasts. The gain-of-function mutations in the PI3K p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) have been identified in many cancers with a current global incidence of 26% (18-40%) in breast carcinomas. We analyzed the mutational frequency of PIK3CA of three hotspots (exons 1, 9, and 20) in 81 primary invasive breast cancers (BC) and 25 cultured breast cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) samples by Sanger sequencing in Arab breast cancer patients. Associations between the incidence of any PIK3CA mutation and several clinicopathologic characteristics were assessed using chi-square tests for categorical or t test for continuous variables. Furthermore, survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log rank test to evaluate the significance of their differences. We identified a total of 21 PIK3CA missense mutations with a frequency of 25.9%. The majority of the mutations, 17 out of 21 (81%), were in exon 20 (p.His1047Arg, p.His1047Lys, p.Thr1025Ala, p.Gly1049Arg, p.Asp1056Asn) while the remainder, 4 out of 21 (19%) were in exon 9 (p.Glu545Lys). PIK3CA mutations were significantly associated with lower grade and hormone receptor positivity. Although there was a favorable trend in overall survival for patients whose tumor harbored PIK3CA mutations, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10). However, we did not detect any somatic mutations in CAFs. Furthermore, we have shown a high prevalence (8.2-fold) of a silent variant (SNP, rs17849079) in the Arab breast cancer population compared with disease-free individuals. PMID:23982433

  17. Prevalence and Prognostic Role of BRCA1/2 Variants in Unselected Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayuan; Peng, Zuxiang; Deng, Ling; Zhu, Xuehua; Sun, Yun; Lu, Xuesong; Shen, Fuxiao; Su, Xinying; Zhang, Liying; Gu, Yi; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of BRCA1/2 variants in Chinese breast cancer patients varies among studies. Germline or somatic BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. We aimed to investigate the distribution of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 variants in unselected Chinese breast cancer patients, and explore their roles in tumor phenotype and disease prognosis. Methods 507 breast cancer patients, unselected for family history of breast cancer or age at diagnosis, were prospectively enrolled from West China Hospital between Feb. 2008 and Feb. 2014. BRCA1/2 variants in the exons/flanking regions were detected in fresh-frozen tumors using next-generation sequencing and confirmed by independent methods. Germline/somatic status was validated by Sanger sequencing in paired blood/normal tissue. Results BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were detected in 50 patients (9.9%), including 40 germline carriers (18 in BRCA1, 22 in BRCA2), 9 patients with somatic variants (3 in BRCA1, 6 in BRCA2), and 1 patient with concurrent germline/somatic variants in BRCA2. The triple-negative (21.4%) and Luminal B (9.7%) subtypes had higher rates of BRCA1/2 variants. In patients with disease stage 0~II, presence of a germline or somatic BRCA1 P/LP variant increased the risk of relapse as compared to non-carriers [univariate hazard ratio (HR): 3.70, P = 0.04]. Germline BRCA1 P/LP variants, which were associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes, predicted worse disease-free survival in the subgroup of stage 0~II (HR: 4.52, P = 0.02) and N0 (HR: 5.4, P = 0.04) compared to non-carriers. Conclusion A high frequency of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 P/LP variants was detected in unselected Chinese breast cancer patients. Luminal B subtype should be considered as a high-risk population of BRCA1/2 mutation, in addition to triple-negative breast cancer. BRCA1 status was associated with aggressive tumor

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  19. Risk factors for breast cancer with applications to selection for the prevalence screen.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, F. E.; Roberts, M. M.; Huggins, A

    1987-01-01

    There have been many studies of individual risk factors for breast cancer; most of the factors concerned may be broadly grouped into demographic and dietary, reproductive history, endocrine related, family history of breast cancer, and previous history of breast disease. Some of these studies have examined the combined effect of these factors. The present case-control study does this in the context of a randomised controlled trial of breast cancer screening. The relative risks that we have ob...

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  1. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Yee Phuah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2 is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1 and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2 proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. METHODS: We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. RESULTS: By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.

  3. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  4. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2). The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT) and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%). Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer

  6. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeSai Damini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2. The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. Methods We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%. Conclusion Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  7. Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have examined the effect of breast implants after mastectomy on long-term survival in breast cancer patients, despite growing public health concern over potential long-term adverse health effects. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics. Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival. In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  9. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  10. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence in San Francisco Bay area and California women: 1988 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Theresa HM; Chang, Ellen T.; John, Esther M.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Glaser, Sally L.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Historically, the incidence rate of breast cancer among non-Hispanic white women living in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California has been among the highest in the world. Substantial declines in breast cancer incidence rates have been documented in the United States and elsewhere during recent years. In light of these reports, we examined recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence among non-Hispanic white women in the SFBA and other regions of C...

  11. High prevalence of premalignant lesions in prophylactically removed breasts from women at hereditary risk for breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Bult, P.; Widt-Levert, L.M. de; Beex, L.V.A.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Boetes, C.; Manders, P.; Brunner, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women with a hereditary predisposition for breast cancer have an extremely high risk of developing invasive breast carcinoma, and many women consider prophylactic mastectomy to avoid this risk. The use of prophylactic mastectomy is still debated. Identification of frequent premalignant lesi

  12. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  13. Prevalence, Predictors, and Characteristics of Off-Treatment Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrykowski, Michael A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Laronga, Christine; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lack of consensus regarding how to identify cancer patients with significant fatigue has hampered research regarding cancer-related fatigue (CRF) METHODS Specific criteria were used to identify CRF cases in women with stage 0-II breast cancer (BC group n = 304) Women completed assessments

  14. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in breast cancer: Prevalence, predictors, consequences, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Zachariae, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are evident in a significant proportion of women after having experienced diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Several risk factors for...... acute PTSS as the strongest predictors in a large population-based cohort of women treated for breast cancer. Women characterized by these factors may be at risk of developing long-term PTSS after breast cancer and are likely to benefit from evidence-based psychological interventions for PTSS. A...... strategy for screening for risk of long-term PTSS to identify the women who are most likely to benefit from psychological intervention is suggested. Until further research has been conducted and more firm conclusions can be drawn regarding which interventions strategies are most effective, it is...

  15. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  16. Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kemp, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At present, the risk of a woman developing invasive breast cancer during her life is about 1 in 8. This makes breast cancer the most prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. As the risk of dying from breast cancer for a woman is about 1 in 36, early breast cancer detection and effective treatmen

  17. Prevalence and spectrum of p53 mutations in white Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Lai, Shenghan; Ma, Fangchao; Meng, Lou; Trapido, Edward

    2003-09-01

    Hispanic women differ from non-Hispanics in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival. Ethnic differences in genetic makeup, reproductive patterns, diet, socioeconomic status, physical activity, and other unidentified cultural factors may be responsible for the disparity. This study investigated occurrences of p53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in South Florida white Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women with primary breast cancer. Tumor tissues were obtained from a consecutive series of women with breast cancer who underwent breast resection at the Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida between 1984 and 1986. A total of 231 women with primary breast cancer, aged 31-85 years, were included in the study. Among them, 64 (27.7%) were white Hispanic and 167 (72.3%) were white non-Hispanic. The majority of the patients were white non-Hispanics (72.3%). Compared to white non-Hispanics, however, white Hispanics had significantly higher proportions of tumors larger than 2 cm (53.1% v.s. 28.7%, p = 0.00) as well as larger tumor size at diagnosis (mean: 4.2 v.s. 3.0 cm, p = 0.00). The p53 gene mutation rate was significantly lower in white Hispanics than in white non-Hispanics (51.6% v.s. 70.7%, p = 0.01). Furthermore, among node-negative breast cancer patients, after adjustment for tumor size at diagnosis, logistic regression results showed that white Hispanics were 71% less likely than white non-Hispanics to carry p53 mutations (OR = 0.29 and 95% CI = 0.09-0.91). We conclude that white Hispanic women with breast cancer might have lower p53 gene mutation prevalence than white non-Hispanic women. PMID:14531497

  18. Fatigue and depression in disease-free breast cancer survivors: prevalence, correlates, and association with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Hwang, Sook Yeon; Han, Wonshik; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Seeyoun; Yun, Young Ho

    2008-06-01

    We performed this study to examine the prevalence and correlates of fatigue and depression, and their relevance to health-related quality of life in disease-free breast cancer survivors. A total of 1,933 breast cancer survivors recruited from five large hospitals in Korea completed a mailed survey, which included the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, and QLQ-BR23. With a framework that included sociodemographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics, multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with fatigue and depression. Among breast cancer survivors, 66.1% reported moderate to severe fatigue and 24.9% reported moderate to severe depression. Risk factors common to both fatigue and depression were lower income, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, and arm symptoms. Risk factors for fatigue only included younger age, employment, presence of gastrointestinal disease, and pain. Having a musculoskeletal disease was identified as a risk factor for depression only. Both fatigue and depression were influenced by sociodemographic factors, comorbidity and symptom characteristics rather than cancer or treatment-related factors. Both fatigue and depression were negatively associated with survivors' health-related quality of life. However, the patterns of differences in health-related quality of life according to severity of fatigue or depression were similar. This concurrent examination of risk factors for fatigue and depression may be helpful in the development of clinical management strategies in disease-free breast cancer survivors. PMID:18358687

  19. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  1. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  2. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  3. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  6. Prevalence and impact of founder mutations in hereditary breast cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ashton-Prolla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of all cancers are considered hereditary and are primarily caused by germline, high penetrance mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Although most cancer predisposition genes are considered molecularly heterogeneous, displaying hundreds of different disease-causing sequence alterations, founder mutations have been identified in certain populations. In some Latin American countries, founder mutations associated with increased risk of breast and other cancers have been described. This is particularly interesting considering that in most of these countries, populations are highly admixed with genetic contributions from native populations and from the influx of several distinct populations of immigrants. In this article, we present a review of the scientific literature on the subject and describe current data available on founder mutations described in the most common breast cancer predisposition genes: BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53.

  7. Prevalence of PIK3CA mutations and the SNP rs17849079 in Arab breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Karakas, Bedri; Colak, Dilek; Kaya, Namik; Ghebeh, Hazem; Al-Qasem, Abeer; Hendrayani, Fawziah; Toulimat, Mohamed; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Park, Ben Ho; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

    2013-01-01

    Carcinomas initiate and progress due to genetic and epigenetic alterations in epithelial cells. However, recently, these alterations have also been reported in stromal fibroblasts. The gain-of-function mutations in the PI3K p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) have been identified in many cancers with a current global incidence of 26% (18–40%) in breast carcinomas. We analyzed the mutational frequency of PIK3CA of three hotspots (exons 1, 9, and 20) in 81 primary invasive breast cancers (BC) and 2...

  8. Low prevalence of CHEK2 gene mutations in multiethnic cohorts of breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriati Mohamad

    Full Text Available CHEK2 is a protein kinase that is involved in cell-cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene have been associated with increase in breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to identify the CHEK2 gene germline mutations among high-risk breast cancer patients and its contribution to the multiethnic population in Malaysia. We screened the entire coding region of CHEK2 gene on 59 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL and Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ. Sequence variants identified were screened further in case-control cohorts consisting of 878 unselected invasive breast cancer patients (180 Malays, 526 Chinese and 172 Indian and 270 healthy individuals (90 Malays, 90 Chinese and 90 Indian. By screening the entire coding region of the CHEK2 gene, two missense mutations, c.480A>G (p.I160M and c.538C>T (p.R180C were identified in two unrelated patients (3.4%. Further screening of these missense mutations on the case-control cohorts unveiled the variant p.I160M in 2/172 (1.1% Indian cases and 1/90 (1.1% Indian control, variant p.R180C in 2/526 (0.38% Chinese cases and 0/90 Chinese control, and in 2/180 (1.1% of Malay cases and 1/90 (1.1% of Malay control. The results of this study suggest that CHEK2 mutations are rare among high-risk breast cancer patients and may play a minor contributing role in breast carcinogenesis among Malaysian population.

  9. Prevalence of lymphedema in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer in a referral center in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Daniella MF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphedema is a highly prevalent condition in women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer. Lymphedema negatively affects the quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema and associated factors in women treated for breast cancer in the municipality of Juiz de Fora. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that evaluated 250 women who were being treated for breast cancer. Pre-screening of the sample by analysis of medical records was performed to select women who met the inclusion criteria as follows: women who had an operation more than 6 months ago; absence of active disease, locoregional or distant; the absence of functional change in the affected limb before surgery, which could lead to swelling of the limb; and simulating or masking symptoms of lymphedema, such as bursitis, tendonitis, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Women with bilateral breast cancer, absence of axillary intervention (partial or complete axillary dissection and/or SLN biopsy, active disease in the region, or lympho-venous alteration of the limb before surgery were excluded. Data were collected from the medical records of the selected cases, and they subsequently underwent an interview and a physical assessment. Results The prevalence of lymphedema was 44.8%. There were medical records on the presence of this condition in 5.4% of cases. With regard to shoulder joint mobility, restrictions on abduction movements, internal and external rotation, and anterior shoulder adduction were significantly associated with lymphedema. Variables, including the presence of seroma, vascular changes, time elapsed after surgery, episodes of redness in the extremities, and cuticle removal from the hand with pliers were considered as major associated factors for lymphedema (p Conclusions The prevalence of 44.8% for lymphedema found in this study is considered to be relevant because it is a morbidity that

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Patient Delay Among Women With Breast Cancer in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Anshu; Manvatkar, Shiva; Ng, Nawi; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Delay in seeking health care by women with breast cancer increases mortality risk. This study was conducted in rural India to identify risk factors associated with patient delay. A total of 212 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 were interviewed. Sociodemographic characteristics, time interval between seeking medical attention and appearance of symptoms, and reasons for delay were inquired. Patient delay was defined as more than 3 months between date of first symptoms and medical consultation. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations between potential risk factors and patient delay. Almost half the women with breast cancer experienced patient delay. Age more than 60 years (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-18.0) was significantly associated with patient delay. Only 6.6% of patients had heard about breast self-examination. Significantly higher number of patients with delay presented with advanced clinical stage (P = .000). Health education programs should be introduced with specific strategies to shorten patient delay. PMID:26658324

  11. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas. PMID:25955405

  12. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  14. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene copy number gain in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC: prevalence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer, and its molecular pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and implication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK copy number change in IBC patients.We retrospectively collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and medical records of IBC patients from several institutes in Korea. ALK gene copy number change and rearrangement were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay, and ALK expression status was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC staining.Thirty-six IBC patients including those with HER2 (+ breast cancer (16/36, 44.4% and triple-negative breast cancer (13/36, 36.1% were enrolled in this study. ALK copy number gain (CNG was observed in 47.2% (17/36 of patients, including one patient who harbored ALK gene amplification. ALK CNG (+ patients showed significantly worse overall survival compared to ALK CNG (- patients in univariate analysis (24.9 months vs. 38.1 months, p = 0.033. Recurrence free survival (RFS after curative mastectomy was also significantly shorter in ALK CNG (+ patients than in ALK CNG (- patients (n = 22, 12.7 months vs. 43.3 months, p = 0.016. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for HER2 and ER statuses showed significantly poorer RFS for ALK CNG (+ patients (HR 5.63, 95% CI 1.11-28.44, p = 0.037.This study shows a significant presence of ALK CNG in IBC patients, and ALK CNG was associated with significantly poorer RFS.

  15. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  16. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  17. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  19. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kronborg, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema and impairment of function are well-established sequelae to breast cancer treatment and affect an increasing number of women due to continually improved survival. The aim of the present nationwide questionnaire study was to examine the impact of breast cancer treatment on perceived...... swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling...

  20. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  1. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. (orig./MG)

  2. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  3. AKT1 E17K mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown.Methods: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 E17K and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing.Resul...

  4. AKT1 (E17K) mutation profiling in breast cancer: prevalence, concurrent oncogenic alterations, and blood-based detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marion; Anzeneder, Tobias; Schulz, Anke; Beckmann, Georg; Byrne, Annette T.; Jeffers, Michael; Pena, Carol; Politz, Oliver; Köchert, Karl; Vonk, Richardus; Reischl, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single hotspot mutation AKT1 [G49A:E17K] has been described in several cancers, with the highest incidence observed in breast cancer. However, its precise role in disease etiology remains unknown. METHODS: We analyzed more than 600 breast cancer tumor samples and circulating tumor DNA for AKT1 (E17K) and alterations in other cancer-associated genes using Beads, Emulsions, Amplification, and Magnetics digital polymerase chain reaction technology and targeted exome sequencing...

  5. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Breast Cancer Women of Multiple Ethnic Region in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Jianghua; Wu, Tao; Sijmons, Rolf; Ni, Duo; Xu, Wenting; Upur, Halmurat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to further understand the status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation among Chinese high-risk breast cancer patients in multiple-ethnic regions of China. Methods: A total of 79 blood samples of high-risk breast cancer patients from Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region were anal

  6. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  7. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  8. Relationship Between Mutations In BRCA1 And BRCA2 Genes And Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Egyptian Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer represents the most common cancer of women in the world and it is a biologically heterogeneous disease influenced by complex interactions between multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. In Egypt, breast cancer is classified as the first rank cancer case among women. The present study included 55 patients with breast cancer from Upper Egypt of which 40 patients had sporadic and 15 had familial breast cancers. Mutations in DNA of exons 10 and 11 of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were detected by single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and sequencing. Moreover, BRCA1 protein expression was detected by immunostaining technique and correlation between risk factors and incidence rate of breast cancer. The results revealed 5 mutations (unclassified variants); three mutations (60%) were recorded internationally in Breast Information Cancer (BIC), one of them was 1767 C→T(550 Asn→His) and previously recorded in the Arabic world and the other 2 novel mutations were 1663 T→ C(479 Asp→Gly) and del AG 6079. The results obtained in the present study also demonstrated that the increase of the negative immunostaining of ''BRCA1'' protein in the tumour cells of BRCA1 mutation carriers was comparable to familial and sporadic breast cancer non-carrier. Accurate estimation of the relative frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Egyptian breast cancer patients could not be deduced from the results of this relatively small pilot study. More studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to clarify the relation between BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and the prediction of breast cancer in Egypt.

  9. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  10. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ewertz, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema and impairment of function are well-established sequelae to breast cancer treatment and affect an increasing number of women due to continually improved survival. The aim of the present nationwide questionnaire study was to examine the impact of breast cancer treatment on perceived...... swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling....../heaviness varied from 13 to 65%. Associated factors were young age, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and radiotherapy but not type of breast surgery or use of chemotherapy. Depending on treatment group 11-44% had to give up activities. Giving up activities was associated with pain and swelling...

  11. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is not a single entity but a diverse group of entities. Advances in gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry as its surrogate marker have led to the unmasking of new breast cancer molecular subtypes, resulting in the emergence of more elaborate classification systems that are therapeutically and prognostically more predictive. Molecular class distribution across various ethnic groups may also reveal variations that can lead to different clinical outcomes in different populations. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of molecular subtypes present in the Saudi population. ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6 were used as surrogate markers for gene expression profiling to classify 231 breast cancer specimens. Correlation of each molecular class with Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 mutation status, histologic type and grade of the tumor was also carried out. Out of 231 cases 9 (3.9%) were classified as luminal A (strong ER +ve, PR +ve or -ve), 37 (16%) as luminal B (weak to moderate ER +ve, and/or PR +ve), 40 (17.3%) as HER2+ (strong or moderately positive HER 2 with confirmation by silver enhanced in-situ hybridization) and 23 (10%) as basal (CK5/6 or EGFR +ve). Co-positivity of different markers in varied patterns was seen in 23 (10%) of cases which were grouped into a hybrid category comprising luminal B-HER2, HER2-basal and luminal-basal hybrids. Ninety nine (42.8%) of the tumors were negative for all five immunohistochemical markers and were labelled as unclassified (penta negative). A high Ki-67 proliferation index was seen in basal (p = 0.007) followed by HER2+ class. Overexpression of p53 was predominantly seen in HER2 + (p = 0.001) followed by the basal group of tumors. A strong correlation was noted between invasive lobular carcinoma and hormone receptor expression with 8 out of 9 lobular carcinoma cases (88.9%) classifiable as luminal cancers. Otherwise, there was no association between the molecular class and the histologic type or grade of the

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. Aims To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. Methods 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attenda...

  13. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  14. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  15. Prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutation c.5266dupin Brazilian individuals at-risk for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Ingrid P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG and c.5266dup (5382insC in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%. This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023. The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be

  16. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  17. Comparison of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema (Upper Limb Swelling) Prevalence Estimated Using Objective and Subjective Criteria and Relationship with Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Bulley; Susanne Gaal; Fiona Coutts; Christine Blyth; Wilma Jack; Udi Chetty; Matthew Barber; Chee-Wee Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate lymphedema prevalence using three different measurement/diagnostic criterion combinations and explore the relationship between lymphedema and quality of life for each, to provide evaluation of rehabilitation. Cross-sectional data from 617 women attending review appointments after completing surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy included the Morbidity Screening Tool (MST; criterion: yes to lymphedema); Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ; criterio...

  18. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  19. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...

  20. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  1. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  2. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  4. Oxalate induces breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still l...

  5. Familial breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M

    1988-01-01

    Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...

  6. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  7. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in families with medium and high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Esteves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all malignant neoplasias affecting women, breast cancer has the highest incidence rate in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of genetic modifications in families with medium and high risk for breast and ovarian cancer from different regions of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was carried out on the prevalence of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in case series of high-risk families for breast and/or ovarian cancer. After heredogram construction, a blood sample was taken and DNA extraction was performed in all index cases. The protein truncation test was used to screen for truncated mutations in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene and in exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene. Of the 612 individuals submitted to genetic testing, 21 (3.4%, 19 women and 2 men, had mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Of the 19 BRCA1 mutations found in the 18 participants, 7 consisted of ins6kb mutations, 4 were 5382insC, 3 were 2156delGinsCC, 2 were 185delAG, 1 was C1201G, 1 was C3522T, and 1 was 3450del4. With respect to the BRCA2 gene, 3 mutations were found: 5878del10, 5036delA and 4232insA (one case each. The prevalence of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes found in the present study was lower than reported by other studies on high-risk Brazilian populations. The inclusion of individuals with medium risk may have contributed to the lower prevalence observed.

  8. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  9. High prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in female breast cancer among an Iraqi population exposed to depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Dujaily, Esraa A.; Al-Janabi, Asad A; Pierscionek, Tomasz; Yasseen, Akeel A

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the rate of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) immunohistochemical overexpression in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, a region that was exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpression was correlated with common clinicopathological parameters such as age, grade, stage, tumor size and lymph node involvement to determine if any particular biomarker for exposure to depleted uranium c...

  10. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  11. Neuroendocrine breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast l...

  12. Comparison of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema (Upper Limb Swelling Prevalence Estimated Using Objective and Subjective Criteria and Relationship with Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bulley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate lymphedema prevalence using three different measurement/diagnostic criterion combinations and explore the relationship between lymphedema and quality of life for each, to provide evaluation of rehabilitation. Cross-sectional data from 617 women attending review appointments after completing surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy included the Morbidity Screening Tool (MST; criterion: yes to lymphedema; Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ; criterion: yes to heaviness and/or swelling; percentage limb volume difference (perometer: %LVD; criterion: 10%+ difference; and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy breast cancer-specific quality of life tool (FACT B+4. Perometry measurements were conducted in a clinic room. Between 341 and 577 participants provided sufficient data for each analysis, with mean age varying from 60 to 62 (SD 9.95–10.03 and median months after treatment from 49 to 51. Lymphedema prevalence varied from 26.2% for perometry %LVD to 20.5% for the MST and 23.9% for the LBCQ; differences were not significant. Limits of agreement analysis between %LVD and the subjective measures showed little consistency, while moderate consistency resulted between the subjective measures. Quality of life differed significantly for women with and without lymphedema only when subjective measurements were used. Results suggest that subjective and objective tools investigate different aspects of lymphedema.

  13. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  14. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...

  15. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  16. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  18. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  19. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MatthewJNaylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  20. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  1. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM.......This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM....

  2. Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani; Petrek

    1999-05-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557

  3. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  6. Role of TGF-β in breast cancer bone metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Chiechi, Antonella; Waning, David L.; Stayrook, Keith R; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among females worldwide leading to approximately 350,000 deaths each year. It has long been known that cancers preferentially metastasize to particular organs, and bone metastases occur in ~70% of patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic and accompanied by increased fracture risk, pain, nerve compression and hypercalcemia, causing severe morbidity. In the bone matrix, transforming growth factor-...

  7. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  8. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided ... SIGN UP FOR OUR MAILING LIST SIGN UP Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Living Beyond Breast Cancer Conference ...

  9. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  10. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  12. Diet and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-01-01

    Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability ...

  13. Women and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  14. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Jin; Ping Mu

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  17. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  18. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  19. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  20. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis, we estimated that one out of four (25.7%) breast cancer cases in the Dutch female population of >40 years is attributable to lifestyle, i.e., overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consu...

  1. Breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sestak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials with tamoxifen have clearly shown that the risk of developing oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer can be reduced by at least 50% with prophylactic agents. The current challenge is to find new agents which achieve this or better efficacy, but with fewer side effects. Recent results indicate that the SERM raloxifene has similar efficacy to tamoxifen, but leads to fewer endometrial cancers, gynecological symptoms, and thromboembolic events. Results for contralateral tumors in adjuvant trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be able to prevent up to 70%–80% of ER-positive breast cancers, and this is currently being investigated in two large prevention trials, one using anastrozole (IBIS-II and the other exemestane (MAP.3. New agents are needed for receptor negative breast cancer and several possibilities are currently under investigation.

  2. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  3. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. Posttraumatic Stress in Women with Breast Cancer and Their Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Bret A.; Bubel, Denise; Jacobs, Sheri R.; Knolls, Michelle L.; Harwell, Valerie D.; Goscicka, Magdalena; Keegan, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one percent of the surveyed women (N=133) with cancer and 13% of their daughters (N=64) reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevalence of PTSD symptoms in daughters appears comparable to women with breast cancer. Discusses intergenerational patterns in reaction to breast cancer. (JDM)

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  8. Depression and conservative surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia C. L. de Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among women and associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore it is important to determine its incidence in adult women, especially in those with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of depression in women who underwent conservative surgery for breast cancer with or without breast reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy-five women aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled. Patients had undergone conservative surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction (n = 25 or without breast reconstruction (n = 25 at least one year before the study. The control group consisted of 25 women without cancer, but of similar age and educational level distribution as the other two groups. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. The collected data were assessed using analysis of variance and the χ2 test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in age (p = 0.72 or educational level (p = 0.20. A smaller number of patients had undergone the menopause (p = 0.02 in the control group than in other groups. There were no significant differences in occurrence of depression between groups (χ2=9.97; p = 0.126. CONCLUSÍON: Conservative surgery for breast cancer did not affect the occurrence of depression in women, regardless of whether breast reconstruction was performed.

  9. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  10. Bioengineering Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironments for the Study of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yubing Xie; Bridget M. Mooney; Nurazhani Abdul Raof

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent disease amongst women worldwide and metastasis is the main cause of death due to breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells display similar characteristics. However, unlike metastatic breast cancer cells, ES cells are nonmalignant. Furthermore, embryonic microenvironments have the potential to convert metastatic breast cancer cells into a less invasive phenotype. The creation of in vitro embryonic microenvironments will enab...

  11. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Forma Ewa; Bernaciak Magdalena; Bryś Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  13. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  14. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  15. Breast Cancer and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.

  16. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  17. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  18. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  19. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  20. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  1. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  2. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  3. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  4. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  6. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  7. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid

  8. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  9. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for I...

  10. Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...

  11. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  12. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician's handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs

  13. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  14. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  15. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Understanding breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    With mammography firmly established as an integral part of efforts to reduce breast cancer mortality, many believe it is time to concentrate on prevention. Part of the multifaceted approach to preventing and treating this disease is unraveling its molecular, genetic and physiological makeup. Another aspect is ensuring that women have the information they need to make informed decisions about screening and treatment. Studies also point to the influence of nutrition, exercise, medicines and a patient's adherence to screening on cancer risk and recovery. PMID:20445140

  18. Breast cancer and depression: issues in clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thingbaijam B. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of breast-cancer patients experience distress and most of them experience depression which may lead to amplification of physical symptoms, increased functional impairment, and poor treatment adherence. We did a review on available literature from PubMed about prevalence, distress magnitudes, coping styles, and treatment methods of major depression in women with breast cancer from 1978 to 2010. Diagnosis and treatment of depressive episodes in women with breast cancer is challenging because of overlapping symptoms and co-morbid conditions. Major depression is often under-recognized and undertreated among breast cancer patients. This review highlighted the issues on identifying and managing depression in breast cancer patients in clinical settings. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:240-6Keywords: Breast cancer, coping, depression, distress

  19. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  20. Epidemiology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joli R; Moysich, Kirsten B; Swede, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer in men is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Although the epidemiologic literature regarding female breast cancer is extensive, relatively little is known about the etiology of male breast cancer (MBC). This review is intended to summarize the existing body of evidence on genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer in men. Overall, the epidemiology of MBC presents similarities with the epidemiology of female breast cancer. Major genetic factors associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for men include BRCA2 mutations, which are believed to account for the majority of inherited breast cancer in men, Klinefelter syndrome, and a positive family history. Suspected genetic factors include AR gene mutations, CYP17 polymorphism, Cowden syndrome, and CHEK2. Epidemiologic risk factors for MBC include disorders relating to hormonal imbalances, such as obesity, testicular disorders (e.g., cryptorchidism, mumps orchitis, and orchiectomy), and radiation exposure. Suspected epidemiologic risk factors include prostate cancer,prostate cancer treatment, gynecomastia, occupational exposures (e.g., electromagnetic fields, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high temperatures), dietary factors (e.g., meat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption), and alcohol intake. PMID:15668471

  1. Breast cancer therapies weighed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease? Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy

  2. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  3. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  4. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  5. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  6. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. Breast cancers in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Nearly half of the global total of breast cancer cases occurs in patients > 65 years of age. Advanced age at the diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with more favorable tumor biology, as indicated by increased hormone sensitivity, attenuated HER- 2/neu overexpression, and lower grades and proliferative indices Elderly patients, however, are more likely to present with larger and more advanced tumors, and recent reports suggest that lymph node involvement increases with age. Elderly patients care less likely to be treated according to accepted treatment guidelines and under treatment can, as a consequence, have a strong negative impact on survival.Breast cancer in elderly patients represents a great social problem and is expected to remain one of the most common cancers in the next half century. (author)

  8. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening...... from other factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical...

  9. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges...

  10. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Breast cancer stem cells: implications for therapy of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Brian J.; Schmidt, Chris W.; Lakhani, Sunil R; Reynolds, Brent A.; Lopez, J. Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells responsible for tumour origin, maintenance, and resistance to treatment has gained prominence in the field of breast cancer research. The therapeutic targeting of these cells has the potential to eliminate residual disease and may become an important component of a multimodality treatment. Recent improvements in immunotherapy targeting of tumour-associated antigens have advanced the prospect of targeting breast cancer stem cells, an approach that might lead to...

  12. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  13. Mitochondrial Defects in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Salgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA has been proposed to be involved in carcinogenesis because of its high susceptibility to mutations and limited repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type among women in the world and, although exhaustive research has been done on nuclear DNA changes, several studies describe a variety of mitochondrial DNA alterations present in breast cancer. In this review article, we to provide a summary of the mitochondrial genomic alterations reported in breast cancer and their functional consequences.

  14. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio......AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence...

  15. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  16. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  17. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  18. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M; Rodrigues Gabriel S; Kaur Kanchan; Contractor Kaiyumars B; Singhal Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 200...

  19. Importance of hereditary and selected environmental risk factors in the etiology of inflammatory breast cancer: a case-comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Moslehi, Roxana; Freedman, Elizabeth; Zeinomar, Nur; Veneroso, Carmela; Levine, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the importance of heredity in the etiology of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), we compared IBC patients to several carefully chosen comparison groups with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer. Methods IBC cases (n = 141) were compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer cases (n = 178) ascertained through George Washington University (GWU) with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer and selected enviro...

  20. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  1. Green tea’s effects in the breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pardos-Sevilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals like catechins from green tea might modify the epigenome and transcirptome of tumoral cells. The objective of the present review is to retrospectively evaluate literature examining the mechanisms throughout the green tea could exert a protective effect on breast cancer risk. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 15 years that relate tea consumption and breast cancer prevalence and development have been analysed. Green tea polyphenols can reduce risk of breast cancer throughout the inhibition of estrogenic and chemotoxic activity in liver, stimulation of metabolic pathway of glutathione conjugation, improvement of the metabolic syndrome, as well as control of immune system regulation, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of green tea polyphenols to act against breast cancer, the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting us to conduct dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with breast cancer.

  2. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...

  3. TGF-β in the Bone Microenvironment: Role in Breast Cancer Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Buijs, Jeroen T.; Stayrook, Keith R; Guise, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among females worldwide. It has long been known that cancers preferentially metastasize to particular organs, and bone metastases occur in ∼70% of patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic and accompanied by bone destruction, bone fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia, causing severe morbidity and hospitalization. In the bone matrix, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is one of the most abundant g...

  4. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...

  5. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  6. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk due to Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Variants in Pakistani Population: A Pakistani Database Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Mutational screening of the exons in all the samples of our study group did not reveal any pathogenic mutation. These results along with the results of the previous Pakistani studies for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were summed up to prepare a Pakistani database. Percentage involvement of these genes was estimated. Nine percent of these cancers show alterations in BRCA1 gene while 3 percent have shown BRCA2 variants. The remaining 88 percent of breast and ovarian cancers can be attributed to the involvement of other genes.

  7. Male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  8. Breast cancer detection using sonography in women with mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography, the gold standard for breast cancer screening misses some cancers, especially in women with dense breasts. Breast ultrasonography as a supplementary imaging tool for further evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts may improve the detection of mass lesions otherwise missed at mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental breast cancer detection rate using US scanning in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts in a resource poor environment. A cross sectional descriptive study. Women referred for mammography underwent bilateral breast ultrasound, and mammography for symptom evaluation. The lesions seen by both modalities were described using sonographic BI-RADS lexicon and categorized. Ultrasound guided core biopsies were performed. IRB approval was obtained and all participants provided informed written consent. In total 148 women with mammographically dense breasts were recruited over six months. The prevalence of breast cancer in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts was 22/148 (15%). Mammography detected 16/22 (73%) of these cases and missed 6/22 (27%). The six breast cancer cases missed were correctly diagnosed on breast ultrasonography. Sonographic features typical of breast malignancy were irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, non circumscribed margin, echogenic halo, and increased lesion vascularity (p values < 0.005). Typical sonofeatures of benign mass lesions were: oval shape, parallel orientation and circumscribed margin (p values <0.005). Breast ultrasound scan as a supplementary imaging tool detected 27% more malignant mass lesions otherwise missed by mammography among these symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. We recommend that ultra sound scanning in routine evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts

  9. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  10. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  11. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  12. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  14. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  15. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  16. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Leptomeningeal metastases in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian J.; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer may be characterized as either parenchymal brain metastasis (BM) or leptomeningeal (LM) metastasis. BM are much more common (about 80% of all CNS metastases), and have been more extensively studied than LM. CNS metastasis in breast cancer has been associated with reduced overall survival, with the shortest survival generally observed in cases of LM. Here, we review the epidemiology, prognostic factors, diagnostic tools, currently avai...

  18. Update on inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improve...

  19. Endobronchial metastasis in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertini, R E; Ekberg, N L

    1980-01-01

    Ten patients with endobronchial metastasis from primary breast cancer were found among 1200 fibreoptic bronchoscopies. Six of these patients had radiological signs suggesting bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis was verified in nine cases by means of bronchoscopic biopsy or cytology and in one by thoracotomy. Endobronchial metastasis should be considered when symptoms or chest films suggest endobronchial disease in a patient with a history of breast cancer.

  20. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  1. A microscopic landscape of the invasive breast cancer genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Ping; Yuchao Xia; Tiansheng Shen; Vishwas Parekh; Siegal, Gene P; Isam-Eldin Eltoum; Jianbo He; Dongquan Chen; Minghua Deng; Ruibin Xi; Dejun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Histologic grade is one of the most important microscopic features used to predict the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and may serve as a marker for studying cancer driving genomic abnormalities in vivo. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data from 680 cases of TCGA invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and correlated them to corresponding pathology information. Ten genetic abnormalities were found to be statistically associated with histologic grade, including three most prevalent ca...

  2. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Experiences of Lymphedema-Related Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Mei Rosemary; Rosedale, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe breast cancer survivors’ lymphedema-related symptom experiences. As a serious chronic condition from breast cancer treatment, lymphedema, or persistent swelling, is caused by chronic accumulation of lymph fluid in the interstitial spaces of the affected limb or surrounding areas. While significant prevalence of ongoing multiple symptoms have been reported, little is known about how survivors with lymphedema perceive and respond to lymphede...

  3. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  4. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, Liisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  5. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  6. PALB2 and breast cancer: ready for clinical translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey MC

    2013-07-01

    sequencing capable of sequencing whole human exomes and genomes in single instrument runs. These programs are identifying a large number of additional putative breast cancer susceptibility genes, many of which are currently undergoing validation. It is highly anticipated that the remaining missing heritability of breast cancer will be due to mutations in many different genes, each explaining a small proportion of the currently unexplained heritable breast cancer susceptibility. The characterization of PALB2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene and subsequent research that has refined our understanding of the prevalence and penetrance of heritable mutations in PALB2 offers a precious opportunity to use the data as a model and develop modes of translation that would be appropriate for the anticipated volume of imminent new information. Keywords: PALB2, breast cancer risk, clinical genetics, translation

  7. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Goyal; Tarun Puri; Pramod K Julka

    2015-01-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast can...

  8. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  9. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  11. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... collections of cells that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the ... about 2% of male breast cancers. This is because men do not usually have ...

  12. FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN BREAST CANCER MORTALITY IN NORTHWEST PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by genetic mutation of cellular DNA, and breast cancer usually painless. The objective was to analyze the behavior of mortality from breast cancer in women living in Maringá-PR in the period 2000 to 2009. We used the Information System of the Unified Health System (DATASUS for variables related to race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, place of occurrence of death. Data were analyzed descriptively and by chi-square Yates Fixed considering a confidence interval of 95% with a significance level of 5%. There were 216 deaths from breast cancer with a higher prevalence in women 60-80 years (58.4%, race white (90.2% and married (53.8%. Women over 60 with low education were more likely to breast cancer mortality was statistically significant (OR95% = 4.45, p = <0.0001

  13. BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing in young Black women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Johnson, Sharland; Akbari, Mohammad; Servais, Lily; Narod, Steven; Vadaparampil, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women in the United States are disproportionately afflicted with breast cancer, a proportion of which may be due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations. In a cancer registry-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer, we evaluated: (1) the prevalence of BRCA mutations detected through full gene sequencing and large rearrangements testing and (2) proportions that accessed genetic services pre-dating study enrollment. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer ≤ag...

  14. Three versus six months of exercise training in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Sprod, Lisa K.; Hsieh, City C.; Hayward, Reid; Schneider, Carole M.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in American women. Exercise appears to diminish many of the side effects resulting from breast cancer and its treatment. Very little research, however, has compared the outcomes of varying lengths of combined aerobic and resistance training exercise interventions on physiological and psychological parameters in breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and psychological outcomes following 3 and 6 mont...

  15. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  18. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... Genes have instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  20. Breast Cancer: Match of Her Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer The Match of Her Life Past Issues / Spring - ... Martina Navratilova stays strong in her battle against breast cancer and her work to help Americans live healthier, ...

  1. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  2. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  3. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  4. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  5. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  6. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zainur Rashid Z; S Sulaiha S A; Lew K G; Nurhana S

    2009-01-01

    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during p...

  7. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literat...

  8. Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Alecia; Matthews, Charles E.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Dai, Qi; Jin, Fan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that a pattern of behavioral exposures indicating positive energy balance [i.e., less exercise/sport activity, high body mass index (BMI), or high energy intake] would be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of 1,459 incident breast cancer cases and 1,556 age frequency-matched controls. Participants completed in-person interviews that collected information on breast cancer risk factors, usual ...

  9. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  10. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; N. N. Tupitsyn; K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompe...

  11. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  12. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in one breast only) diagnosed after age 50 Grandmother with breast cancer diagnosed at age 75 Get ... breast cancer diagnosed at age 45 and paternal grandmother (father’s mother) with breast cancer diagnosed at age ...

  13. PALB2 and breast cancer: ready for clinical translation!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Melissa C; Teo, Zhi L; Winship, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    will be due to mutations in many different genes, each explaining a small proportion of the currently unexplained heritable breast cancer susceptibility. The characterization of PALB2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene and subsequent research that has refined our understanding of the prevalence and penetrance of heritable mutations in PALB2 offers a precious opportunity to use the data as a model and develop modes of translation that would be appropriate for the anticipated volume of imminent new information. PMID:23935381

  14. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  15. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  18. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  19. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  20. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-Yuan; Li, Zhi-Rong; Luo, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease. PMID:26891869

  1. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  2. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  3. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  4. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  5. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  6. Urban Endocrine Disruptors Targeting Breast Cancer Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-02-15

    Humans are exposed to a huge amount of environmental pollutants called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These molecules interfere with the homeostasis of the body, usually through mimicking natural hormones leading to activation or blocking of their receptors. Many of these compounds have been associated with a broad range of diseases including the development or increased susceptibility to breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Thus, this article presents a virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) to evaluate the affinity of proteins related to breast cancer, such as ESR1, ERBB2, PGR, BCRA1, and SHBG, among others, with EDCs from urban sources. A blind docking strategy was employed to screen each protein-ligand pair in triplicate in AutoDock Vina 2.0, using the computed binding affinities as ranking criteria. The three-dimensional structures were previously obtained from EDCs DataBank and Protein Data Bank, prepared and optimized by SYBYL X-2.0. Some of the chemicals that exhibited the best affinity scores for breast cancer proteins in each category were 1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, bisphenol A derivatives, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, and benzo(a)pyrene, for catalase, several proteins, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cytochrome P450 1A2, respectively. An experimental validation of this approach was performed with a complex that gave a moderate binding affinity in silico, the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and bisphenol A (BPA) complex. The protein was obtained using DNA recombinant technology and the physical interaction with BPA assessed through spectroscopic techniques. BPA binds on the recombinant SHBG, and this results in an increase of its α helix content. In short, this work shows the potential of several EDCs to bind breast cancer associated proteins as a tool to prioritize compounds to perform in vitro analysis to benefit the regulation or exposure prevention by the

  7. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biologica...

  8. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  9. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  10. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  11. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  12. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  13. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  14. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, F; Woodley, LN; Shousha, S; Moyes, A; Humphreys-Williams, E; Strekopytov, S; Halliday, AN; Rehkämper, M; Coombes, RC

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn i...

  15. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: ... American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States have dropped 34% since ...

  16. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  17. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  18. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  19. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  20. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and...... optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  2. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development and...

  3. STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There is considerable lack of scientific estimate of depressive disorder among cancer patients in India. OBJECTIVES : (1 To associate the depressive disorders between the cervical cancer and breast cancer patients and (2 to compare the level of depressi on score among cervical and breast cancer patients , and with medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross - sectional study at inpatient Department of Bharath Cancer Hospital and JSS Medical College Hospit al , Mysore. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was conducted on admitted thirty breast and thirty cervical cancer inpatients in medical ward of JSS Hospital and Bharath Cancer Hospital , Mysore from D ecember 2007 to august 2009. Data analysis was done for the both groups of cancer and with thirty control group of medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. Detailed psychological , sociodemographic characteristics were recorded in proforma specially designed for the study. Depression was assessed using MINI plus , HAMD scale and scoring was done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Descriptive statistics , Cross tabs procedure , r epeated measure ANOVA statistical methods were carried out through the SPSS for Windows (version 16.0. RESULTS: Major depressi ve disorder was present in 16.7% of breast cancer and 23.3% of cervical cancer patients. . There was no significant asso ciation between type of cancer (B reast cancer and cervical cancer and depressive disorder. Depression score was found high in cervical c ancer cases compare to breast cancer cases though difference in these scores were not statistically significant in between two cancer groups. Depression score was high and significant in both cancer groups as compare to control group. CONCLUSION : Depressio n is more prevalent in cancer patients than in other several medical illneses and adequate knowledge is required for psychosocial interventions and designing

  4. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  5. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaziri Sh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods: This study aims to review the literature on management, psychological outcomes and sexual dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Results: Although the benefits of the current treatment strategies are well established, many cancer survivors are at risk for developing psycho physiological symptoms including sexual dysfunction. Cancer and treatment-related factors can influence sexual functioning. We review current treatment -related side effects on sexual functioning such as desire, arousal and orgasm in breast cancer patients. Despite the impact of medical treatment on survival of patients with breast cancer, no satisfactory steps have been taken towards improving sexual functioning of these patients. Conclusion: Breast cancer affects many aspects of sexuality, including changes in physical functioning and in the perception of feminity. Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer should be diagnosed and managed as a systematic approach with multidisciplinary inputs. Healthcare professionals should assess the effects of medical and surgical treatment on the sexuality of breast cancer survivors.

  6. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  7. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R;

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  8. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  9. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bind to estrogen receptors , preventing estrogen from binding. Examples of SERMs approved by the FDA are tamoxifen (Nolvadex®), ... called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs), inhibit an enzyme ...

  10. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  11. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an...

  12. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  13. The role of intratumoral and systemic IL-6 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Højfeldt, Grith Westergaard; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    circulating IL-6 and risk of breast cancer, prognosis for patients with prevalent disease, adverse effects and interventions to control systemic IL-6 levels in patients are discussed. In summary, direct application of IL-6 on breast cancer cells inhibits proliferation in estrogen receptor positive cells......Chronic low-grade inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several cancer forms including breast cancer. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 is a key player in systemic inflammation, regulating both the inflammatory response and tissue metabolism during acute stimulations. Here, we...... review the associations between IL-6 and breast cancer ranging from in vitro cell culture studies to clinical studies, covering the role of IL-6 in controlling breast cancer cell growth, regulation of cancer stem cell renewal, as well as breast cancer cell migration. Moreover, associations between...

  14. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  15. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  16. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter

  17. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shikha; Puri, Tarun; Julka, Pramod K

    2015-03-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter. PMID:25455282

  18. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  19. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  20. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  1. Prevalence of breast arterial calcification in hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, M. E-mail: muzuncetin@yahoo.comakdeniz9999@ttent.net.tr; Cetin, R.; Tamer, N

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the age-specific prevalence of breast arterial calcifications in patients with systemic hypertension. METHODS: The mammograms and patient records of 2406 women who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography were reviewed retrospectively. Mammograms were evaluated for the presence of arterial calcification and results were coded. Hypertension was defined as use of anti-hypertensive agents and diabetes was defined as use of oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: The prevalence of breast arterial calcification among hypertensives (17.6%) was lower than among diabetics (25.4%). The prevalence in the non-diabetic, non-hypertensive group was lowest (7.3%). The prevalence increased with age in all three groups. The highest prevalence was found in diabetics older than 60 years (81.8%). Breast arterial calcification was not found among women younger than 40 years. CONCLUSION: Breast arterial calcification is associated with hypertension and prevalence increases with age. Breast arterial calcification on mammograms may indicate unsuspected hypertension especially in non-diabetic patients.

  2. Prevalence of breast arterial calcification in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine the age-specific prevalence of breast arterial calcifications in patients with systemic hypertension. METHODS: The mammograms and patient records of 2406 women who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography were reviewed retrospectively. Mammograms were evaluated for the presence of arterial calcification and results were coded. Hypertension was defined as use of anti-hypertensive agents and diabetes was defined as use of oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: The prevalence of breast arterial calcification among hypertensives (17.6%) was lower than among diabetics (25.4%). The prevalence in the non-diabetic, non-hypertensive group was lowest (7.3%). The prevalence increased with age in all three groups. The highest prevalence was found in diabetics older than 60 years (81.8%). Breast arterial calcification was not found among women younger than 40 years. CONCLUSION: Breast arterial calcification is associated with hypertension and prevalence increases with age. Breast arterial calcification on mammograms may indicate unsuspected hypertension especially in non-diabetic patients

  3. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects more likely to occur after breast cancer treatment include: Lymphedema Post-mastectomy pain syndrome Chemo brain If the cancer comes back (recurs) If cancer does recur, your treatment options will depend on the location of the ...

  5. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  6. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157203.html Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk But researchers added ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have an overactive thyroid gland might be at greater risk for breast ...

  8. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Lung Yang; Huei-Lung Liang; Chen-Pin Chou; Jer-Shyung Huang; Huay-Ben Pan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between...

  9. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  11. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  12. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  13. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  14. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  15. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  16. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  17. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics. PMID:26685283

  18. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  19. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  20. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  1. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... clinical breast exams. Whether you are looking for information about breast cancer prevention, treatment of... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches......

  2. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-18

    The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  3. Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, D.R.; Corner, J.L.; Haviland, J

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer. Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ...

  4. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  5. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  6. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  7. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Mario Coccia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW); Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by purchasing power parit...

  8. Does Diet Affect Breast Cancer Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Michelle D; Willett, Walter C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of specific dietary factors in breast cancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breast cancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breast cancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing endogenous estrogen levels. Hypotheses relating diet during youth to risk decades later will be difficult to ...

  9. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...

  10. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  11. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  12. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials? What does statistical proof mean? How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting? Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine

  13. Gene Therapy in Human Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abaan, Ogan D.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy, being a novel treatment for many diseases, is readily applicable for the treatment of cancer patients. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. There are many clinical protocols for the treatment of breast cancer, and gene therapy is now being considered within current protocols. This review will focus on the basic concepts of cancer gene therapy strategies (suicide gene, tumor suppressor gene, anti-angiogenesis, immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses and ribozyme/antisens...

  14. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  16. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  17. Co-existent breast and renal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Üreyen, Orhan; Dadalı, Emrah; Akdeniz, Fırat; Şahin, Tamer; Tekeli, Mehmet Tahsin; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Postacı, Hakan; İLHAN, Enver

    2015-01-01

    The concomitant presence of breast cancer with one or more other types of cancer such as colon, vulva, lung, larynx, liver, uterus and kidneys has been presented in the literature. However, synchronous breast and renal cancer is very uncommon. Herein we present a woman with synchronous breast and renal cancer, and review the literature. A 77-year-old post-menopausal woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of left sided breast mass. On physical examination, there was a 3 cm palpable mass ...

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor). Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9%) of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5%) were negative and 15 (29.4%) were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6%) were positive for HPV 16, 3(20%) for HPV 18, two cases (13.4%) were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer

  19. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  20. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  1. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  2. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwa...

  3. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  4. Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Breast Cancer Research Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast ...

  5. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  6. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  7. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Dhananjay M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease.

  8. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...

  9. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  10. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  11. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  12. A comparison of the characteristics of disease-free breast cancer survivors with or without cancer-related fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, S.; Minton, O.; P. Andrews; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue syndrome (CRFS) in a population of disease-free breast cancer survivors and to investigate the relationship between CRFS and clinical variables. Patients and methods Women (200) were recruited. All participants were between 3 months and 2 years after completion of primary therapy for breast cancer and were disease free. Subjects completed a diagnostic interview for CRFS and structured psychiatric interview. Participants also comple...

  13. Mitochondria and Familial Predisposition to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weigl, Stefania; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome and functional alterations are related to various diseases including cancer. In all cases, the role of these organelles is associated with defects in oxidative energy metabolism and control of tumor-induced oxidative stress. The present study examines the involvement of mitochondrial DNA in cancer and in particular in breast cancer. Furthermore, since mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, hereditary breast cancer has been focused on.

  14. Stem cells in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Oliveira, Lucinei; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Ribeiro Silva, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing data support cancer as a stem cell-based disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have beenfound in different human cancers, and recent evidenceindicates that breast cancer originates from and ismaintained by its own CSCs, as well as the normalmammary gland. Mammary stem cells and breast CSCshave been identified and purified in in vitroculturesystems, transplantation assays and/or by cell surfaceantigen identification. Cell surface markers enable thefunctional isolation of stem cells that...

  15. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  16. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  17. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolou P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Apostolou, Maria Toloudi, Ioannis Papasotiriou Research and Development Department, Research Genetic Cancer Centre Ltd, Florina, Greece Abstract: Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, cancer stem cells, stemness, DNA microarray

  18. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women

  19. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M P; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07).

  20. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  1. Endocurietherapy of breast cancer III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently introduced the implantation of Iridium192 as a method of local treatment of breast cancer in Austria. The afterloading technique is described. This modality should be used as a boost to the 'high-risk' areas following conservative breast surgery and combined with megavoltage external irradiation. Interstitial implantation may also be used as a primary form of treatment. A report on 35 patients is presented, 25 of whom underwent a curative schedule for T1-2, N0-1 tumors. 10 patients were treated individually. The aesthetic results are very pleasing. There were no severe complications and no early local recurrences. The interpretation of the results can be only in the form of trends because of the short follow-up time of 1 year. (Author)

  2. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  3. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  5. The Third International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference

    OpenAIRE

    van Golen, Kenneth L; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.

  6. Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Gena; Levin, Robert; Brainard, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of breast cancer on women across the world has been extensive and severe. As prevalence of breast cancer is greatest in industrialized regions, exposure to light at night has been proposed as a potential risk factor. This theory is supported by the epidemiological observations of decreased breast cancer in blind women and increased breast cancer in women who do shift-work. In addition, human, animal and in vitro studies which have investigated the melatonin-cancer dynamic indicate an apparent relationship between light, melatonin and cancer, albeit complex. Recent developments in understanding melatonin regulation by light in humans are examined, with particular attention to factors that contribute to the sensitivity of the light-induced melatonin suppression response. Specifically, the role of spectral characteristics of light is addressed, and recent relevant action spectrum studies in humans and other mammalian species are discussed. Across five action spectra for circadian and other non-visual responses, a peak sensitivity between 446-484 nm was identified. Under highly controlled exposure circumstances, less than 1 lux of monochromatic light elicited a significant suppression of nocturnal melatonin. In view of the possible link between light exposure, melatonin suppression and cancer risk, it is important to continue to identify the basic related ocular physiology. Visual performance, rather than circadian function, has been the primary focus of architectural lighting systems. It is now necessary to reevaluate lighting strategies, with consideration of circadian influences, in an effort to maximize physiological homeostasis and health.

  7. A microscopic landscape of the invasive breast cancer genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zheng; Xia, Yuchao; Shen, Tiansheng; Parekh, Vishwas; Siegal, Gene P.; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; He, Jianbo; Chen, Dongquan; Deng, Minghua; Xi, Ruibin; Shen, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    Histologic grade is one of the most important microscopic features used to predict the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and may serve as a marker for studying cancer driving genomic abnormalities in vivo. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data from 680 cases of TCGA invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and correlated them to corresponding pathology information. Ten genetic abnormalities were found to be statistically associated with histologic grade, including three most prevalent cancer driver events, TP53 and PIK3CA mutations and MYC amplification. A distinct genetic interaction among these genomic abnormalities was revealed as measured by the histologic grading score. While TP53 mutation and MYC amplification were synergistic in promoting tumor progression, PIK3CA mutation was found to have alleviated the oncogenic effect of either the TP53 mutation or MYC amplification, and was associated with a significant reduction in mitotic activity in TP53 mutated and/or MYC amplified breast cancer. Furthermore, we discovered that different types of genetic abnormalities (mutation versus amplification) within the same cancer driver gene (PIK3CA or GATA3) were associated with opposite histologic changes in invasive breast cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that histologic grade may serve as a biomarker to define cancer driving genetic events in vivo. PMID:27283966

  8. A microscopic landscape of the invasive breast cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zheng; Xia, Yuchao; Shen, Tiansheng; Parekh, Vishwas; Siegal, Gene P; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; He, Jianbo; Chen, Dongquan; Deng, Minghua; Xi, Ruibin; Shen, Dejun

    2016-01-01

    Histologic grade is one of the most important microscopic features used to predict the prognosis of invasive breast cancer and may serve as a marker for studying cancer driving genomic abnormalities in vivo. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data from 680 cases of TCGA invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and correlated them to corresponding pathology information. Ten genetic abnormalities were found to be statistically associated with histologic grade, including three most prevalent cancer driver events, TP53 and PIK3CA mutations and MYC amplification. A distinct genetic interaction among these genomic abnormalities was revealed as measured by the histologic grading score. While TP53 mutation and MYC amplification were synergistic in promoting tumor progression, PIK3CA mutation was found to have alleviated the oncogenic effect of either the TP53 mutation or MYC amplification, and was associated with a significant reduction in mitotic activity in TP53 mutated and/or MYC amplified breast cancer. Furthermore, we discovered that different types of genetic abnormalities (mutation versus amplification) within the same cancer driver gene (PIK3CA or GATA3) were associated with opposite histologic changes in invasive breast cancer. In conclusion, our study suggests that histologic grade may serve as a biomarker to define cancer driving genetic events in vivo. PMID:27283966

  9. Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Rachel A; Anders, Carey K.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of women with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Treatment options for these women remain limited, particularly at the time of central nervous system (CNS) relapse following completion of initial CNS-directed therapy. Historically, prior studies have broadly examined systemic treatments for breast cancer brain metastases with mixed, but overall disappointing, results. More recently, studies have increasingly selected patients based on breast cance...

  10. The Prevalence of Breast Feeding Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    A Gholozar; K Wares Isfahany; H Shajary; Sh Behjaty

    2004-01-01

    Background: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 13% of neonates between 2nd and 4th day of life. Method: A prospective study was performed between December 2002 and December 2003 in Childrens Medical Center, Tehran. Enrollment criteria included term neonates with no underlying organic illness causing poor feeding, hypernatremia (serum sodium level more than 150 mEq/L), weight loss greater than 5% and urinary specific gravity above 1012. Results: Out of 217 cases of neonatal jaundice, 37 were recog...

  11. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar; Mostafa Hosseini; Adnan Tizmaghz; Ghazaal Shabestanipour; Hamid Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to t...

  12. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...... that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2....

  13. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  14. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  15. Risk modeling and screening for BRCA1 mutations among Filipino breast cancer patients

    CERN Document Server

    Nato, A Q J

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1(BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for approx 45% of families with multiple breast carcinomas and for approx 80% of breast and ovarian cancer families. In this study, we investigated 34 familial Filipino breast cancer (BC) patients to: (a) estimate breast cancer risks and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities using risk assessment and prior probability models, respectively; (b) screen for putative polymorphisms at selected smaller exons of BRCA1 by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis; (c) screen for truncated mutations at BRCA1 exon 11 by radioactive protein truncation test (PTT); and (d) estimate posterior probabilities upon incorporation of screening results. SSCP analysis revealed 8 unique putative polymorphisms. Low prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exon 2, 5, 17, and 22 may indicate probable mutations. Contrastingly, high prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exons 13, 15, and 16 may suggest true polymorphisms whi...

  16. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E;

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  19. A case of synchronous multiple bilateral breast cancer after breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Chishima, Takashi; Harada, Fumi; Matsubara, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer after breast augmentation is not rare, but cases of bilateral breast cancer after augmentation are not often reported. A 43-year-old woman attended our hospital because of a mass in her left breast. She had undergone breast augmentation by implants 4 years before at a cosmetic surgery clinic. There were operative scars in her bilateral axilla. A detailed examination revealed bilateral breast cancer, and we performed nipple-sparing mastectomy in both breasts. Sentinel lymph node ...

  20. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Lymphedema: What Every Woman With Breast Cancer Should Know ... for breast cancer may be at risk for lymphedema in the arm, breast, and chest. Here we ...

  1. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers. PMID:19250196

  2. Radiotherapy for recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinico-radiobiological characteristics of radiotherapy for relapsed breast cancer were studied. Adequate choice of tissue mass to be exposed appeared much more important than any change in focal dose within 50-80 Gy, to achieve higher frequency of locoregional therapeutic effect. However, recurrent tumors more than 3 large lower radiosensitivity involving a sharp rise in the likelihood of dissemination. Radiotherapy for primary tumor did not affect the radiosensitivity of recurrent malignancies but slowed down the rate of its growth. Also, it might promote the dissemination acceleration

  3. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Recurrent read-through fusion transcripts in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Roberts, Brian S.; Davis, Nicholas S.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Kirby, Marie K.; Nesmith, Amy S.; Oliver, Patsy G.; Grizzle, William E.; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Myers, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Read-through fusion transcripts that result from the splicing of two adjacent genes in the same coding orientation are a recently discovered type of chimeric RNA. We sought to determine if read-through fusion transcripts exist in breast cancer. We performed paired-end RNA-seq of 168 breast samples, including 28 breast cancer cell lines, 42 triple negative breast cancer primary tumors, 42 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer primary tumors, and 56 non-malignant breast tissue samples....

  5. Breast-conservation treatment of breast cancer in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent 3 years, 8 elderly women with breast cancer of various stages were treated with breast-conservation treatment (BCT) combined with endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy mainly based on patients' obvious desire. Until now, one out of these 8 patients had died of heart failure with no evidence of breast cancer progression, and the other 7 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. As for side effects of the therapy, no severe sequelae have been experienced so far. Cosmetic results of the therapy were considerably sufficient. (author)

  6. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  7. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer......,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c...

  8. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees B. Chagpar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP  CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

  9. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  10. The history of breast cancer advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Susan

    2003-01-01

    There have been four key steps in the advent of breast cancer advocacy: priming the market, engaging consumers, establishing political advocacy, and taking the advocacy mainstream. Breast cancer was surrounded by secrecy until the 1980s, when brave individuals such as former First Ladies Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, and founder of the Susan G. Komen Foundation, Nancy Brinker (Susan Komen's sister), began speaking publicly about the personal impact of the disease, which increased awareness of breast cancer and made it more acceptable to talk about it openly. At the same time, statistics about breast cancer were presented in new ways that the public could understand. Public health advocates played a key role in the second step, engaging consumers, when they established guidelines in the 1980s that encouraged women to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs) and have screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Other events that helped engage consumers were increased media coverage of breast cancer issues, the founding of the Komen Race for the Cure in 1983, and the establishment of other programs that both educated the public and raised funds. Funds from these efforts enabled advocates to hold educational forums and produce educational materials in different media and tailored to different audiences and to become active in the funding of research. The third step, political action, became possible when breast cancer advocates joined together in the 1980s and 1990s to work toward legislative, regulatory, and funding changes, such as passage of the Mammography Quality Standards Act and increased funding for the National Cancer Institute. These efforts contributed to a more than quadrupling of federal funding for breast cancer research in the 1990s. Going mainstream, the final step in the advocacy process, entailed establishing a solid base of support to ensure that the message about breast cancer stays strong and fresh. This has been achieved by engaging

  11. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy), hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  12. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  13. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and their...... ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Study-specific and combined multivariable adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on tertiles of estrogen metabolites. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit according to hormone receptor status.¿Results: Higher...

  14. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group and...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent of...

  15. Advanced breast cancer. 2005-2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory study was conducted, observational (cohort study), application, in order to evaluate the performance of advanced breast cancer in Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital 'Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane' during the period from January 2005 to December 2007. Our main objective was to understand the behavior of advanced cancer breast cancer in our midst in the aforementioned period. Our sample consisted of 44 patients, which was applied to the study Statistical analysis for the different variables used, expressing results in tables. The 4th and 5th decade of life, and the white skin color were variable representative in our sample. The right breast and upper quadrant outside were the most frequent sites of breast cancer. More than half of the patients had a tumor larger than 5 cm and metastatic nodes. Madden mastectomy was the most frequently used providing the greatest number of complications. We recommend the importance of breast self-examination and diagnosis preclinical use of mammography. (Author)

  16. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  17. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A;

    1995-01-01

    chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy of...

  18. Breast reconstruction in conserving breast cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conserving treatment (BCT) combined with radiotherapy have provedthe test of time as a sound oncological operation regarding survival andlocal recurrence. Successful BCT is a balance between adequate surgery andmaintaining the breast's appearance. Unsatisfactory outcome reaches 20-30% instandard techniques of BCD. Concepts described to widen the spectrum of BCT,have made an improvement of cosmetic outcome and facilitated a liberal safetymargin. Volume displacement techniques, such as glandular flap, mammoplasty,donut mastopexy and batwing mastopexy proved useful in large breasts andvolume replacement, such as latissimus dorsi flap and local flaps are ofgreat advantage to replace defects in small and medium sized breasts. Some ofthese techniques are simple, but comprehensive knowledge and training arerequired for sophisticated ones. The objectives of this article are to shedlight on different techniques adopted by surgeons to perform BCT inconjunction with various oncoplastic techniques and to discuss the factorsthat influence their applications to achieve best oncological and aestheticoutcome. (author)

  19. Eribulin mesylate in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, Helena; Morilla, Idoia; Urruticoechea, Ander

    2013-11-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B (a polyether macrolide isolated from a marine sponge). It is a nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. It is the first drug that has demonstrated an improvement in overall survival as a single agent compared with the physician's choice of currently available treatments in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. It has shown a good manageable tolerability profile. This drug has been approved by the US FDA and by the EMA for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two chemotherapeutic regimens for advanced/metastatic disease. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting unless patients were not suitable for these treatments. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the most relevant clinical trials in the development of this drug. PMID:24161305

  20. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused by surgery or radiation therapy ...

  1. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  2. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  3. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-09-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.

  4. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva P.P.; Figueiredo N.B.; Padovani C.R.; Brentani M.M.; Nogueira C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyze...

  5. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P;

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  6. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  7. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  8. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  9. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  10. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  11. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  12. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer or a...... major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  13. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  14. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M;

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  15. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  16. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon; Hur, Min Hee; ,

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey...

  17. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  18. mTOR inhibition in management of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Nag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mTOR pathway is becoming increasingly important in several cancers including breast cancer. This review will focus on the role of its inhibition in the management of advanced breast cancer.

  19. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some ... after Beginning 5 or 10 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen 5 Years 10 Years Risk of Recurrence 25. ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  1. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  2. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  3. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an indispensible part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are reviewed, including whole-breast radiotherapy as part of breast-conserving treatment for early invasive breast cancer and pre-invasive disease of ductal carcinoma in situ, post-mastectomy radiotherapy, locoregional radiotherapy, and partial breast irradiation. Key clinical studies tha...

  4. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; S. Menna; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for predi...

  5. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  6. Portraits of breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Shridar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clustering analysis of microarray data is often criticized for giving ambiguous results because of sensitivity to data perturbation or clustering techniques used. In this paper, we describe a new method based on principal component analysis and ensemble consensus clustering that avoids these problems. Results We illustrate the method on a public microarray dataset from 36 breast cancer patients of whom 31 were diagnosed with at least two of three pathological stages of disease (atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. Our method identifies an optimum set of genes and divides the samples into stable clusters which correlate with clinical classification into Luminal, Basal-like and Her2+ subtypes. Our analysis reveals a hierarchical portrait of breast cancer progression and identifies genes and pathways for each stage, grade and subtype. An intriguing observation is that the disease phenotype is distinguishable in ADH and progresses along distinct pathways for each subtype. The genetic signature for disease heterogeneity across subtypes is greater than the heterogeneity of progression from DCIS to IDC within a subtype, suggesting that the disease subtypes have distinct progression pathways. Our method identifies six disease subtype and one normal clusters. The first split separates the normal samples from the cancer samples. Next, the cancer cluster splits into low grade (pathological grades 1 and 2 and high grade (pathological grades 2 and 3 while the normal cluster is unchanged. Further, the low grade cluster splits into two subclusters and the high grade cluster into four. The final six disease clusters are mapped into one Luminal A, three Luminal B, one Basal-like and one Her2+. Conclusion We confirm that the cancer phenotype can be identified in early stage because the genes altered in this stage progressively alter further as the disease progresses through DCIS

  7. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  8. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  9. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B; Ewertz, M

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity into...... account....

  10. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  11. Aromatase inhibitor strategies in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L McArthur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather L McArthur, Patrick G MorrisBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Despite ongoing therapeutic innovations, metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a treatable but incurable disease. In the developed world, a diagnosis of MBC without a preceding diagnosis of early stage disease is a rare event. However, approximately one-third of women with early stage breast cancer ultimately experience a distant recurrence. Because the majority of breast cancers express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors and are accordingly considered hormone-sensitive, therapeutic strategies that interfere with hormone-mediated tumorigenesis have been a cornerstone of the breast cancer management paradigm for decades. Historically, the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen has been the most extensively studied and widely used hormone maneuver in breast cancer. However, a recent therapeutic innovation, namely the successful development of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, has had a dramatic impact on the treatment paradigm for women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Because of the demonstrated efficacy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, the generally favorable side-effect profile, and the convenience of oral administration, AIs are now in widespread clinical use. Currently, there are three clinically available third-generation AIs: two reversible, nonsteroidal AIs, letrozole and anastrozole; and one irreversible, steroidal AI, exemestane. All three agents are at least as efficacious as tamoxifen as monotherapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Current clinical research aims to improve upon existing strategies by evaluating AIs in combination with systemic chemotherapy regimens and/or novel targeted agents. It is hoped that these therapeutic innovations will lead to ongoing improvements in quality of life parameters and ideally survival for women

  12. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  13. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  14. Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Corinne; Albert, Adelin; Herman, Philippe; Hamoir, Etienne; Gaspard, Ulysse; Meurisse, Michel; Plomteux, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Controversy still exists about the breast carcinogenic properties in humans of environmental xenoestrogens (organochlorines), justifying new investigations. Aims: To compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change ( after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Methods: Blood level...

  15. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  16. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prevent or reduce the effects of lymphedema are discussed in the section " What happens after treatment for breast cancer in men? " If your arm is swollen, tight, or painful after lymph node surgery, be sure to tell someone ... lymphedema after breast surgery, see our document Lymphedema: What ...

  17. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  18. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  19. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S;

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part of the...

  20. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bukholm Ida RK; Noh Dong-Young; Han Wonshik; Børresen-Dale Anne-Lise; Langerød Anita; Jeffrey Stefanie S; Kapp Amy V; Nicolau Monica; Brown Patrick O; Tibshirani Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets) using a ...

  1. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in studyi

  2. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  3. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-QASEM, ABEER J.; TOULIMAT, MOHAMED; ELDALI, ABDELMONEIM M.; TULBAH, ASMA; AL-YOUSEF, NUJOUD; AL-DAIHAN, SOOAD K.; AL-TASSAN, NADA; AL-TWEIGERI, TAHER; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain p53 mutations and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study, TP53 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4–9) from 119 breast cancer tissues. The prevalence of TP53 mutations in Arab breast cancer patients living in the KSA is among the highest in the world (40%). Notably, 73% of the patients whose tumors harbored p53 mutations were less than 50 years of age. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified 7 novel mutations and 16 mutations in breast cancer tissues. Notably, all the novel point mutations were found in exon 4, wherein 29% of the mutations were localized. Furthermore, an excess of G:C→A:T transitions (49%) at non-CpG sites was noted, suggesting exposure to particular environmental carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds. The results indicate that the TP53 gene plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Arab female individuals. PMID:22866089

  4. TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qasem, Abeer J; Toulimat, Mohamed; Eldali, Abdelmoneim M; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Yousef, Nujoud; Al-Daihan, Sooad K; Al-Tassan, Nada; Al-Tweigeri, Taher; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain p53 mutations and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study, TP53 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4-9) from 119 breast cancer tissues. The prevalence of TP53 mutations in Arab breast cancer patients living in the KSA is among the highest in the world (40%). Notably, 73% of the patients whose tumors harbored p53 mutations were less than 50 years of age. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified 7 novel mutations and 16 mutations in breast cancer tissues. Notably, all the novel point mutations were found in exon 4, wherein 29% of the mutations were localized. Furthermore, an excess of G:C→A:T transitions (49%) at non-CpG sites was noted, suggesting exposure to particular environmental carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds. The results indicate that the TP53 gene plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Arab female individuals. PMID:22866089

  5. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern is expressed over a recent U.K. newspaper report (The Times, 21 January 1977, 5) on the possible hazards of mammography, as women may over-react to the extent of refusing mammography. The problems of radiation risk estimates, particularly at low dose levels, are very briefly reviewed. Recent improvements in mammography techniques have minimised the radiation hazard. Conflicting reports of the mortality rates following mammography screening programmes are discussed. In England and Wales, breast cancer is the commonest cause of death in women aged 35 to 54, and it would be unfortunate if the possible benefits of screening were denied to this age group before the latest mammographic techniques have been fully evaluated. (U.K.)

  6. MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Taneja; Amarnath Jena; Syed. Mohd. Shuaib Zaidi; Anuj Khurana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Contralateral breast cancer can be synchronous and/or metachronous in patients with cancer of one breast. Detection of a synchronous breast cancer may affect patient management. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast (DCE-MRI) is a sensitive technique for detecting contralateral lesions occult on the other imaging modalities in women already diagnosed with cancer of one breast. Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence of mammographically occult synchronous contralateral bre...

  7. Autophagy Inhibition to Increase Radiosensitization in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Diana Hwang; El-Zein, Randa; Dave, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, many breast cancer patients with localized breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy, consisting of local excision followed by radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy, breast cancer cells are noted to undergo induction of autophagy, development of radioresistance, and enrichment of breast cancer stem cell subpopulations. It is hypothesized that inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy that arises following radiation therapy increases radiosensitivity and confers long...

  8. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  9. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  10. FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mammography and Breast Cancer Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Mammography use Percent of women 40 years of age ...

  11. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  12. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  13. Dilemma of Pregnant Ladies with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainur Rashid Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational breast cancer (GBC or pregnancyassociatedbreast cancer was defined as breast cancerdiagnosed during pregnancy and within 1 year ofdelivery. Breast cancer is the second commonest cancerafter cervical seen in pregnancy and lactation.Nevertheless, the incidence is low and accounts forapproximately 1 in 3000 of pregnancies. A delay indiagnosis is common and 70% to 89% of patients withoperable primary lesions already have positive axillarylymph nodes. Breast cancer identified during pregnancycan be extremely distressing for the mother despite ithas similar course of disease and prognosis seen in nonpregnantwomen of the same age and stage of disease.Diagnostic and treatment options should be carefullydecided to prevent further harm to the mother or anypotential risk to the developing fetus.

  14. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  15. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  17. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  19. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  20. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Berishvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompetent tumor-infiltrating cells. We found that expression of HLA-DR is in negative correlation with MUC-1 expression and lymphoid cells tumor infiltration is asso- ciated with the increase in T-cell subpopulations.

  1. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ductal carcinoma in situ) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a pre-cancer because it has ... therapy to the remaining breast tissue. If the DCIS is estrogen receptor-positive, tamoxifen might be given ...

  2. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of 99mTc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer

  4. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Park, H. B.; Kim, S. Z.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer.

  5. Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenol compounds of plant origin that exhibit a structural similarity to the mammalian steroid hormone 17β-oestradiol. In Asian nations the staple consumption of phyto-oestrogen-rich foodstuffs correlates with a reduced incidence of breast cancer. Human dietary intervention trials have noted a direct relationship between phyto-oestrogen ingestion and a favourable hormonal profile associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, these studies failed to ascertain the precise effect of dietary phyto-oestrogens on the proliferation of mammary tissue. Epidemiological and rodent studies crucially suggest that breast cancer chemoprevention by dietary phyto-oestrogen compounds is dependent on ingestion before puberty, when the mammary gland is relatively immature. Phyto-oestrogen supplements are commercially marketed for use by postmenopausal women as natural and safe alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. Of current concern is the effect of phyto-oestrogen compounds on the growth of pre-existing breast tumours. Data are contradictory, with cell culture studies reporting both the oestrogenic stimulation of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines and the antagonism of tamoxifen activity at physiological phyto-oestrogen concentrations. Conversely, phyto-oestrogen ingestion by rodents is associated with the development of less aggressive breast tumours with reduced metastatic potential. Despite the present ambiguity, current data do suggest a potential benefit from use of phyto-oestrogens in breast cancer chemoprevention and therapy. These aspects are discussed

  6. Plasma Protein Carbonyls and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters Discordant for Breast Cancer from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Terry, Mary Beth; Liao, Yuyan; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Gurvich, Irina; Senie, Ruby; Santella, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including breast cancer. Several population-based case-control studies have demonstrated that various biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We selected sisters discordant for breast cancer (n=645) from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry to explore factors that contribute to variation in plasma protein carbonyls, and to determine whether this bio...

  7. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  8. Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Old and New Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Cazzaniga; Bernardo Bonanni

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, Sporn has defined chemoprevention as “the use of pharmacologic or natural agents that inhibit the development of invasive breast cancer either by blocking the DNA damage that initiates carcinogenesis, or by arresting or reversing the progression of premalignant cells in which such damage has already occurred.” Although the precise mechanism or mechanisms that promote a breast cancer are not completely established, the success of several recent clinical trials in preventive settings i...

  9. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  10. Making Sense of Breast Cancer: A Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Cudworth

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Despite an abundance of research in the field of psycho-oncology, there is little that has come from the discipline of counselling psychology placing importance on social justice-oriented work of 'giving voice' (by providing a space for storytelling) and 'consciousness raising'. This study explores the experience of breast cancer by generating and analysing individual stories of women with breast cancer. The wider objective of this research is to enhance psycholog...

  11. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dieli-Conwright CM; Orozco BZ

    2015-01-01

    Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offs...

  12. Significance of immunohistochemistry in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zaha, Dana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The biological characteristics of the tumour are used to estimate prognosis and select appropriate systemic therapy for patients with (breast) cancer. The advent of molecular technology has incorporated new biomarkers along with immunohistochemical and serum biomarkers. Immunohistochemical markers are often used to guide treatment decisions, to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently, and both as prognostic and predictive factors. Steroid hor...

  13. Life satisfaction in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that breast cancer carries many psychosocial consequences. For a deeper understanding of this topic, this study aims to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction, meaning in life, optimism, body image and depression in 55 women with breast cancer, organized into two groups: mastectomized and submitted to conservative surgery. The variables were characterized based on the results from the Auto-Actualização-SentidoVida [Self-Actualization-Life Meaning] sub-scale, the E...

  14. miRNome of inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maltseva, Diana V; Galatenko, Vladimir V; Samatov, Timur R.; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana O; Khaustova, Nadezhda A; Nechaev, Ilya N; Shkurnikov, Maxim U; Lebedev, Alexey E; Mityakina, Irina A; Kaprin, Andrey D; Schumacher, Udo; Tonevitsky, Alexander G

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely malignant form of breast cancer which can be easily misdiagnosed. Conclusive prognostic IBC molecular biomarkers which are also providing the perspectives for targeted therapy are lacking so far. The aim of this study was to reveal the IBC-specific miRNA expression profile and to evaluate its association with clinicopathological parameters. Methods miRNA expression profiles of 13 IBC and 17 non-IBC patients were characterized using c...

  15. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressi...

  16. Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for stu...

  17. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A.S.; Mohamed Abou Elmagd Salem; Hamza Abbass

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital durin...

  18. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  19. SPECT imaging for breast cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate staging in breast cancer, including tumour sizing and the assessment of nodal and distant metastases, is required in order to plan surgery and post-operative therapy. Medical imaging techniques have made an important contribution to the diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast and the evaluation of local, regional and distant metastases. The study is aimed at establishing certain aspects of the diagnostic importance and priority of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in breast cancer. SPECT was carried out just after planar scintigraphy and then after intravenous injection of different radiopharmaceuticals in 45 women with histologically confirmed post-operation breast cancer. In 21 patients under loco-regional control of the disease before and/or after surgery, planar mammoscintigraphy and SPECT were conducted after intravenous injection of 99Tcm-MIBI (methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) or 99Tcm-anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Bone SPECT was carried out in 24 patients when whole body scintigraphy was unable to determine the exact localization of bone metastatic lesions in the skull, thorax and pelvis. The results suggest that SPECT with 99Tcm-MIBI and 99Tcm-anti-CEA MoAb has high sensitivity and improves the results of conventional planar scintigraphy for breast cancer detection. Breast SPECT is a preferable method for tumour and lymph node imaging because of the excellent separation of the deep breast structures from the myocardium in the left breast and of the right breast from the liver, thus improving the resolution of small, deep seated lesions. SPECT improves breast cancer staging, and determines the tumour, nodule and metastasis categories, which are important for the treatment strategy and prognosis of the disease. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kanis, J A; McCloskey, E V; Powles, T; Paterson, A.H.G.; Ashley, S; Spector, T.

    1999-01-01

    Because treatment for breast cancer may adversely affect skeletal metabolism, we investigated vertebral fracture risk in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was similar in women at the time of first diagnosis to that in an age-matched sample of the general population. The incidence of vertebral fracture, however, was nearly five times greater than normal in women from the time of first diagnosis [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI),...

  1. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as the primary presentation of relapse in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Keith; Muhammad, Aun; Saleem, Waqar; Alshaker, Heba; Monzon, Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Pchejetski, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon presentation of relapse in breast cancer, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes and poor prognosis. Notably, LM most commonly occurs in breast cancer. The aim of the present review was to investigate the occurrence of LM as the primary presentation of relapse following remission in breast cancer patients and to determine whether specific histological subtypes are predisposed to meningeal metastases. In addition, the present review evaluated whether patients presenting with LM as the primary site of relapse exhibit differences in survival when compared with patients exhibiting metastasis to other sites. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that LM is commonly associated with other sites of distant metastasis including lung, liver and bone metastases. The histological breast cancer subtype most commonly associated with LM was invasive lobular carcinoma, while triple-negative breast cancer patients appear to be predisposed to the development of LM when considering the overall prevalence of histological breast cancer subtypes. At present, data regarding LM as the primary site of relapse are limited due to its rarity as the first site of metastasis in breast cancer. Case-controlled studies are required to investigate the incidence of LM as the primary site of recurrence in breast cancer patients as this would enable treatment standardization and identification of prognostic factors for improved survival. PMID:27446350

  2. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects. PMID:26838238

  3. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  4. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  5. Computer model challenges breast cancer treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Bame, P D; Wardwell, R H

    1994-01-01

    The breast cancer treatment failure rate remains unacceptably high. The current breast cancer treatment paradigm, based primarily on Gompertzian kinetics and animal models, advocates short-course, intensive chemotherapy subsequent to tumor debulking, citing drug resistance and host toxicity as the primary reasons for treatment failure. To better understand treatment failure, we have studied breast cancer from the perspective of computer modeling. Our results demonstrate breast cancers grow in an irregular fashion; this differs from the Gompertzian mode of animal models and thus challenges the validity of the current paradigm. Clinical and laboratory data support the concept of irregular growth rather than the common claim that human tumors grow in a Gompertzian fashion. Treatment failure mechanisms for breast cancer appear to differ from those for animal models, and thus treatments optimize on animal models may not be optimal for breast cancer. A failure mechanism consistent with our results involves temporarily dormant tumor cells in anatomical or pharmacological sanctuary, which eventually result in aggressive metastatic disease. PMID:7994590

  6. Targeting γ-secretase in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jianxun Han,1 Qiang Shen21Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: γ-secretase complexes are multisubunit protease complexes that perform the intramembrane cleavage of more than 60 type-I transmembrane proteins, including Notch receptors. Since dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer, small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs are being tested for their therapeutic potential in breast cancer treatment in several clinical trials. Here, the structure of γ-secretase complex and the development of GSIs are briefly reviewed, the roles of Notch and several other γ-secretase substrates in breast cancer are discussed, and the difference between γ-secretase inhibition and Notch inhibition, as well as the side effects associated with GSIs, are described. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms that affect the responsiveness of breast cancer to GSI might help to develop strategies to enhance the antitumor activity and, at the same time, alleviate the side effects of GSI.Keywords: γ-secretase, GSI, Notch, breast cancer

  7. MRI for breast cancer: Current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is the only imaging study that has been proven in multiple large randomized trials to decrease breast cancer mortality. Mammography, however, has its limitations and, as such, other modalities that can complement it are being studied. One of these is dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI, which has emerged as an important adjunctive modality and is at present the most sensitive modality that we have to evaluate the breast. The American College of Radiology, in its 2004 practice guidelines, has outlined the 12 current indications for breast MRI. This manuscript reviews and provides examples of each of these

  8. Attributable Causes of Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer in China: Reproductive Factors, Oral Contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Jia Ji; Jian-bing Wang; Mayineur Niyazi; You-lin Qiao; Paolo Boffettas

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To provide an evidence-based,consistent assessment of the burden of breast cancer attributable to reproductive factors (RFs,including nulliparity,mean number of children,age at first birth and breastfeeding),use of oral contraceptives (OCs,restricted to the age group of 15-49 years),and hormone replacement therapy (HRT),as well as of the burden of ovarian cancer attributable to the mean number of children in China in 2005.Methods:We derived the prevalence of these risk factors and the relative risk of breast and ovarian cancer from national surveys or large-scale studies conducted in China.In the case of RFs,we compared the exposure distributions in 2001 and counterfactual exposure.Results:Exposure of RFs in 2001 was found to account for 6.74% of breast cancer,corresponding to 9,617 cases and 2,769 deaths,and for 2.78% of ovarian cancer (711 cases,294 deaths).The decrease in mean number of children alone was responsible for 1.47% of breast cancer and 2.78% of ovarian cancer.The prevalence of OC use was 1.74% and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancer was 0.71%,corresponding to 310 cases and 90 deaths.The PAF of breast cancer due to HRT was 0.31%,resulting in 297 cases and 85 deaths.Conclusion:RFs changes in China contributed to a sizable fraction of breast and ovarian cancer incidence and mortality,whereas HRT and OCs accounted for relatively low incidence of breast cancer in China.

  9. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). (author)

  10. Digital subtraction angiography for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Kiyohiko; Okuyama, Nobuo

    1987-07-01

    We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) on 42 patients with breast diseases to investigate its efficiency. As a result we came to the following conclusions: 1. The sensitivity was well evaluated in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of breast. 2. IA-DSA could diagnose difficult cases like cancer which had undergone augmentation mammoplasty, or like Paget's disease and others. 3. DSA was a safe examination method. 4. The sensitivity of IA-DSA of breast cancer is superior to intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA).

  11. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  12. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS: With a...

  13. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  14. Evidence based radiation oncology: Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is, similar to surgery, a local treatment. In the case of breast cancer, it is generally given after conservative or after more extensive, tumour and patient adapted, surgery. The target volumes can be the breast and/or the thoracic wall and/or the regional lymph node areas. The integration and the extent of radiotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of the breast cancer patient, including the amount of surgery and the sequencing with the systemic treatments, has to be well discussed with all medical specialists involved in treating breast cancer on a multidisciplinary basis. Guidelines for the appropriate prescription and execution of radiotherapy are of utmost importance. However, individualisation based on the individual patients' and tumours' characteristics should always be envisaged. Materials and methods: Based on a review of the literature the level of evidence that is available for the indications for radiotherapy is summarised, as well as the main clinical questions that are unanswered today. An overview of the recent and ongoing clinical trails in breast cancer will highlight some of the current ongoing debates. Conclusions: In the case of breast cancer, radiotherapy, given after as well conservative as extensive risk-adapted surgery, significantly reduces the risk of local and regional recurrences. Especially for patients with an intermediate to high absolute risk for local recurrences, a positive influence on overall survival has been shown, notably when appropriate radiotherapy techniques are used. Most important is that the best results that we can offer to our breast cancer patients for all clinical endpoints (local and regional control; quality of life; cosmetic results; survival) can be obtained by a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach, involving all those involved in the treatment of breast cancer patients

  15. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8572 of October 1, 2010 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the... will be diagnosed and nearly 40,000 lives will be claimed. During National Breast Cancer...

  16. Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

  17. Emerging Breast Cancer Epidemic: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally Nneoma Sarah; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries, including Africa [1]. As public and professional awareness of the cancer problem has grown, so has interest in the pattern of disease presentation, its epidemiology and treatment outcome. To date, however, there has been limited research about breast cancer in Africa. In the absence of systematic population-based cancer registration, most information has come from small clinical and pathology case series and th...

  18. Towards Evidence-Based Management of Inherited Breast and Breast-Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Møller Pål

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Inherited breast-ovarian cancer was described in 1866. The underlying genetic defects in BRCA1/2 were demonstrated 128 years later. We now have 10 years of experience with genetic testing in BRCA kindreds. The majority of breast cancer kindreds (familial breast cancer) do not demonstrate ovarian cancer and are not associated with BRCA mutations. The effect of early diagnosis and treatment is monitored through international collaborations. BRCA1-associated breast cancer is biologicall...

  19. A Research Agenda for Appearance Changes Due to Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia K. Markey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in the US. It is estimated that more than 180,000 American women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in 2008. Fortunately, the survival rate is relatively high and continually increasing due to improved detection techniques and treatment methods. However, maintaining quality of life is a factor often under emphasized for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer treatments are invasive and can lead to deformation of the breast. Breast reconstruction is important for restoring the survivor’s appearance. However, more work is needed to develop technologies for quantifying surgical outcomes and understanding women’s perceptions of changes in their appearance. A method for objectively measuring breast anatomy is needed in order to help both the breast cancer survivors and their surgeons take expected changes to the survivor’s appearance into account when considering various treatment options. In the future, augmented reality tools could help surgeons reconstruct a survivor’s breasts to match her preferences as much as possible.

  20. Exercise in patients coping with breast cancer: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Sibel; Kanyilmaz, Selcen

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, but fortunately has high survival rates. Many studies have been performed to investigate the effects of exercise in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. There is evidence that exercise after the diagnosis of breast cancer improves mortality, morbidity, health related quality of life, fatigue, physical functioning, muscle strength, and emotional wellbeing. Based on scientific data, breast cancer patients should be recommended to parti...

  1. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-...

  2. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen family. Seru

  3. Surgical Procedures for Breast Cancer - Mastectomy and Breast Conserving Therapy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed BCT procedure in the United States and Canada. (See "Breast conserving therapy" .) Radiation therapy Invasive breast ... breast cancer The following organizations also provide reliable health ... and undertakings, oral or written, are hereby expressly superseded and canceled. ...

  4. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  5. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  6. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.

  7. Genetic determinants of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjana, Einarsdottir

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is overall the most common cancer in women worldwide and endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the industrialized world. History of a first-degree relative with breast or endometrial cancer has been related to a twofold increase in risk of the respective diseases. Whilst genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer in general or for breast cancer in women not carrying any high-penetrance mutations are largely unknown, a polygenic model h...

  8. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (Plung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (Pcaregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  9. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  10. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  11. Characteristics of breast cancer in an incident cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of film mammography is a source of concern to radiologists because neither the ribs nor retromammary space is included on the films in good quality examinations. One hundred seven incident cancers were detected in 10,034 self-referred women followed at the University of Michigan Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (UM-BCDDP) for 5 years. These cancers were analyzed for location on the film, method of detection, size, histology, and the number of films required for detection. Mammography alone detected 52 (49%) of the cancers, whereas physical examination alone detected 15 (14%). The other 40 cancers were detectable on both examinations. All of the 92 cancers detected by mammography were visible in both the mediolateral and the craniocaudal views. Mammography consistently detected cancer in the breast, regardless of tumor size, histologic type, or location within the breast

  12. Adipocyte activation of cancer stem cell signaling in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Wolfson; Gabriel; Eades; Qun; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Signaling within the tumor microenvironment has a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Adipocytes, one of the major components of the breast microenvironment,have been shown to provide pro-tumorigenic signals that promote cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Adipocyte secreted factors such as leptin and interleukin-6(IL-6) have a paracrine effect on breast cancer cells. In adipocyte-adjacent breast cancer cells, the leptin and IL-6 signaling pathways activate janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activatorof transcription 5, promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and upregulating stemness regulators such as Notch, Wnt and the Sex determining region Y-box 2/octamer binding transcription factor 4/Nanog signaling axis. In this review we will summarize the major signaling pathways that regulate cancer stem cells in breast cancer and describe the effects that adipocyte secreted IL-6 and leptin have on breast cancer stem cell signaling. Finally we will introduce a new potential treatment paradigm of inhibiting the adipocyte-breast cancer cell signaling via targeting the IL-6 or leptin pathways.

  13. Female breast cancer in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in 1999–2012. New cases and the incidence of invasive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszkiewicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women in Poland. In 2012 invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 17,000 Polish women. The effective fight against breast cancer is based on activities to prevent its occurrence or to enable early detection of the disease and then its effective treatment (cure. Aim of the research: To assess the prevalence of invasive breast cancer in women in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in 1999–2012. Material and methods: A total of 6079 new female invasive breast cancer cases were analysed. Crude rates (CRs and age-standarised rates (ASRs per 100,000 population were calculated. The total value of incidence rates was analysed for all ages (0–85+ and in separate age groups (15–49, 50–69, and 70–85+. Results : In 1999–2012 in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship 6079 new invasive female breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Fifty-three percent of them were in the age group of 50–69 years, 25.0% in the age group 70–85+, and 21.5% in the age group 15–49 years. The incidence of BC in general (0–85+ increased from 41.2/105 in 1999 to 43.8/105 in 2012. In the women aged 15–49 years the value of ASRs of incidence increased. In the age group of 50–69 years the value of ASRs increased from 146.6/105 in 1999 to 163.5/105 in 2012. The increase in the incidence of breast cancer was reported among women in perimenopausal age and in premenopausal women. The decrease in breast cancer cases was observed among young, premenopausal women (15–49 years as well as among women over 70 years of age. Conclusions: Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is a region in Poland with moderate risk of breast cancer.

  14. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Is Feasible for Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhenyu; Wu, Sangang; Zhou, Juan; Li, Fengyan; Sun, Jiayan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huanxin; Guan, Xunxing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are being investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The present study evaluated the feasibility, early toxicity, initial efficacy, and cosmetic outcomes of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for Chinese female patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. Methods A total of 38 patients met the inclusion criteria and an accelerated partial breast in...

  15. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE ORIENTED DEPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan Preeth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a common symptom in cancer patients, which is difficult to be detected and consequently to be treated. It deteriorates over the course of cancer treatment, persists long after the end of therapy and influences negatively the quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rate and level anxiety and depression in breast cancer patient using HAD scale.The study was conducted on 94 female patients suffering from various stages of breast cancer. Patients included who were in the age group between 18-65yrs, estimated survival time more than six months, ability to speak and patients were excluded if they were affected by known mental disorder and metastasis in brain. Demographic data was collected from each patient’s medical record e.g. cancer type, date of cancer diagnosis, extension of the diseases, sites of metastasis, estimated life time. Levels of anxiety and depression were self rated by HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scaleOut of 94 patients twenty patients (21% were reported as mild depression (mean score 8.93 and 23 (24% patients as mild anxiety (mean score 9.42 likewise five Patients were reported as (positive cases chronic depression (mean score is 12.23 and six patients as chronic anxiety.(mean score is 12.23 The results of this present study clearly demonstrated that prevalence of anxiety and depression rates depended on the patients’ educational level, age, occupation, menopause and diagnosis period. Our study found that the depression and anxiety were common in most of the patients affected with breast cancer is also there was no relation between the anxiety and depression and stages of diseases. We think that this study needs to be extended in the future to involve more patient is may be further be tested to evaluate the same sample again, after psychiatric intervention is carried out.

  17. Level of awareness about breast cancer among females presenting to a general hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of the female patients in Pakistan with breast cancer present in advance stages, unawareness being a major factor. As surgery has a limited role in the later stages of breast cancer, the surgeons lose fight against this deadly disease before the fight has even begun, early detection of breast cancer in only possible if patients are made aware and are motivated to present early. A one-year study was carried out in Rawalpindi General Hospital to find out the level of awareness about breast cancer among females presenting to a public hospital. Among 400 patients with a breast problem 84 (21 %) had breast cancer of which 73.81% were in stage III and IV. Average time lapse was 16 months. The underlying cause of delay was ignorance. Six hundred females with no breast problem were also interviewed for their knowledge about breast cancer, 69.80% were totally ignorant, 18.40% were partly aware and only 11.80% were fully aware. 87.75% had no idea about breast self-examination, 68.2% did not understand the significance of a lump in the breast and its lethal potential. Unawareness was even prevalent among the highly educated and well to do (55%) as well as among all age groups although it was less than the illiterate (82%) and lowest income group (85%). The prime source of information were friends or relatives followed by the electronic and print media with health education playing a minor role. The level of awareness about breast cancer among Pakistani females in an urban setting was dismal and majority had a careless attitude towards seeking treatment. To ensure earlier detection of breast cancer there in a dire need of educating our female population about this deadly disease through the media and health care system in Pakistan. (author)

  18. Occupation, occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer analyse of two epidemiological breast cancer studies in male and women

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sara

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the occupation and of occupational exposures to petroleum and chlorinated solvents using the data of two epidemiological studies on occupational risk factors of breast cancers in men and in women. Unlike female breast cancer (50,000 new cases per year inFrance), cancer of male breast cancer is a rare disease (

  19. Accuracy of Self-Reported Breast Cancer Information among Women from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana Barisic; Gord Glendon; Nayana Weerasooriya; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining complete medical record information can be challenging and expensive in breast cancer studies. The current literature is limited with respect to the accuracy of self-report and factors that may influence this. We assessed the agreement between self-reported and medical record breast cancer information among women from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women aged 20–69 years diagnosed with incident breast cancer 1996–1998 were identified from the Ontario Cancer R...

  20. Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.