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Sample records for breast cancer molecular

  1. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  2. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  3. Prognostic molecular markers in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteva, Francisco J; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2004-01-01

    A multitude of molecules involved in breast cancer biology have been studied as potential prognostic markers. In the present review we discuss the role of established molecular markers, as well as potential applications of emerging new technologies. Those molecules used routinely to make treatment decisions in patients with early-stage breast cancer include markers of proliferation (e.g. Ki-67), hormone receptors, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Tumor markers shown to have prognostic value but not used routinely include cyclin D 1 and cyclin E, urokinase-like plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor, and cathepsin D. The level of evidence for other molecular markers is lower, in part because most studies were retrospective and not adequately powered, making their findings unsuitable for choosing treatments for individual patients. Gene microarrays have been successfuly used to classify breast cancers into subtypes with specific gene expression profiles and to evaluate prognosis. RT-PCR has also been used to evaluate expression of multiple genes in archival tissue. Proteomics technologies are in development

  4. Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes Among Moroccan Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissal Mahir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer remains despite the therapeutic progress, the leading cause of death by cancer among women. It represents a group of very heterogeneous clinical, histopathological and molecular diseases. Molecular heterogeneity has been demonstrated by genomic analysis, even for similar histology cancers. Four subgroups of breast carcinomas are distinguished: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 over expression and Basal - like. The Immuno-histo-chemical analysis useip (estrogen receptors RE, the PR (progesterone receptors, the ((Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2, the Ki67 (proliferation marker HER2, CK5/6 has shown a subdivision into subgroups similar to those found by genomic analysis. These subgroups are different from the point of view of clinical course and response to adjuvant treatment.Objectives: The aim of this work is to study the molecular profile of the breast cancers by immunostaining on Moroccan series to a classification with a prognostic value allowing a treatment tailored to each group of patients. Furthermore, the molecular subgroups were correlated to other clinical and histological factors.Material and methods: It is a prospective study of the laboratory of Anatomy and Pathologic cytology of the children's Hospital, the service I of the maternity hospital in Rabat and in cooperation with the United Nations Centre of pathological anatomy. To do this, 88 cases of breast cancer together were diagnosed between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, taking a period of five years. All tissue samples made subject study of Immuno-histo-chemistry with the following markers: RE, PR, HER2 and Ki67. Only negative triple cases (HR and HER2 negative benefited from an additional marking with CK5/6 and EGFR to set the basal profile.Results: Series of 88 cases of mammary carcinomas observed on operating parts, ranged in age between 28 and 84 years old, with an average of 51 ± 12, 8. Carcinoma infiltrating non-specific (DOCTORS was

  5. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  6. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-negative breast cancer is characterized by the lack of tumors that estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene expression. These type of tumors lead to agressive clinical course due to unresponsiveness to systemic endocrine therapy and poor prognosis. Triple negative breast cancer constitutes 10-20% of all breast cancers. It affects generally young and African-American women. Triple negative breast cancer have several subtypes based on the gene expression properties. The majority of them are basal-like breast cancers. In this review, current literature is revised and summarized with respect to the molecular basis of triple negative cancers. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 251-259

  7. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  8. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, Mary JC; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Kirschmann, Dawn A; Seftor, Richard EB

    2000-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  9. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both....... The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine receptors......, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic insight...

  12. Biomarker assessment and molecular testing for prognostication in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Zuzana; Dabbs, David J

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of breast cancer incorporates clinical, pathological and molecular data. Oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) define prognosis and identify tumours for targeted therapy, and remain the sole established single-molecule biomarkers defining the minimum breast cancer pathology data set. Ki67 remains one of the most promising yet controversial biomarkers in breast cancer, implemented routinely in some, but not all, pathology departments. Beyond the single-molecule biomarkers, a host of multigene expression tests have been developed to interrogate the driver pathways and biology of individual breast cancers to predict clinical outcome more accurately. A minority of these assays have entered into clinical practice. This review focuses on the established biomarkers of ER, PR and HER2, the controversial but clinically implemented biomarker Ki67 and the currently marketed gene expression signatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The implications of breast cancer molecular phenotype for radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eSioshansi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence in the hormone receptor positive luminal subtypes compared to hormone receptor negative subtypes (triple negative and HER2-enriched. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of local recurrence. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of local recurrence for patients with triple negative tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and local recurrence following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased local recurrence in triple negative breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  14. The Implications of Breast Cancer Molecular Phenotype for Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, Shirin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Huber, Kathryn E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Wazer, David E., E-mail: dwazer@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-06-28

    The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence, and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence (LR) in the hormone receptor (HR) positive luminal subtypes compared to HR negative subtypes [triple negative (TN) and HER2-enriched]. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of LR. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of LR for patients with TN tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and LR following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased LR in TN breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation, and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  15. The Implications of Breast Cancer Molecular Phenotype for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Shirin; Huber, Kathryn E.; Wazer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence, and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence (LR) in the hormone receptor (HR) positive luminal subtypes compared to HR negative subtypes [triple negative (TN) and HER2-enriched]. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of LR. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of LR for patients with TN tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and LR following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased LR in TN breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation, and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  16. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Brussel, Aram SA van; Groep, Petra van der; Morsink, Folkert HM; Bult, Peter; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  17. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  18. Validation of a radiosensitivity molecular signature in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Eschrich (Steven); C. Fulp (Carl); Y. Pawitan (Yudi); J.A. Foekens (John); M. Smid (Marcel); J.W.M. Martens (John); M. Echevarria (Michelle); P.S. Kamath (Patrick); J.-H. Lee (Ji-Hyun); E.E. Harris (Eleanor); J. Bergh (Jonas); J.F. Torres-Roca (Javier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Previously, we developed a radiosensitivity molecular signature [radiosensitivity index (RSI)] that was clinically validated in 3 independent datasets (rectal, esophageal, and head and neck) in 118 patients. Here, we test RSI in radiotherapy (RT)-treated breast cancer patients.

  19. Breast cancer molecular subtype classification using deep features: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Albadawy, Ehab; Saha, Ashirbani; Zhang, Jun; Harowicz, Michael R.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2018-02-01

    Radiogenomics is a field of investigation that attempts to examine the relationship between imaging characteris- tics of cancerous lesions and their genomic composition. This could offer a noninvasive alternative to establishing genomic characteristics of tumors and aid cancer treatment planning. While deep learning has shown its supe- riority in many detection and classification tasks, breast cancer radiogenomic data suffers from a very limited number of training examples, which renders the training of the neural network for this problem directly and with no pretraining a very difficult task. In this study, we investigated an alternative deep learning approach referred to as deep features or off-the-shelf network approach to classify breast cancer molecular subtypes using breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRIs. We used the feature maps of different convolution layers and fully connected layers as features and trained support vector machines using these features for prediction. For the feature maps that have multiple layers, max-pooling was performed along each channel. We focused on distinguishing the Luminal A subtype from other subtypes. To evaluate the models, 10 fold cross-validation was performed and the final AUC was obtained by averaging the performance of all the folds. The highest average AUC obtained was 0.64 (0.95 CI: 0.57-0.71), using the feature maps of the last fully connected layer. This indicates the promise of using this approach to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes. Since the best performance appears in the last fully connected layer, it also implies that breast cancer molecular subtypes may relate to high level image features

  20. Molecular Characterization of ERα-positive and Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severson, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, one of the most common of all cancers, is diagnosed in over 1.5 million people world-wide each year. Overall, treatments for breast cancer are considered relatively successful, however recurrence is a clinical problem of paramount importance. Molecular subtypes of breast cancer,

  1. The pathology of familial breast cancer: Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osin, Pinchas P; Lakhani, Sunil R

    1999-01-01

    Extensive studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast tumours have been carried out in the few years since the identification of these familial breast cancer predisposing genes. The morphological studies suggest that BRCA1 tumours differ from BRCA2 tumours and from sporadic breast cancers. Recent progress in immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques has enabled in-depth investigation of molecular pathology of these tumours. Studies to date have investigated issues such as steroid hormone receptor expression, mutation status of tumour suppressor genes TP53 and c-erbB2, and expression profiles of cell cycle proteins p21, p27 and cyclin D 1 . Despite relative paucity of data, strong evidence of unique biological characteristics of BRCA1-associated breast cancer is accumulating. BRCA1-associated tumours appear to show an increased frequency of TP53 mutations, frequent p53 protein stabilization and absence of imunoreactivity for steroid hormone receptors. Further studies of larger number of samples of both BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated tumours are necessary to clarify and confirm these observations

  2. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quantitatively and dynamically detect molecular markers of breast cancer in vivo without tissue removal or directly after removal in a surgical...hour oshells by c es, the nano ting to a fin ER2- positiv (CHTN) th tinction spect ter of 276 nm sert depicts co microscopy. n was visua rption...conclusively determine the penetration depth of the nanoshells. Additionally, a quantitative difference of the nanoshell signal at the surface of the Her2

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Anticancer Effects of Phytoestrogens in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Huang, Ya-Fang; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Phytoestrogens derived from plants exert estrogenic as well as antiestrogenic effects and multiple actions within breast cancer cells. Chemopreventive properties of phytoestrogens have emerged from epidemiological observations. In recent clinical research studies, phytoestrogens are safe and may even protect against breast cancer. In this brief review, the molecular mechanisms of phytoestrogens on regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, estrogen receptors, cell signaling pathways, and epigenetic modulations in relation to breast cancer are discussed. Phytoestrogens have a preferential affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-β, which appears to be associated with antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects. Moreover, while phytoestrogens not only inhibit ER-positive but also ER-negative breast cancer cells, the possibility of epigenetic modulation playing an important role is also discussed. In conclusion, as there are multiple targets and actions of phytoestrogens, extensive research is still necessary. However, due to low toxicity, low cost, and easy availability, their potent chemoprevention effects deserve further study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  5. [Molecular characterization of breast cancer in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, Y; De Croze, D; Vincent Salomon, A; Rouzier, R; Bonneau, C

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer involves various types of tumors. The objective of this review was to provide a summary of the main methods currently available in clinical practice to characterize breast cancers at a molecular level and to discuss their prognostic and predictive values. Hormonal receptors expression and the HER2 status are prognostic markers and can also predict the response to targeted therapies. Their analysis through immunohistochemistry is systematical. Ki67 is an effective prognostic marker, but its reliability is debated because of its low reproducibility between laboratories and between pathologists. Commercial genomic signatures are all considered valid prognostic tools and may guide physicians to make therapeutic choices. These signatures are costly and should therefore be restricted to situations in which the use of chemotherapy remains equivocal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Giovanni; Gatza, Michael L; Beck, Andrew H; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Rhie, Suhn K; Pastore, Alessandro; Zhang, Hailei; McLellan, Michael; Yau, Christina; Kandoth, Cyriac; Bowlby, Reanne; Shen, Hui; Hayat, Sikander; Fieldhouse, Robert; Lester, Susan C; Tse, Gary M K; Factor, Rachel E; Collins, Laura C; Allison, Kimberly H; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Jensen, Kristin; Johnson, Nicole B; Oesterreich, Steffi; Mills, Gordon B; Cherniack, Andrew D; Robertson, Gordon; Benz, Christopher; Sander, Chris; Laird, Peter W; Hoadley, Katherine A; King, Tari A; Perou, Charles M

    2015-10-08

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most prevalent histologic subtype of invasive breast cancer. Here, we comprehensively profiled 817 breast tumors, including 127 ILC, 490 ductal (IDC), and 88 mixed IDC/ILC. Besides E-cadherin loss, the best known ILC genetic hallmark, we identified mutations targeting PTEN, TBX3, and FOXA1 as ILC enriched features. PTEN loss associated with increased AKT phosphorylation, which was highest in ILC among all breast cancer subtypes. Spatially clustered FOXA1 mutations correlated with increased FOXA1 expression and activity. Conversely, GATA3 mutations and high expression characterized luminal A IDC, suggesting differential modulation of ER activity in ILC and IDC. Proliferation and immune-related signatures determined three ILC transcriptional subtypes associated with survival differences. Mixed IDC/ILC cases were molecularly classified as ILC-like and IDC-like revealing no true hybrid features. This multidimensional molecular atlas sheds new light on the genetic bases of ILC and provides potential clinical options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Mortality From Breast Cancer in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarweh, Suleiman Alfred; Sledge, George W; Miller, Dave P; McCullough, Debbie; Petkov, Valentina I; Shak, Steven

    2018-05-10

    Purpose Limited data exist on the molecular biology, treatment, and outcomes of breast cancer in men, and much of our understanding in this area remains largely an extrapolation from data in women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods We studied men and women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and the 21-gene Breast Recurrence Score (RS) results. Differences in clinical characteristics and gene expression were determined, and distribution of RS results was correlated with 5-year breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival. Results There were 3,806 men and 571,115 women. Men were older than women (mean age, 64.2 v 59.1 years; P < .001). RS < 18 predominated in both genders, but RS ≥ 31 was more frequent in men (12.4% v 7.4%; P < .001), as were very low scores (RS < 11; 33.8% v 22.1%; P < .001). Mean gene expression was higher in men for the estrogen receptor (ER), proliferation, and invasion groups. ER was lowest and progesterone receptor was highest in women younger than 50 years of age, with a progressive increase in ER with age. Men younger than 50 years of age had slightly lower ER and progesterone receptor compared with older men. Survival data were available from SEER for 322 men and 55,842 women. Five-year BCSS was 99.0% (95% CI, 99.3% to 99.9%) and 95.9% (95% CI, 87.6% to 98.7%) for men with RS < 18 and RS 18-30, respectively, and for women, it was 99.5% (95% CI, 99.4% to 99.6%) and 98.6% (95% CI, 98.4% to 98.8%), respectively. RS ≥ 31 was associated with an 81.0% 5-year BCSS in men (95% CI, 53.3% to 93.2%) and 94.9% 5-year BCSS (95% CI, 93.9% to 95.7%) in women. Five-year BCSS and overall survival were lower in men than in women. Conclusion This study reveals some distinctive biologic features of breast cancer in men and an important prognostic role for RS testing in both men and women.

  8. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics

  9. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  10. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  11. Mammographic Breast Density and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: The Kenyan-African Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Jamal Shaikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data examining mammographic breast density (MBD among patients in Sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. We evaluated how MBD relates to breast cancer characteristics in Kenyan women undergoing diagnostic mammography. Methods. This cross-sectional study included women with pathologically confirmed breast cancers (n=123. Pretreatment mammograms of the unaffected breast were assessed to estimate absolute dense area (cm2, nondense area (cm2, and percent density (PD. Relationships between density measurements and clinical characteristics were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Results. Median PD and dense area were 24.9% and 85.3 cm2. Higher PD and dense area were observed in younger women (P<0.01. Higher dense and nondense areas were observed in obese women (P-trend < 0.01. Estrogen receptor (ER positive patients (73% had higher PD and dense area than ER-negative patients (P≤0.02. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC patients (17% had lower PD and dense area (P≤0.01 compared with non-TNBCs. No associations were observed between MBD and tumor size and grade. Conclusions. Our findings show discordant relationships between MBD and molecular tumor subtypes to those previously observed in Western populations. The relatively low breast density observed at diagnosis may have important implications for cancer prevention initiatives in Kenya. Subsequent larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dashevsky, Brittany Z; Oh, Jung Hun; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya P; Thakur, Sunitha B; Morris, Elizabeth A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    To use features extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images and a machine-learning method to assist in differentiating breast cancer molecular subtypes. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We identified 178 breast cancer patients between 2006-2011 with: 1) ERPR + (n = 95, 53.4%), ERPR-/HER2 + (n = 35, 19.6%), or triple negative (TN, n = 48, 27.0%) invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 2) preoperative breast MRI at 1.5T or 3.0T. Shape, texture, and histogram-based features were extracted from each tumor contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images using in-house software. Clinical and pathologic features were also collected. Machine-learning-based (support vector machines) models were used to identify significant imaging features and to build models that predict IDC subtype. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid model overfitting. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Each support vector machine fit in the LOOCV process generated a model with varying features. Eleven out of the top 20 ranked features were significantly different between IDC subtypes with P machine-learning-based predictive model using features extracted from MRI that can distinguish IDC subtypes with significant predictive power. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:122-129. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Validation of a Radiosensitivity Molecular Signature in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrich, Steven A.; Fulp, William J.; Pawitan, Yudi; Foekens, John A.; Smid, Marcel; Martens, John W. M.; Echevarria, Michelle; Kamath, Vidya; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Harris, Eleanor E.; Bergh, Jonas; Torres-Roca, Javier F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we developed a radiosensitivity molecular signature (RSI) that was clinically-validated in three independent datasets (rectal, esophageal, head and neck) in 118 patients. Here, we test RSI in radiotherapy (RT) treated breast cancer patients. Experimental Design RSI was tested in two previously published breast cancer datasets. Patients were treated at the Karolinska University Hospital (n=159) and Erasmus Medical Center (n=344). RSI was applied as previously described. Results We tested RSI in RT-treated patients (Karolinska). Patients predicted to be radiosensitive (RS) had an improved 5 yr relapse-free survival when compared with radioresistant (RR) patients (95% vs. 75%, p=0.0212) but there was no difference between RS/RR patients treated without RT (71% vs. 77%, p=0.6744), consistent with RSI being RT-specific (interaction term RSIxRT, p=0.05). Similarly, in the Erasmus dataset RT-treated RS patients had an improved 5-year distant-metastasis-free survival over RR patients (77% vs. 64%, p=0.0409) but no difference was observed in patients treated without RT (RS vs. RR, 80% vs. 81%, p=0.9425). Multivariable analysis showed RSI is the strongest variable in RT-treated patients (Karolinska, HR=5.53, p=0.0987, Erasmus, HR=1.64, p=0.0758) and in backward selection (removal alpha of 0.10) RSI was the only variable remaining in the final model. Finally, RSI is an independent predictor of outcome in RT-treated ER+ patients (Erasmus, multivariable analysis, HR=2.64, p=0.0085). Conclusions RSI is validated in two independent breast cancer datasets totaling 503 patients. Including prior data, RSI is validated in five independent cohorts (621 patients) and represents, to our knowledge, the most extensively validated molecular signature in radiation oncology. PMID:22832933

  14. A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Ashton C.; Korkut, Anil; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Lenoir, Walter; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yuexin; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hui; Ravikumar, Visweswaran; Rao, Arvind; Schultz, Andre; Li, Xubin; Sumazin, Pavel; Williams, Cecilia; Mestdagh, Pieter; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Yau, Christina; Bowlby, Reanne; Robertson, A. Gordon; Tiezzi, Daniel G.; Wang, Chen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Kuderer, Nicole M.; Rader, Janet S.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Sood, Anil K.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Baggerly, Keith A.; Chen, Ting Wen; Chiu, Hua Sheng; Lefever, Steve; Liu, Liang; MacKenzie, Karen; Orsulic, Sandra; Roszik, Jason; Shelley, Carl Simon; Song, Qianqian; Vellano, Christopher P.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Angulo Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Mora Pinero, Edna M.; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Levine, Douglas A.; Akbani, Rehan

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We found 61 somatic copy-number alterations

  15. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  16. Hereditary breast cancer: from molecular pathology to tailored therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D S P; Marchiò, C; Reis-Filho, J S

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for up to 5-10% of all breast carcinomas. Recent studies have demonstrated that mutations in two high-penetrance genes, namely BRCA1 and BRCA2, are responsible for about 16% of the familial risk of breast cancer. Even though subsequent studies have failed to find another high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, several genes that confer a moderate to low risk of breast cancer development have been identified; moreover, hereditary breast cancer can be part of multiple cancer syndromes. In this review we will focus on the hereditary breast carcinomas caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, Fanconi anaemia (FANC) genes, CHK2 and ATM tumour suppressor genes. We describe the hallmark histological features of these carcinomas compared with non-hereditary breast cancers and show how an accurate histopathological diagnosis may help improve the identification of patients to be screened for mutations. Finally, novel therapeutic approaches to treat patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations, including cross-linking agents and PARP inhibitors, are discussed.

  17. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang, E-mail: fyzheng16@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Qing, E-mail: lu.qing@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Huang, Bei-Jian, E-mail: huang.beijian@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xia, Han-Sheng, E-mail: zs12036@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yan, Li-Xia, E-mail: dndyanlixia@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Xi, E-mail: wang.xi@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yuan, Wei, E-mail: yuan.wei@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Wen-Ping, E-mail: wang.wenping@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ABVS imaging features have a strong correlation with breast cancer molecular subtypes. • Retraction phenomenon on the coronal planes was the most important predictor for Luminal A and Triple Negative subtypes. • ABVS expand the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer molecular subtypes. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. Results: By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n = 128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR] = 10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR = 5.112), and echogenic halo (OR = 3.263, P < 0.001). The predictive factors of the Human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-amplified subtype (n = 39) were calcifications (OR = 6.210), absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 4.375), non-mass lesions (OR = 4.286, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 3.851, P = 0.035), and post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 3.641, P = 0.008). The predictors for the Triple-Negative subtype (n = 47) were absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 5.884), post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 5.255, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 4.138, P = 0.002), and absence of calcifications (OR = 3.363, P = 0.001). Predictors for the Luminal-B subtype (n = 89) had a relatively lower association (OR ≤ 2.328). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, retraction phenomenon was the strongest independent predictor for

  18. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang; Lu, Qing; Huang, Bei-Jian; Xia, Han-Sheng; Yan, Li-Xia; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ABVS imaging features have a strong correlation with breast cancer molecular subtypes. • Retraction phenomenon on the coronal planes was the most important predictor for Luminal A and Triple Negative subtypes. • ABVS expand the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer molecular subtypes. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. Results: By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n = 128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR] = 10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR = 5.112), and echogenic halo (OR = 3.263, P < 0.001). The predictive factors of the Human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-amplified subtype (n = 39) were calcifications (OR = 6.210), absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 4.375), non-mass lesions (OR = 4.286, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 3.851, P = 0.035), and post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 3.641, P = 0.008). The predictors for the Triple-Negative subtype (n = 47) were absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 5.884), post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 5.255, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 4.138, P = 0.002), and absence of calcifications (OR = 3.363, P = 0.001). Predictors for the Luminal-B subtype (n = 89) had a relatively lower association (OR ≤ 2.328). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, retraction phenomenon was the strongest independent predictor for

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Korean Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ... profiles as objective measures of breast cancer phenotypes. The study is being conducted using samples from Korean women because this likely represents a relatively homogeneous population from genetic and cultural perspectives...

  20. Correlativity study on MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Gong Shuigen; Zhang Weiguo; Chen Jinhua; He Shuangwu; Liu Baohua; Li Zengpeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation among MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer. Methods: MR scanning was performed in 78 patients with breast cancer before operation and MRI morphologic features of breast cancer were analyzed. The mastectomy specimens of the breast neoplasm were stained with immunohistochemistry, and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, p53, and the distribution of microvessel density (MVD) was measured. The pathologic results were compared with MRI features. Results: Among the 80 breast cancers, ER positive expression was positively correlated with the spiculate margin of breast cancer (P 0.05). Among the 41 breast cancers with dynamic MR scans, there was positive correlation between the spatial distribution of contrast agent and MVD (P<0.01). Conclusion: There exists some correlation among MRI morphologic features, pathology, and molecular biology factors in breast cancer to certain extent. The biologic behavior and prognosis of the breast cancer can be assessed according to MRI features

  1. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  2. Association Between Imaging Characteristics and Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingxiang; Ma, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four major molecular subtypes based on the expression of hormone receptor (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2 status, and molecular proliferation rate (Ki67). In this study, we sought to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype and radiological findings in the Chinese population. Medical records of 300 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database: the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The imaging characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer were classified into four types: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressed (HER2), and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the subtype (dependent variable) and mammography or 15 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators (independent variables). Luminal A and B subtypes were commonly associated with "clustered calcification distribution," "nipple invasion," or "skin invasion" (P cancers showed association with persistent enhancement in the delayed phase on MRI and "clustered calcification distribution" on mammography (P breast tumor, which are potentially useful tools in the diagnosis and subtyping of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo; Park, Heily

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  4. Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2017-03-01

    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. On the other hand gene expression profiling studies have identified various breast cancer classes with prognostic significance. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in primary tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior. In particular, the luminal tumors are remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype; the HER2 subtype demonstrates a significant liver-homing characteristic; whereas so-called triple-negative breast cancers predispose to lung metastases. These findings suggest that this knowledge could potentially be utilized in the development of effective disease surveillance strategies in the pursuit of precision medicine, thus necessitating further investigation.

  5. Review Article: Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The standard paradigm providing a general mechanistic explanation for the association of cumulative, excessive oestrogen exposure and breast cancer risk is that the proliferative stimulus provided by 17β-estradiol (E2) leads to the appearance of spontaneous mutations. Thus, the key contribution of E2) is the stimulation of ...

  6. Molecular Subtypes and Clinical Outcomes of Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Some early work has started in earnest at both the. AKUH(N) and Kijabe Hospitals to try and stratify our breast cancer patients to those mentioned subtypes to help in both diagnosis and treatment. The limiting fac- tors are small numbers of patients expense to undertake the tests and lack of both internal ...

  7. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Metastasis and Potential Anti-metastatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsukruthai, Sucharat; Petpiroon, Nalinrat; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the world, breast cancer is among the major causes of cancer-related death and is the most common cancer found in women. The development of cancer molecular knowledge has surpassed the novel concept of cancer biology and unraveled principle targets for anticancer drug developments and treatment strategies. Metastatic breast cancer cells acquire their aggressive features through several mechanisms, including augmentation of survival, proliferation, tumorigenicity, and motility-related cellular pathways. Clearly, natural product-derived compounds have since long been recognized as an important source for anticancer drugs, several of which have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features supporting such cell aggressiveness. This review provides the essential details of breast cancer, the molecular-based insights into metastasis, as well as the effects and mechanisms of potential compounds for breast cancer therapeutic approaches. As the abilities of cancer cells to invade and metastasize are addressed as the hallmarks of cancer, compounds possessing anti-metastatic effects, together with their defined molecular drug action could benefit the development of new drugs as well as treatment strategies. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology, and possible real-world applications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction, a key idea in molecular epidemiology, has enabled the development of personalized medicine. This concept includes personalized prevention. While genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic susceptibility loci in breast cancer risk, however, the application of this knowledge to practical prevention is still underway. Here, we briefly review the history of molecular epidemiology and its progress in breast cancer epidemiology. We then introduce our experience with the trial combination of GWAS-identified loci and well-established lifestyle and reproductive risk factors in the risk prediction of breast cancer. Finally, we report our exploration of the cumulative risk of breast cancer based on this risk prediction model as a potential tool for individual risk communication, including genetic risk factors and gene-environment interaction with obesity.

  10. Clinical and molecular characterization of BRCA-associated breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soenderstrup, I. M.H.; Laenkholm, A. V.; Jensen, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In breast cancer (BC) patients a cancer predisposing BRCA1/2 mutation is associated with adverse tumor characteristics, risk assessment and treatment allocation. We aimed to estimate overall- (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) according to tumor characteristics and treatment among...... women who within two years of definitive surgery for primary BC were shown to carry a mutation in BRCA1/2 . Material and methods: From the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Group we included 141 BRCA1 and 96 BRCA2 BC patients. Estrogen receptor and HER2 status were centrally reviewed......–81). Ten-year OS and DFS for BRCA2 BC were 88% (95% CI 78–94) and 84% (95% CI 74–91). BRCA1 BC patients as compared to BRCA2 BC patients had a higher risk of BC relapse or non-breast cancer within ten years of follow-up, independent of ER status (adjusted HR 2.78 95% CI 1.28–6.05, p = .01), but BRCA...

  11. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  12. Investigation of the molecular relationship between breast cancer and obesity by candidate gene prioritization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Garshasbi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer and obesity are two major public health concerns. More than 12 million cases of cancer are reported annually. Many reports confirmed obesity as a risk factor for cancer. The molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer has not been clear yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate priorities of effective genes in the molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer. Methods: In this study, computer simulation method was used for prioritizing the genes that involved in the molecular links between obesity and breast cancer in laboratory of systems biology and bioinformatics (LBB, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, from March to July 2014. In this study, ENDEAVOUR software was used for prioritizing the genes and integrating multiple data sources was used for data analysis. Training genes were selected from effective genes in obesity and/or breast cancer. Two groups of candidate genes were selected. The first group was included the existential genes in 5 common region chromosomes (between obesity and breast cancer and the second group was included the results of genes microarray data analysis of research Creighton, et al (In 2012 on patients with breast cancer. The microarray data were analyzed with GER2 software (R online software on GEO website. Finally, both training and candidate genes were entered in ENDEAVOUR software package. Results: The candidate genes were prioritized to four style and five genes in ten of the first priorities were repeated twice. In other word, the outcome of prioritizing of 72 genes (Product of microarray data analysis and genes of 5 common chromosome regions (Between obesity and breast cancer showed, 5 genes (TNFRSF10B, F2, IGFALS, NTRK3 and HSP90B1 were the priorities in the molecular connection between obesity and breast cancer. Conclusion: There are some common genes between breast cancer and obesity. So, molecular relationship is confirmed. In this study the possible effect

  13. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  14. Integrated Molecular Imaging and Therapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2008-01-01

    ...) and NIR dosing of cancer cells using SWCNT. While previous studies have shown the transport of DNA into cells using nanotubes, in this study we show multi-component molecular targeting of both IGF1R and Her2 surface markers in cancer cells...

  15. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  16. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  17. Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Endale; Seifu, Daniel; Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu; Bokretsion, Yonas; Bekele, Abebe; Abebe, Markos; Sollie, Thomas; Merajver, Sofia D; Karlsson, Christina; Karlsson, Mats G

    2018-02-14

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa. In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases. The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and

  18. Molecular Modification of Metadherin/MTDH Impacts the Sensitivity of Breast Cancer to Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchuan Song

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women and with an increasing worldwide incidence. Doxorubicin, as a first-line anthracycline-based drug is conventional used on breast cancer clinical chemotherapy. However, the drug resistances limited the curative effect of the doxorubicin therapy in breast cancer patients, but the molecular mechanism determinants of breast cancer resistance to doxorubicin chemotherapy are not fully understood. In order to explore the association between metadherin (MTDH and doxorubicin sensitivity, the differential expressions of MTDH in breast cancer cell lines and the sensitivity to doxorubicin of breast cancer cell lines were investigated.The mRNA and protein expression of MTDH were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot in breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-435S, MCF-7/ADR cells. Once MTDH gene was knocked down by siRNA in MCF-7/ADR cells and overexpressed by MTDH plasmid transfection in MDA-MB-231 cells, the cell growth and therapeutic sensitivity of doxorubicin were evaluated using MTT and the Cell cycle assay and apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry.MCF-7/ADR cells revealed highly expressed MTDH and MDA-MB-231 cells had the lowest expression of MTDH. After MTDH gene was knocked down, the cell proliferation was inhibited, and the inhibitory rate of cell growth and apoptosis rate were enhanced, and the cell cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase in the presence of doxorubicin treatment. On the other hand, the opposite results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells with overexpressed MTDH gene.MTDH gene plays a promoting role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells and its high expression may be associated with doxorubicin sensitivity of breast cancer.

  19. Correlation of microarray-based breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes: implications for treatment optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hui-Chi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimizing treatment through microarray-based molecular subtyping is a promising method to address the problem of heterogeneity in breast cancer; however, current application is restricted to prediction of distant recurrence risk. This study investigated whether breast cancer molecular subtyping according to its global intrinsic biology could be used for treatment customization. Methods Gene expression profiling was conducted on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue collected from 327 patients in conjunction with thoroughly documented clinical data. A method of molecular subtyping based on 783 probe-sets was established and validated. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate molecular subtypes with survival outcome and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Heterogeneity of molecular subtypes within groups sharing the same distant recurrence risk predicted by genes of the Oncotype and MammaPrint predictors was studied. Results We identified six molecular subtypes of breast cancer demonstrating distinctive molecular and clinical characteristics. These six subtypes showed similarities and significant differences from the Perou-Sørlie intrinsic types. Subtype I breast cancer was in concordance with chemosensitive basal-like intrinsic type. Adjuvant chemotherapy of lower intensity with CMF yielded survival outcome similar to those of CAF in this subtype. Subtype IV breast cancer was positive for ER with a full-range expression of HER2, responding poorly to CMF; however, this subtype showed excellent survival when treated with CAF. Reduced expression of a gene associated with methotrexate sensitivity in subtype IV was the likely reason for poor response to methotrexate. All subtype V breast cancer was positive for ER and had excellent long-term survival with hormonal therapy alone following surgery and/or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide any survival benefit in early stages of subtype V patients. Subtype V was

  20. Correlation of microarray-based breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes: implications for treatment optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Kuo-Jang; Chang, Kai-Ming; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Huang, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing treatment through microarray-based molecular subtyping is a promising method to address the problem of heterogeneity in breast cancer; however, current application is restricted to prediction of distant recurrence risk. This study investigated whether breast cancer molecular subtyping according to its global intrinsic biology could be used for treatment customization. Gene expression profiling was conducted on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue collected from 327 patients in conjunction with thoroughly documented clinical data. A method of molecular subtyping based on 783 probe-sets was established and validated. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate molecular subtypes with survival outcome and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Heterogeneity of molecular subtypes within groups sharing the same distant recurrence risk predicted by genes of the Oncotype and MammaPrint predictors was studied. We identified six molecular subtypes of breast cancer demonstrating distinctive molecular and clinical characteristics. These six subtypes showed similarities and significant differences from the Perou-Sørlie intrinsic types. Subtype I breast cancer was in concordance with chemosensitive basal-like intrinsic type. Adjuvant chemotherapy of lower intensity with CMF yielded survival outcome similar to those of CAF in this subtype. Subtype IV breast cancer was positive for ER with a full-range expression of HER2, responding poorly to CMF; however, this subtype showed excellent survival when treated with CAF. Reduced expression of a gene associated with methotrexate sensitivity in subtype IV was the likely reason for poor response to methotrexate. All subtype V breast cancer was positive for ER and had excellent long-term survival with hormonal therapy alone following surgery and/or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide any survival benefit in early stages of subtype V patients. Subtype V was consistent with a unique subset of luminal A intrinsic

  1. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  2. Pattern of distant recurrence according to the molecular subtypes in Korean women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant recurrence is one of the most important risk factors in overall survival, and distant recurrence is related to a complex biologic interaction of seed and soil factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the molecular subtypes and patterns of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer. Methods In an investigation of 313 women with breast cancer who underwent surgery from 1994 and 2000, the expressions of estrogen and progestrone receptor (ER/PR, and human epithelial receptor-2 (HER2 were evaluated. The subtypes were defined as luminal-A, luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC according to ER, PR, and HER2 status. Results Bone was the most common site of distant recurrence. The incidence of first distant recurrence site was significantly different among the subtypes. Brain metastasis was more frequent in the luminal-HER2 and TNBC subtypes. In subgroup analysis, overall survival in patients with distant recurrence after 24 months after surgery was significantly different among the subtypes. Conclusions Organ-specific metastasis may depend on the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Tailored strategies against distant metastasis concerning the molecular subtypes in breast cancer may be considered.

  3. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  4. Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni

    2018-05-04

    Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications.

  5. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  6. Baseline staging tests based on molecular subtype is necessary for newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Qiushi; Meng, Qingwei; Pang, Hui; Zhao, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Cai, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2014-03-17

    Bone scanning (BS), liver ultrasonography (LUS), and chest radiography (CXR) are commonly recommended for baseline staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether these tests are indicated for specific patient subpopulation based on clinical staging and molecular subtype. A retrospective study on 5406 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer was conducted to identify differences in occurrence of metastasis based on clinical staging and molecular subtypes. All patients had been evaluated by BS, LUS and CXR at diagnosis. Complete information on clinical staging was available in 5184 patients. For stage I, II, and III, bone metastasis rate was 0%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively (P diagnosed breast cancer.

  7. Advances in the Molecular Analysis of Breast Cancer: Pathway Toward Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Marilin

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of clinical behaviors and histological and molecular variants. It is the most common type of cancer affecting women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer death. A comprehensive literature search was performed to explore the advances in molecular medicine related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. During the last few decades, advances in molecular medicine have changed the landscape of cancer treatment as new molecular tests complement and, in many instances, exceed traditional methods for determining patient prognosis and response to treatment options. Personalized medicine is becoming the standard of care around the world. Developments in molecular profiling, genomic analysis, and the discovery of targeted drug therapies have significantly improved patient survival rates and quality of life. This review highlights what pathologists need to know about current molecular tests for classification and prognostic/ predictive assessment of breast carcinoma as well as their role as part of the medical team.

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Evaluation of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yue Zhao,1 Xiaoqiu Dong,2 Rongguo Li,1 Xiao Ma,1 Jian Song,1 Yingjie Li,3 Dongwei Zhang1 1Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 3Department of Pathology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Background: The pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer correlates with the prognosis for survival. Tumors may have different prognoses according to their molecular subtypes. This study was performed to evaluate the relevance of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer.Methods: A consecutive series of 88 patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed. Patients were classified into four molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry profile of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67. The histological response was assessed according to Miller-Payne grading (MPG and Residual Disease in Breast and Nodes (RDBN.Results: Ten patients (11.4% achieved a pathological complete response, assessed according to RDBN. The pathological complete response rate was 13.6% according to MPG. Patients with the triple-negative subtype were more likely to achieve a pathological complete response than those with luminal A breast cancer (P=0.03. MPG and RDBN are independent predictors of distant disease-free survival and local recurrence-free survival, but do not predict overall survival. Ki-67, size of invasive carcinoma, lymph nodes, molecular subtypes, MPG, and RDBN are important predictors of distant disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and overall survival.Conclusion: MPG and RDBN were similarly related to the patient’s prognosis. MPG was more suitable for evaluation of distant disease

  10. Prediction consistency and clinical presentations of breast cancer molecular subtypes for Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of transcriptional aberrations; moreover, microarray gene expression profiles had defined 5 molecular subtypes based on certain intrinsic genes. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction consistency of breast cancer molecular subtypes from 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 as well as clinical presentations of each molecualr subtype in Han Chinese population. Methods In all, 169 breast cancer samples (44 from Taiwan and 125 from China of Han Chinese population were gathered, and the gene expression features corresponding to 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 were retrieved for molecular subtype prediction. Results For Sørlie 500 and Hu 306 intrinsic gene set, mean-centring of genes and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD remarkably reduced the number of unclassified cases. Regarding pairwise agreement, the highest predictive consistency was found between Hu 306 and PAM50. In all, 150 and 126 samples were assigned into identical subtypes by both Hu 306 and PAM50 genes, under mean-centring and DWD. Luminal B tended to show a higher nuclear grade and have more HER2 over-expression status than luminal A did. No basal-like breast tumours were ER positive, and most HER2-enriched breast tumours showed HER2 over-expression, whereas, only two-thirds of ER negativity/HER2 over-expression tumros were predicted as HER2-enriched molecular subtype. For 44 Taiwanese breast cancers with survival data, a better prognosis of luminal A than luminal B subtype in ER-postive breast cancers and a better prognosis of basal-like than HER2-enriched subtype in ER-negative breast cancers was observed. Conclusions We suggest that the intrinsic signature Hu 306 or PAM50 be used for breast cancers in the Han Chinese population during molecular subtyping. For the prognostic value and decision making based on intrinsic subtypes, further prospective

  11. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  12. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, J. F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, Willem P Th M; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. PROCEDURES: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  13. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. Procedures: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  14. Molecular Biology In Young Women With Breast Cancer: From Tumor Gene Expression To DNA Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Flores-Ramos, Liliana; Castro-Sánchez, Andrea; Peña-Curiel, Omar; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) represent roughly 15% of breast cancer (BC) cases in Latin America and other developing regions. Breast tumors occurring at an early age are more aggressive and have an overall worse prognosis compared to breast tumors in postmenopausal women. The expression of relevant proliferation biomarkers such as endocrine receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 appears to be unique in YWBC. Moreover, histopathological, molecular, genetic, and genomic studies have shown that YWBC exhibit a higher frequency of aggressive subtypes, differential tumor gene expression, increased genetic susceptibility, and specific genomic signatures, compared to older women with BC. This article reviews the current knowledge on tumor biology and genomic signatures in YWBC.

  15. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  16. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  17. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who comprise

  20. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer has limited impact on transcriptomic-based molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Rantalainen, Mattias; Stålhammar, Gustav; Lövrot, John; Ullah, Ikram; Alkodsi, Amjad; Ma, Ran; Wedlund, Lena; Lindberg, Johan; Frisell, Jan; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2017-11-29

    Transcriptomic profiling of breast tumors provides opportunity for subtyping and molecular-based patient stratification. In diagnostic applications the specimen profiled should be representative of the expression profile of the whole tumor and ideally capture properties of the most aggressive part of the tumor. However, breast cancers commonly exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity at molecular, genomic and in phenotypic level, which can arise during tumor evolution. Currently it is not established to what extent a random sampling approach may influence molecular breast cancer diagnostics. In this study we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify gene expression in 43 pieces (2-5 pieces per tumor) from 12 breast tumors (Cohort 1). We determined molecular subtype and transcriptomic grade for all tumor pieces and analysed to what extent pieces originating from the same tumors are concordant or discordant with each other. Additionally, we validated our finding in an independent cohort consisting of 19 pieces (2-6 pieces per tumor) from 6 breast tumors (Cohort 2) profiled using microarray technique. Exome sequencing was also performed on this cohort, to investigate the extent of intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity versus the intra-tumor molecular subtype classifications. Molecular subtyping was consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors and transcriptomic grade assignments were consistent in 11 out of 12 tumors as well. Molecular subtype predictions revealed consistent subtypes in four out of six patients in this cohort 2. Interestingly, we observed extensive intra-tumor genomic heterogeneity in these tumor pieces but not in their molecular subtype classifications. Our results suggest that macroscopic intra-tumoral transcriptomic heterogeneity is limited and unlikely to have an impact on molecular diagnostics for most patients.

  1. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  2. Development of HER2-targeted nanobodies for molecular optical imaging and therapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. It has been estimated that 1 in 8 women and 1 in 1,000 men will develop breast cancer. Surgical-, chemical- and radiation based therapies are available to breast cancer patients. Early detection of cancer is crucial

  3. Resveratrol for breast cancer prevention and therapy: Preclinical evidence and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dona; Sarkar, Nivedita; Biswas, Jaydip; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-10-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women. The major unresolved problems with metastatic breast cancer is recurrence after receiving objective response to chemotherapy, drug-induced side effects of first line chemotherapy and delayed response to second line of treatment. Unfortunately, very few options are available as third line treatment. It is clear that under such circumstances there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs. Phytochemicals are among the most promising chemopreventive treatment options for the management of cancer. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a non-flavonoid polyphenol present in several dietary sources, including grapes, berries, soy beans, pomegranate and peanuts, has been shown to possess a wide range of health benefits through its effect on a plethora of molecular targets.The present review encompasses the role of resveratrol and its natural/synthetic analogue in the light of their efficacy against tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, epigenetic alterations and for induction of apoptosis as well as sensitization toward chemotherapeutic drugs in various in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer. The roles of resveratrol as a phytoestrogen, an aromatase inhibitor and in stem cell therapy as well as adjuvent treatment are also discussed. This review explores the full potential of resveratrol in breast cancer prevention and treatment with current limitations, challenges and future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of breast cancer cell lines through multiple omic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shari E; Mellor, Paul; Ward, Alison K; Kendall, Stephanie; McDonald, Megan; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Napper, Scott; Anderson, Deborah H

    2017-06-05

    Breast cancer cell lines are frequently used as model systems to study the cellular properties and biology of breast cancer. Our objective was to characterize a large, commonly employed panel of breast cancer cell lines obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 30-4500 K) to enable researchers to make more informed decisions in selecting cell lines for specific studies. Information about these cell lines was obtained from a wide variety of sources. In addition, new information about cellular pathways that are activated within each cell line was generated. We determined key protein expression data using immunoblot analyses. In addition, two analyses on serum-starved cells were carried out to identify cellular proteins and pathways that are activated in these cells. These analyses were performed using a commercial PathScan array and a novel and more extensive phosphopeptide-based kinome analysis that queries 1290 phosphorylation events in major signaling pathways. Data about this panel of breast cancer cell lines was also accessed from several online sources, compiled and summarized for the following areas: molecular classification, mRNA expression, mutational status of key proteins and other possible cancer-associated mutations, and the tumorigenic and metastatic capacity in mouse xenograft models of breast cancer. The cell lines that were characterized included 10 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 12 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified and 18 triple negative breast cancer cell lines, in addition to 4 non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Within each subtype, there was significant genetic heterogeneity that could impact both the selection of model cell lines and the interpretation of the results obtained. To capture the net activation of key signaling pathways as a result of these mutational combinations, profiled pathway activation status was examined. This provided further clarity for which cell lines were particularly deregulated

  5. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  6. Proteomics Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms of Mutant P53 Reactivation with PRIMA-1 in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daoud, Sayed S

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the study is to identify novel protein-protein interactions in various locations of cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of mutant p53 reactivation with PRIMA-1 in breast cancer cells...

  7. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p < 0.001) and to have marked intensity than were ILC foci (63% IDC vs 32% ILC; p < 0.001). Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging correctly revealed all pathology-proven foci of invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p < 0.0001). Overall, direct-conversion molecular breast imaging showed all known invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular

  8. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L Groner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  9. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Bernd L; Hynes, Nancy E

    2016-09-01

    Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  10. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  11. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Danny R; Steeg, Patricia S; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2000-01-01

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  13. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  15. Identification of prognostic molecular features in the reactive stroma of human breast and prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Planche

    Full Text Available Primary tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support and promote tumor progression. Identification of the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and elucidation of its crosstalk with tumor cells may therefore be crucial for improving our understanding of the processes implicated in cancer progression, identifying potential therapeutic targets, and uncovering stromal gene expression signatures that may predict clinical outcome. A key issue to resolve, therefore, is whether the stromal response to tumor growth is largely a generic phenomenon, irrespective of the tumor type or whether the response reflects tumor-specific properties. To address similarity or distinction of stromal gene expression changes during cancer progression, oligonucleotide-based Affymetrix microarray technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stromal cells derived from invasive human breast and prostate carcinoma. Invasive breast and prostate cancer-associated stroma was observed to display distinct transcriptomes, with a limited number of shared genes. Interestingly, both breast and prostate tumor-specific dysregulated stromal genes were observed to cluster breast and prostate cancer patients, respectively, into two distinct groups with statistically different clinical outcomes. By contrast, a gene signature that was common to the reactive stroma of both tumor types did not have survival predictive value. Univariate Cox analysis identified genes whose expression level was most strongly associated with patient survival. Taken together, these observations suggest that the tumor microenvironment displays distinct features according to the tumor type that provides survival-predictive value.

  16. Molecular Features of Subtype-Specific Progression from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lesurf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer consists of at least five main molecular “intrinsic” subtypes that are reflected in both pre-invasive and invasive disease. Although previous studies have suggested that many of the molecular features of invasive breast cancer are established early, it is unclear what mechanisms drive progression and whether the mechanisms of progression are dependent or independent of subtype. We have generated mRNA, miRNA, and DNA copy-number profiles from a total of 59 in situ lesions and 85 invasive tumors in order to comprehensively identify those genes, signaling pathways, processes, and cell types that are involved in breast cancer progression. Our work provides evidence that there are molecular features associated with disease progression that are unique to the intrinsic subtypes. We additionally establish subtype-specific signatures that are able to identify a small proportion of pre-invasive tumors with expression profiles that resemble invasive carcinoma, indicating a higher likelihood of future disease progression.

  17. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  18. [Molecular classification of breast cancer patients obtained through the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Angel; Reigosa, Aldo

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of a growing number of biological subtypes, with substantial variability of the disease progression within each category. The aim of this research was to classify the samples object of study according to the molecular classes of breast cancer: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple negative, as a result of the state of HER2 amplification obtained by the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). The sample consisted of 200 biopsies fixed in 10% formalin, processed by standard techniques up to paraffin embedding, corresponding to patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. These biopsies were obtained from patients from private practice and the Institute of Oncology "Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño", for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of hormone receptors and HER2 made in the Hospital Metropolitano del Norte, Valencia, Venezuela. The molecular classification of the patient's tumors considering the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors by IHC and HER2 amplification by CISH, allowed those cases originally classified as unknown, since they had an indeterminate (2+) outcome for HER2 expression by IHC, to be grouped into the different molecular classes. Also, this classification permitted that some cases, initially considered as belonging to a molecular class, were assigned to another class, after the revaluation of the HER2 status by CISH.

  19. A profile of prognostic and molecular factors in European and Māori breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachs, Gabi U; Wells, J Elisabeth; Robinson, Bridget A; Kano, Maiko; Volkova, Ekaterina; Morrin, Helen R; Davey, Valerie CL; Harris, Gavin C; Cheale, Michelle; Frampton, Christopher; Currie, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand Māori have a poorer outcome from breast cancer than non-Māori, yet prognostic data are sparse. The objective of this study was to quantify levels of prognostic factors in a cohort of self-declared Māori and European breast cancer patients from Christchurch, New Zealand. Clinicopathological and survival data from 337 consecutive breast cancer patients (27 Māori, 310 European) were evaluated. Fewer tumours were high grade in Māori women than European women (p = 0.027). No significant ethnic differences were detected for node status, tumour type, tumour size, human epidermal growth factor receptor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, or survival. In addition, tumour and serum samples from a sub-cohort of 14 Māori matched to 14 NZ European patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for molecular prognostic factors. Significant correlations were detected between increased grade and increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), microvessel density (MVD) and cytokeratins CK5/6 (p < 0.05). High nodal status correlated with reduced carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX). Negative ER/PR status correlated with increased GLUT-1, CA-IX and MVD. Within the molecular factors, increased HIF-1α correlated with raised GLUT-1, MVD and CK5/6, and CK5/6 with GLUT-1 and MVD (p < 0.05). The small number of patients in this sub-cohort limited discrimination of ethnic differences. In this Christchurch cohort of breast cancer patients, Māori women were no more likely than European women to have pathological or molecular factors predictive of poor prognosis. These data contrast with data from the North Island NZ, and suggest potential regional differences

  20. Molecular profiling of advanced breast cancer tumors is beneficial in assisting clinical treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip; Alifrangis, Costi; Cereser, Biancastella; Chandrasinghe, Pramodh; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Moderau, Nina; Poyia, Fotini; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Tabassum, Neha; Wen, Jinrui; Krell, Jonathan; Stebbing, Justin

    2018-04-03

    We used data obtained by Caris Life Sciences, to evaluate the benefits of tailoring treatments for a breast carcinoma cohort by using tumor molecular profiles to inform decisions. Data for 92 breast cancer patients from the commercial Caris Molecular Intelligence database was retrospectively divided into two groups, so that the first always followed treatment recommendations, whereas in the second group all patients received at least one drug after profiling that was predicted to lack benefit. The biomarker and drug associations were based on tests including fluorescent in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing, although immunohistochemistry was the main test used. Patients whose drugs matched those recommended according to their tumor profile had an average overall survival of 667 days, compared to 510 days for patients that did not (P=0.0316). In the matched treatment group, 26% of patients were deceased by the last time of monitoring, whereas this was 41% in the unmatched group (P=0.1257). We therefore confirm the ability of tumor molecular profiling to improve survival of breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry biomarkers for the androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors were found to be prognostic for survival.

  1. Integration of a Radiosensitivity Molecular Signature Into the Assessment of Local Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Roca, Javier F.; Fulp, William J.; Caudell, Jimmy J.; Servant, Nicolas; Bollet, Marc A.; Vijver, Marc van de; Naghavi, Arash O.; Harris, Eleanor E.; Eschrich, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, we developed radiosensitivity (RSI), a clinically validated molecular signature that estimates tumor radiosensitivity. In the present study, we tested whether integrating RSI with the molecular subtype refines the classification of local recurrence (LR) risk in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: RSI and molecular subtype were evaluated in 343 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy that included whole-breast radiation therapy with or without a tumor bed boost (dose range 45-72 Gy). The follow-up period for patients without recurrence was 10 years. The clinical endpoint was LR-free survival. Results: Although RSI did not uniformly predict for LR across the entire cohort, combining RSI and the molecular subtype identified a subpopulation with an increased risk of LR: triple negative (TN) and radioresistant (reference TN-radioresistant, hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.92, P=.02). TN patients who were RSI-sensitive/intermediate had LR rates similar to those of luminal (LUM) patients (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.47-1.57, P=.63). On multivariate analysis, combined RSI and molecular subtype (P=.004) and age (P=.001) were the most significant predictors of LR. In contrast, integrating RSI into the LUM subtype did not identify additional risk groups. We hypothesized that radiation dose escalation was affecting radioresistance in the LUM subtype and serving as a confounder. An increased radiation dose decreased LR only in the luminal-resistant (LUM-R) subset (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.98, P=.03). On multivariate analysis, the radiation dose was an independent variable only in the LUMA/B-RR subset (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.001-0.946, P=.046), along with age (P=.008), T stage (P=.004), and chemotherapy (P=.008). Conclusions: The combined molecular subtype–RSI identified a novel molecular subpopulation (TN and radioresistant) with an increased risk of LR after breast-conserving therapy. We propose that the combination of RSI and

  2. Integration of a Radiosensitivity Molecular Signature Into the Assessment of Local Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Roca, Javier F., E-mail: javier.torresroca@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Department of Chemical Biology and Molecular Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Fulp, William J. [Department of Bioinformatics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Caudell, Jimmy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Servant, Nicolas [Institut Curie, INSERM U900, Paris (France); Mines ParisTech, Paris (France); Bollet, Marc A. [Institut Curie, INSERM U900, Paris (France); Vijver, Marc van de [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Naghavi, Arash O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Harris, Eleanor E. [East Carolina University, Greensborough, North Carolina (United States); Eschrich, Steven A. [Department of Bioinformatics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: Recently, we developed radiosensitivity (RSI), a clinically validated molecular signature that estimates tumor radiosensitivity. In the present study, we tested whether integrating RSI with the molecular subtype refines the classification of local recurrence (LR) risk in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: RSI and molecular subtype were evaluated in 343 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy that included whole-breast radiation therapy with or without a tumor bed boost (dose range 45-72 Gy). The follow-up period for patients without recurrence was 10 years. The clinical endpoint was LR-free survival. Results: Although RSI did not uniformly predict for LR across the entire cohort, combining RSI and the molecular subtype identified a subpopulation with an increased risk of LR: triple negative (TN) and radioresistant (reference TN-radioresistant, hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.92, P=.02). TN patients who were RSI-sensitive/intermediate had LR rates similar to those of luminal (LUM) patients (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.47-1.57, P=.63). On multivariate analysis, combined RSI and molecular subtype (P=.004) and age (P=.001) were the most significant predictors of LR. In contrast, integrating RSI into the LUM subtype did not identify additional risk groups. We hypothesized that radiation dose escalation was affecting radioresistance in the LUM subtype and serving as a confounder. An increased radiation dose decreased LR only in the luminal-resistant (LUM-R) subset (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.98, P=.03). On multivariate analysis, the radiation dose was an independent variable only in the LUMA/B-RR subset (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.001-0.946, P=.046), along with age (P=.008), T stage (P=.004), and chemotherapy (P=.008). Conclusions: The combined molecular subtype–RSI identified a novel molecular subpopulation (TN and radioresistant) with an increased risk of LR after breast-conserving therapy. We propose that the combination of RSI and

  3. MRI and pathological features of different molecular subtypes of breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Huo Tianlong; Lai Yunyao; Hong Nan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MRI and pathological features of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: The data of 202 patients who underwent primary breast cancer resection were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had MRI preoperatively. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer defined by immunohistochemistry were classified as basal-like, luminal and HER-2 overexpression. Morphology (including mass or non-mass like enhancement, shape and margin of masses, unifocal or multifocal masses) and enhancement characteristics on MRI, histologic types and grades of tumors were analyzed with Chi-square test, exact test, Fisher exact test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: Among the 202 patients, 34 were basal-like, 144 were luminal and 24 were HER-2 overexpression. The number of mass cases in each subtype was 29, 133 and 19 respectively,making no significant difference (χ 2 =4.136, P=0.126). As for the shape of basal-like lesions,8 were round,19 were lobular and 2 were irregular, while this distribution was 23, 58, 52 in luminal subtype and 1, 11, 7 in HER-2 overexpression subtype (χ 2 =13.391, P<0.05). The margin was also strikingly different among three groups (smooth, spiculate, irregular): 20, 5, 4 respectively in basal-like, 27, 53, 53 respectively in luminal, and 4, 7, 8 respectively in HER-2 overexpression (χ 2 =28.515, P<0.01). 52.6% (10/19) of HER-2 overexpression cases were multifocal, while only 6.9% (2/29) of luminal and 8.0% (24/133) of basal-like ones were multifocal (χ 2 =16.140, P<0.01). Characteristics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were statistically different, with homogeneous, heterogeneous, and rim enhancement 0, 13, 16 respectively in basal-like cases, 28, 93, 11 respectively in luminal cases and 2, 11, 6 respectively in HER-2 overexpression cases (P<0.01). However, the difference for enhancement curve did not reach significance (P =0.457). Histologic types were significantly different among molecular

  4. MOLECULAR DOCKING OF COMPOUNDS FROM Chaetomium Sp. AGAINST HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA IN SEARCHING ANTI BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maywan Hariono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on molecular docking-based virtual screening has been conducted to select virtual hit of compounds, reported its existence in fungal endophytes of Chaetomium sp. as cytotoxic agent of breast cancer. The ligands were docked into Human Estrogen Receptor alpha (HERa as the protein which regulates the breast cancer growth via estradiol-estrogen receptor binding intervention. The results showed that two compounds bearing xanthone and two compounds bearing benzonaphtyridinedione scaffolds were selected as virtual hit ligands for HERa leading to the conclusion that these compounds were good to be developed as anti breast cancer.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    immune system? Ann N Y Acad Sci, JR, 1986, The role of NK cells in tumour growth and 741, 212-15. metastasis in beige mice. Nature, 284, 622-4. 89. Stone ...77. Simmons ML and Brick JO, 1969, The Laboratory 96. Senger DR, Brown LF, Claffey KP and Dvorak HF, Mouse. Hollaender A, ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ...ranfe of huan tumo sme I I su ding the human chromosome 11 into the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 breast tumorigenic phenotype of several tumor lines

  6. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer: Establishment of an at Risk Cohort and Methods to Improve the Collection and Use of Risk Factor Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Christine

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research program we are developing is to define molecular markers and their interaction with other risk factors as risk indicators for development of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease (BBD...

  8. Preoperative core needle biopsy is accurate in determining molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaosong; Yuan, Ying; Fei, Xiaochun; Jin, Xiaolong; Shen, Kunwei; Sun, Long; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Siji; Wu, Jiayi; Huang, Ou; Li, Yafen; Chen, Weiguo; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, and Ki67 have been increasingly evaluated by core needle biopsy (CNB) and are recommended for classifying breast cancer into molecular subtypes. However, the concordance rate between CNB and open excision biopsy (OEB) has not been well documented. Patients with paired CNB and OEB samples from Oct. 2009 to Feb. 2012 in Ruijin Hospital were included. ER, PgR, HER2, and Ki67 were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Patients with HER2 IHC 2+ were further examined by FISH. Cutoff value for Ki67 high expression was 14%. Molecular subtypes were constructed as follows: Luminal A, Luminal B, Triple Negative, and HER2 positive. There were 298 invasive breast cancer patients analyzed. Concordance rates for ER, PgR, and HER2 were 93.6%, 85.9%, and 96.3%, respectively. Ki67 expression was slightly higher in OEB than in CNB samples (29.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.046). Good agreement (κ = 0.658) was demonstrated in evaluating molecular subtypes between CNB and OEB, with a concordance rate of 77.2%. We also used a different Ki67 cutoff value (20%) for determining Luminal A and B subtypes in HR (hormone receptor) +/HER2- diseases and the overall concordance rate was 79.2%. However, using a cut-point of Ki67 either 14% or 20% for both specimens, there will be about 14% of HR+/HER2- specimens that are called Luminal A on CNB and Luminal B on OEB. CNB was accurate in determining ER, PgR, and HER2 status as well as non-Luminal molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer. Ki67 should be retested on OEB samples in HR+/HER2- patients to accurately distinguish Luminal A from B tumors

  9. Training Program in the Molecular Basis of Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    the pathogenesis of these cancers. In concert decidua were immunostained with an anti-BrdU monoclonal with Knudson’s "two- hit " theory of...12618-12622ical homogeneity from bovine testes. The high level of DNA 32. Higashitani, A., Tabata , S., Endo, H., and Hotta, Y. (1990) Cell Struct. Funct...separate enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 250:8438-8444. 21. Higashitani, A., S. Tabata , H. Endo, and Y. Hotta. 1990. Purification of DNA 51. Stubbs, L., and H

  10. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging parameters in tumor and peritumoral stroma for prediction of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hui; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer can be classified into four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Basal-like, which have significant differences in treatment and survival outcomes. We in this study aim to predict immunohistochemistry (IHC) determined molecular subtypes of breast cancer using image features derived from tumor and peritumoral stroma region based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). A dataset of 126 breast cancer patients were collected who underwent preoperative breast MRI with a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were recorded from DWI, and breast image was segmented into regions comprising the tumor and the surrounding stromal. Statistical characteristics in various breast tumor and peritumoral regions were computed, including mean, minimum, maximum, variance, interquartile range, range, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values. Additionally, the difference of features between each two regions were also calculated. The univariate logistic based classifier was performed for evaluating the performance of the individual features for discriminating subtypes. For multi-class classification, multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. The results showed that the tumor boundary and proximal peritumoral stroma region derived features have a higher performance in classification compared to that of the other regions. Furthermore, the prediction model using statistical features, difference features and all the features combined from these regions generated AUC values of 0.774, 0.796 and 0.811, respectively. The results in this study indicate that ADC feature in tumor and peritumoral stromal region would be valuable for estimating the molecular subtype in breast cancer.

  11. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms for Aberrant Expression of Breast Cancer Specific Gene 1 in Invasive and Metastatic Breast Carcinomas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jingwen

    2005-01-01

    ...%) of tumor tissues of diversified cancer types including liver, esophagus, colon, gastric, lung, prostate, cervical, and breast cancer but rarely expressed in tumor matched non neoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) (0.6...

  12. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  15. Risk Differences Between Prediabetes And Diabetes According To Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, A; Augustin, L S A; Grimaldi, M; Nocerino, F; Giudice, A; Cavalcanti, E; Di Bonito, M; Botti, G; De Laurentiis, M; Rinaldo, M; Esposito, E; Riccardi, G; Amore, A; Libra, M; Ciliberto, G; Jenkins, D J A; Montella, M

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in breast carcinogenesis and prediabetes and diabetes have been associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk. However, whether BC molecular subtypes may modify these associations is less clear. We therefore investigated these associations in all cases and by BC molecular subtypes among women living in Southern Italy. Cases were 557 patients with non-metastatic incident BC and controls were 592 outpatients enrolled during the same period as cases and in the same hospital for skin-related non-malignant conditions. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models were built to assess the risks of developing BC in the presence of prediabetes or diabetes. The analyses were repeated by strata of BC molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2+, and Triple Negative (TN). Prediabetes and diabetes were significantly associated with higher BC incidence after controlling for known risk factors (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.32-2.87 and OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.38-4.37, respectively). Similar results were seen in Luminal A and B while in the TN subtype only prediabetes was associated with BC (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.11-5.32). Among HER2+ patients, only diabetes was significantly associated with BC risk (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.24-7.47). Furthermore, when postmenopausal HER2+ was split into hormone receptor positive versus negative, the association with diabetes remained significant only in the former (OR = 5.13, 95% CI 1.53-17.22). These results suggest that prediabetes and diabetes are strongly associated with BC incidence and that these metabolic conditions may be more relevant in the presence of breast cancer molecular subtypes with positive hormone receptors. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1144-1150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  17. Response monitoring of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative ultrasound, texture, and molecular features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan Sannachi

    Full Text Available Pathological response of breast cancer to chemotherapy is a prognostic indicator for long-term disease free and overall survival. Responses of locally advanced breast cancer in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC settings are often variable, and the prediction of response is imperfect. The purpose of this study was to detect primary tumor responses early after the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative ultrasound (QUS, textural analysis and molecular features in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.The study included ninety six patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast tumors were scanned with a clinical ultrasound system prior to chemotherapy treatment, during the first, fourth and eighth week of treatment, and prior to surgery. Quantitative ultrasound parameters and scatterer-based features were calculated from ultrasound radio frequency (RF data within tumor regions of interest. Additionally, texture features were extracted from QUS parametric maps. Prior to therapy, all patients underwent a core needle biopsy and histological subtypes and biomarker ER, PR, and HER2 status were determined. Patients were classified into three treatment response groups based on combination of clinical and pathological analyses: complete responders (CR, partial responders (PR, and non-responders (NR. Response classifications from QUS parameters, receptors status and pathological were compared. Discriminant analysis was performed on extracted parameters using a support vector machine classifier to categorize subjects into CR, PR, and NR groups at all scan times.Of the 96 patients, the number of CR, PR and NR patients were 21, 52, and 23, respectively. The best prediction of treatment response was achieved with the combination mean QUS values, texture and molecular features with accuracies of 78%, 86% and 83% at weeks 1, 4, and 8, after treatment respectively. Mean QUS parameters or clinical receptors status alone predicted the

  18. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.

    2006-01-01

    .5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis. In addition, the relationship between...

  19. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects cell signaling in breast cancer - molecularly distinct behavior of cathepsin K in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Gouvea, Iuri Estrada; Silva, Mariana Cristina C.; Castro, Eloísa Dognani; Paula, Cláudia A. A. de; Okamoto, Debora; Oliveira, Lilian; Peres, Giovani Bravin; Ottaiano, Tatiana; Facina, Gil; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Campos, Antonio Hugo J. F. M.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Juliano, Maria; Silva, Ismael D. C. G. da; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.; Girão, Manoel J. B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer comprises clinically and molecularly distinct tumor subgroups that differ in cell histology and biology and show divergent clinical phenotypes that impede phase III trials, such as those utilizing cathepsin K inhibitors. Here we correlate the epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition breast cancer cells and cathepsin K secretion with activation and aggregation of platelets. Cathepsin K is up-regulated in cancer cells that proteolyze extracellular matrix and contributes to invasiveness. Although proteolytically activated receptors (PARs) are activated by proteases, the direct interaction of cysteine cathepsins with PARs is poorly understood. In human platelets, PAR-1 and −4 are highly expressed, but PAR-3 shows low expression and unclear functions. Platelet aggregation was monitored by measuring changes in turbidity. Platelets were immunoblotted with anti-phospho and total p38, Src-Tyr-416, FAK-Tyr-397, and TGFβ monoclonal antibody. Activation was measured in a flow cytometer and calcium mobilization in a confocal microscope. Mammary epithelial cells were prepared from the primary breast cancer samples of 15 women with Luminal-B subtype to produce primary cells. We demonstrate that platelets are aggregated by cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner, but not by other cysteine cathepsins. PARs-3 and −4 were confirmed as the cathepsin K target by immunodetection and specific antagonists using a fibroblast cell line derived from PARs deficient mice. Moreover, through co-culture experiments, we show that platelets activated by cathepsin K mediated the up-regulation of SHH, PTHrP, OPN, and TGFβ in epithelial-mesenchymal-like cells from patients with Luminal B breast cancer. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects signaling in breast cancer cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2203-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Molecular genetics analysis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumittra, Nagasamy; Meenakumari, Balaiah; Parija, Tithi; Sridevi, Veluswami; Nancy, Karunakaran N; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Rajalekshmy, Kamalalayam R; Majhi, Urmila; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2009-01-01

    Background Hereditary cancers account for 5–10% of cancers. In this study BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2*(1100delC) were analyzed for mutations in 91 HBOC/HBC/HOC families and early onset breast and early onset ovarian cancer cases. Methods PCR-DHPLC was used for mutation screening followed by DNA sequencing for identification and confirmation of mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were computed for five-year survival data on Breast and Ovarian cancer cases separately, and differences were tested using the Log-rank test. Results Fifteen (16%) pathogenic mutations (12 in BRCA1 and 3 in BRCA2), of which six were novel BRCA1 mutations were identified. None of the cases showed CHEK2*1100delC mutation. Many reported polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were also seen. The mutation status and the polymorphisms were analyzed for association with the clinico-pathological features like age, stage, grade, histology, disease status, survival (overall and disease free) and with prognostic molecular markers (ER, PR, c-erbB2 and p53). Conclusion The stage of the disease at diagnosis was the only statistically significant (p < 0.0035) prognostic parameter. The mutation frequency and the polymorphisms were similar to reports on other ethnic populations. The lack of association between the clinico-pathological variables, mutation status and the disease status is likely to be due to the small numbers. PMID:19656415

  1. Molecular genetics analysis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumittra Nagasamy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cancers account for 5–10% of cancers. In this study BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2*(1100delC were analyzed for mutations in 91 HBOC/HBC/HOC families and early onset breast and early onset ovarian cancer cases. Methods PCR-DHPLC was used for mutation screening followed by DNA sequencing for identification and confirmation of mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were computed for five-year survival data on Breast and Ovarian cancer cases separately, and differences were tested using the Log-rank test. Results Fifteen (16% pathogenic mutations (12 in BRCA1 and 3 in BRCA2, of which six were novel BRCA1 mutations were identified. None of the cases showed CHEK2*1100delC mutation. Many reported polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were also seen. The mutation status and the polymorphisms were analyzed for association with the clinico-pathological features like age, stage, grade, histology, disease status, survival (overall and disease free and with prognostic molecular markers (ER, PR, c-erbB2 and p53. Conclusion The stage of the disease at diagnosis was the only statistically significant (p

  2. Refinement of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Lehmann

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into distinct molecular subtypes by gene expression profiling. Considered a difficult-to-treat cancer, a fraction of TNBC patients benefit significantly from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have far better overall survival. Outside of BRCA1/2 mutation status, biomarkers do not exist to identify patients most likely to respond to current chemotherapy; and, to date, no FDA-approved targeted therapies are available for TNBC patients. Previously, we developed an approach to identify six molecular subtypes TNBC (TNBCtype, with each subtype displaying unique ontologies and differential response to standard-of-care chemotherapy. Given the complexity of the varying histological landscape of tumor specimens, we used histopathological quantification and laser-capture microdissection to determine that transcripts in the previously described immunomodulatory (IM and mesenchymal stem-like (MSL subtypes were contributed from infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-associated stromal cells, respectively. Therefore, we refined TNBC molecular subtypes from six (TNBCtype into four (TNBCtype-4 tumor-specific subtypes (BL1, BL2, M and LAR and demonstrate differences in diagnosis age, grade, local and distant disease progression and histopathology. Using five publicly available, neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer gene expression datasets, we retrospectively evaluated chemotherapy response of over 300 TNBC patients from pretreatment biopsies subtyped using either the intrinsic (PAM50 or TNBCtype approaches. Combined analysis of TNBC patients demonstrated that TNBC subtypes significantly differ in response to similar neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 41% of BL1 patients achieving a pathological complete response compared to 18% for BL2 and 29% for LAR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs; [33, 51], [9, 28], [17, 41], respectively. Collectively, we provide pre-clinical data that could inform

  3. Distinct distribution and prognostic significance of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Chinese women: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qiuyin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular classification of breast cancer is an important prognostic factor. The distribution of molecular subtypes of breast cancer and their prognostic value has not been well documented in Asians. Methods A total of 2,791 breast cancer patients recruited for a population-based cohort study were evaluated for molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemical assays. Data on clinicopathological characteristics were confirmed by centralized pathology review. The average follow-up of the patients was 53.4 months. Overall and disease-free survival by molecular subtypes of breast cancer were evaluated. Results The prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and triple-negative subtypes were 48.6%, 16.7%, 13.7%, and 12.9%, respectively. The luminal A subtype was more likely to be diagnosed in older women (P = 0.03 and had a stronger correlation with favorable clinicopathological factors (smaller tumor size, lower histologic grade, and earlier TNM stage than the triple-negative or HER2 subtypes. Women with triple-negative breast cancer had a higher frequency of family history of breast cancer than women with other subtypes (P = 0.048. The 5-year overall/disease-free survival percentages for the luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple-negative subtypes were 92.9%/88.6%, 88.6%/85.1%, 83.2%/79.1%, and 80.7%/76.0%, respectively. A similar pattern was observed in multivariate analyses. Immunotherapy was associated with improved overall and disease-free survival for luminal A breast cancer, but reduced disease-free survival (HR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.09-4.48 for the HER2 subtype of breast cancer. Conclusions The triple-negative and HER2 subtypes were associated with poorer outcomes compared with the luminal A subtype among these Chinese women. The HER2 subtype was more prevalent in this Chinese population compared with Western populations, suggesting the importance of standardized HER2

  4. [Sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Its relation with molecular subtypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, R; Ramos, M; García-Talavera, J R; Ramos, T; Rosero, A S; González-Orus, J M; Sancho, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the molecular subtype (MS) in the Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) technique after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in women with locally advanced breast cancer (BC) and a complete axillary response (CR). A prospective study involving 70 patients with BC treated with NAC was carried out. An axillary lymph node dissection was performed in the first 48 patients (validation group: VG), and in case of micro- or macrometastases in the therapeutic application phase (therapy group:TG). Classified according to MS: 14 luminal A; 16 luminal B HER2-, 13 luminal B HER2+, 10HER2+ non-luminal, 17 triple-negative. SNB was carried out in 98.6% of the cases, with only one false negative result in the VG (FN=2%). Molecular subtype did not affect SN detection. Despite the existence of axillary CR, statistically significant differences were found in the proportion of macrometastasis (16.7% vs. 35.7%, p=0.043) on comparing the pre-NAC cN0 and cN+. Breast tumor response to NAC varied among the different MS, this being lowest in luminal A (21.5%) and highest in non-luminal HER2+ group (80%). HER2+ and triple-negative were the groups with the best axillary histological response both when there was prior clinical involvement and when there was not. Molecular subtype is a predictive factor of the degree of tumor response to NAC in breast cancer. However, it does not affect SNB detection and efficiency. SNB can also be used safely in women with prior node involvement as long as a complete clinical and radiological assessment is made of the node response to NAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  6. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  7. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  8. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  9. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with 99m Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as 99m Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of 99m Tc sestamibi and 99m Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with 99m Tc sestamibi and one with 99m Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ( 99m Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; 99m Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for 99m Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or 99m Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals. AUC from ROC

  10. Integrated Development of Serum Molecular Markers for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    development of breast cancer screening test. Increasing our understanding of the role of biomarkers in the etiology and progression of breast cancer...granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia . Hypertens Pregnancy 1999;18:95 – 106. 50. Bux J, Hofmann C, Welte K. Serum G-CSF

  11. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodutta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, bisphenols (BPs, and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

  12. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  13. Revisiting the impact of age and molecular subtype on overall survival after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Jian Hua; Diest, Paul J.Van; Perez-Losada, Jesus; Snijders, Antoine M

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer (BC) is often used to eradicate remaining tumor cells following surgery with the goal of maximizing local control and increasing overall survival. The current study investigated the impact of age and BC molecular subtype on overall survival after RT using

  14. Are Breast Cancer Molecular Classes Predictive of Survival in Patients with Long Follow-Up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Pracella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the clinical outcomes of 305 breast cancer (BC patients, aged 55 years or younger, with long follow-up and according to intrinsic subtypes. The cohort included 151 lymph node negative (LN− and 154 lymph node positive (LN+ patients. Luminal A tumors were mainly LN−, well differentiated, and of stage I; among them AR was an indicator of good prognosis. Luminal B and HER2 positive nonluminal cancers showed higher tumor grade and nodal metastases as well as higher proliferation status and stage. Among luminal tumors, those PR positive and vimentin negative showed a longer survival. HER2-positive nonluminal and TN patients showed a poorer outcome, with BC-specific death mostly occurring within 5 and 10 years. Only luminal tumor patients underwent BC death over 10 years. When patients were divided in to LN− and LN+ no differences in survival were observed in the luminal subgroups. LN− patients have good survival even after 20 years of follow-up (about 75%, while for LN+ patients survival at 20 years (around 40% was comparable to HER2-positive nonluminal and TN groups. In conclusion, in our experience ER-positive breast tumors are better divided by classical clinical stage than molecular classification, and they need longer clinical follow-up especially in cases with lymph node involvement.

  15. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  16. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. Tumour-associated endothelial-FAK correlated with molecular sub-type and prognostic factors in invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulou, Annika N; Ho-Yen, Colan M; Papalazarou, Vassilis; Elia, George; Jones, J Louise; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into one of 4 main molecular sub-types: luminal A, luminal B, Her2 over-expressing and basal-like (BL). These tumour sub-types require different treatments and have different risks of disease progression. BL cancers can be considered a sub-group of Triple negative (TN) cancers since they lack estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and Her2 expression. No targeted treatment currently exists for TN/BL cancers. Thus it is important to identify potential therapeutic targets and describe their relationship with established prognostic factors. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is upregulated in several human cancers and also plays a functional role in tumour angiogenesis. However, the association between breast cancer sub-types and tumour endothelial-FAK expression is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, we quantified FAK expression in tumour endothelial and tumour cell compartments in 149 invasive breast carcinomas and correlated expression with clinical, pathological and molecular parameters. Low endothelial-FAK expression was independently associated with luminal A tumours at univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.001) analysis. There was a positive correlation between FAK expression in the vascular and tumour cell compartments (Spearman’s correlation co-efficient = 0.394, p < 0.001). Additionally, endothelial and tumour cell FAK expression were significantly increased in TN tumours (p = 0.043 and p = 0.033 respectively), in tumours with negative ER and PR status, and in high grade tumours at univariate analysis. Our findings establish a relationship between endothelial-FAK expression levels and the molecular sub-type of invasive breast cancer, and suggest that endothelial-FAK expression is potentially more clinically relevant than tumour cell FAK expression in breast cancer

  18. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  19. Molecular profiles of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancer and their impact on survival: results from a clinical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispo, Anna; Esposito, Emanuela; Amore, Alfonso; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Montella, Maurizio; Barba, Maddalena; D’Aiuto, Giuseppe; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Grimaldi, Maria; Rinaldo, Massimo; Caolo, Giuseppina; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata

    2013-01-01

    Stage shift is widely considered a major determinant of the survival benefit conferred by breast cancer screening. However, factors and mechanisms underlying such a prognostic advantage need further clarification. We sought to compare the molecular characteristics of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancers and assess whether differences in tumour biology might translate into survival benefit. In a clinical series of 448 women with operable breast cancer, the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to estimate the likelihood of cancer recurrence and death. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for the multivariate analyses including mode of detection, age at diagnosis, tumour size, and lymph node status. These same models were applied to subgroups defined by molecular subtypes. Screen detected breast cancers tended to show more favourable clinicopathological features and survival outcomes compared to symptomatic cancers. The luminal A subtype was more common in women with mammography detected tumours than in symptomatic patients (68.5 vs. 59.0%, p=0.04). Data analysis across categories of molecular subtypes revealed significantly longer disease free and overall survival for screen detected cancers with a luminal A subtype only (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). For women with a luminal A subtype, the independent prognostic role of mode of detection on recurrence was confirmed in Cox proportional hazard models (p=0.03). An independent role of modality of detection on survival was also suggested (p=0.05). Molecular subtypes did not substantially explain the differences in survival outcomes between screened and symptomatic patients. However, our results suggest that molecular profiles might play a role in interpreting such differences at least partially. Further studies are warranted to reinterpret the efficacy of screening programmes in the light of tumour biology

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2017-12-16

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming; He, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Xin; Li, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  2. Anticancer potential of phytochemicals against breast cancer: Molecular docking and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer malignancy is prevailing among the women not only from the developing countries but also from the developed one at the rate of 18% of total population worldwide. One of the main causes of breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha. Overexpression of estrogen receptor is seen in number of cases of breast cancer. Tamoxifen was used as a reference drug in present study. Almost 80,000 species of plants are used as a source of medicines. Current study was totally based on the screening of phytochemicals to find out the biomolecules having strong bonding actions as compared to tamoxifen. Present study exhibited that 10 molecules (kushenol K, silybin, taxifolin 3-O-acetate, rosemarinic acid, secundifloran, kushenol N, kurarinol, podophyllotoxone, AC1LCW2L, leachianone G have successful and potential binding with the target molecule as compared to tamoxifen. These molecules can be used for the treatment of breast cancer and birth control.

  3. Molecular genetics analysis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in India

    OpenAIRE

    Soumittra, Nagasamy; Meenakumari, Balaiah; Parija, Tithi; Sridevi, Veluswami; Nancy, Karunakaran N; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Rajalekshmy, Kamalalayam R; Majhi, Urmila; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hereditary cancers account for 5–10% of cancers. In this study BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2*(1100delC) were analyzed for mutations in 91 HBOC/HBC/HOC families and early onset breast and early onset ovarian cancer cases. Methods PCR-DHPLC was used for mutation screening followed by DNA sequencing for identification and confirmation of mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were computed for five-year survival data on Breast and Ovarian cancer cases separately, and differe...

  4. Uncovering the molecular secrets of inflammatory breast cancer biology: an integrated analysis of three distinct affymetrix gene expression datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven J; Ueno, Naoto T; Finetti, Pascal; Vermeulen, Peter; Lucci, Anthony; Robertson, Fredika M; Marsan, Melike; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Masuda, Hiroko; van Dam, Peter; Woodward, Wendy A; Viens, Patrice; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Birnbaum, Daniel; Dirix, Luc; Reuben, James M; Bertucci, François

    2013-09-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a poorly characterized form of breast cancer. So far, the results of expression profiling in IBC are inconclusive due to various reasons including limited sample size. Here, we present the integration of three Affymetrix expression datasets collected through the World IBC Consortium allowing us to interrogate the molecular profile of IBC using the largest series of IBC samples ever reported. Affymetrix profiles (HGU133-series) from 137 patients with IBC and 252 patients with non-IBC (nIBC) were analyzed using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Samples were classified according to the molecular subtypes using the PAM50-algorithm. Regression models were used to delineate IBC-specific and molecular subtype-independent changes in gene expression, pathway, and transcription factor activation. Four robust IBC-sample clusters were identified, associated with the different molecular subtypes (Pmolecular subtype-independent 79-gene signature, which held independent prognostic value in a series of 871 nIBCs. Functional analysis revealed attenuated TGF-β signaling in IBC. We show that IBC is transcriptionally heterogeneous and that all molecular subtypes described in nIBC are detectable in IBC, albeit with a different frequency. The molecular profile of IBC, bearing molecular traits of aggressive breast tumor biology, shows attenuation of TGF-β signaling, potentially explaining the metastatic potential of IBC tumor cells in an unexpected manner. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Invasive lobular breast cancer: the prognostic impact of histopathological grade, E-cadherin and molecular subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrøm, Monica J; Opdahl, Signe; Vatten, Lars J; Haugen, Olav A; Bofin, Anna M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and, further, to evaluate critically the prognostic value of histopathological grading of ILC and examine E-cadherin as a prognostic marker in ILC. The study comprised 116 lobular and 611 ductal breast carcinomas occurring between 1961 and 2008. All cases had been classified previously according to histopathological type and grade, stained for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), antigen Ki67 (Ki67), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and classified into molecular subtypes. For the present study, immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin was performed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used in the analyses. Grade 2 tumours comprised 85.3% of the lobular tumours and 51.9% of the ductal tumours. BCSS in ILC grade 2 was comparable to that of IDC grade 3. E-cadherin-negative ILC had a poorer prognosis compared to E-cadherin positive ILC and to IDC regardless of E-cadherin status. The implication of histopathological grading may differ in ILC compared to IDC. E-cadherin may be useful in prognostication in ILC and thereby influence the determination of treatment strategies for this group of women. © 2014 The Authors. Histopathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. СD44+/CD24- markers of cancer stem cells in patients with breast cancer of different molecular subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, S V; Zadvorny, T V; Tymovska, Yu O; Anikusko, M F; Novak, O E; Polishchuk, L Z

    2015-03-01

    To determine frequency of tumors with immunohistochemical markers of cancer stem cells (CSC) CD44+/CD24- in patients with breast cancer (BC) of different molecular subtype and to evaluate their prognostic value. Surgical material of 132 patients with BC stage I-II, age from 23 to 75 years, mean age - 50.2 ± 3.1 years was studied. Clinical, immunohistochemical (expression CD44+/CD24-), morphological, statistical. BC is characterized by heterogeneity of molecular subtypes and expression of markers (CD44+/CD24-). Immunohistochemical study of expression of CSC markers in surgical material has detected their expression in 34 (25.4%) patients with BC of different molecular subtypes. The highest frequency of cells with expression of CSC marker was observed in patients with basal molecular subtype (44.8% patients). Most of BC patients with phenotype CD44+/CD24 had stage I of tumor process (34.3%). Statistical processing of data has showen that Yule colligation coefficient equaled 0.28 (р > 0.05) that argues poor correlation between stage of tumor process and number of tumors with positive expression of CSC markers. Statistical processing of data has showen high correlation between presence of cells with expression of CSC markers and metastases of BC in regional lymph nodes (Yule colligation coefficient equals 0.943; р molecular subtype depending on expression of CSC CD44+/CD24- markers was detected. Survival of patients with basal BC was reliably higher at lack in tumors of cells with CSC markers CD44+/CD24- and, correspondingly, lower at presence of such cells (р markers was not determined (р > 0.05). Significance of tumor cells with markers CD44+/CD24- within the limits of molecular subtype of BC may be additional criterion for advanced biological characteristic of BC, and in patients with BC of basal molecular subtype - for predictive evaluation of individual potential of tumor to aggressive clinical course.

  7. The Risk and Clinical/Molecular Characteristics of Breast Cancer in Women with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    diagnostic criteria for her case. Without the family history , this woman would not fit the diagnostic criteria for NF1. In addition, based on the... woman in this cohort and belong to a total of 16 kinships (Table 1). Family history of NF1 in female relatives was collected based on the pedigree in...cancer and other cancers. A total of 423 cases of NF1 women have been reviewed. History of breast cancer was found in 20. Family history of cancer

  8. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. Molecular characterization of irinotecan (SN-38) resistant human breast cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jandu, Haatisha; Aluzaite, Kristina; Fogh, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in taxane and/or anthracycline refractory metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients have shown approximately 30 % response rates to irinotecan. Hence, a significant number of patients will experience irinotecan-induced side effects without obtaining any benefit. The aim of this ......Background: Studies in taxane and/or anthracycline refractory metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients have shown approximately 30 % response rates to irinotecan. Hence, a significant number of patients will experience irinotecan-induced side effects without obtaining any benefit. The aim...... or an initial high dose of SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan), respectively. The resistant cell lines were analyzed for cross-resistance to other anti-cancer drugs, global gene expression, growth rates, TOP1 and TOP2A gene copy numbers and protein expression, and inhibition of the breast cancer...... of the BCRP in breast cancer patients scheduled for irinotecan treatment. Moreover, LMP400 should be tested in a clinical setting in breast cancer patients with resistance to irinotecan....

  10. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  11. Epstein-Barr virus and breast cancer: Epidemiological and Molecular study on Egyptian and Iraqi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations

  12. Molecular and protein markers for clinical decision making in breast cancer: today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Nadia; Sotlar, Karl; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Doisneau-Sixou, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    In early breast cancer (eBC), established clinicopathological factors are not sufficient for clinical decision making particularly regarding adjuvant chemotherapy since substantial over- or undertreatment may occur. Thus, novel protein- and molecular markers have been put forward as decision aids. Since these potential prognosis and/or predictive tests differ substantially regarding their methodology, analytical and clinical validation, this review attempts to summarize the essential facts for clinicians. This review focuses on those markers which are the most advanced so far in their development towards routine clinical application, i.e. two protein markers (i.e. uPA/PAI-1 and IHC4) and six molecular multigene tests (i.e. Mammaprint®, Oncotype DX®, PAM50, Endopredict®, the 97-gene genomic grade, and 76 gene Rotterdam signatures). Next to methodological aspects, we summarized the clinical evidences, in particular the main prospective clinical trials which have already been fully recruited (i.e. MINDACT, TAILORx, WSG PLAN B) or are still ongoing (i.e. RxPONDER/SWOG S1007, WSG-ADAPT). Last but not least, this review points out the key elements for clinicians to select one test among the wide panel of proposed assays, for a specific population of patients in term of level of evidence, analytical and clinical validity as well as cost effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutant p53 protein in serum could be used as a molecular marker in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, G A; Mailo, D A; Corte, M M; Roncoroni, P; Nardi, H; Vincent, E; Martinez, D; Cafasso, M E; Frizza, A; Ponce, G; Vincent, E; Barutta, E; Lizarraga, P; Lizarraga, G; Monti, C; Paolillo, E; Vincent, R; Quatroquio, R; Grimi, C; Maturi, H; Aimale, M; Spinsanti, C; Montero, H; Santiago, J; Shulman, L; Rivadulla, M; Machiavelli, M; Salum, G; Cuevas, M A; Picolini, J; Gentili, A; Gentili, R; Mordoh, J

    2006-04-01

    p53 wild-type is a tumor suppressor gene involved in DNA gene transcription or DNA repair mechanisms. When damage to DNA is unrepairable, p53 induces programmed cell death (apoptosis). The mutant p53 gene is the most frequent molecular alteration in human cancer, including breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the genetic alterations in p53 oncogene expression in 55 patients with breast cancer at different stages and in 8 normal women. We measured by ELISA assay the serum levels of p53 mutant protein and p53 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR using specific p53 primers as well as mutation detection by DNA sequencing were also evaluated in breast tumor tissue. Serological p53 antibody analysis detected 0/8 (0%), 0/4 (0%) and 9/55 (16.36%) positive cases in normal women, in patients with benign breast disease and in breast carcinoma, respectively. We found positive p53 mutant in the sera of 0/8 (0.0%) normal women, 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease and 29/55 (52.72%) with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry evaluation was positive in 29/55 (52.73%) with mammary carcinoma and 0/4 (0%) with benign breast disease. A very good correlation between p53 mutant protein detected in serum and p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry (83.3% positive in both assays) was found in this study. These data suggest that detection of mutated p53 could be a useful serological marker for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  15. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  16. Association of Screening and Treatment With Breast Cancer Mortality by Molecular Subtype in US Women, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevritis, Sylvia K; Munoz, Diego; Kurian, Allison W; Stout, Natasha K; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Near, Aimee M; Lee, Sandra J; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Huang, Xuelin; Schechter, Clyde B; Sprague, Brian L; Song, Juhee; de Koning, Harry J; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Gangnon, Ronald; Chandler, Young; Li, Yisheng; Xu, Cong; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Huang, Hui; Berry, Donald A; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2018-01-09

    Given recent advances in screening mammography and adjuvant therapy (treatment), quantifying their separate and combined effects on US breast cancer mortality reductions by molecular subtype could guide future decisions to reduce disease burden. To evaluate the contributions associated with screening and treatment to breast cancer mortality reductions by molecular subtype based on estrogen-receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2 or HER2/neu). Six Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) models simulated US breast cancer mortality from 2000 to 2012 using national data on plain-film and digital mammography patterns and performance, dissemination and efficacy of ER/ERBB2-specific treatment, and competing mortality. Multiple US birth cohorts were simulated. Screening mammography and treatment. The models compared age-adjusted, overall, and ER/ERBB2-specific breast cancer mortality rates from 2000 to 2012 for women aged 30 to 79 years relative to the estimated mortality rate in the absence of screening and treatment (baseline rate); mortality reductions were apportioned to screening and treatment. In 2000, the estimated reduction in overall breast cancer mortality rate was 37% (model range, 27%-42%) relative to the estimated baseline rate in 2000 of 64 deaths (model range, 56-73) per 100 000 women: 44% (model range, 35%-60%) of this reduction was associated with screening and 56% (model range, 40%-65%) with treatment. In 2012, the estimated reduction in overall breast cancer mortality rate was 49% (model range, 39%-58%) relative to the estimated baseline rate in 2012 of 63 deaths (model range, 54-73) per 100 000 women: 37% (model range, 26%-51%) of this reduction was associated with screening and 63% (model range, 49%-74%) with treatment. Of the 63% associated with treatment, 31% (model range, 22%-37%) was associated with chemotherapy, 27% (model range, 18%-36%) with hormone therapy, and 4% (model range, 1

  17. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in a total reduction in energy expenditure. Together with a decrease in physical activity and consumption of a high fat diet, these factors significantly contribute to obesity in postmenopausal women. Obesity may contribute to breast cancer development through several mechanisms. Obesity causes localized inflammation, an increase in local estrogen production, and changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, obese women have a higher risk of insulin insensitivity, and an increase in insulin and other growth factor secretion. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the molecular actions of estrogen and progesterone and their contributions to cellular metabolism, obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer. We also discuss how modifications of estrogen and progesterone actions might be used as a therapeutic approach for obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  18. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  20. Molecular imaging: High-resolution detectors for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: Franco.garibaldi@iss.infn.it; Cisbani, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Colilli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Cusanno, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Giuliani, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Gricia, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Lucentini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Lo Meo, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Magliozzi, M.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Santanvenere, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Cinti, M.N. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pani, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [University Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, O. [University Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Del Vecchio, S. [CNR Napoli, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, M. [CNR Napoli, Naples (Italy); Majewski, S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Lanza, R.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); De Vincentis, G. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    Dedicated high-resolution detectors are required for detection of small cancerous breast tumours by molecular imaging with radionuclides. Absorptive collimation is normally applied in imaging single photon emitters, but it results in a strong reduction in detection efficiency. Systems based on electronic collimation are complex and expensive. For these reasons simulations and measurements have been performed to design optimised dedicated high-resolution mini gamma camera. Critical parameters are contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Intrinsic performance (spatial resolution, pixel identification, and response linearity and uniformity) were first optimised. Pixellated scintillator arrays (NaI(Tl)) of different pixel size were coupled to arrays of PSPMTs with different anode pad dimensions (6x6 mm{sup 2} and 3x3 mm{sup 2}). Detectors having a field of view (FOV) of 100x100 mm{sup 2} and 150x200 mm{sup 2} were designed and built. The electronic system allows read out of all the anode pad signals. The collimation technique was then considered and limits of coded aperture option were studied. Preliminary results are presented.

  1. Widespread molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines, with implications for human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent landmark studies have profiled cancer cell lines for molecular features, along with measuring the corresponding growth inhibitory effects for specific drug compounds. These data present a tool for determining which subsets of human cancer might be more responsive to particular drugs. To this end, the NCI-DREAM-sponsored DREAM7: Drug Sensitivity Prediction Challenge (sub-challenge 1 set out to predict the sensitivities of 18 breast cancer cell lines to 31 previously untested compounds, on the basis of molecular profiling data and a training subset of cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS: With 47 teams submitting blinded predictions, team Creighton scored third in terms of overall accuracy. Team Creighton's method was simple and straightforward, incorporated multiple expression data types (RNA-seq, gene array, RPPA, and incorporated all profiled features (not only the "best" predictive ones. As an extension of the approach, cell line data, from public datasets of expression profiling coupled with drug sensitivities (Barretina, Garnett, Heiser were used to "predict" the drug sensitivities in human breast tumors (using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Drug sensitivity correlations within human breast tumors showed differences by expression-based subtype, with many associations in line with the expected (e.g. Lapatinib sensitivity in HER2-enriched cancers and others inviting further study (e.g. relative resistance to PI3K inhibitors in basal-like cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity are widespread, with potentially hundreds of genes that could be incorporated into making predictions, as well as offering biological clues as to the mechanisms involved. Applying the cell line patterns to human tumor data may help generate hypotheses on what tumor subsets might be more responsive to therapies, where multiple cell line datasets representing various drugs may be used, in order to assess consistency of

  2. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  3. Clinical Trials of Precision Medicine through Molecular Profiling: Focus on Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput technologies of molecular profiling in cancer, such as gene-expression profiling and next-generation sequencing, are expanding our knowledge of the molecular landscapes of several cancer types. This increasing knowledge coupled with the development of several molecularly targeted agents hold the promise for personalized cancer medicine to be fully realized. Moreover, an expanding armamentarium of targeted agents has been approved for the treatment of specific molecular cancer subgroups in different diagnoses. According to this paradigm, treatment selection should be dictated by the specific molecular aberrations found in each patient's tumor. The classical clinical trials paradigm of patients' eligibility being based on clinicopathologic parameters is being abandoned, with current clinical trials enrolling patients on the basis of specific molecular aberrations. New, innovative trial designs have been generated to better tackle the multiple challenges induced by the increasing molecular fragmentation of cancer, namely: (1) longitudinal cohort studies with or without downstream trials, (2) studies assessing the clinical utility of molecular profiling, (3) master or umbrella trials, (4) basket trials, (5) N-of-1 trials, and (6) adaptive design trials. This article provides an overview of the challenges for clinical trials in the era of molecular profiling of cancer. Subsequently, innovative trial designs with respective examples and their potential to expedite efficient clinical development of targeted anticancer agents is discussed.

  4. Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Frías, Orquidea; Pérez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Martínez, Lisa; Sánchez, Carola; Capó-Ramos, David E; González-Keelan, Carmen; Mora, Edna; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan–Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63–11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30–5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival

  5. Efficient dynamic molecular simulation using QSAR model to know inhibition activity in breast cancer medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharifah, A.; Kusumowardani, E.; Saputro, A.; Sarwinda, D.

    2017-07-01

    According to data from GLOBOCAN (IARC) at 2012, breast cancer was the highest rated of new cancer case by 43.3 % (after controlled by age), with mortality rated as high as 12.9 %. Oncology is a major field which focusing on improving the development of drug and therapeutics cancer in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Nowadays, many researchers lead to computational chemistry and bioinformatic for pharmacophore generation. A pharmacophore describes as a group of atoms in the molecule which is considered to be responsible for a pharmacological action. Prediction of biological function from chemical structure in silico modeling reduces the use of chemical reagents so the risk of environmental pollution decreased. In this research, we proposed QSAR model to analyze the composition of cancer drugs which assumed to be homogenous in character and treatment. Atomic interactions which analyzed are learned through parameters such as log p as descriptors hydrophobic, n_poinas descriptor contour strength and molecular structure, and also various concentrations inhibitor (micromolar and nanomolar) from NCBI drugs bank. The differences inhibitor activity was observed by the presence of IC 50 residues value from inhibitor substances at various concentration. Then, we got a general overview of the state of safety for drug stability seen from its IC 50 value. In our study, we also compared between micromolar and nanomolar inhibitor effect from QSAR model results. The QSAR model analysis shows that the drug concentration with nanomolar is better than micromolar, related with the content of inhibitor substances concentration. This QSAR model got the equation: Log 1/IC50 = (0.284) (±0.195) logP + (0.02) (±0.012) n_poin + (-0.005) (±0.083) Inhibition10.2nanoM + (0.1) (±0.079) Inhibition30.5nanoM + (-0.016) (±0.045) Inhibition91.5nanoM + (-2.572) (±1.570) (n = 13; r = 0.813; r2 = 0.660; s = 0.764; F = 2.720; q2 = 0.660).

  6. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  7. The prognostic role of tumor size in early breast cancer in the era of molecular biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaid Anna Kasangian

    Full Text Available The prognosis of early breast cancer (EBC depends on patient and tumor characteristics. The association between tumor size, the largest diameter in TNM staging, and prognosis is well recognized. According to TNM, tumors classified as T2, could have very different volumes; e.g. a tumor of 2.1 cm has a volume of 4500 mm3, while a tumor of 4.9 cm has a volume of 60.000 mm3 even belonging to the same class. The aim of the study is to establish if the prognostic role of tumor size, expressed as diameter and volume, has been overshadowed by other factors.The primary objective is to evaluate the association between tumor dimensions and overall survival (OS / disease free survival (DFS, in our institution from January 1st 2005 to September 30th 2013 in a surgical T1-T2 population. Volume was evaluated with the measurement of three half-diameters of the tumor (a, b and c, and calculated using the following formula: 4/3π x a x b x c.341 patients with T1-T2 EBC were included. 86.5% were treated with conservative surgery. 85.1% had a Luminal subtype, 9.1% were Triple negative and 7.4% were HER2 positive. Median volume was 942 mm3 (range 0.52-31.651.2. 44 patients (12.9% relapsed and 23 patients died. With a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the univariate analysis for DFS showed an association between age, tumor size, volume, histological grading and molecular subtype. The multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant association only for molecular subtype (p 0.005, with a worse prognosis for Triple negative and HER2 positive subtypes compared with Luminal (HR: 2.65; 95%CI: 1.34-5.22. Likewise for OS, an association was shown by the multivariate analysis solely for molecular subtype (HER2 and Triple negative vs. Luminal. HR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.46-5.49; p 0.002.In our study, the only parameter that strongly influences survival is molecular subtype. These findings encourage clinicians to choose adjuvant treatment not based on dimensional criteria

  8. The prognostic role of tumor size in early breast cancer in the era of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasangian, Anaid Anna; Gherardi, Giorgio; Biagioli, Elena; Torri, Valter; Moretti, Anna; Bernardin, Elena; Cordovana, Andrea; Farina, Gabriella; Bramati, Annalisa; Piva, Sheila; Dazzani, Maria Chiara; Paternò, Emanuela; La Verde, Nicla Maria

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of early breast cancer (EBC) depends on patient and tumor characteristics. The association between tumor size, the largest diameter in TNM staging, and prognosis is well recognized. According to TNM, tumors classified as T2, could have very different volumes; e.g. a tumor of 2.1 cm has a volume of 4500 mm3, while a tumor of 4.9 cm has a volume of 60.000 mm3 even belonging to the same class. The aim of the study is to establish if the prognostic role of tumor size, expressed as diameter and volume, has been overshadowed by other factors. The primary objective is to evaluate the association between tumor dimensions and overall survival (OS) / disease free survival (DFS), in our institution from January 1st 2005 to September 30th 2013 in a surgical T1-T2 population. Volume was evaluated with the measurement of three half-diameters of the tumor (a, b and c), and calculated using the following formula: 4/3π x a x b x c. 341 patients with T1-T2 EBC were included. 86.5% were treated with conservative surgery. 85.1% had a Luminal subtype, 9.1% were Triple negative and 7.4% were HER2 positive. Median volume was 942 mm3 (range 0.52-31.651.2). 44 patients (12.9%) relapsed and 23 patients died. With a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the univariate analysis for DFS showed an association between age, tumor size, volume, histological grading and molecular subtype. The multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant association only for molecular subtype (p 0.005), with a worse prognosis for Triple negative and HER2 positive subtypes compared with Luminal (HR: 2.65; 95%CI: 1.34-5.22). Likewise for OS, an association was shown by the multivariate analysis solely for molecular subtype (HER2 and Triple negative vs. Luminal. HR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.46-5.49; p 0.002). In our study, the only parameter that strongly influences survival is molecular subtype. These findings encourage clinicians to choose adjuvant treatment not based on dimensional criteria but on

  9. Triple-negative breast cancer: the importance of molecular and histologic subtyping, and recognition of low-grade variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Geyer, Felipe C; Marchiò, Caterina; Burke, Kathleen A; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), defined by lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, account for 12-17% of breast cancers and are clinically perceived as a discrete breast cancer subgroup. Nonetheless, TNBC has been shown to constitute a vastly heterogeneous disease encompassing a wide spectrum of entities with marked genetic, transcriptional, histological and clinical differences. Although most TNBCs are high-grade tumors, there are well-characterized low-grade TNBCs that have an indolent clinical course, whose natural history, molecular features and optimal therapy vastly differ from those of high-grade TNBCs. Secretory and adenoid cystic carcinomas are two histologic types of TNBCs underpinned by specific fusion genes; these tumors have an indolent clinical behavior and lack all of the cardinal molecular features of high-grade triple-negative disease. Recent studies of rare entities, including lesions once believed to constitute mere benign breast disease (e.g., microglandular adenosis), have resulted in the identification of potential precursors of TNBC and suggested the existence of a family of low-grade triple-negative lesions that, despite having low-grade morphology and indolent clinical behavior, have been shown to harbor the complex genomic landscape of common forms of TNBC, and may progress to high-grade disease. In this review, we describe the heterogeneity of TNBC and focus on the histologic and molecular features of low-grade forms of TNBC. Germane to addressing the challenges posed by the so-called triple-negative disease is the realization that TNBC is merely a descriptive term, and that low-grade types of TNBC may be driven by distinct sets of genetic alterations.

  10. Early metabolic response using FDG PET/CT and molecular phenotypes of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keam, Bhumsuk; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Tae-You; Park, In Ae; Noh, Dong-Young; Chung, June-Key; Bang, Yung-Jue; Im, Seock-Ah; Koh, Youngil; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Jee Hyun; Han, Wonshik; Kang, Keon Wook

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed 1) to investigate the predictive value of FDG PET/CT (fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) for histopathologic response and 2) to explore the results of FDG PET/CT by molecular phenotypes of breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Seventy-eight stage II or III breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. FDG PET/CTs were acquired before chemotherapy and after the first cycle of chemotherapy for evaluating early metabolic response. The mean pre- and post-chemotherapy standard uptake value (SUV) were 7.5 and 3.9, respectively. The early metabolic response provided by FDG PET/CT after one cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was correlated with the histopathologic response after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.002). Sensitivity and negative predictive value were 85.7% and 95.1%, respectively. The estrogen receptor negative phenotype had a higher pre-chemotherapy SUV (8.6 vs. 6.4, P = 0.047) and percent change in SUV (48% vs. 30%, P = 0.038). In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the pre-chemotherapy SUV was higher than in non-TNBC (9.8 vs. 6.4, P = 0.008). The early metabolic response using FDG PET/CT could have a predictive value for the assessment of histopathologic non-response of stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that the initial SUV and the decline in SUV differed based on the molecular phenotype. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01396655

  11. Evaluation of breast cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis: comparison with malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gene Young; Moy, Linda; Kim, Sungheon G; Baete, Steven H; Moccaldi, Melanie; Babb, James S; Sodickson, Daniel K; Sigmund, Eric E

    2016-08-01

    To examine heterogeneous breast cancer through intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) histogram analysis. This HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study included 62 patients (age 48.44 ± 11.14 years, 50 malignant lesions and 12 benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced 3 T breast MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM biomarkers of tissue diffusivity (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp), and pseudo-diffusivity (Dp) were calculated using voxel-based analysis for the whole lesion volume. Histogram analysis was performed to quantify tumour heterogeneity. Comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney tests between benign/malignant status, histological subtype, and molecular prognostic factor status while Spearman's rank correlation was used to characterize the association between imaging biomarkers and prognostic factor expression. The average values of the ADC and IVIM biomarkers, Dt and fp, showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional significant differences were found in the histogram parameters among tumour subtypes and molecular prognostic factor status. IVIM histogram metrics, particularly fp and Dp, showed significant correlation with hormonal factor expression. Advanced diffusion imaging biomarkers show relationships with molecular prognostic factors and breast cancer malignancy. This analysis reveals novel diagnostic metrics that may explain some of the observed variability in treatment response among breast cancer patients. • Novel IVIM biomarkers characterize heterogeneous breast cancer. • Histogram analysis enables quantification of tumour heterogeneity. • IVIM biomarkers show relationships with breast cancer malignancy and molecular prognostic factors.

  12. Education Level Is a Strong Prognosticator in the Subgroup Aged More Than 50 Years Regardless of the Molecular Subtype of Breast Cancer: A Study Based on the Nationwide Korean Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ki-Tae; Noh, Woochul; Cho, Se-Heon; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Min Ho; Jeong, Joon; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Kim, Jongjin; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Young A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the role of the education level (EL) as a prognostic factor for breast cancer and analyzed the relationship between the EL and various confounding factors. The data for 64,129 primary breast cancer patients from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry were analyzed. The EL was classified into two groups according to the education period; the high EL group (≥ 12 years) and low EL group (EL conferred a superior prognosis compared to a low EL in the subgroup aged > 50 years (hazard ratio, 0.626; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577 to 0.678) but not in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years (hazard ratio, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.865 to 1.024). The EL was a significant independent factor in the subgroup aged > 50 years according to multivariate analyses. The high EL group showed more favorable clinicopathologic features and a higher proportion of patients in this group received lumpectomy, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy. In the high EL group, a higher proportion of patients received chemotherapy in the subgroups with unfavorable clinicopathologic features. The EL was a significant prognosticator across all molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The EL is a strong independent prognostic factor for breast cancer in the subgroup aged > 50 years regardless of the molecular subtype, but not in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years. Favorable clinicopathologic features and active treatments can explain the main causality of the superior prognosis in the high EL group.

  13. MRI texture analysis in differentiating luminal A and luminal B breast cancer molecular subtypes - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Salminen, Annukka; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Koskivuo, Ilkka; Brück, Nina; Boström, Pia; Parkkola, Riitta

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this study was to use texture analysis (TA) of breast magnetic resonance (MR) images to assist in differentiating estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer molecular subtypes. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically proven invasive ductal breast cancer were selected in preliminary study. Tumors were classified into molecular subtypes: luminal A (ER-positive and/or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) -negative, proliferation marker Ki-67 MaZda. Texture parameters and tumour volumes were correlated with tumour prognostic factors. Textural differences were observed mainly in precontrast images. The two most discriminative texture parameters to differentiate luminal A and luminal B subtypes were sum entropy and sum variance (p = 0.003). The AUCs were 0.828 for sum entropy (p = 0.004), and 0.833 for sum variance (p = 0.003), and 0.878 for the model combining texture features sum entropy, sum variance (p = 0.001). In the LOOCV, the AUC for model combining features sum entropy and sum variance was 0.876. Sum entropy and sum variance showed positive correlation with higher Ki-67 index. Luminal B types were larger in volume and moderate correlation between larger tumour volume and higher Ki-67 index was also observed (r = 0.499, p = 0.008). Texture features which measure randomness, heterogeneity or smoothness and homogeneity may either directly or indirectly reflect underlying growth patterns of breast tumours. TA and volumetric analysis may provide a way to evaluate the biologic aggressiveness of breast tumours and provide aid in decisions regarding therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  15. Association of primary tumour FDG uptake with clinical, histopathological and molecular characteristics in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, B.B.; Aukema, T.S. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, M.J.T.F.D.; Rutgers, E.J.T. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, J.; Lips, E.H. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, W.V.; Valdes Olmos, R.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werkhoven, E. van [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Biometrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, K.G.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rodenhuis, S. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of primary tumour {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake with clinical, histopathological and molecular characteristics of breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Second, we wished to establish for which patients pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET)/CT could safely be omitted because of low FDG uptake. PET/CT was performed in 214 primary stage II or III breast cancer patients in the prone position with hanging breasts. Tumour FDG uptake was qualitatively evaluated to determine the possibility of response monitoring with PET/CT and was quantitatively assessed using maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}). FDG uptake was compared with age, TNM stage, histology, hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, grade, Ki-67 and molecular subtype in univariable and multivariable analyses. In 203 tumours (95 %) FDG uptake was considered sufficient for response monitoring. No subgroup of patients with consistently low tumour FDG uptake could be identified. In a univariable analysis, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher in patients with distant metastases at staging examination, non-lobular carcinomas, tumours with negative hormone receptors, triple negative tumours, grade 3 tumours, and in tumours with a high proliferation index (Ki-67 expression). After multiple linear regression analysis, triple negative and grade 3 tumours were significantly associated with a higher SUV{sub max}. Primary tumour FDG uptake in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy is significantly higher in tumours with prognostically unfavourable characteristics. Based on tumour characteristics associated with low tumour FDG uptake, this study was unable to identify a subgroup of patients unlikely to benefit from pretreatment PET/CT. (orig.)

  16. Baseline blood immunological profiling differentiates between Her2-breast cancer molecular subtypes: implications for immunomediated mechanisms of treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Oana; Virtic, Oana; Balacescu, Loredana; Lisencu, Carmen; Fetica, Bogdan; Gherman, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients' response to treatment is highly dependent on the primary tumor molecular features, with triple-negative breast tumors having the worst prognosis of all subtypes. According to the molecular features, tumors stimulate the microenvironment to induce distinct immune responses, baseline immune activation being associated with higher likelihood of pathologic response. In this study, we investigated the deconvolution of the immunological status of triple-negative tumors in comparison with luminal tumors and the association with patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Gene expression of 84 inflammatory molecules and their receptors were analyzed in 40 peripheral blood samples from patients with Her2- primary breast cancer tumors. We studied the association of triple-negative phenotype with age, clinical stage, tumor size, lymph nodes, and menopausal status. We observed that more patients with estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR)-negative tumors had grade III, while more patients with ER/PR-positive tumors had grade II tumors. Gene expression analysis revealed a panel of 14 genes to have differential expression between the two groups: several interleukins: IL13, IL16, IL17C and IL17F, IL1A, IL3; interleukin receptors: IL10RB, IL5RA; chemokines: CXCL13 and CCL26; and cytokines: CSF2, IFNA2, OSM, TNSF13. The expression levels of these genes have been previously shown to be associated with reduced immunological status; indeed, the triple-negative breast cancer patients presented with lower counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils than the ER/PR-positive ones. These results contribute to a better understanding of the possible role of antitumor immune responses in mediating the clinical outcome.

  17. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer using Molecular, Biochemical and Pathological Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Salah E.D. El-Assal; Adel A. El-Tarras; Samir M. Abd-alla

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Laboratory diagnosis of breast cancer in most of the hospitals has traditionally been performed using cell culture and the direct hormone receptor assay, which are money and time consuming. Approach: This study was performed in order to direct the attention toward increasing the efficiency of early diagnosis in clinical laboratories at the western region of KSA and Egypt using recent PCR-dependent protocols i.e., Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) and Reverse Transc...

  18. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  20. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Tamimi, Dalal M; Shawarby, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Ayesha; Hassan, Ammar K; AlOdaini, Amal A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is not a single entity but a diverse group of entities. Advances in gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry as its surrogate marker have led to the unmasking of new breast cancer molecular subtypes, resulting in the emergence of more elaborate classification systems that are therapeutically and prognostically more predictive. Molecular class distribution across various ethnic groups may also reveal variations that can lead to different clinical outcomes in different populations. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of molecular subtypes present in the Saudi population. ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6 were used as surrogate markers for gene expression profiling to classify 231 breast cancer specimens. Correlation of each molecular class with Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 mutation status, histologic type and grade of the tumor was also carried out. Out of 231 cases 9 (3.9%) were classified as luminal A (strong ER +ve, PR +ve or -ve), 37 (16%) as luminal B (weak to moderate ER +ve, and/or PR +ve), 40 (17.3%) as HER2+ (strong or moderately positive HER 2 with confirmation by silver enhanced in-situ hybridization) and 23 (10%) as basal (CK5/6 or EGFR +ve). Co-positivity of different markers in varied patterns was seen in 23 (10%) of cases which were grouped into a hybrid category comprising luminal B-HER2, HER2-basal and luminal-basal hybrids. Ninety nine (42.8%) of the tumors were negative for all five immunohistochemical markers and were labelled as unclassified (penta negative). A high Ki-67 proliferation index was seen in basal (p = 0.007) followed by HER2+ class. Overexpression of p53 was predominantly seen in HER2 + (p = 0.001) followed by the basal group of tumors. A strong correlation was noted between invasive lobular carcinoma and hormone receptor expression with 8 out of 9 lobular carcinoma cases (88.9%) classifiable as luminal cancers. Otherwise, there was no association between the molecular class and the histologic type or grade of the

  1. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  3. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  4. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  5. A comparative study of the biologic and molecular basis of murine mammary carcinoma: a model for human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlom, J.; Kufe, D.; Hehlman, R.; Spiegelman, S.; Bentvelzen, P.; Michalides, R.; Hageman, P.

    1976-01-01

    Tritiated-DNA complementary to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) RNA was synthesized in an endogeneous reaction with MMTV particles. This DNA was used as a probe via molecular hybridization to detect MMTV-specific RNA in 'spontaneous' mammary tumors of several strains of mice, including the 'nonproducer' BALB/c mammary tumors. MMTV-specific RNA was also found in certain normal tissues (spleen, kidney, and epididymis) of a high-mammary-cancer strain (GR). Aging or treatment with nonviral carcinogens also induced the appearance of MMTV-specific RNA in certain normal tissues of the low-mammary-cancer strains, C57BL and BALB/c. The relationship of the presence of MMTV-specific RNA to the etiology and pathogenesis of murine mammary neoplasia and its potential application to human breast cancer are discussed

  6. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  7. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  8. Prevalence of molecular subtypes and prognosis of invasive breast cancer in north-east of Morocco: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennis Sanae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast carcinoma is known as a heterogeneous disease because gene expression analyses identify several subtypes and the molecular profiles are prognostic and predictive for patients. Our aim, in this study, is to estimate the prevalence of breast cancer subtypes and to determine the relationship between clinico-pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS for patients coming from north-east of Morocco. Methods We reviewed 366 cases of breast cancer diagnosed between January 2007 to June 2010 at the Department of pathology. Age, size tumor, metastatic profile, node involvement profile, OS and DFS were analyzed on 181 patients. These last parameters were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test to estimate outcome differences among subgroups. Results The average age was 45 years, our patients were diagnosed late (57% stage III, 17.5% stage IV with a high average tumor size. Luminal A subtype was more prevalent (53.6% associated with favorable clinic-pathological characteristics, followed by luminal B (16.4%, Her2-overexpressing (12.6%, basal-like (12.6% and unclassified subtype (4.9%. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between subtypes. The triple negative tumors were associated with poor prognosis (49% OS, 39% DFS, whereas the luminal A were associated with a better prognosis (88% OS, 59% DFS. The luminal B and the Her2-overexpressing subtypes were associated with an intermediate prognosis (77% and 75% OS, and 41% and 38% DFS respectively. Conclusion This study showed that molecular classification by immunohistochemistry was necessary for therapeutic decision and prognosis of breast carcinoma. The luminal A subtype was associated with favorable biological characteristics and a better prognosis than triple negative tumors that were associated with a poor prognosis and unfavorable clinic-pathological characteristics.

  9. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  10. Molecular subtyping of breast cancer improves identification of both high and low risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Østrup, Olga; Majewski, Wiktor W.

    2018-01-01

    classification and final reports were available prior to the multidisciplinary conference. Using a prognostic standard mortality rate index (PSMRi) developed by the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 39 patients were assigned with an intermediate risk and among these 16 (41%) were furthermore diagnosed...... by the multi-gene signature assigned with a luminal A tumor and consequently spared adjuvant chemotherapy. There was overall agreement between mRNA derived and IHC hormone receptor status, whereas IHC Ki67 protein proliferative index proved inaccurate, compared to the mRNA derived index. Forty-one patients...... with basal-like (basL) subtypes were screened for predisposing mutations regardless of clinical predisposition. Of those 17% carried pathogenic mutations. Conclusion: Transcriptome based subtyping of breast tumors evidently reduces the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and improves identification of women...

  11. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  12. Enrichment and Molecular Analysis of Breast Cancer Disseminated Tumor Cells from Bone Marrow Using Microfiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeraj G Pillai

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow (BM of breast cancer (BC patients has been hindered by their rarity. To enrich for these cells using an antigen-independent methodology, we have evaluated a size-based microfiltration device in combination with several downstream biomarker assays.BM aspirates were collected from healthy volunteers or BC patients. Healthy BM was mixed with a specified number of BC cells to calculate recovery and fold enrichment by microfiltration. Specimens were pre-filtered using a 70 μm mesh sieve and the effluent filtered through CellSieve microfilters. Captured cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry (ICC, FISH for HER-2/neu gene amplification status, and RNA in situ hybridization (RISH. Cells eluted from the filter were used for RNA isolation and subsequent qRT-PCR analysis for DTC biomarker gene expression.Filtering an average of 14×106 nucleated BM cells yielded approximately 17-21×103 residual BM cells. In the BC cell spiking experiments, an average of 87% (range 84-92% of tumor cells were recovered with approximately 170- to 400-fold enrichment. Captured BC cells from patients co-stained for cytokeratin and EpCAM, but not CD45 by ICC. RNA yields from 4 ml of patient BM after filtration averaged 135ng per 10 million BM cells filtered with an average RNA Integrity Number (RIN of 5.3. DTC-associated gene expression was detected by both qRT-PCR and RISH in filtered spiked or BC patient specimens but, not in control filtered normal BM.We have tested a microfiltration technique for enrichment of BM DTCs. DTC capture efficiency was shown to range from 84.3% to 92.1% with up to 400-fold enrichment using model BC cell lines. In patients, recovered DTCs can be identified and distinguished from normal BM cells using multiple antibody-, DNA-, and RNA-based biomarker assays.

  13. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  14. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  15. Validation of the prognostic gene portfolio, ClinicoMolecular Triad Classification, using an independent prospective breast cancer cohort and external patient populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Using genome-wide expression profiles of a prospective training cohort of breast cancer patients, ClinicoMolecular Triad Classification (CMTC) was recently developed to classify breast cancers into three clinically relevant groups to aid treatment decisions. CMTC was found to be both prognostic and predictive in a large external breast cancer cohort in that study. This study serves to validate the reproducibility of CMTC and its prognostic value using independent patient cohorts. Methods An independent internal cohort (n = 284) and a new external cohort (n = 2,181) were used to validate the association of CMTC between clinicopathological factors, 12 known gene signatures, two molecular subtype classifiers, and 19 oncogenic signalling pathway activities, and to reproduce the abilities of CMTC to predict clinical outcomes of breast cancer. In addition, we also updated the outcome data of the original training cohort (n = 147). Results The original training cohort reached a statistically significant difference (p risk groups. Conclusions Both prospective internal cohorts and the independent external cohorts reproduced the triad classification of CMTC and its prognostic significance. CMTC is an independent prognostic predictor, and it outperformed 12 other known prognostic gene signatures, molecular subtype classifications, and all other standard prognostic clinicopathological factors. Our results support further development of CMTC portfolio into a guide for personalized breast cancer treatments. PMID:24996446

  16. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  17. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  18. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  19. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  20. Inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of tetrahydrocurcumin against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, an active metabolite of curcumin, has been reported to have similar biological effects to curcumin, but the mechanism of the antitumor activity of THC is still unclear. Methods: The present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and mechanism of THC in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using the methods of MTT assay, LDH assay, flow cytometry analysis, and western blot assay. Results: THC was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 107.8 μM. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that THC mediated the cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and 32.8% of MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis at 100 μM for 24 h. THC also dose-dependently led to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, the elevation of intracellular ROS, a decrease in Bcl-2 and PARP expression, and an increase in Bax expression. Meanwhile, cytochrome C was released to cytosol and the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm was observed after THC treatment. Conclusion: THC is an excellent source of chemopreventive agents in the treatment of breast cancer and has excellent potential to be explored as antitumor precursor compound.

  1. Breast Cancer Mortality in African-American and Non-Hispanic White Women by Molecular Subtype and Stage at Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Clarke, Christina A

    2015-07-01

    Higher breast cancer mortality rates for African-American than non-Hispanic White women are well documented; however, it remains uncertain if this disparity occurs in disease subgroups defined by tumor molecular markers and stage at diagnosis. We examined racial differences in outcome according to subtype and stage in a diverse, population-based series of 103,498 patients. We obtained data for all invasive breast cancers diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and followed through December 31, 2012, among 93,760 non-Hispanic White and 9,738 African-American women in California. Molecular subtypes were categorized according to tumor expression of hormone receptor (HR, based on estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative hazard (RH) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer-specific mortality. After adjustment for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, outcomes were comparable by race for stage I or IV cancer regardless of subtype, and HR(+)/HER2(+) or HR(-)/HER2(+) cancer regardless of stage. We found substantially higher hazards of breast cancer death among African-American women with stage II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) (RH, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65; and RH, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75, respectively) and stage III triple-negative cancers relative to Whites. There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities among patients with stages II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) and stage III triple-negative breast cancers but not for other subtype and stage. These data provide insights to assess barriers to targeted treatment (e.g., trastuzumab or endocrine therapy) of particular subtypes of breast cancer among African-American patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  3. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  4. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  5. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycolytic activity in breast cancer using 18F-FDG PET/CT as prognostic predictor: A molecular phenotype approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Vicente, A M; Soriano Castrejón, A; Amo-Salas, M; Lopez Fidalgo, J F; Muñoz Sanchez, M M; Alvarez Cabellos, R; Espinosa Aunion, R; Muñoz Madero, V

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between basal (18)F-FDG uptake in breast tumors and survival in patients with breast cancer (BC) using a molecular phenotype approach. This prospective and multicentre study included 193 women diagnosed with BC. All patients underwent an (18)F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N), and the N/T index was obtained in all the cases. Metabolic stage was established. As regards biological prognostic parameters, tumors were classified into molecular sub-types and risk categories. Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were obtained. An analysis was performed on the relationship between semi-quantitative metabolic parameters with molecular phenotypes and risk categories. The effect of molecular sub-type and risk categories in prognosis was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariate tests. Statistical differences were found in both SUVT and SUVN, according to the molecular sub-types and risk classifications, with higher semi-quantitative values in more biologically aggressive tumors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to the N/T index. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that risk categories were significantly related to DFS and OS. In the multivariate analysis, metabolic stage and risk phenotype showed a significant association with DFS. High-risk phenotype category showed a worst prognosis with respect to the other categories with higher SUVmax in primary tumor and lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Department of Defense Era of Hope Scholar Award Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    detection, and management of breast cancer today. A variety of imaging methods including screening and diagnostic x- ray mammography and resonance...profile of a tumor. In addition, techniques such as x- ray imaging and MRI are not able to detect small early cancers or pre-cancerous breast...227 (2007). 18. S. Oldenburg , J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, “Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897

  8. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with metastatic breast cancer reflects evolutionary changes in gene expression under the pressure of systemic therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, K. E.; Novosadová, Vendula; Bendahl, P.-O.; Graffman, C.; Larsson, A.-M.; Ryden, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 28 (2017), s. 45544-45565 ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : metastatic breast cancer * circulating tumor cells * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  9. The role of tumor molecular subtypes in formation of personalized approach to the theatment of the breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko I.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extreme heterogeneity of breast cancer (BC is considered to be one of the reasons that affects the success of treatment. According to current classifications, there are 4 molecular subtypes (MS. The basis for subtypes division is immunohistochemical testing of tumor cell receptors - estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, HER2-neu and Ki-67. The doctrine of the tumor MS was the basis for the individualization of therapeutic tactics in patients with breast cancer. It was studied that luminal A subtype is the most common and the most favorable, with hormone therapy being a highly effective treatment method. Luminal B subtype, HER2 - positive and triple negative MS is characterized by a high ag­gressiveness, worse survival rate of patients and better prognostic effect of chemotherapy. The importance of determining the level of Ki-67 for assessment of tumor aggressiveness was revealed. Significant differences in receptor status of the primary tumor and metastases were proven. Data on the impact of changes in receptor status of the tumor prognosis are ambiguous and need further study. The use of targeted agents in the treatment of HER2 + patients can significantly improve treatment outcomes, turning this MS from historically aggressive subgroup to quite favorable.

  10. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  11. Effects of core needle biopsy and subsequent neoadjuvant chemotherapy on molecular alterations and outcome in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lingmin Xie,1 Xiaolei Li,2 Qinchuan Wang,1 Jichun Zhou,1 Jun Shen,1 Lixi Luo,1 Yi Lu,1 Linbo Wang1 1Division of Surgical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang, 2Division of Surgical Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Wenling, Zhejiang, China Objectives: The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of core needle biopsy (CNB and subsequent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, human epidermal growth hormone receptor 2 (HER2 and Ki67 in breast cancer, and the associated influencing factors.Materials and methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 143 patients with primary operable breast cancer who received NAC were included. ER, PR, HER2 and Ki67 statuses were compared between pretreatment and posttreatment residual samples. A control group of paired core and excision tumors from 123 patients who did not receive NAC within the same study period was also assessed. Data on patients’ clinicopathologic features were collected to identify associated influencing factors.Results: Ki67 value significantly increased in excision tumors compared with paired core samples in controls without presurgery treatment (P<0.01, which was associated with the pathologic lymph node status and the interaction of PR and HER2 status (P=0.008 and 0.028, respectively. In 143 patients who underwent NAC, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of PR and Ki67 after NAC (P=0.003 and P<0.01, respectively. Further subgroup analysis showed that PR decrease was more obvious in premenopausal patients and Luminal A patients (P=0.006 and 0.002, respectively.Conclusion: Core samples could provide more reliable information on determination of molecular subtype than surgical excisions. Decreases in PR and Ki67 expression following NAC could be used as positive prognostic factors. We recommend repeat testing of these biologic markers following NAC for

  12. Oral Administration and Detection of a Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging Agent in an Orthotopic Mouse Model for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sumit; Verma, Kirti Dhingra; Hu, Yongjun; Khera, Eshita; Priluck, Aaron; Smith, David E; Thurber, Greg M

    2018-05-07

    Molecular imaging is advantageous for screening diseases such as breast cancer by providing precise spatial information on disease-associated biomarkers, something neither blood tests nor anatomical imaging can achieve. However, the high cost and risks of ionizing radiation for several molecular imaging modalities have prevented a feasible and scalable approach for screening. Clinical studies have demonstrated the ability to detect breast tumors using nonspecific probes such as indocyanine green, but the lack of molecular information and required intravenous contrast agent does not provide a significant benefit over current noninvasive imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate that negatively charged sulfate groups, commonly used to improve solubility of near-infrared fluorophores, enable sufficient oral absorption and targeting of fluorescent molecular imaging agents for completely noninvasive detection of diseased tissue such as breast cancer. These functional groups improve the pharmacokinetic properties of affinity ligands to achieve targeting efficiencies compatible with clinical imaging devices using safe, nonionizing radiation (near-infrared light). Together, this enables development of a "disease screening pill" capable of oral absorption and systemic availability, target binding, background clearance, and imaging at clinically relevant depths for breast cancer screening. This approach should be adaptable to other molecular targets and diseases for use as a new class of screening agents.

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  15. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  16. Heterogeneity of Mesenchymal Markers Expression—Molecular Profiles of Cancer Cells Disseminated by Lymphatic and Hematogenous Routes in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Książkiewicz, Magdalena; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jarosław; Szade, Jolanta; Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz, Marzena; Zaczek, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers can metastasize via hematogenous and lymphatic routes, however in some patients only one type of metastases are detected, suggesting a certain proclivity in metastatic patterns. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer dissemination it would be worthwhile to find if a specific profile of EMT gene expression exists that is related to either lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination. Our study aimed at evaluating gene expression profile of EMT-related markers in primary tumors (PT) and correlated them with the pattern of metastatic spread. From 99 early breast cancer patients peripheral blood samples (N = 99), matched PT (N = 47) and lymph node metastases (LNM; N = 22) were collected. Expression of TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2 and VIM was analyzed in those samples. Additionally expression of CK19, MGB1 and HER2 was measured in CTCs-enriched blood fractions (CTCs-EBF). Results were correlated with each other and with clinico-pathological data of the patients. Results show that the mesenchymal phenotype of CTCs-EBF correlated with poor clinico-pathological characteristics of the patients. Additionally, PT shared more similarities with LNM than with CTCs-EBF. Nevertheless, LNM showed increased expression of EMT-related markers than PT; and EMT itself in PT did not seem to be necessary for lymphatic dissemination

  17. Selected Aspects of Molecular Diagnostics of Constitutional Alterations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in the Polish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górski Bohdan

    2006-08-01

    discovered in 8.1% and NBS1 mutation (657del5 in 0.8% of the patients. The changes were more frequent in the study than the control group. However, the risk of breast cancer was significantly higher for only three of them. Two changes, namely 5382insC and C61G of the BRCA1 gene revealed a high penetrance (OR 6.2 and 15.0, respectively, while I157T of the CHEK2 gene was associated with a low risk of breast cancer (OR 1.4. Mutations of the BRCA1, CHEK2 and NSB1 genes were significantly more frequent in patients with breast cancer diagnosed prior to 50 years of age. The mean age at diagnosis was 47.2 years for carriers of the BRCA1 mutation, 50.7 years for NBS1 and 54.2 for CHEK2. The mean age at diagnosis in the group of patients without any if the mutations described above was 56.1 years. When breast cancer patients with the diagnosis before and after 50 years of age were compared, the greatest difference in the frequency of mutation was revealed for the BRCA1 gene (5.5% vs 1.5%. BRCA1 mutations were significantly more frequent I familial aggregates of the tumor (10.8%, but were also present in sporadic cases (1.8%. For the CHEK2 and NBS1 genes, there was no correlation between frequency and family history of cancer in probands. 5. A higher frequency of heterozygous carriers of 5972C/T polymorphism of the BRCA2 gene was demonstrated for breast cancer prior to 50 years of age (OR 1.4. the risk of breast cancer prior to 50 years of age was particularly high in 5972T/T homozygote (OR 4.7. This polymorphism was associated with breast cancer notable for intraductal growth. Conclusions 1. Efficient molecular diagnostics of genetic predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer in Poland could be based on relatively simple tests disclosing some of the most frequent recurrent mutations of the BRCA1 gene. 2. The risk of breast cancer seems to be only slightly higher in carriers of some BRCA1 gene mutations. This finding should be taken into account during work on prevention schemes for

  18. Molecular predictors of 3D morphogenesis by breast cancer cell lines in 3D culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Han

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype. Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPARgamma has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPARgamma has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  19. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  20. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  1. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  2. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  3. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  4. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  5. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  6. Mutational myriad of tumor suppressor p53 in Filipino breast cancer: results and perspectives in molecular pathology and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.

    2000-04-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is by far the most widely mutated gene in human cancers. p53 encodes a 53-kDa phosphoprotein, transcription-activator whose targets include genes and gene products that orchestrate genomic stability, cellular response to DNA damage, cell cycle progression apoptosis and aging (senescence). Analysis of the p53 gene profile has previously resulted in identifying several cancer-causative factors in the human setting, as well as, in creating a unique molecular profile of a tumor useful in the design of tailored-therapies for individual cancer patients. Our results in screening for p53 abnormalities in 140 Filipino patients with primary breast lesions confined from 1997-1998 in 5 major hospitals in Manila reveal that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer in at least 48% of all cases. Two methods of p53 analysis are employed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction-temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE). Inter-comparisons of method exhibit 63.3% concordance in 21 fresh breast carcinoma samples, with ELISA demonstrating 14% false-positives and 10% false-negatives. Only mutations in exon 7 (p=0.063) in the tumor samples how significant correlation with abnormal cellular elevation of p53. PCR-TTGE screening in a large series of 140 patients show that most genetic lesions are localized in exons 5 (41% of the total cases) and 6 (27% of the total cases). No mutations are, however, detected in the transactivation (exons 2-4) and oligomerization (exons 10-11) domains. Invasive carcinomas (stages II and III) are characterized with more frequent and diverse genetic alterations compared with benign tumors, most significantly at exon 5B (p=0.066) and at independently multiple sites (p=0.066). Earlier-onset cases (age of diagnosis < 50 yrs), known to be more clinico-pathologically aggressive, are diagnosed harboring more frequent p53 mutations centered at exon 7 (p=0

  7. Mutational myriad of tumor suppressor p53 in Filipino breast cancer: results and perspectives in molecular pathology and epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deocaris, Custer C

    2000-04-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is by far the most widely mutated gene in human cancers. p53 encodes a 53-kDa phosphoprotein, transcription-activator whose targets include genes and gene products that orchestrate genomic stability, cellular response to DNA damage, cell cycle progression apoptosis and aging (senescence). Analysis of the p53 gene profile has previously resulted in identifying several cancer-causative factors in the human setting, as well as, in creating a unique molecular profile of a tumor useful in the design of tailored-therapies for individual cancer patients. Our results in screening for p53 abnormalities in 140 Filipino patients with primary breast lesions confined from 1997-1998 in 5 major hospitals in Manila reveal that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer in at least 48% of all cases. Two methods of p53 analysis are employed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction-temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE). Inter-comparisons of method exhibit 63.3% concordance in 21 fresh breast carcinoma samples, with ELISA demonstrating 14% false-positives and 10% false-negatives. Only mutations in exon 7 (p=0.063) in the tumor samples how significant correlation with abnormal cellular elevation of p53. PCR-TTGE screening in a large series of 140 patients show that most genetic lesions are localized in exons 5 (41% of the total cases) and 6 (27% of the total cases). No mutations are, however, detected in the transactivation (exons 2-4) and oligomerization (exons 10-11) domains. Invasive carcinomas (stages II and III) are characterized with more frequent and diverse genetic alterations compared with benign tumors, most significantly at exon 5B (p=0.066) and at independently multiple sites (p=0.066). Earlier-onset cases (age of diagnosis < 50 yrs), known to be more clinico-pathologically aggressive, are diagnosed harboring more frequent p53 mutations centered at exon 7 (p=0

  8. Phosphoproteomic analysis for the identification of predictive molecular factors and new molecular targets in breast, colorectal, ovary, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belluco, C.; De Paoli, P.

    2009-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard therapeutic approach for several types of locally advanced and metastatic tumors. Molecular factors predictive of response to therapy are highly needed for exploiting the potential benefit of properative chemotherapy. Moreover, neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents an ideal clinical model for studying predictive factors since it allows to obtain pre-treatment tissue biopsies which can be analyzed and the results compared to clinical and pathological response. Protein kinases represent some of the most important drug targets in medicine today and their aberrant activation are involved in many disease processes including cancer development and progression

  9. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  10. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  11. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  12. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  13. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  14. Novel cancer gene variants and gene fusions of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) reveal their molecular diversity conserved in the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaeyun; Jang, Kiwon; Ju, Jung Min; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Sae Byul; Ko, Beom Seok; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei Yeon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Singh, Shree Ram; Chang, Suhwan

    2018-04-20

    Despite the improved 5-year survival rate of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenge due to lack of effective targeted therapy and higher recurrence and metastasis than other subtypes. To identify novel druggable targets and to understand its unique biology, we tried to implement 24 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of TNBC. The overall success rate of PDX implantation was 45%, much higher than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed conserved ER/PR/Her2 negativity (with two exceptions) between the original and PDX tumors. Genomic analysis of 10 primary tumor-PDX pairs with Ion AmpliSeq CCP revealed high degree of variant conservation (85.0% to 96.9%) between primary and PDXs. Further analysis showed 44 rare variants with a predicted high impact in 36 genes including Trp53, Pten, Notch1, and Col1a1. Among them, we confirmed frequent Notch1 variant. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of 24 PDXs revealed 594 gene fusions, of which 163 were in-frame, including AZGP1-GJC3 and NF1-AARSD1. Finally, western blot analysis of oncogenic signaling proteins supporting molecular diversity of TNBC PDXs. Overall, our report provides a molecular basis for the usefulness of the TNBC PDX model in preclinical study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Molecular characterization of breast cancer in young Brazilian women Caracterização Molecular do câncer de mama e mulheres brasileiras jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Viegas de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast tumors diagnosed in young Brazilian women and to analyze the frequency of loss of heterozygocity (LOH in BRCA1 among different molecular subtypes of early-onset breast cancer. METHODS: Samples from 72 cases of invasive breast carcinoma diagnosed in women aged between 19 and 40 years were evaluated using an immunohistochemical panel of biomarkers. Three intragenic BRCA1 locus microsatellites, D17S1322, D17S1323, and D17S855, were PCR amplified from matched normal (lymphocyte and tumor DNAs for (LOH analysis. RESULTS: We found 13 cases (18% that had an immunohistochemical profile consistent with being basal-like. Forty cases (55% were luminal A type; 11% (8 cases were luminal B type, 13% (9 cases were HER2-overexpressing tumors and two cases were ER-/HER2- carcinomas lacking basal marker expression. Four of the 16 informative cases at D17S1322, one of the four informative cases at D17S855, and none of the five informative cases at D17S1323 displayed LOH (four basal-like and one Luminal A. Microsatellite instability (MSI at D17S855 and D17S1322 was found in two cases (one a basal-like and one Luminal A. CONCLUSION: In our study, basal-like tumor was the second most frequent molecular type among young Brazilian women and was only observed in women diagnosed under the age of 35 years. There was no significant difference of LOH at BRCA1 locus rates between basal-like breast tumors and not-basal-like breast tumors (p=0.62. LOH in BRCA1 and MSI in these breast cancers were not frequent but may indicate a small group of breast cancers with a specific molecular makeup.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a distribuição dos subtipos moleculares dos tumores de mama diagnosticados em mulheres brasileiras jovens e determinar a frequência de perda de heterozigose (LOH no gene BRCA1 entre os diferentes subtipos moleculares de tumores. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois casos de carcinoma invasivo de mama

  16. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  19. Validation of the prognostic gene portfolio, ClinicoMolecular Triad Classification, using an independent prospective breast cancer cohort and external patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yu; Done, Susan J; Mc Cready, David R; Leong, Wey L

    2014-07-04

    Using genome-wide expression profiles of a prospective training cohort of breast cancer patients, ClinicoMolecular Triad Classification (CMTC) was recently developed to classify breast cancers into three clinically relevant groups to aid treatment decisions. CMTC was found to be both prognostic and predictive in a large external breast cancer cohort in that study. This study serves to validate the reproducibility of CMTC and its prognostic value using independent patient cohorts. An independent internal cohort (n = 284) and a new external cohort (n = 2,181) were used to validate the association of CMTC between clinicopathological factors, 12 known gene signatures, two molecular subtype classifiers, and 19 oncogenic signalling pathway activities, and to reproduce the abilities of CMTC to predict clinical outcomes of breast cancer. In addition, we also updated the outcome data of the original training cohort (n = 147). The original training cohort reached a statistically significant difference (p value of the triad classification was reproduced in the second independent internal cohort and the new external validation cohort. CMTC achieved even higher prognostic significance when all available patients were analyzed (n = 4,851). Oncogenic pathways Myc, E2F1, Ras and β-catenin were again implicated in the high-risk groups. Both prospective internal cohorts and the independent external cohorts reproduced the triad classification of CMTC and its prognostic significance. CMTC is an independent prognostic predictor, and it outperformed 12 other known prognostic gene signatures, molecular subtype classifications, and all other standard prognostic clinicopathological factors. Our results support further development of CMTC portfolio into a guide for personalized breast cancer treatments.

  20. E-cadherin expression phenotypes associated with molecular subtypes in invasive non-lobular breast cancer: evidence from a retrospective study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Bo; Feng, Chen-Yi; Deng, Miao; Ge, Dong-Feng; Liu, De-Chun; Mi, Jian-Qiang; Feng, Xiao-Shan

    2017-08-01

    This retrospective study and meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between E-cadherin (E-cad) expression and the molecular subtypes of invasive non-lobular breast cancer, especially in early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). A total of 156 post-operative cases of early-stage IDCs were retrospectively collected for the immunohistochemistry (IHC) detection of E-cad expression. The association of E-cad expression with molecular subtypes of early-stage IDCs was analyzed. A literature search was conducted in March 2016 to retrieve publications on E-cad expression in association with molecular subtypes of invasive non-lobular breast cancer, and a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the relational statistics. E-cad was expressed in 82.7% (129/156) of early-stage IDCs. E-cad expression was closely associated with the molecular types of early-stage IDCs (P cancer (TNBC) than in other molecular subtypes (TNBC vs. luminal A: RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.79-4.26; TNBC vs. luminal B: RR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.49-3.90; TNBC vs. HER2-enriched: RR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.07). Early-stage IDCs or invasive non-lobular breast cancers with the TNBC molecular phenotype have a higher risk for the loss of E-cad expression than do tumors with non-TNBC molecular phenotypes, suggesting that E-cad expression phenotypes were closely related to molecular subtypes and further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  1. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  2. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  3. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  4. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  5. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  6. Molecular essence and endocrine responsiveness of estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Da; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Hao, Shuang; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-10-05

    The clinical significance of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer is controversial. Herein, we systemically investigate the clinicopathologic features, molecular essence, and endocrine responsiveness of ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype. Four study cohorts were included. The first and second cohorts were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (n = 67,932) and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (n = 2,338), respectively, for clinicopathologic and survival analysis. The third and fourth cohorts were from two independent publicly available microarray datasets including 837 operable cases and 483 cases undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, respectively, for clinicopathologic and gene-expression analysis. Characterized genes defining subgroups within the ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype were determined and further validated. Clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes of the ER-/PgR+ phenotype fell in between the ER+/PgR+ and ER-/PgR- phenotypes, but were more similar to ER-/PgR-. Among the ER-/PgR+ phenotype, 30% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-42%, pooled by a fixed-effects method) were luminal-like and 59% (95% CI 45-72%, pooled by a fixed-effects method) were basal-like. We further refined the characterized genes for subtypes within the ER-/PgR+ phenotype and developed an immunohistochemistry-based method that could determine the molecular essence of ER-/PgR+ using three markers, TFF1, CK5, and EGFR. Either PAM50-defined or immunohistochemistry-defined basal-like ER-/PgR+ cases have a lower endocrine therapy sensitivity score compared with luminal-like ER-/PgR+ cases (P defined basal-like ER-/PgR+ cases might not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy (log-rank P = 0.61 for sufficient versus insufficient endocrine therapy). The majority of ER-/PgR+/HER2- phenotype breast cancers are basal-like and associated with a lower endocrine therapy sensitivity score. Additional studies are needed

  7. Study the Molecular Association between a Deletion Mutation in CHEK2 gene (5395 bp and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Jalilvand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and the second most common cause of cancer death. Genetic factors play an important role in the development of breast cancer. Among these genetic factors, CHEk2 (checkpoint kinase 2 gene, as a tumor suppressor gene, plays a critical role in DNA repair. Germline mutations in CEHK2 result in the loss of this feature. One of the mutations in CHEK2 gene is a 5395 bp deletion mutation which has been associated with the increasing risk of Breast Cancer in some populations in the world.  In the present study, we investigated the association between a 5395 bp deletion mutation in CHEK2 gene and the risk of Breast Cancer in the women of an Iranian population. Methods: Pathologic information of 38 cases under the age of 45 and 62 cases over the age of 45 referring to surgery ward of Milad Hospital in Tehran were extracted. 100 healthy controls were included in the study as well. After obtaining informed consent, 5 mL whole blood was taken DNA was successfully isolated. Multiplex PCR was used to investigate the association between a 5395bp deletion mutation in CHEK2 gene and increasing risk of Breast Cancer among patients. Results: The 5395bp deletion mutation in CHEK2 gene was not found in any of the participating groups of patients or heathy controls. Conclusion: The present study revealed that there is no significant relation between increasing the risk of Breast Cancer and bearing large deletion mutation in exon 9 and exon 10 of CHECK2 gene.

  8. Unique molecular signatures as a hallmark of patients with metastatic breast cancer: implications for current treatment paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheler, Jennifer J; Parker, Barbara A; Lee, Jack J; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M; Zinner, Ralph; Subbiah, Vivek; Fu, Siqing; Schwab, Richard; Moulder, Stacy; Valero, Vicente; Schwaederle, Maria; Yelensky, Roman; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, M Philip J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-05-15

    Our analysis of the tumors of 57 women with metastatic breast cancer with next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrates that each patient's tumor is unique in its molecular fingerprint. We observed 216 somatic aberrations in 70 different genes, including 131 distinct aberrations. The most common gene alterations (in order of decreasing frequency) included: TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC, HER2 (ERBB2), MCL1, PTEN, FGFR1, GATA3, NF1, PIK3R1, BRCA2, EGFR, IRS2, CDH1, CDKN2A, FGF19, FGF3 and FGF4. Aberrations included mutations (46%), amplifications (45%), deletions (5%), splices (2%), truncations (1%), fusions (0.5%) and rearrangements (0.5%), with multiple distinct variants within the same gene. Many of these aberrations represent druggable targets, either through direct pathway inhibition or through an associated pathway (via 'crosstalk'). The 'molecular individuality' of these tumors suggests that a customized strategy, using an "N-of-One" model of precision medicine, may represent an optimal approach for the treatment of patients with advanced tumors.

  9. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  10. Study of the Expression of Survivin & Its Splice Variants; ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as Diagnostic Molecular Markers in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Babaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Survivin is a new member of the Inhibitor Apotosis Protein family (IAP which plays an important role in the regulation of both cell cycle and apoptosis. Its distinct expression in tumor cells as compared to normal adult cells introduces Survivin as the fourth transcriptom demonstrated in tumors. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and scientist`s efforts to classify it has lead to various molecular subtypes and controversial results. Because of the high prevalence of these tumors and lack of suitable molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis, there are ongoing efforts to find molecular markers which can distinguish nontumoral from tumor tissues. In this study we evaluate the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as molecular markers in breast cancer. Methods: We studied 18 tumor and 17 non tumor adjacent tissues. Transcription levels were measured by Semiquantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and normalized by ß2m as an internal control. Results: 1Survivin and its splice variants; Δex3, 2b and 3b showed differentially higher expression levels in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. 2 The expression levels of Survivin, Survivin-ΔEx3 and Survivin-3b were significantly correlated with the type of tumors. 3 Survivin-2b was expressed in a few samples. 4 Survivin-3b was detected only in tumor samples. Also, our results showed that ΔEx3 variant can be introduced as a dominant expressed variant in breast cancer. Conclusion: Our data indicated that the expression of Survivin, Survivin ∆Ex3 and especially, Survivin-3b were correlated with cancerous nature of tumors and Survivin-∆Ex3 was the most common expressed variant in breast carcinomas. These results besides confirming the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants as molecular markers in breast cancer, demonstrated the role of the gene and its splice variants, especially 3b

  11. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  12. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  13. Clinical application of a microfluidic chip for immunocapture and quantification of circulating exosomes to assist breast cancer diagnosis and molecular classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shimeng; Tian, Hongzhu; Li, Xiancheng; Jin, Dong; Li, Xiaojie; Kong, Jing; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xuesong; Lu, Yao; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Niu, Weidong; Liu, Tingjiao

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted by exosomes in blood-based diagnosis because cancer cells release more exosomes in serum than normal cells and these exosomes overexpress a certain number of cancer-related biomarkers. However, capture and biomarker analysis of exosomes for clinical application are technically challenging. In this study, we developed a microfluidic chip for immunocapture and quantification of circulating exosomes from small sample volume and applied this device in clinical study. Circulating EpCAM-positive exosomes were measured in 6 cases breast cancer patients and 3 healthy controls to assist diagnosis. A significant increase in the EpCAM-positive exosome level in these patients was detected, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we quantified circulating HER2-positive exosomes in 19 cases of breast cancer patients for molecular classification. We demonstrated that the exosomal HER2 expression levels were almost consistent with that in tumor tissues assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The microfluidic chip might provide a new platform to assist breast cancer diagnosis and molecular classification.

  14. Luminal B tumors are the most frequent molecular subtype in breast cancer of North African women: an immunohistochemical profile study from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Fatemi Hinde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC characteristics. The aim of our study is to show the molecular profile characteristic of breast cancer in the North African population of Morocco. This work showed preliminary results and correlations with clinicopathological and histological parameters. Three hundred and ninety primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK8/18 and Ki67 using paraffin tissue. Methods We reviewed 390 cases of breast cancer diagnosed on January 2008 to December 2011 at the Department of pathology, Hassan II teaching hospital, Fez, Morocco. Age, size tumor, metastatic profile, node involvement profile, histological type and immunohistochemical profile were studied. Results The average age was 46 years; our patients were diagnosed late with a high average tumor size. Luminal B subtype was more prevalent (41.8%, followed by luminal A (30.5%, basal-like (13, 6%, Her2-overexpressing (9, 2%, and unclassified subtype (4.9%. Conclusion This study showed that molecular classification and biological profile may be different according to geographical distribution, to encourage further studies to know the genomic profile of tumors and the environment. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1675272504826544

  15. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  16. Molecular detection of peripheral blood breast cancer mRNA transcripts as a surrogate biomarker for circulating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lasa

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are becoming a scientifically recognized indicator of primary tumors and/or metastasis. These cells can now be accurately detected and characterized as the result of technological advances. We analyzed the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR using a panel of selected genes. The analysis of a single marker, without an EpCAM based enrichment approach, allowed the positive identification of 35% of the metastatic breast cancer patients. The analysis of five genes (SCGB2, TFF1, TFF3, Muc1, KRT20 performed in all the samples increased the detection to 61%. We describe a sensitive, reproducible and easy to implement approach to characterize CTC in patients with metastasic breast cancer.

  17. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  18. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  19. Ki67 and proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Balleine, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    New approaches to the prognostic assessment of breast cancer have come from molecular profiling studies. A major feature of this work has been to emphasise the importance of cancer cell proliferation as a key discriminative indicator of recurrence risk for oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer in particular. Mitotic count scoring, as a component of histopathological grade, has long formed part of a routine evaluation of breast cancer biology. However, there is an increasingly compelling case to include a specific proliferation score in breast cancer pathology reports based on expression of the cell cycle regulated protein Ki67. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 is a widely available and economical test with good tolerance of pre-analytical variations and staining conditions. However, there is currently no evidence based protocol established to derive a reliable and informative Ki67 score for routine clinical use. In this circumstance, pathologists must establish a standardised framework for scoring Ki67 and communicating results to a multidisciplinary team.

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally L

    2005-01-01

    ...; whether HLA genotype is related to breast cancer overall; whether associations and prevalence of associated HLA genotypes vary by race/ethnicity, and how much such differences explain racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence...

  1. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  2. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Ning; Lu Shaoxin; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by ∼808 nm infrared photons at ∼800 mW cm -2 for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems

  3. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Paul C

    2006-01-01

    In the first year of this training grant, five faculty members from different departments at the Howard University were trained in molecular imaging with the faculty at the In Vivo Cellular Molecular...

  4. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  5. Development of RNA aptamers as molecular probes for HER2+ breast cancer study using cell-SELEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Alia Moosavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Development of molecules that specifically recognize cancer cells is one of the major areas in cancer research. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is specifically expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells. HER2 is associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. In this study we aimed to isolate RNA aptamers that specifically bind to HER2 overexpressing TUBO cell line. Materials and Methods: Panel of aptamers was selected using cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX. Results: Binding studies showed that selected aptamers can identify TUBO cell line with high affinity and selectivity. Our preliminary investigation of the target of aptamers suggested that aptamers bind with HER2 proteins on the surface of TUBO cells. Conclusion: We believe the selected aptamers could be useful ligands for targeted breast cancer therapy.

  6. Outcome disparities in African American women with triple negative breast cancer: a comparison of epidemiological and molecular factors between African American and Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturtz, Lori A; Melley, Jen; Mamula, Kim; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Although diagnosed less often, breast cancer in African American women (AAW) displays different characteristics compared to breast cancer in Caucasian women (CW), including earlier onset, less favorable clinical outcome, and an aggressive tumor phenotype. These disparities may be attributed to differences in socioeconomic factors such as access to health care, lifestyle, including increased frequency of obesity in AAW, and tumor biology, especially the higher frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in young AAW. Improved understanding of the etiology and molecular characteristics of TNBC in AAW is critical to determining whether and how TNBC contributes to survival disparities in AAW. Demographic, pathological and survival data from AAW (n = 62) and CW (n = 98) with TNBC were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Student’s t-tests, and log-rank tests. Frozen tumor specimens were available from 57 of the TNBC patients (n = 23 AAW; n = 34 CW); RNA was isolated after laser microdissection of tumor cells and was hybridized to HG U133A 2.0 microarrays. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with FDR <0.05, >2-fold difference defining significance. The frequency of TNBC compared to all BC was significantly higher in AAW (28%) compared to CW (12%), however, significant survival and pathological differences were not detected between populations. Gene expression analysis revealed the tumors were more similar than different at the molecular level, with only CRYBB2P1, a pseudogene, differentially expressed between populations. Among demographic characteristics, AAW consumed significantly lower amounts of caffeine and alcohol, were less likely to breastfeed and more likely to be obese. These data suggest that TNBC in AAW is not a unique disease compared to TNBC in CW. Rather, higher frequency of TNBC in AAW may, in part, be attributable to the effects of lifestyle choices. Because these risk factors are modifiable, they provide new opportunities for the development of risk

  7. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: The Development of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torsten O; Perou, Charles M

    2015-04-15

    In the August 15, 2004, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Nielsen and colleagues demonstrated how a cancer subtype identified by gene expression profiling could be validated using a widely accessible technology (immunohistochemistry). This opened the door to large-scale studies of archival cohorts and clinical trials, which allowed detailed clinical understanding of a new genomic discovery. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1779-81. ©2015 AACR. See related article by Nielsen et al., Clin Cancer Res 2004;10(16) Aug 15, 2004;5367-74. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  9. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  10. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  11. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  13. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...

  15. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  16. Molecular Characterization of Human MUC16 (CA125) in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    up-regulation of stemness specific genes such as LMO2 and NANOG resulting in accumulation of ALDH+ pancreatic cancer stem -like cells (15) (Figure 1C...endoplasmic reticulum protein transport: A novel strategy to kill malignant B cells and overcome fludarabine resistance in CLL . Blood 2006;107:222-31...17   increased nuclear accumulation of JAK2 leading to up regulation of genes such as LMO2 and NANOG resulting in cancer stem cell phenotype

  17. Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    linear polysaccharide composed of alternating (β-1,4)-linked d- glucuronic acid and (β-1,3) N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residues with molecular weights as...enzymatic reactions in-vivo that generate polysaccharides of decreasing sizes, which in principle may facilitate the timely excretion of HA based...14CO2) or in urine (as low molecular weight HA or monosaccharide fragments). The same authors also reported that the total amount of excretion into

  18. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  19. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  20. Role of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.S.; Vadlamudi, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a life-threatening stage of cancer and is the leading cause of death in advanced breast cancer patients. Estrogen signaling and the estrogen receptor (ER) are implicated in breast cancer progression, and the majority of the human breast cancers start out as estrogen dependent. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER signaling is complex, involving coregulatory proteins and extranuclear actions. ER-coregualtory proteins are tightly regulated under normal conditions with miss expression primarily reported in cancer. Deregulation of ER coregualtors or ER extranuclear signaling has potential to promote metastasis in ER-positive breast cancer cells. This review summarizes the emerging role of ER signaling in promoting metastasis of breast cancer cells, discusses the molecular mechanisms by which ER signaling contributes to metastasis, and explores possible therapeutic targets to block ER-driven metastasis

  1. New insights into the metastatic behavior after breast cancer surgery, according to well-established clinicopathological variables and molecular subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Claudio Buonomo

    Full Text Available Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of patients with early breast cancer (BC experience distant disease relapse. However, a comprehensive understanding of tumor spread and site-specific recurrence patterns remains lacking. This retrospective case-control study included 103 consecutive patients with metastatic BC admitted to our institution (2000-2013. Cases were matched according to age, tumor biology, and clinicopathological features to 221 patients with non-metastatic BC (control group. The median follow-up period among the 324 eligible patients was 7.3 years. While relatively low values for sensitivity (71% and specificity (56% were found for axillary lymph node (ALN involvement as an indicator of risk and pattern of distant relapse, nodal status remained the most powerful predictor of metastases (OR: 3.294; CL: 1.9-5.5. Rates of dissemination and metastatic efficiency differed according to molecular subtype. HER2-positive subtypes showed a stronger association with systemic spread (OR: 2.127; CL: 1.2-3.8 than other subgroups. Classification as Luminal or Non-Luminal showed an increased risk of lung and distant nodal recurrence, and a decreased risk in bone metastases in the Non-Luminal group (OR: 2.9, 3.345, and 0.2, respectively. Tumors with HER2 overexpression had a significantly high risk for distant relapse (OR: 2.127 compared with HER2-negative tumors and also showed higher central nervous system (CNS and lung metastatic potential (OR: 5.6 and 2.65, respectively and low risk of bone disease progression (OR: 0.294. Furthermore, we found significant associations between biological profiles and sites of recurrence. A new process of clinical/diagnostic staging, including molecular subtypes, could better predict the likelihood of distant relapses and their anatomical location. Recognition and appreciation of clinically distinct molecular subtypes may assist in evaluation of the probability of distant relapses and their sites. Our

  2. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  3. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  4. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and ...

  5. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    CBCP) Breast Center is the Army-recognized and Military-recognized specialty referral center for t r i - se rv ice active duty personnel from around...development of customized treatment options in patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Objective 1 Evaluate differences in the molecular profiles of...2014CBCP & CCBB Analysis of Errors & Corrections 11/7/2014Customer Satisfaction Results Analysis 1/7/2015Audit of signed-out tissue samples in -80 freezer

  6. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Chemicals were purchased from Sigma unless indicated otherwise. Synthetic oligonucleotides were purchased from Integrated DNA Technologies. Human insulin was...otherwise. Synthetic oligonucleotides were purchased from Integrated DNA Technolo- gies, Inc. (Coralville, IA). Antibodies against XBP1, C/EBPα, and...component of marijuana , induces human glioma cancer cell death through stimulation of ER stress-associated autophagy [92]. δ- tetrahydrocannabinol can

  8. Molecular Subtyping of Serous Ovarian Tumors Reveals Multiple Connections to Intrinsic Breast Cancer Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Johansson, Ida; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2014-01-01

    expressed between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors, with cell cycle processes enriched in the malignant subgroup. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal...

  9. Intratumor cholesteryl ester accumulation is associated with human breast cancer proliferation and aggressive potential: a molecular and clinicopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Cardiovascular Research Center, CSIC-ICCC, IIB-Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Ma Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" >Gonzalo-Calvo, David de; López-Vilaró, Laura; a Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Cardiovascular Research Center, CSIC-ICCC, IIB-Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Ma Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" >Nasarre, Laura; Perez-Olabarria, Maitane; Vázquez, Tania; Escuin, Daniel; a Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Cardiovascular Research Center, CSIC-ICCC, IIB-Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Ma Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" >Badimon, Lina; Barnadas, Agusti; Lerma, Enrique; a Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Cardiovascular Research Center, CSIC-ICCC, IIB-Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Ma Claret, 167 08025, Barcelona (Spain))" >Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic effect of intratumor cholesteryl ester (CE) in breast cancer remains poorly understood. The objective was to analyze the relationship between intratumor CE content and clinicopathological variables in human breast carcinomas. We classified 30 breast carcinoma samples into three subgroups: 10 luminal-A tumors (ER+/PR+/Her2-), 10 Her-2 tumors (ER-/PR-/Her2+), and 10 triple negative (TN) tumors (ER-/PR-/Her2-). We analyzed intratumor neutral CE, free cholesterol (FC) and triglyceride (TG) content by thin layer chromatography after lipid extraction. RNA and protein levels of lipid metabolism and invasion mediators were analyzed by real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Group-wise comparisons, linear regression and logistic regression models showed a close association between CE-rich tumors and higher histologic grade, Ki-67 and tumor necrosis. CE-rich tumors displayed higher mRNA and protein levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1). An increased expression of acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) in CE-rich tumors was also reported. Intratumor CE accumulation is intimately linked to proliferation and aggressive potential of breast cancer tumors. Our data support the link between intratumor CE content and poor clinical outcome and open the door to new antitumor interventions. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1469-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  11. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  12. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  13. Hemangiosarcoma after breast-conserving therapy of breast cancer. Report of four cases with molecular genetic diagnosis and literature review; Haemangiosarkom nach brusterhaltender Therapie beim Mammakarzinom. Vier Fallbeispiele mit molekulargenetischer Diagnostik und Literaturuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle-Kraemling, Carolin [Universitaetsklinikum, Duesseldorf (Germany). Frauenklinik; Boelke, Edwin; Budach, Wilfried [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (DE). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und radiologische Onkologie] (and others)

    2011-10-15

    Hemangiosarcomas of the breast represent a rare disease of the breast mainly occurring as secondary neoplasias with a latency of 5-10 years after primary treatment of breast cancer and are associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Radiation therapy, which is integrated within the concept of breast conserving therapy ranks as the main risk factor. In this report we describe the clinical course of 4 patients including their molecular genetic pattern and give a summary of the actual literature. Hemangiosarcomas occur as a secondary neoplasm with a latency of 5-10 years after primary treatment of breast cancer and have an unfavorable prognosis. A genetic predisposition is assumed, but we could not find a significant role of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1, BRCA2 or p53 in our patients. Due to limited data available for these tumors, recommendations for therapy include radical tumor resection achieving wide free margins and inconsistent regimens of chemo- and/or immunetherapy modalities. In the majority these are based on systemic therapy regimens for other cutaneous sarcomas, such as Kaposi's sarcoma. Efforts should be taken for a nation-wide systematic registration of all cases of post-irradiation hemangiosarcomas.

  14. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  15. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  16. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  17. Molecular Mechanism of BCAR3-p130Cas in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    and requests for materials should be addressed to S.J.R. ( email : sriedl@sanfordburnham.org). NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 4:1681 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2687...North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 ( Email : sriedl@sanfordburnham.org). NSP-CAS Protein Complexes: Emerging Signaling Modules in Cancer Yann...Signalling to actin: role of C3G, a multitasking guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor. Biosci Rep. 2011;31:231-44. 32. Kiyokawa E, Hashimoto Y, Kobayashi S

  18. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots. Dr. Dnyanesh N. Tipre, Wednesday, Sept. 6, 2006 2. Synthesis , Surface and Colloidal...Materials: Synthesis and Modification of Functional Polymers and Application to Biomineralization. Dr. Tongxin Wang, University of Pennsylvania, 3/1/07 II.2... nitrosoureas (Journal of Clinical Investigation, in Review) [*: Equal contribution] 28. Liang, X.J. and Park, J.K. Inhibition of stathmin enhances CCNU

  19. Molecular analysis of the eighteen most frequent mutations in the BRCA1 gene in 63 Chilean breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIAN JARA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 gene mutations account for nearly all families with multiple cases of both early onset breast and/or ovarian cancer and about 30% of hereditary breast cancer. Although to date more than 1,237 distinct mutations, polymorphisms, and variants have been described, several mutations have been found to be recurrent in this gene. We have analyzed 63 Chilean breast/ovarian cancer families for eighteen frequent BRCA1 mutations. The analysis of the five exons and two introns in which these mutations are located was made using mismatch PCR assay, ASO hybridization assay, restriction fragment analysis, allele specific PCR assay and direct sequentiation techniques. Two BRCA1 mutations (185delAG and C61G and one variant of unknown significance (E1250K were found in four of these families. Also, a new mutation (4185delCAAG and one previously described polymorphism (E1038G were found in two other families. The 185delAG was found in a 3.17 % of the families and the others were present only in one of the families of this cohort. Therefore these mutations are not prominent in the Chilean population. The variant of unknown significance and the polymorphism detected could represent a founder effect of Spanish origin

  20. Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of new 4-phenylcoumarin derivatives as tubulin polymerization inhibitors targeting MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batran, Rasha Z; Kassem, Asmaa F; Abbas, Eman M H; Elseginy, Samia A; Mounier, Marwa M

    2018-07-23

    A new set of 4-phenylcoumarin derivatives was designed and synthesized aiming to introduce new tubulin polymerization inhibitors as anti-breast cancer candidates. All the target compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cell line, where compounds 2f, 3a, 3b, 3f, 7a and 7b, showed higher cytotoxic effect (IC 50  = 4.3-21.2 μg/mL) than the reference drug doxorubicin (IC 50  = 26.1 μg/mL), additionally, compounds 1 and 6b exhibited the same potency as doxorubicin (IC 50  = 25.2 and 28.0 μg/mL, respectively). The thiazolidinone derivatives 3a, 3b and 3f with potent and selective anticancer effects towards MCF-7 cells (IC 50  = 11.1, 16.7 and 21.2 μg/mL) were further assessed for tubulin polymerization inhibition effects which showed that the three compounds were potent tubulin polymerization suppressors with IC 50 values of 9.37, 2.89 and 6.13 μM, respectively, compared to the reference drug colchicine (IC 50  = 6.93 μM). The mechanistic effects on cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells were determined for compound 3a due to its potent and selective cytotoxic effects in addition to its promising tubulin polymerization inhibition potency. The results revealed that compound 3a induced cell cycle cessation at G2/M phase and accumulation of cells in pre-G1 phase and prevented its mitotic cycle, in addition to its activation of caspase-7 mediating apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Molecular modeling studies for compounds 3a, 3b and 3f were carried out on tubulin crystallography, the results indicated that the compounds showed binding mode similar to the co-crystalized ligand; colchicine. Moreover, pharmacophore constructed models and docking studies revealed that thiazolidinone, acetamide and coumarin moieties are crucial for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies were carried out for the three compounds over 100 ps. MD results of compound 3a showed that it reached the stable state

  1. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Ann F; Naumov, George N; Vantyghem, Sharon A; Tuck, Alan B

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  2. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. Brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging

  4. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  5. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  6. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  7. relationship between family history of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... features of familial and sporadic breast cancer in Moroccan patients. METHODS: A ... 1Genetics and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical School of Casablanca, Morocco. 2Department of ... prognosis (9, 10), whereas others have found no significant ..... slightly higher rate of this histological subtype.

  8. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...

  10. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  11. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  12. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  13. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...

  14. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. PMID:27918430

  15. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  16. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  17. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  18. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  19. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  2. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  3. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  4. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  5. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  6. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, Jessica, E-mail: chaumontjessica@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine [Department of Medical Statistics, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Le Scodan, Romuald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Prive Saint Gregoire, Saint Gregoire (France)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  7. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selz, Jessica; Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine; Labib, Alain; Le Scodan, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  8. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  9. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  10. The role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in breast cancer and directing breast cancer cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K Reaves

    Full Text Available The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior.

  11. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  14. Melatonin: an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven M.; Belancio, Victoria P.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W.; Summers, Whitney; Yuan, Lin; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin, via the MT1 receptor, suppresses ERα mRNA expression and ERα transcriptional activity. As well, melatonin regulates the transactivation of other members of the nuclear receptor super-family, estrogen metabolizing enzymes, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. Furthermore, melatonin also suppresses tumor aerobic metabolism (Warburg effect), and, subsequently, cell-signaling pathways critical to cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. Melatonin demonstrates both cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in breast cancer cells that appears to be cell type specific. Melatonin also possesses anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions that involve multiple pathways including inhibition of p38 MAPK and repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Studies demonstrate that melatonin promotes genomic stability by inhibiting the expression of LINE-1 retrotransposons. Finally, research in animal and human models indicate that LEN induced disruption of the circadian nocturnal melatonin signal promotes the growth, metabolism, and signaling of human breast cancer to drive breast tumors to endocrine and chemotherapeutic resistance. These data provide the strongest understanding and support of the mechanisms underpinning the epidemiologic demonstration of elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LEN. PMID:25876649

  15. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  16. Self assessment and detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients

  17. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  18. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  19. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidard, Francois-Clement; Proudhon, Charlotte; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, technically reliable circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection methods allowed the collection of large datasets of CTC counts in cancer patients. These data can be used either as a dynamic prognostic biomarker or as tumor material for "liquid biopsy". Breast cancer appears to be the cancer type in which CTC have been the most extensively studied so far, with level-of-evidence-1 studies supporting the clinical validity of CTC count in both early and metastatic stage. This review summarizes and discusses the clinical results obtained in breast cancer patients, the issues faced by the molecular characterization of CTC and the biological findings about cancer biology and metastasis that were obtained from CTC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  2. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  3. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  4. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  5. Metastasis of breast cancer rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, L.; Santander, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient

  6. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  7. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  8. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  9. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  10. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  11. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  12. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  13. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  14. Highly sensitive detection of ESR1 mutations in cell-free DNA from patients with metastatic breast cancer using molecular barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Nanae; Kagara, Naofumi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Miyake, Tomohiro; Tanei, Tomonori; Naoi, Yasuto; Shimoda, Masafumi; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to develop a highly sensitive method to detect ESR1 mutations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) using next-generation sequencing with molecular barcode (MB-NGS) targeting the hotspot segment (c.1600-1713). The sensitivity of MB-NGS was tested using serially diluted ESR1 mutant DNA and then cfDNA samples from 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer were analyzed with MB-NGS. The results of MB-NGS were validated in comparison with conventional NGS and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). MB-NGS showed a higher sensitivity (0.1%) than NGS without barcode (1%) by reducing background errors. Of the cfDNA samples from 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer, NGS without barcode revealed seven mutations in six patients (17.6%) and MB-NGS revealed six additional mutations including three mutations not reported in the COSMIC database of breast cancer, resulting in total 13 ESR1 mutations in ten patients (29.4%). Regarding the three hotspot mutations, all the patients with mutations detected by MB-NGS had identical mutations detected by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and mutant allele frequency correlated very well between both (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). Moreover, all the patients without these mutations by MB-NGS were found to have no mutations by ddPCR. In conclusion, MB-NGS could successfully detect ESR1 mutations in cfDNA with a higher sensitivity of 0.1% than conventional NGS and was considered as clinically useful as ddPCR.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating molecular mechanisms and clinical evidence in the management of trastuzumab resistant or refractory HER-2⁺ metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Kwong, Ava; Chiu, Joanne; Liang, Raymond; Swanton, Charles; Yau, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2(+) breast cancer is a distinct molecular and clinical entity, the prognosis of which is improved by trastuzumab. However, primary resistance to trastuzumab is observed in >50% of patients with HER-2(+) advanced breast cancer, and the majority of patients who initially respond to treatment eventually develop disease progression. To facilitate crosstrial comparisons and the understanding of resistance mechanisms, we propose a unifying definition of trastuzumab resistance as progression at first radiological reassessment at 8-12 weeks or within 3 months after first-line trastuzumab in the metastatic setting or new recurrences diagnosed during or within 12 months after adjuvant trastuzumab. In contrast, we define trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer as disease progression after two or more lines of trastuzumab-containing regimens that initially achieved disease response or stabilization at first radiological assessment. We review mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance mediated by p95HER-2 overexpression, phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activation, and signaling pathway activation driven by HER-3, epidermal growth factor receptor, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. We distinguish in vitro from in vivo evidence, highlighting that most data describing trastuzumab resistance are derived from preclinical studies or small retrospective patient cohorts, and discuss targeted therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance. Prospective analysis through clinical trials with robust tissue collection procedures, prior to and following acquisition of resistance, integrated with next-generation tumor genome sequencing technologies, is identified as a priority area for development. The identification of predictive biomarkers is of paramount importance to optimize health economic costs and enhance stratification of anti-HER-2 targeted therapies.

  17. The molecular cues for the biological effects of ionizing radiation dose and post-irradiation time on human breast cancer SKBR3 cell line: A Raman spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Naser; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Gilany, Kambiz; Eynali, Samira; Ghaznavi, Habib; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of cancer treatment. The utility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) for detecting the distinct radiobiological responses in human cancer cells is currently under investigation. RS holds great promises to provide good opportunities for personalizing radiotherapy treatments. Here, we report the effects of the radiation dose and post-irradiation time on the molecular changes in the human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, using RS. The SKBR3 cells were irradiated by gamma radiation with different doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. The Raman signals were acquired 24 and 48 h after the gamma radiation. The collected Raman spectra were analyzed by different statistical methods such as principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and genetic algorithm. A thorough analysis of the obtained Raman signals revealed that 2 Gy of gamma radiation induces remarkable molecular and structural changes in the SKBR3 cells. We found that the wavenumbers in the range of 1000-1400 cm -1 in Raman spectra are selective for discriminating between the effects of the different doses of irradiation. The results also revealed that longer post-irradiation time leads to the relaxation of the cells to their initial state. The molecular changes that occurred in the 2Gy samples were mostly reversible. On the other hand, the exposure to doses higher than 4Gy induced serious irreversible changes, mainly seen in 2700-2800 cm -1 in Raman spectra. The classification models developed in this study would help to predict the radiation-based molecular changes induced in the cancer cells by only using RS. Also, this designed framework may facilitate the process of biodosimetry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  19. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  20. PAM50 Breast Cancer Subtyping by RT-qPCR and Concordance with Standard Clinical Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Roy RL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methodologies have been used in research to identify the “intrinsic” subtypes of breast cancer commonly known as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-Enriched (HER2-E and Basal-like. The PAM50 gene set is often used for gene expression-based subtyping; however, surrogate subtyping using panels of immunohistochemical (IHC markers are still widely used clinically. Discrepancies between these methods may lead to different treatment decisions. Methods We used the PAM50 RT-qPCR assay to expression profile 814 tumors from the GEICAM/9906 phase III clinical trial that enrolled women with locally advanced primary invasive breast cancer. All samples were scored at a single site by IHC for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2/neu (HER2 protein expression. Equivocal HER2 cases were confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Single gene scores by IHC/CISH were compared with RT-qPCR continuous gene expression values and “intrinsic” subtype assignment by the PAM50. High, medium, and low expression for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and proliferation were selected using quartile cut-points from the continuous RT-qPCR data across the PAM50 subtype assignments. Results ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 gene expression had high agreement with established binary IHC cut-points (area under the curve (AUC ≥ 0.9. Estrogen receptor positivity by IHC was strongly associated with Luminal (A and B subtypes (92%, but only 75% of ER negative tumors were classified into the HER2-E and Basal-like subtypes. Luminal A tumors more frequently expressed PR than Luminal B (94% vs 74% and Luminal A tumors were less likely to have high proliferation (11% vs 77%. Seventy-seven percent (30/39 of ER-/HER2+ tumors by IHC were classified as the HER2-E subtype. Triple negative tumors were mainly comprised of Basal-like (57% and HER2-E (30% subtypes. Single gene scoring for ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 was more prognostic than the corresponding IHC markers as

  1. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  2. Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Leary, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    .... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...

  3. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  4. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  5. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  6. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  7. Selenium and Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    .... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...

  8. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  10. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  11. Antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...

  12. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.

  13. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  14. Tumor-suppressor activity of RRIG1 in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guihong; Brewster, Abenaa; Guan, Baoxiang; Fan, Zhen; Brown, Powel H; Xu, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Retinoid receptor-induced gene-1 (RRIG1) is a novel gene that has been lost in several types of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether RRIG1 plays a role in breast cancer, such as in the suppression of breast cancer cell growth and invasion. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect RRIG1 expression in breast tissue specimens. Gene transfection was used to restore or knock down RRIG1 expression in breast cancer cell lines for analysis of cell viability, colony formation, and migration/invasion potential. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to detect the changes in gene expression. The RhoA activation assay was used to assess RRIG1-induced inhibition of RhoA activity. The immunohistochemical data showed that RRIG1 expression was reduced in breast cancer tissues compared with normal and atypical hyperplastic breast tissues. RRIG1 expression was inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis of breast cancer but was not associated with the status of hormone receptors, such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. Furthermore, restoration of RRIG1 expression inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. Expression of RRIG1 also reduced phosphorylated Erk1/2 and Akt levels; c-Jun, MMP9, and Akt expressions; and RhoA activity. In contrast, knockdown of RRIG1 expression promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion potential. The data from the current study indicated that RRIG1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer and that restoration of RRIG1 expression suppressed breast cancer cell growth and invasion capacity. Future studies will determine the underlying molecular mechanisms and define RRIG1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in breast cancer

  15. Priorities for the primary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent calls to intensify the search for new risk factors for breast cancer, acting on information that we already have could prevent thousands of cases each year. This article reviews breast cancer primary prevention strategies that are applicable to all women, discusses the underutilization of chemoprevention in high-risk women, highlights the additional advances that could be made by including young women in prevention efforts, and comments on how the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancer affects prevention research and strategies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...

  18. RAD51B in familial breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  19. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  20. Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.

  1. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  2. Multiplex Quantitative Histologic Analysis of Human Breast Cancer Cell Signaling and Cell Fate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William M; Roysam, Badrinath

    2008-01-01

    .... We are developing a novel platform for immunohistological study of breast cancer specimens that will retrieve multiplex quantitative molecular information about tumor cells at a cytologic level...

  3. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  4. Metastatic Breast Cancer With ESR1 Mutation: Clinical Management Considerations From the Molecular and Precision Medicine (MAP) Tumor Board at Massachusetts General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardia, Aditya; Iafrate, John A; Sundaresan, Tilak; Younger, Jerry; Nardi, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    : The last decade in oncology has witnessed impressive response rates with targeted therapies, largely because of collaborative efforts at understanding tumor biology and careful patient selection based on molecular fingerprinting of the tumor. Consequently, there has been a push toward routine molecular genotyping of tumors, and large precision medicine-based clinical trials have been launched to match therapy to the molecular alteration seen in a tumor. However, selecting the "right drug" for an individual patient in clinic is a complex decision-making process, including analytical interpretation of the report, consideration of the importance of the molecular alteration in driving growth of the tumor, tumor heterogeneity, the availability of a matched targeted therapy, efficacy and toxicity considerations of the targeted therapy (compared with standard therapy), and reimbursement issues. In this article, we review the key considerations involved in clinical decision making while reviewing a molecular genotyping report. We present the case of a 67-year-old postmenopausal female with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, whose tumor progressed on multiple endocrine therapies. Molecular genotyping of the metastatic lesion revealed the presence of an ESR1 mutation (encoding p.Tyr537Asn), which was absent in the primary tumor. The same ESR1 mutation was also detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from her blood. The general approach for interpretation of genotyping results, the clinical significance of the specific mutation in the particular cancer, potential strategies to target the pathway, and implications for clinical practice are reviewed in this article. ER+ breast tumors are known to undergo genomic evolution during treatment with the acquisition of new mutations that confer resistance to treatment.ESR1 mutations in the ligand-binding domain of ER can lead to a ligand-independent, constitutively active form of ER and mediate

  5. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Guldberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients...... occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients...... as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential....

  6. Breast Cancer: Reactions, Choices, Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Alexia N.

    2000-01-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661

  7. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  8. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  9. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Snail-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 breast cancer cells: systems analysis of molecular changes and their effect on radiation and drug sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezencev, Roman; Matyunina, Lilya V.; Jabbari, Neda; McDonald, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with the acquisition of metastatic potential and the resistance of cancer cells to therapeutic treatments. MCF-7 breast cancer cells engineered to constitutively express the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor gene Snail (MCF-7-Snail cells) have been previously shown to display morphological and molecular changes characteristic of EMT. We report here the results of a comprehensive systems level molecular analysis of changes in global patterns of gene expression and levels of glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7-Snail cells and the consequence of these changes on the sensitivity of cells to radiation treatment and therapeutic drugs. Snail-induced changes in global patterns of gene expression were identified by microarray profiling using the Affymetrix platform (U133 Plus 2.0). The resulting data were processed and analyzed by a variety of system level analytical methods. Levels of ROS and glutathione (GSH) were determined by fluorescent and luminescence assays, and nuclear levels of NF-κB protein were determined by an ELISA based method. The sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs was determined using a resazurin-based cell cytotoxicity assay. Constitutive ectopic expression of Snail in epithelial-like, luminal A-type MCF-7 cells induced significant changes in the expression of >7600 genes including gene and miRNA regulators of EMT. Mesenchymal-like MCF-7-Snail cells acquired molecular profiles characteristic of triple-negative, claudin-low breast cancer cells, and displayed increased sensitivity to radiation treatment, and increased, decreased or no change in sensitivity to a variety of anticancer drugs. Elevated ROS levels in MCF-7-Snail cells were unexpectedly not positively correlated with NF-κB activity. Ectopic expression of Snail in MCF-7 cells resulted in morphological and molecular changes previously associated with EMT. The results underscore the

  11. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  12. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  13. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical and docking study of the novel analogues based on hybridization of common pharmacophores as potential anti-breast cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Parvin; Khodarahmi, Ghadamali; Farrokhpour, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Saghaei, Lotfollah

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to identify some new potential leads as anti-breast cancer agents, novel hybrid compounds were designed by molecular hybridization approach. These derivatives were structurally derived from hybrid benzofuran-imidazole and quinazolinone derivatives, which had shown good cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Since aromatase enzyme (CYP19) is highly expressed in the MCF-7 cell line, the binding of these novel hybrid compounds to aromatase was investigated using the docking method. In this study, due to the positive charge on the imidazole ring of the designed ligands and also, the presence of heme iron in the active site of the enzyme, it was decided to optimize the ligand inside the protein to obtain more realistic atomic charges for it. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method was used to obtain more accurate atomic charges of ligand for docking calculations by considering the polarization effects of CYP19 on ligands. It was observed that the refitted charge improved the binding energy of the docked compounds. Also, the results showed that these novel hybrid compounds were adopted properly within the aromatase binding site, thereby suggesting that they could be potential inhibitors of aromatase. The main binding modes in these complexes were through hydrophobic and H bond interactions showing agreement with the basic physicochemical features of known anti aromatase compounds. Finally, the complex structures obtained from the docking study were used for single point QM/MM calculations to obtain more accurate electronic interaction energy, considering the electronic polarization of the ligand by its protein environment.

  14. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  15. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  16. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars M; Guldberg, Per; Sölétormos, György

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients into subgroups based on DNA biomarkers may improve prognosis. Serial monitoring of DNA-methylation markers in blood during treatment may be useful, particularly when the cancer burden is below the detection level for standard imaging techniques. Overall, aberrant DNA methylation has a great potential as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential.

  17. Archives of Breast Cancer: An Academic Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaviani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Archives of Breast Cancer (ABC, a new journal with sole focus on breast diseases and especially breast cancer. Breast cancer is a devastating disease that impacts many women and threatens their health and wellbeing. A large number of health professionals from a wide spectrum of clinical disciplines, such as surgery, medical oncology, public health, pathology, radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology, and nuclear medicine, are involved in dealing with such a challenging and common disease.The concept of applying a multidisciplinary approach to clinical and non-clinical aspects of breast cancer has been found to be of vital importance to the understanding of this prevalent type of cancer. Such collaboration can also improve the quantity and quality of the research in this field. To this end, journals which choose to publish multidisciplinary articles as their primary focus can serve as the academic forum to share ideas from a variety of expertise. Archives of Breast Cancer can certainly add to the depth and quality of the research in the field. Articles on a single topic would be readily available to the readers from multiple disciplines and all in one journal. This would eventually lead to fruitful interaction among specialists seeking to investigate this disease, yet,from different perspectives. The benefits of this interaction in the process of devising appropriate strategies and approaches in dealing with the problem are crystal clear.The world of medical sciences has witnessed an abundant increase in the quality and quantity of breast-cancer-related research. In the past 20 years, the number of published articles indexed in PubMed from 1994 to 2014 is more than 5 times than the number published before 1993 (about 170,000 compared to 30,000. Meanwhile, the number of PubMed indexed medical journals dedicated to breast cancer research has also risen from 5 in 1993 to 17 in 2014. This increasing trend highlights an essential need for

  18. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  20. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  1. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  2. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  3. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  4. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    ... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...

  5. IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Surmacz, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...

  6. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  7. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  8. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  9. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  10. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  12. Study of association and molecular analysis of human papillomavirus in breast cancer of Indian patients: Clinical and prognostic implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimul Islam

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes tumors primarily Cervical cancer. Recently, inconsistent reports came up in Breast cancer (BC too. In India, despite treatment 70,218 BC patients die each year. So, we explored the association of HPV, if any, with BC prognosis in Indian pre-therapeutic (PT and Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT patients with subsequent analysis of HPV profile.HPV prevalence was checked and analysis of physical status, copy number, genome variation, promoter methylation and expression (mRNA and protein of the prevalent subtype was done.High prevalence of HPV was observed in both PT (64.0% and NACT (71.0% cases with significant association with younger (20-45 yrs PT patients. Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly increased from adjacent normal breast (9.5%, 2/21, fibro adenomas (30%, 3/10 to tumors (64.8%, 203/313 samples. In both PT and NACT cases, HPV16 was the most prevalent subtype (69.0% followed by HPV18 and HPV33. Survival analysis illustrated hrHPV infected PT patients had worst prognosis. So, detailed analysis of HPV16 profile was done which showed Europian-G350 as the most frequent HPV16 variant along with high rate of integration. Moreover, low copy number and hyper-methylation of P97 early promoter were concordant with low HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, four novel variations (KT020838, KT020840, KT020841 and KT020839 in the LCR region and two (KT020836 and KT020837 in the E6 region were identified for the first time along with two novel E6^E7*I (KU199314 and E6^E7*II (KU199315 fusion transcript variants.Thus, significant association of hrHPV with prognosis of Indian BC patients led to additional investigation of HPV16 profile. Outcomes indicated a plausible role of HPV in Indian BC patients.

  13. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  16. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  17. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  18. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  19. Neratinib (HKI-272) in the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarruella, Sara; Jerez, Yolanda; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Martín, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Neratinib is an orally available, small, irreversible, pan-HER kinase inhibitor. HER-2-positive breast cancer is a breast cancer subtype with an increasing body of knowledge regarding potential targeted drug combinations that are significantly improving outcomes through a biologically tailored therapy approach; neratinib emerges as a promising tool in this context. This article reviews the molecular and clinical development of neratinib, an example of a covalent drug, from preclinical models to Phase III clinical trials, focusing on breast cancer treatment. The potential combinations of neratinib with chemotherapy in the metastatic, adjuvant and even neoadjuvant settings are appraised. These results and future perspectives will be discussed.

  20. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical ... breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators. ... female students drawn from schools within the College of Health sciences, ...

  2. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  3. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  4. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  6. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).

  7. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... breast cancer, defined as estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer, represents 79 percent of breast ...

  8. Analysis of BRCA1 involvement in breast cancer in Indian women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The involvement of the familial breast-ovarian cancer gene (BRCA1) in the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer among Indian women is unknown. We have used a set of microsatellite polymorphisms to examine the frequency of allele loss at the BRCA1 region on chromosome 17q21, in a panel of 80 human breast ...

  9. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jnr, G. o. A.; Rahman, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; however, the peak incidence among African women is in the premenopausal period. Ductal carcinoma is the commonest type of breast cancer among women in Africa and Europe. However, medullary and mucinous carcinomas are more common in Africa than in Europe. While European women usually present at an early stage especially with the advent of screening, African women generally present late for treatment resulting in lower survival rates. There should be more research at the molecular level among African women to identify genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer. There should also be improvement in the health care system in Africa in order to optimise care for women with breast cancer.

  10. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Prognosis value of molecular sub-types in breast cancers free of ganglionary invasion after mastectomy and impact of radiotherapy; Valeur pronostique des sous-types moleculaires dans les cancers du sein indemnes d'envahissement ganglionnaire apres mastectomie et impact de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, J.; Stevens, D.; Jouanneau, L.; Labib, A.; Le Scodan, R. [Hopital Rene-Huguenin, Saint-Cloud (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the prognosis value in terms of local control of molecular subtypes in patients suffering from breast cancer without ganglionary invasion, and of their predictive value for adjuvant irradiation. Medical files of nearly 700 patients have been analyzed. Some had an irradiation after mastectomy, some hadn't. The distribution of molecular sub-types is indicated, and the relationship with relapse is examined. The different molecular sub-types do not allow sub-groups with high risk of relapse to be defined. Breast cancers of stage pN0 after mastectomy seem to have a very good prognosis. Short communication

  12. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu D

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Di Wu, Mengjie Si, Hui-Yi Xue, Ho-Lun Wong Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil® and Abraxane® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect. Keywords: nanomedicine, breast cancer, targeted delivery, drug therapy, drug resistance, tumor microenvironment 

  13. Checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....

  14. Expression of HIF-1α and Markers of Angiogenesis Are Not Significantly Different in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Compared to Other Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Future Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Lamis; Boulos, Fouad; Jabbour, Mark; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Fakhruddin, Najla; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1α as aTNBC-specific marker. 62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1α, HIF-1β, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1α and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype). HIF-1α protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; χ2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1α protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1α protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; χ2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; χ2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1α. HIF-1β protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1α(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1α(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; χ2 test). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; χ2 test). A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1α but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1α targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the setting of clinically aggressive or

  15. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  16. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  18. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  19. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  20. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  1. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. ANALYSES ON DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xu-li; DING Xiao-wen; XU Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular etiology of breast cancer by way of studying the differential expression and initial function of the related genes in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight human tumor related genes were chosen for preparation of the oligochips probe. mRNA was extracted from 16 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues, and cDNA probe was prepared through reverse-transcription and hybridized with the gene chip. A laser focused fluorescent scanner was used to scan the chip. The different gene expressions were thereafter automatically compared and analyzed between the two sample groups. Cy3/Cy5>3.5 meant significant up-regulation. Cy3/Cy5<0.25 meant significant down-regulation. Results: The comparison between the breast cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues showed that 84 genes had differential expression in the Chip. Among the differently expressed genes, there were 4 genes with significant down-regulation and 6 with significant up-regulation. Compared with normal breast tissues, differentially expressed genes did partially exist in the breast cancer tissues. Conclusion: Changes in multi-gene expression regulations take place during the occurrence and development of breast cancer; and the research on related genes can help understanding the mechanism of tumor occurrence.

  3. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  4. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    breast cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29...Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF- alpha in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer...without oophorectomy, hysterectomy with uni- or bilateral oophorectomy), prior breast biopsy (no, yes), ever been pregnant (no, yes), and

  5. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  6. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  7. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  8. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  9. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  10. System of breast cancer recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the resUlts of the multimodality system of breast cancer recognition using methods, of clinical X-ray and cytological examinations. Altogether 1671 women were examined; breast cancer was detected in 165. Stage 1 was detected in 63 patients, Stage 2 in 34, Stage 3 in 34, and Stage 4 in 8. In 7% of the cases, tumors were inpalpable and could be detected by X-ray only. In 9.9% of the cases, the multicentric nature of tumor growth was established. In 71% tumors had a mixed histological structure. The system of breast cancer recognition provided for accurate diagnosis in 98% of the cases making it possible to avoid surgical intervention in 38%. Good diagnostic results are possible under conditions of a special mammology unit where a roentgenologist working in a close contact with surgeonns working in a close contact with surgeos and morphologists, performs the first stages of diagnosis beginning from clinical examination up to special methods that require X-ray control (paracentesis, ductography, pneumocystography, preoperative marking of the breast and marking of the remote sectors of the breast)

  11. AR Expression in Breast Cancer CTCs Associates with Bone Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Nicola; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S; Donaldson, Maria C; O'Keefe, Ryan; Engstrom, Amanda; Bersani, Francesca; Zheng, Yu; Comaills, Valentine; Niederhoffer, Kira; Zhu, Huili; Mackenzie, Olivia; Shioda, Toshi; Sgroi, Dennis; Kapur, Ravi; Ting, David T; Moy, Beverly; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Toner, Mehmet; Haber, Daniel A; Maheswaran, Shyamala

    2018-04-01

    Molecular drivers underlying bone metastases in human cancer are not well understood, in part due to constraints in bone tissue sampling. Here, RNA sequencing was performed of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolated from blood samples of women with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER) + breast cancer, comparing cases with progression in bone versus visceral organs. Among the activated cellular pathways in CTCs from bone-predominant breast cancer is androgen receptor (AR) signaling. AR gene expression is evident, as is its constitutively active splice variant AR-v7. AR expression within CTCs is correlated with the duration of treatment with aromatase inhibitors, suggesting that it contributes to acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. In an established breast cancer xenograft model, a bone-tropic derivative displays increased AR expression, whose genetic or pharmacologic suppression reduces metastases to bone but not to lungs. Together, these observations identify AR signaling in CTCs from women with bone-predominant ER + breast cancer, and provide a rationale for testing androgen inhibitors in this subset of patients. Implications: This study highlights a role for the AR in breast cancer bone metastasis, and suggests that therapeutic targeting of the AR may benefit patients with metastatic breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 16(4); 720-7. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. ROS-dependent mitochondria molecular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of Pleurotus abalonus acidic polysaccharides in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A greater reduction in cancer risk associated with mushroom diet rich in fungus polysaccharides is generally accepted. Meanwhile, edible Pleurotus abalonus as a member of Abalone mushroom family is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly prevents cancer occurrence. However, these anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing tumor-inhibitory responses to the promising polysaccharides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties have not yet been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus into three fractions, namely PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3, and tested these fractions for antiproliferative activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The largest PAP-3, an acidic polysaccharide fraction with a molecular mass of 3.68×10(5 Da, was the most active in inhibiting MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 of 193 µg/mL. The changes in cell normal morphology were observed by DAPI staining and the PAP-3-induced apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The apoptosis was involved in mitochondria-mediated pathway including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-9/3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation, as well as intracellular ROS production. PAP-3 also induced up-regulation of p53, and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The incubation of MCF-7 cells with antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD and N-acetylcysteine (NAC significantly attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis caused by PAP-3, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially acidic PAP-3, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for, at least in part, the anticancer health benefits of P. abalonus via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic

  13. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast

  14. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  15. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  16. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  17. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  19. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoum, Manar F.; Al-Kayed, Sameer A.

    2004-01-01

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  20. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrino, R.; Carvalho, H.A.; Gomes, H.C.; Kuang, L.F.; Aguilar, P.B.; Lederman, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-nine observations of patients with breast cancer frm 1980 to 1985 were reviewed. All of them received radiotherapy. In 44.9% radiologic findings of radiation pneumonitis were detected and only 9% presented mild or moderate respiratory symptoms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  2. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  3. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  4. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  5. Haemorheological Changes in African Breast Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    complications, African patients with breast cancer may well be predisposed to thrombotic complications during illness. ... having breast cancer were studied. The patients were diagnosed by one of the authors from histological biopsy from the lump removed from the breast. None of ... statistics (Student's t-test for paired data.

  6. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  7. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  8. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanderson, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    ... activity would modify the effect of insulin resistance on breast cancer. Specific aims were: 1) to undergo intensive training in cancer biology, and nutritional, molecular and genetic epidemiology, 2...

  9. Role of MicroRNA Regulation in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer: Nutritional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiappan, Ravi; Rajarajan, Dheeran

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones. Recent emerging evidence suggests that alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expressions are found in several diseases, including breast cancer and obesity; however, miRNA roles in obesity-linked breast cancer are beginning to unravel. miRNAs are thought to be potential noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients with comorbid conditions of obesity as well as therapeutic targets. Recent studies have evidenced that nutrients and other dietary factors protect against cancer and obesity through modulation of miRNA expressions. Herein, we summarize a comprehensive overview of up-to-date information related to miRNAs and their molecular targets involved in obesity-associated breast cancer. We also address the mechanisms by which dietary factors modulate miRNA expression and its protective roles in obesity-associated breast cancer. It is hoped that this review would provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated breast cancer to reduce the burden of breast cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Si, Mengjie; Xue, Hui-Yi; Wong, Ho-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil ® and Abraxane ® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect.

  11. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Losada-Echeberría

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation.

  12. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation. PMID:29112149

  13. The relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections with breast cancer of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tahmasebi fard

    2013-11-01

    Our analysis could not confirm a role of HPV in breast cancer but statistically, significant correlation between EBV infection and breast cancer exists. To demonstrate the possible relationship between viral load and breast cancer, need for epidemiological, biological and molecular mechanisms to clear the virus is involved in the process of carcinogenesis.

  14. Breast Cancer Subtype Specific Classifiers of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Do Not Outperform Classifiers Trained on All Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, Jorma J.; Bonder, Marc Jan; Lips, Esther H.; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite continuous efforts, not a single predictor of breast cancer chemotherapy resistance has made it into the clinic yet. However, it has become clear in recent years that breast cancer is a collection of molecularly distinct diseases. With ever increasing amounts of breast cancer

  15. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2002-01-01

    .... Choline peaks are present in 57% of breast cancers but contrary to other research data some invasive ductal cancers do not contain choline as a detectable metabolite, particularly in lobular cancer that has dispersed cells...

  16. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu

    1985-01-01

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease

  17. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  18. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients ...

  19. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lacombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

  20. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  1. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  2. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  3. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  4. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  5. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  6. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  7. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer

  8. Overexpression of molecular chaperons GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Babak; Ghasemi-Dizgah, Armin; Vaseghi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS showed different proportion of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population was as MCF7hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Taira, Naruhito

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the outline of the present diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer essentially based on its therapeutic guideline by the Japan Breast Cancer Society (2005) and on authors' experiences. The diagnosis item contains the medical interview of patients, observatory and palpating examinations, mammography (for this, Japan-Breast Imaging Recording and Data System), ultrasonography (guideline for sonographic diagnosis of mammary gland, 2004), fine needle aspiration (FNA) or aspiration biopsy cytology, bases of triple test (palpation, mammography and FNA) for the cancer diagnosis, core needle biopsy, and mammotome biopsy of non-palpable calcified lesion. The treatment item contains the surgery involving conservation, sentinel lymph node biopsy (for this, lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-phytate is illustrated), radiofrequency ablation, adjuvant chemotherapy essentially using anthracycline and taxane, endocrinological therapy using tamoxifen, LH-RH analogues and aromatase inhibitors, and molecular target therapy with HER2 monoclonal antibody like trastuzumab. Recent progress of systemic therapy with medicals is remarkable, and the educational promotion of experts and medicare circumstances are concluded to be important. (R.T.)

  10. Epidemiology of radiogenic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk

  11. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  12. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  13. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  15. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive